3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?IICIAANOAA ?i.?.E?EI’ssEAAE*A

OAeE 947.084 (477.82) + 943.8.081

Aoiaeae Ieaia Aiaoie??aia

Aa?a?iee ?icaeoie

Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??

a 1795-1861 ??.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

wmetafile8? ??*H????H??????? ??????? k?r????
???????yyy?????H??C
?I???k?r?????k?r?????(???r???k?????????EEuea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (i.Eooeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –O?ai/oe ?aaai ?aaiiae/,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaeai ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?ieeIo?oe?ei?
iiiiaioe –E?eeoi Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?.O?aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i

Aaeae Noaiai Aeieo?iae/,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y,
caa.eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa iie?oieia??I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –?inoeooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (a?aeae?e ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 6 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 1500 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.222.01 a ?inoeooo? oe?a?iiciaanoaa
?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (290026, i.Euea?a, aoe.Eicaeueieoeueea,
4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Euea?a-26,
aoe.Eicaeueieoeueea, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 6 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe O.?.Noaae?e

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

O e?ioe? XVIII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. a?aeaoaaeeny aeeiai?/i? ci?ie o
ainiiaea?nueeiio aeeoo? Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??. Aiie, cie?aia,
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny nai???aeiei ii?aeiaiiyi caieaaieiae?iiy ?
caieaei?enooaaiiy /an?a iieuenueeiai iaioaaiiy oa iniaeeainoae,
i?eoaiaiieo aa?a?iiio ono?ith ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Aieeinueea aoaa?i?y aoea ciiith ia?aieao?iiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai,
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? ?a?iiaenueeiai i?ioean?a. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
aiae?co ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy ye oe?e?nii? no?oeoo?e, ui ia?aaoaaea o
ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c ioi/oth/ei na?oii.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – iniiai? iai?yie, oeyoe ? iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae o Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??,
?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?iiai ono?ith o 1795-1861 ??.; aaiethoe?y
caieaaieiae?iiy oa caieaei?enooaaiiy ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy Aieei?
oa ?? aieea ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?ath.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aecia/eoe o aiinaieia?/iiio,
i?iaiinoe/iiio oa i?aaiaoe/iiio aniaeoao. Cia/ia ?icia?o?noue
eieaeueii-/aniaeo i?iya?a oaiaeae?cio, ia??aiii??i?noue aea/aiino?
?aa?ii?a, iaiaeiaeiaa ?ic?iaeai?noue /anoeiaeo i?iaeai ?, a ca’yceo c
oeei, ni?iaa ii??aiyiiy ia eiie?aoiiio ?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caaaeueiiai ? iniaeeaiai a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeia? e?ath
aecia/a? aiinaieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy
?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ni?ey? ona?aeiieaiith eia?ee aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, eiai caeiiii??iinoae oa niaoeeo?ee a oiiaao ??cieo aeiiii?/ieo
nenoai. Ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo aeicaiey?
aeei?enoaoe eiai i?e i?iaiicoaaii? iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e aa?a?iiai
?icaeoeo e?ath a iei?oi?o oiiaao. Ciaiiy aeiaaio?eaaeeo oaiaeaioe?e
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, iniaeeainoae aaiethoe?? ie?aieo aaeocae
ainiiaea?noaa iathoue i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui oea ia?oa
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?a?iiai ?icaeoeo Aieeinueei? aoaa?i??
1795-1861 ??., a yeiio ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci naeyinueeiai ?icoa?oaaiiy,
ie?aneaii noaoon oea?eiaii? oa iaaiaonueei? aeaniino?, c’yniaaii i?e/eie
? oa?aeoa? naeoey?ecaoe?? ia?oe?a aeoo?aieoeoaa, aecia/aii iniiai?
oaiaeaioe?? iinooiiaiai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
aaiethoe?th iniiaieo aaeocae aei i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ice?eoi
?ieue aa?a?iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o iiaeieaii? noia?a/iinoae
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio.

O iaoeiaee ia?a caeo/aii cia/io e?euee?noue iaa?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a c
a?o?a?a Aieeinueei? ? AEeoiie?nueei? iaeanoae oa Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao (i.Ee?a).

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee – 1795-1861 ??. – ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae
aeeth/aiiy Aieei? aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? aei neanoaaiiy
e??iiniiai i?aaa. A?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeieeiaiiyi iiaeo aeaiaio?a o
nenoai? caieaaieiae?iiy oa caieaei?enooaaiiy, a oaeiae o oi?iao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? e?ath, iaoeiiaeo aeey oaiaeae?cio
a?aeiinei o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy – anaa?/ii i?iaiae?coaaoe aa?a?iee
?icaeoie Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? a 1795-1861 ?ieao. Nie?ath/enue ia a?o?ai?
aeaea?aea, noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae, i?ano ? e?eoe/ii inieneeaoe a?o/eciyio
?noi??ia?ao?th, aaoi?ea i?aaioea aeine?aeeoe:

– aeiiii?/io, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io oa iaoe?iiaeueio nooue aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae ia Aieei?;

– aaiethoe?th iii?ueoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy;

– ci?ie caiaeueiiai noaoono naeyi;

– aeeiai?eo oaiaeaeueii? ?aioe;

– i?iieeiaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio oa ia’?eoeaiino?,
ui aeiaaa? ?icaeyaeaoe an? ?noi?e/i? iiae??, yaeua oa i?ioeane o
iinooiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo, aca?iica’yceo c eiie?aoieie oiiaaie –
iniaeeainoyie ?icaeoeo oiai/aniiai noni?euenoaa, ?noi?eei-o?aaeeoe?eieo
oaeoi??a oiui.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
o oe?eueieo oa aoc?anueeeo eo?nao aeey iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy ?noi???
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaaii ia i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee oa ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?ee.

Iniiaia aeaea?aeueia aaca – oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao a i.Ee?a? oa a?o?a?a Aieeinueei? ? AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeanoae, ianaiia?aae iaoa??aee eaioeaey??? Ee?anueeiai, Iiae?euenueeiai
? Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ? ae?iee noae?a
(iia?oiaeo, cainueeeo), ?aii?oe cainueeeo ni?aaiee?a aoaa?inueeei
o?yaeiaoeyi uiaei “aoenoa” ? “iaiiei?e” naeyi, a oaeiae iaoa??aee
Ee?anueei? aoaa?inueei? eii?n??, noai?aii? i?ney iianoaiiy 1830-1831??.,
i?i iaeeaaeaiiy naeaano?o oa eiio?neaoe?th ia?oe?a o/aniee?a
iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy, noia?a/ee iii?uee?a ca ia?oee.

Oiiaee AEeoiie?nueeiai, Eiaaeuenueeiai, Eooeueeiai,
Iiaia?aae-Aieeinueeiai, Ia?ooeueeiai iaa?no?ao?a, Ee?anueei? iaeaoe
ea?iiai noaeo aeathoue a?aeiiino? uiaei naeyinueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy
oa oea?eiaiiai aieiae?iiy caieath, i?i noia?a/ee i?ae naeyiaie ?
iii?ueeaie uiaei naiia?eueiiai caoiieaiiy caiaeue, a?aeiiae naeyi
aeeiioaaoe iaiueio ? niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee. Oiiaee Ee?anueei? iaeaoe
oeea?eueiiai oa ea?iiai noae?a i?noyoue aeieoiaioe i?i i?aaiaa oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua naeyinoaa.

*eiaei a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a caeo/aii aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aia?oa. Cia/ia
?o /anoeia aeyaeaia o OeAe?A a i.Ee?a?: oiiaee – Oi?aae?iiy
Oa?e?anueeiai iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao (1803-1816 ??.) — i?i a?iaea? ?
i?eaooee naeyi a 1830-1833 ??.; Eaioeaey??? Ee?anueeiai, Iiae?euenueeiai
? Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a – i?i oea?eiaia caieaaieiae?iiy ?
caieaei?enooaaiiy a ?aa?ii?.

O Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Aieeinueei? iaeano? ia oaaao caneoaiaothoue oiiaee
cainueeeo noae?a 1796-1860 ??. i?i nea?ae naeyi ia ooenee iii?uee?a oa
aeiiii?a; ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa naeyi iii?ueeaie oa oi?aaeoaeyie
ia?oe?a, a oaeiae i?i caeioaa/aiiy naeyi o ianieao? iiaeaoe?a,
caaa?aaii? iii?ueeaie /oaeeo caiaeue oiui. O oiiaeao i?nueeeo
iaa?no?ao?a (1796-1862 ??.) ? ni?aae i?i aeaea/o na?aeioeoa ia i?aai
aieiae?iiy caieath, i?iaeaae iaeia ca ai?ae, ?iciiae?e iaeia i?ae
niaaeei?ioeyie, i?iienee ? i?aeniai? caiyooy naeyinoaa.

Aeieoiaioe oiiae?a Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, a naia:
AEeoiie?nueea aeai?yinueea ii?ea 1819-1871 ??.; Aieeinueea iaeaoa
Aea?aeaaieo ia?oiinoae 1840-1866 ??.; Aieeinueea iaeaoa oeea?eueiiai
noaeo 1831-1871 ??., AEeoiie?nueeee iia?oiaee noae 1796-1872 ??.,
Eaioeaey??y Aieeinueeiai aoaa?iaoi?a 1799-1915 ??. oa ?yae ?ioeo,
i?ieeaathoue na?oei ia noai iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei a ?aa?ii? ? ci?ie a
iii?ueoeueeiio oa oea?eiaiiio caieaaieiae?ii? i?ney Iieuenueeiai
iianoaiiy 1830-1831 ??., a oaeiae iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy i?enooiino?
?in?enueeeo iii?uee?a a aoaa?i??.

Oe?iieie aeaea?aeaie ? “Iaeaaaeeea?o? aeai? caiaeueii? noaoenoeee ca
ianoaaeaiiyi 1795 ?ieo” ?inneeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue a?oea ae?aaieo
aeoia, o.16.– Aaia?aeueiay oaaaeue ii Aieuineie aoaa?iee 1795  a. –
*.1. , i?i caiaeueio aeani?noue o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i?? oa “Aaia?ao?/iee
? aeiiii?/iee iien Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? 1798 ?.”, Aiaiii-enoi?e/aneee
a?oea ?O, o.AOA, ni?.18653, /.1-3, 6-8. Aaia?aoe/aneia e yeiiiie/aneia
iienaiea Aieuineie aoaa?iee 1798 a. yeee i?noeoue noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae
i?i e?euee?noue ? ?iciiae?e ianaeaiiy ca ?ae?a?eiith, iaoe?iiaeueiith ?
noaiiaith iciaeaie oa aeaye? a?aeiiino? i?i ?icaeoie aa?ieoeueoo?e.

Ie?aio a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue iioae?eiaai? ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a i?i
aa?a?io iie?oeeo ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo, Aiaiii-noaoenoe/aneia iaic?aiea
Aieuineie aoaa?iee.– Eeaa: Oeiia?aoey Ooaaa Eeaaneiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa,
1884. – *.1; Iaaienei I.I. Noaoenoe/aneia iaic?aiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee
?innee. – NIa., 1850. – *.1; Nai?iee noaoenoe/aneeo naaaeaiee i ?innee..
– NIa., 1854. – Eieaa II. a oaeiae aeia?aeeia? aeaeaiiy Aeia?aeiee c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie a 3-o oiiao. – E.: Aaiaca, 1993. – O.1; Eioey? I.,
Eoeue/eoeueeee N. Ei?ioeee aeia?aeiee c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.– E.: Oe?a?ia,
1996.  oa iaoa??aee oe?a?inueei? ? ?in?enueei? i?ane.

Aea/aiiy a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, ni?anoaaeaiiy ?o c ?ioeie aeaea?aeaie
aea? ciiao aeinoaoiuei a?aeoai?eoe neeaaei? i?ioeane a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
aeiiii?ee Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? iai?ee?ioe? XVIII – ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX
no.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee iae?/o? 272 iaeiaioaaiiy, oa aeiaeaoe?a (24
oaaeeoe?), neiaieea.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ?ice?eoi i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee oaie, aecia/aii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, eiai iaoeiao
iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeei?enoaieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c
ieaiaie aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie” i?iaiae?ciaaii
aeaea?aea oa e?oa?aoo?o c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie. Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie o
Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i?? c e?ioey OVIII no. ? aei 1861 ?. ia aoee i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ie?ai? aniaeoe oe??? oaie
ii?oooaaeenue o i?aoeyo c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, i?e aena?oeaii?
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy oa naeyinueeiai ?ooo, aea aiie ia aeathoue
oe?e?niiai oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia Aieei?.

Aeena?oaioeith aecia/ai? o?e iniiai? ia??iaee ?noi??ia?ao?? icia/aii?
oaie. Ia?oee iiaeia ie?aneeoe iaaeaie inoaiiuei? o?aoeie OIX – ii/aoeii
OO no., eiee aeiiii?/ia ?noi??y iin?aeaea iii?oia i?noea a i?aoeyo
?noi?ee?a oa aeiiii?no?a. O i?aoeyo oiai/anieo a/aieo oa “Aieeinueeeo
aoaa?inueeeo a?aeiiinoyo” No?oeia Ae. I ninoiyiee naeueneiai oicyenoaa a
THaeiie ?innee a 1853 a. // AEo?iae Ieienoa?noaa Ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa. – 1854. – ?11; Aieuineea aoaa?ineea aaaeiiinoe. – 1842. – ?7.
– 14 oaa?aey. – *. VII; AEo?iae naeueneiai oicyenoaa e iaoeaaiaenoaa. –
1848. – ?9.  i?noeoueny aiae?c aeaea?ae c ieoaiue ?noi???, aeiiii?ee oa
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iaeiae aeai? ?iaioe /anoi ia iaee oa?aeoa?o
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a iineee caeaa?eueo iieniaee oa?aeoa?.
Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao? ?iaioa a?aeiiiai a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a aiioe
Aaeeeeo ?aoi?i, neia’yiio?ea TH. Naia??ia, Naia?ei TH.O. Caia/aiea ia
eiaaioa?yo, aaaaeaiiuo a 1847 e 1848 aa. a iiiaue/ueeo eiaieyo Eeaaneie,
Aieuineie e Iiaeieueneie aoaa?ieyo e i e?aiinoiii i?aaa a
Iaei?innee//Ni/eiaiey. – Nia., 1878. – O.2.  yeee a?aa aeoeaio o/anoue o
iaaiai?aii? naeyinueei? ?aoi?ie 1861 ?. Eiai i?aoey i?i naei a Oe?a?i?,
o oiio /ene? e aieeinueea, ia? aiae?oe/iee ? ii??aiyeueiee oa?aeoa?.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX no. iiaeeaeth?oueny ?ioa?an a/aieo aei
aeiiii?/ii? ?noi???, a oiio /ene? aa?a?ii?. Ia oaaao caneoaiaothoue
iiiia?ao?? i?i ?iaaioa?io ?aoi?io, iie?oeeo aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a
Ae.A?a?eiaa oa ?i. Aaneeaiei I.I. E?anoueyineee aii?in a THai-Caiaaeiii
e Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii e?aa i?e Ieeieaa I e aaaaeaiea eiaaioa?ae.– I., 1911;
Ooeueaei A.ss. THai-Caiaaeiue e?ae iiae oi?aaeaieai Aeaeeiaa//Ae?aaiyy e
iiaay ?inney, 1879. – *. V-VI; Ua?aeia A.E. Oe?aeineea noa?inoaa ii
ethno?aoeeyi XVIII a.//A?oea THai-Caiaaeiie ?innee. – E., 1905. – *.7.–
O.3.  Aiae?c aieiaieo caoiae?a aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a Ae.A?a?eiaa, ye?
aoee ni?yiiaai? ia ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo, yeee aeaa
ciiao aaoi?ai ae?eoe aeniiae?a i?i iniaeeaino? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
oea?ecio ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?. O?aaeeoe?eii niaoe?ae?noe caa?oaeenue aei
i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy ?aa?iiii. Naaaaeoia I. Iaic?aiea Eeaaneie,
Iiaeieueneie e Aieuineie aoaa?iee n 1833 ii 1850 aiae//?onneee a?oea. –
1884. – ?3. Iica oaaaith ?noi?ee?a aei?aaiethoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
caeeoaeeny i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? oea?eiaiiai caieaaieiae?iiy.

Ae?oaee ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aieeinueeiai e?ath
noaiiaeoue ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y, yea iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eyea
naeyinuee?e ai?iouea?, ui coiiaethaaei aeaui iaaaeaeaaoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy
ae?eniino?, ? ia no/aniiio aoai? aeiaaa? na?eiciiai aiae?co ?
ia?ainieneaiiy ?c iiceoe?e ia’?eoeaiino? oa ?aeaieia?/ii?
iacaaiaaaeiaaiino?. *?eueia i?noea na?aae ?aaeyinueeeo a/aieo
?noi?eei-aa?a?iiai iai?yieo caeia? A.Aa?aiiae/ – aeine?aeiee
iaaiaonueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Aieei?. A?i aaaaeaa, ui o?eueaa?ee,
caeeoath/enue iniiaiith ainiiaea?nueeith iaeeieoeath, a?ae?a?aaaee
iaaaoeaio ?ieue o ?icaeoeo oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ine?eueee
iiiiiie?coaaee oeae i?ioean. Aa?aiiae/ A.E. Iaaiaoneia oicyenoai ia THaa
Aieuie a XVIII a. – I.: Ecae-ai AI NNN?, 1955.

?.Ao?ae?e caii/aoeoaaa iia? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?iceeaaeo
oaiaeaeueii? nenoaie ? ca?iaeaeaiiy eai?oae?noe/iiai oeeaaeo a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie, ai?ioueae naeyi oa naeyinuee?
?aoi?ie ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O no. Ao?ae?e ?.I. Ca?iaeaeaiiy ?ia?oie/iai
eeano Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue XVII – ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no.). – E.:
Aea?aeiie?oaeaeaa O?N?, 1958; Eiai ae. Aoa/? naeyi – iaeia c iioe?aieo
oi?i aioee??iinieoeueei? ai?ioueae ia Oe?a?i? a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no.
//Iaoeia? caienee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. –
E., 1953. – O.V; Eiai ae. ?iceeaae oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. – E.:
Iie?oaeaeaa O?N?, 1954; Eiai ae. Ai?ioueaa naeyi ? ?ia?oiee?a Oe?a?ie
i?ioe oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueeiai ai?oo (c 80-o ?. XVIII no. aei 1861
?.). – E.: ?aaeyinueea oeiea, 1958; Ao?ae?e ?.I., Eauaiei I.I. Ai?ioueaa
o?oaeyueo Oe?a?ie ca nioe?aeueia ? iaoe?iiaeueia aecaieaiiy (XIV-XIX
no.). – E.: Ciaiiy, 1967.  O eiai i?aoeyo aena?oeaii ?icaeoie y?ia?eiai?
? aaca?ii? oi?a?ae? ia Oe?a?i?, a oiio /ene? ia Aieei?. Caaaeii ?noi?eeo
aaeaeiny i?inoaaeeoe aaiaco eai?oae?noe/iiai eaaeo a iaae?ao
oaiaeaeueii? nenoaie. ?iaioe aaoi?a iaienai? ia
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeee iaoiaeieia?/i?e iniia? ? an? iiae??, oaeoe oa
yaeua ioe?ithaaeeny c ia?o?eii-eeaniaeo iiceoe?e, ui i?ecaaei aei
iaeiia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeayeeo ieoaiue.

C on?o ia/eneaiieo i?aoeue i?i aa?a?i? a?aeiineie ia Aieei? ?iaioe
A.Ia?e?ii?  ? iaea?eueo ci?noiaieie. Ia?eeia A.A. E?anoueyia
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu. Eiiaoe XVII-60-a aiaeu XVIII no. E.: Ecae-ai
Eeaaneiai oi-oa, 1971; Aa aea. Iaaiaoneia iiianouea I?aaiaa?aaeiie
Oe?aeiu aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVIII aaea. – E., 1961. Ie iiae?ey?ii ??
aeniiaee i?i oa, ui o XVIII no. ia Aieei? ia?aaaaeaea a?ioiaa ?aioa. Aea
?? i?aoe? ia iicaaaeai? ie?aieo nooo?aeo iaoi/iinoae. O iiiia?ao?/iiio
aeine?aeaeaii? ?.Noaoaanueeiai, aeaia /e ia iaeiiai?oa oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeieai?oae?noe/ii? ?aioe acaaae?, a oiio /ene? ? ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e
Oe?a?i?. Noaoaaneee A.Ae. Enoi?ey aeieaieoaeenoe/aneie ?aiou ia
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia a XVIII– ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. – I.: Iaoea.,
1968.  ?iaioa iaienaia ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy ethno?aoe?e oa
?iaaioa??a c e?ioey OVII aei na?aaeeie XIX no., ui aeaei ciiao aaoi?ia?
?ice?eoe nooi?noue ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei. Ao?i, ie?ai? aniaeoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iii?ueoeueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (ca’ycie c ?eieii,
a?aeie?aieaiiy caiea?ianoaa a?ae i?iieneiaino? oa ?i.) caeeoeeeny iica
oaaaith aeine?aeieea.

Caaaeii aa?a?i? a?aeiineie ia Aieei? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue o
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeyo ?aaeyinueeeo a/aieo, cie?aia a iiiia?ao?yo
aeaaeai?ea I.Ae?oaeei?ia, Ae?oaeeiei I.I. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia e
?aoi?ia I.Ae.Eenaeaaa..– I.–E., 1946. – O.1. – 434 n.; I., 1958. –
O.II.  A.C?i/aiei. Cei/aiei A.E. Naeoey?ecaoeey oea?eiaiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey ia I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia (eiiaoe XVIII – 40-a aiaeu XIX
aaea.). – I.: Iaoea,1983; Eiai ae. Eaoieeoeuee? e oi?aonuee?
?ieneiinuee? ia?oee ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? OVIII no.//
Oe?. ?noi?. aeo?i. – 1984. – ?1; Eiai ae. C ?noi??? naeyinueeiai ?ooo ia
I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? o XVIII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no.// Oe?. ?noi?.
aeo?i. – 1991. – ?1; Eiai ae. Oea?eiaia caieaaieiae?iiy a iie?oeoe?
oea?ecio ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? OVIII no. – ia?o?e
iieiaei? XIX no. – E.: II “A?eioea?e?anueea ae?oea?iy”, 1994. Inoaii?e
c?iaea ?yae nooo?aeo aeniiae?a, cie?aia i?i iaiaaaiiy oea?ecio nia?oeny
ia iieuenueea aeai?yinoai, caa??aath/e a?eueo?noue eiai o?aaeeoe?eieo
i?ea?ea?a, ianaiia?aae ia?oee. O niaoeeo?/i?e iie?oe/i?e neooaoe?? a
cao?aeieo aoaa?i?yo oea?eci ciooaiee aoa a?aoiaoaaoe naeyinueeee oaeoi?
i?e ae?iaeaii? aaaeeeaeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a uiaei oea?eiaiiai
caieaaieiae?iiy.

O i?aoeyo I.E?eaeai?anueeiai, I.Ne?iaaonueei?, I.Ieoaeethea
E?eaeai?anueeee I.I. Naeyinueeee ?oo o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i?? i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaaioa?ii? ?aoi?ie 1847-1848 ??. //Oe?. ?noi?. aeo?i. –
1970. – ?3; Ne?iaaonueea I.A. Ai?ioueaa naeyi Aieeinueei? oa
Iiae?euenueei? aoaa?i?e i?ioe e??iinieoeueeiai ai?oo a ia?o?e /aa?o? XIX
no. // Oe?. ?noi?. aeo?i. – 1966. – ?5; Ieoaeethe I.A.
Aioee??iinieoeuee? aenooie naeyi Cao?aeii? Aieei? a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX
no.//Ieioea ? no/ania Aieei?. – Eooeuee. 1988.  aeineoue iiaii
a?aeia?aaeaia ?iaaioa?ia ?aoi?ia 1847 ?. A/ai? ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui
?aoi?ia aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ci?oeiaiiy o naeyi ?ethc??, i?ae oea?eci ?
caoenieeii ?oi?o ?ioa?an?a. O caaaeaieo i?aoeyo ?aoi?ia ?icaeyaea?oueny
oaeiae a eiioaeno? ai?ioueae oea?ecio c iieuenueeeie iii?ueeaie, ye?
noaiiaeee yae?i iianoaioe?a 1830-1831 ??. ia Aieei?. Ianooaae ? oa?aeoa?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oea?eae ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? aeiae i?ciueiai
na?aaeiueia?//y ? aaiaco eai?oae?cio ?ice?ea I. E?eaeai?anueeee.
E?eaeai?anueeee I.I. Oea?eaa a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie (XVIII– ia?oa iieiaeia XIX no.). – E.: Aeua
oeiea, 1991; E?eaeai?anueeee I.I., Ieio?e N.I. ?noi??y oea?eae oa
?ae?a?eii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i?. – Eieaa 3. E?iaoeue XVI-na?aaeeia XIX no. –
E.: Eea?aeue, 1994.  Caoaaaeeii, ui ?icaeoie oea?eiaiiai caieaaieiae?iiy
aaoi? i?ine?aeeiao? ia iniia? iiaeaeoaaiue, ye? iaaeaaaeenue
iieuenueeeie ei?ieyie oa o?yaeiaoeyie aeooiaainoao, a oaeiae
??ciiiai?oieo eoi/eo a?aiio, “i?acaio?a” iii?uee?a, aeacoth/e ia ?o
e?euee?noue, eiioan?eio i?eiaeaaei?noue, aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy, aea
iaoiaey/e ieoaiiy ?ici???a caiaeue.

Naeyinuee? aenooie ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. i?iaiae?ciaaii a i?aoeyo
I.Eauaiea, A.Aa?aaiy, A.Ia?aoiaa. Eauaiei I.I. Iineeaiiy eeaniai?
ai?ioueae a oe?a?inueeiio nae? a 1848?. // Oe?. ?noi?. aeo?i. – 1973. –
?3; Aa?aaie A.C. I?aaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia a 1848 a. //Enoi?e/aneea
caienee. E-o enoi?ee AI NNN?, 1950. – ?34; Ia?aoia A.E.
Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa ia Oe?aeia a 20-40-o aa. XIX a. – E.:
Aeua oeiea, 1979. Aiie aeiaaee, ui naeyie ai?ieeny ia o?eueee i?ioe
oaiaeaeueiiai ai?oo, aea e ca iia? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iaaia
oyaeaiiy i?i iianyeaeaiiee iiaoo ianaeaiiy, ?icaeoie ??cieo i?iiene?a oa
?aianae o ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae ia Aieei? aeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy
E.Iaco?eaae/a, I.Ianoa?aiea. Iaco?eaae/ E.O. Iao e?ae o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
XVIII no.//Ieioea ? no/ania Aieei?. – Eooeuee, 1985; Ianoa?aiei I.I.
?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? ia Oe?a?i?. – *.1. ?aianei ? iaiooaeoo?a. – E.:
Aeae-ai AI O?N?. – 1959. 

Ia caaaeath/e ia iaaio ?aeaieia?/io iaiaaeai?noue, ?aaeyinueea
?noi??ia?ao?y c?iaeea cia/iee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?a?ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao caeo/aii aaaaoi a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a,
?ice?eoi no?oeoo?o aeaniino? na?onueeiai oa oea?eiaiiai caieaaieiae?iiy,
aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?eueaa?eiaiai oa naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a
ia?oeao ??ciiai noaoono, i?iaiae?ciaaii noaiiaeua naeyi.

Ia ceai? 80-90-o ??. XX no. ?icii/aany iiaee aoai a?o/eciyii?
?noi??ia?ao??, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a?eueo ia’?eoeaiei i?aeoiaeii aei
aiae?co an?o aniaeo?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei.
I?eaa?oathoue oaaao ?iaioe ?.Aa?ai?e/eea, a yeeo aeaoaeueii aea/athoueny
?aianea ? i?iienee Aieei?. Aa?ai?e/ee ?.I. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
iaoeie aieeinueeeo oe?ai?ia?a ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX–ii/aoeo OO no.
//Ieioea ? no/ania Aieei?: I?iaeaie aeaea?aeiciaanoaa. – Eooeuee, 1994;
Aa?ai?e/ee ?.I. O?aaeeoe?ei? cia?yaeaey i?aoe?, i?iienee ? ?aianea ia
Aieei?. – Eooeuee, 1995. Ana ae o oeeo i?aoeyo ua ia iii?oii iniaeeaeo
c?ooaiue iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a oaeiae a ioe?ieao ?noi?e/ieo
iiae?e.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeey no/aniiai ia??iaeo ?noi??ia?ao?? ? iiyaa ia?aeeaaeii?
e?oa?aoo?e oa ?ia?o a/aieo c ae?anii?e. Na?aae ieo ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
iiiia?ao?th o?aioeocueeiai ?noi?eea Ae.Aiaoa, a ye?e aiae?cothoueny
nioe?aeueii-iaoe?iiaeuei? c?ooaiiy ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a 30-o –
50-o ??. OIO no. Aiaoa Ae. Oeyooe/, e??iae ? ?aa?ci?: Iieuenueea oeyooa
i?ae oea?eciii oa oe?a?inueeeie ianaie (1831-1863 ??.). Ia?. c o?aioe. –
E.: ?ioae, 1996.

  Aeine?aeiee aena?oeth? iie?oeeo ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo uiaei iieuenueei?
oeyooe, iaceaath/e oeae i?ioean “iaea?eueoith nioe?aeueiith
iai?ioeyoe??th”, yeo ia?aaeeea ?a?iia o OIX no.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c ?noi??ia?ao?? c i?iaeai aa?a?iiai ?icaeoeo Aieei? o
XIX no. na?ae/eoue, ui ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ciaeoee
aena?oeaiiy o i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, ianaiia?aae:
?icaeoie o?eueaa?eiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy; oa?aeoa? naeyinueeeo ?aoi?i 40-o ??. XIX no. ia
Aieei? (noiniaii aea?aeaaieo naeyi, ?iaaioa?ii? ?aoi?ie); noaiiaeua
naeyi o aei?aoi?iaiiee ia??iae ? ?o ai?ioueaa i?ioe aeceneo. Iaeiae
??oioiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aaothoue ieoaiiy aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo ia Aieei? a ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae, caieaaieiae?iiy
? caieaei?enooaaiiy naeyinoaa, noaiiaeaiiy ia?a?iaieo aaeocae
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaia ni?iaa a?aeoai?eoe
oe?e?niee i?ioean aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei ia Aieei?, c’ynoaaoe ?o iniaeeaino?
oa niaoeeo?eo, aecia/eoe i?noea e?ath a nenoai? ainiiaea?noaa
?in?enueei? ?iia???.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “IIOE?AIIss ?IN?ENUeEI? NENOAIE ainiiaea?THaAIIss IA
AIEEI?” ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aa?a?ia caeiiiaeaanoai ? aa?a?ia iie?oeea
?in?enueeiai oea?ecio uiaei I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie oa i?iaiae?ciaaii
ca?iaeaeaiiy oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
Aieei?.

Aeey ci?oeiaiiy nai?? aeaaee ia i?e?aeiaieo i?ney o?aoueiai (1795 ?.)
iiae?eo Iieueu? caieyo oea?nueeee o?yae cae?eniea ?yae
iie?oeei-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a.

Aa?a?i? caeiie aoee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iie?oeee ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo a
Oe?a?i?, o oiio /ene? ? ia Aieei?. C iaoith ci?oeieoe i?aeaaeeie
oaiaeae?cio – aeaanoe ?nioth/o nenoaio ainiiaea?noaa c caaaeueii? e?ece
oa a?aeaa?iooe naeyinuee? aenooie, oea?nueeee o?yae aeaeaa aa?a?i?
caeiie oa ii/aa i?iaiaeeoe aa?a?io ?aoi?io. Naeyinueea ieoaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeinue o aeueo i?aaey/eo eieao ? a?aeaoaaeanue iaaeania
?ic?iaea i?iaeo?a caeii?a, a oaeiae ?aoi?ia aeueo o?yaeiaeo onoaiia,
oa?iieo eii?oao?a c naeyinueeiai ieoaiiy. O cae?eniaii? aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeinue i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaiith
a?aeiinei i?ae iii?ueeaie oa e??iinieie naeyiaie. Iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iiaeiiinoae naeyi, ?oiueiio
caieaei?enooaaiith ? caieaaieiae?iith, oi?aae?iith aea?aeaaieie naeyiaie
? noaiiaeuo aeai?iaeo. Aeei?enoaiiy caeiio ye iniiaiiai caniao
?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei i?ae iii?ueeaie oa ?o e??iinieie
aoei oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aa?a?ii? iie?oeee oea?ecio i?ioyaii an???
ia?oi? iieiaeie OIO no. I?aeoe/iei ao?eaiiyi oe??? iie?oeee noaee
?iaaioa?i? i?aaeea 1847 – 1848 ??.

Aiae?c aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ? caeiiiaeaanoaa ?in?enueeiai oea?ecio ia?oi?
iieiaeie XIX no. o Aieeinueeiio ?aa?ii? aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1) Caoiieaoe eiio?ieue iaae Aieeiith, ?in?y i?aaioea aoyaiooe ?? a eiei
nai?o ?ioa?an?a oeyoii aeaeaiiy caeii?a, ye? a ?aaoethaaee aa?a?i? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie.

2) Naeyinuee? caai?ooaiiy, caiaiaae ?nioth/i? nenoaie ainiiaea?noaa oa
?aaiethoe?ei? iiae?? o Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? cioneee oea?nueeee o?yae i?oe ia
?aoi?ie, ni?yiiaai?, aieiaiei /eiii, ia ?aaeaiaioaoe?th iiaeiiinoae
naeyi ia ei?enoue iii?uee?a.

3) Aaa?ia iie?oeea ? aa?a?ia caeiiiaeaanoai iaee e??iinieoeueeee
oa?aeoa?. O?yae iaiaaaany ci?oeieoe iaiueciyio nenoaio ainiiaea?noaa, ui
?iceeaaeaeany, ? aeaanoe ?? c e?eciaiai noaio.

4) Noiniaii iieuenueeeo caieaaeaniee?a iie?oeea o?yaeo ci?ithaaeanue:
aei iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy 1830-1831 ??. oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ?? aoei
iaeaea iiaia iaao?o/aiiy a iicaiaeuei? a?aeiineie i?ae iii?ueeaie oa
naeyiaie; i?ney iianoaiiy – o?yae ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeo aa?a?ieo caeii?a
iaiaaaany oii?ioaaoe oe? a?aeiineie.

5) Aa?a?ieie ?aoi?iaie naiiaea?aeaanoai i?aaioei a?aaoethaaoe a?aeiineie
i?ae iii?ueeaie ? naeyiaie oa i?ae aea?aeaaieie naeyiaie ? i?aaiaie
aeaaee, ui ieie ?icii?yaeaeaeeny.

6) Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oea?ecio noia?a/eea ?ioa?anai naeyinoaa, ye?
i?aaioee neanoaaiiy e??iiniiai i?aaa.

7) Aa?a?ia iie?oeea aecia/aea ana caeiiiaeaanoai ? oa?aeoa? ?iaaioa?ii?
?aoi?ie 1847-1848 ??. ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?.

Iniiaiee i?eioeei aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo ia
I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?, a oiio /ene? uiaei Aieei? o ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX
no. iieyaaa o oiio, uia caa?aaoe iii?ueoeueea caieaaieiae?iiy. Oea
iicia/eeiny ia aa?a?ieo caeiiao ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae ia?oi? iieiaeie
XIX  no. ? iaea?eueo yne?aai – ia ?iaaioa?ieo i?aaeeao 1847-1848 ??.,
ye? iiai?noth caa??aaee i?aai aeaniino? iii?uee?a ia caieth. Iieuenueea
iianoaiiy 1830-1831 ??. aianei iaai? ei?aeoeae: o?yae a?ae?a?aa caieth
a?ae o/aniee?a iianoaiiy, a caiaeii — iiaa?ioa.

Iacaaae aa?a?ia iie?oeea oea?ecio caciaea e?aoo. Naia i?ae aieeaii e?ece
oaiaeaeueiiai eaaeo ? ii?acee ?in?? a E?einuee?e a?ei? ?aeay caoenoo
e??iiniiai i?aaa iinooieeany i?eioeeio eiai neanoaaiiy. C ae?oai?
iieiaeie 50-o ?ie?a OIO no. o i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee naeyinueei? ?aoi?ie
1861 ?. noai?th?oueny ye?nii iiaa aa?a?ia caeiiiaeaanoai.

Ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? Aieei? iaea?eueo yne?aai i?iyaeeinue a oiaa?iino?
i?iaeoeoe?? iii?ueoeueeeo ainiiaea?noa oa ?aci?aii? ae??aieo, na?aaei?o
? aeayeeo e?oiieo iii?uee?a. Oea iiynithaaeinue oei, ui aaeee? caieioo?
iaoo?aeuei? ainiiaea?noaa ia iiaee i?e nai?o c?inoath/eo iaoa??aeueieo
iio?aaao caaacia/eoe eiai ?aioaaaeuei?noue oa i?eaooie.

Caaaeii a aeiiii?oe? ? nioe?aeueieo a?aeiineiao ci?ie a?aeaoaaeeny
aaiethoe?eiei oeyoii ? a iiaeaeueoiio i?ecaaee aei caiaiaaeo
iaiueciyiiai oeio ainiiaea?noaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “oi?ie caieaei?enooaaiiy ? caieaaieiae?iiy”
i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? naeyinueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy ?
iii?ueoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oea?eiaii-iiianoe?nueeo
aeani?noue ia caieth.

Caieacaaacia/ai?noue ??cieo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy aoea iaaecae/aeii
ia??aiii??iith. Iaeiaioa e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy – iii?ueee, iaaiaoe,
aeooiaainoai – cina?aaeeee a nai?o ?oeao iiiaae 80% caiaeueiiai oiiaeo
aoaa?i??. Iaea?eueoa /anoea iaeaaeaea iii?ueeai iieuenueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. Ia caaaeath/e ia ?yae caoiae?a oea?nueeiai o?yaeo,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ciaioaiiy ieoiii? aaae caieaaieiae?iiy iieuenueeeo
iii?uee?a i?ney iianoaiiy 1830-1831 ??., ?o /anoea caeeoaeanue aeineoue
aaaiiith. Oiio o?yae ciooaiee aoa noiniaii ?o i?eieieoe aaei?i?no?aoeai?
aeoe??, ?icii/ao? iae?aco ae i?ney iianoaiiy. A 1848 ?. iieuenueeei
iii?ueeai i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo aoaa?i?e aoei iaaeaii oae? i?eueae:
i?eieiaii a noaeao on? ni?aae i?i ceiaaeeaaiiy iii?ueoeueeith aeaaeith,
? ni?aae, uiaei ia?oe?a, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue a ii?oe?; aeiiouaii aei
aeai?yinueeeo aeai??a o/aniee?a iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy.

Oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie iii?ueoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX
no. aoee: 1) aeii?ioaaiiy iieuenueeiai iii?ueoeueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy;
2) iayai?noue aaeeeeo iii?noue; 3) iioe?aiiy caieaaieiae?iiy
?in?enueeiai aeai?yinoaa a ?acoeueoao? iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy
1830-1831??.; 4) i?aeoeea caeaaaiiy ia?oe?a a i?aiaeo oa iinan??, yea a
e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo i?eaiaeeea aei ci?ie aeaniee?a.

Ia ie?aio oaaao caneoaiao? oea?eiaia caieaaieiae?iiy, ui a?aecia/aeinue
?yaeii iniaeeainoae, coiiaeaieo niaoeeo?eith ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy ia
Aieei?. Aei ieo iiaeia a?aeianoe: 1) iioe?aiiy noa?e aieeao eaoieeoeecio
ca ?aooiie i?eai?/aiiy i?aaineaa?y; 2) i?ney ia?aoiaeo ?aa?iio i?ae
th?enaeeeoe?th oea?nueei? ?in??, iiaeaeueo? ci?ie i?eaaee aei
anoaiiaeaiiy aei?noeiai eiio?ieth aea?aeaae iaae oea?eaith. Inoaiiy aoea
ia?aoai?aia a ?aeaieia?/io iii?o naiiaea?aeaanoaa, o niaoe?aeueia
aea?aeaaia a?aeiinoai, a nayuaiieee – o eiai /eiiaiee?a; 3) aeiiii?/i?
ooenee eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae c iaoith aeei??iaiiy “iieuenueeiai
aeaiaioo” c “?onueeiai e?ath”. Cia/ia nei?i/aiiy caiaeueii? aeaniino?
aiane?aeie naeaano?o ia?oe?a eaoieeoeueeiai ?ieneiiaoo, ?o ia?aaea/a
aeai?yinoao ? aeeth/aiiy a nenoaio aea?aeaaii? i?aiaee; 4)
naeoey?ecaoe?eio ?aoi?io ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?, ni?yiiaaio, a ia?oo /a?ao,
i?ioe eaoieeoeueeiai aeooiaainoaa oa iaiaaeaiiy eiai caiaeueieo
aieiae?iue, iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoieo i?aa i?aaineaai?e oea?ea?.

Iii?ueoeueea caiey ?iciiae?eyeanue ia aea? /anoeie – aeania iii?ueoeueeo
? naeyinuee? iaae?ee. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie caeaaeaei aeeeth/ii a?ae
aie? iii?ueea oa niiniao aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa. Iii?uee aecia/aa ?
i?noea ?icoaooaaiiy naeyinueeeo iaae?e?a. I?iaiaey/e naiia?euei?
ia?aae?ee caie?, iii?ueee /anoi a?aeaiaeeee naeyiai i?ae iaae?ee
iai?eaeaoio ? iaea?eueo a?aeaeaeaio a?ae naea caieth. C eiai oi/ee ci?o
naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai iiaeiii aoei ianaiia?aae caaacia/eoe iii?ueea
?iai/eie ?oeaie oa ?iaaioa?ai. Oiio oaiaeae eiio?iethaaa aaaeaiiy
naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoi?ie ia iaeio ?aa?cueeo aeooo, ui ei?enooaaeany
iii?ueoeueeith caieath o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i??, a na?aaeiueiio i?eiaaeaei

2,85 aeanyoei. Ca oiai/anii? nenoaie caiea?ianoaa oa i?ei?oeaieo
cia?yaeaeyo i?aoe? oaea e?euee?noue caie? ia aeaaaea naeyieiia? cania?a
ia o?eueee aeey niea/oaaiiy iiaeaoe?a, a e aeey ii?iaeueiiai oa?/oaaiiy.
Caiey, ui ia?aaoaaea a ei?enooaaii? iii?ueoeueeeo naeyi, aoea
?iciiae?eaia iaaecae/aeii ia??aiii??ii. Caaaeii, ca aeaieie 1858 ?.
oyaeiaeo ainiiaea?noa ia Aieei? aoei iiiaae 60%, iai?aoyaeeo – 32%,
ai?iaeiee?a – 7%, aiaee?a – 1%.

E??iaee, ui ia iaee ?iai/i? ooaeiae ? iiey, ca?iaeyee caniae aeey
?nioaaiiy o aaaaoeo naeyi, a i?aiaeaoi??a. *eiaei c ieo iieeaeaei naei,
iaiae?oth/e ii e?a?i? a iiooeao cania?a aeey i?iaeeooy. Aaccaiaeueieo ?
?ici?aieo naeyi iii?ueee ia?aaiaeeee o ?ic?yae aeai?iaeo, ye?
i?aoethaaee ia iainueeiio iie?, aai aeeiioaaee ?io? ?iaioe a
iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oeao. Oe?iei i?aeoeeoaaeinue oaeiae “i?ny/ieoeoai”,
oiaoi ia?aaaaeaiiy iaaccaiaeaieo ? ?ici?aieo naeyi ia iino?eio iaiueio c
aeaea/ath aieiaeiiai i?ny/iiai oo?eiaiiy iaoo?ith. Iaia?aaeiaei? ?aoi?ie
iii?ueee aaeaaaeenue aei ??cieo cania?a, uia caoiieoe a nai? ?oee
caieth, yeith ei?enooaaeenue naeyie: caaiyee e??iae?a ia iaei?iaeth/?
aai iai?eaeaoi? aeey caiea?ianoaa ae?eyiee, ia?a?iciiae?eyee caiaeuei?
ae?eyiee, a?aeioneaee naeyi ia aieth aac caie?, caeaaaee o ?ae?ooe a
?aooiie iaeaooi?o ai?a?a, a?aei?aaeyee aei Nea??o ? o.i. Oe? caoiaee
aoee ia??oioiaai? “I?aaeeaie aeey oi?aae?iiy ia?oeaie ca caoaa?aeaeaieie
aeey ieo ?iaaioa?yie a Ee?anueeiio, Iiae?euenueeiio ? Aieeinueeiio
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noa?” (o?aaaiue 1847 ?.). Aiie i?iaieiooaaee i?eioeei
iaii?ooiino? naeyinueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy. I?ioa, ?iaaioa?i? i?aaeea –
oea aeoaea iaaeineiiaeee (iaa?oue aeey naiai /ano) ii?iaoeaiee
th?eaee/iee aeo. Caoaa?aeaeaiee ?iia?aoi?ii, a?i iaa neeo caeiio, aea
ae?ya eeoa ia oa?eoi??? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo aoaa?i?e. Ca aeiiiiiaith
oeueiai caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoo o?yae iaiaaaany, ia ii?oooth/e iii?ueoeueeeo
i?aa, caoenoeoe naeyi a?ae naaa?eey iieuenueeeo caieaaeaniee?a, ae?th/e
ca i?eioeeiii “? aiaee neo?, ? eice oe?e?”.

Caieaei?enooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo naeyi caeaaeaei a?ae iayaiino? caiaeueieo
oa?aeue, i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, ?icii?yaeaeaiue o?yaeo, e?eueeino?
?iai/i? ooaeiae. Ia ae?oao /aa?oue XIX no. aea?aeaaiei naeyiai, ui
noaiiaeee 17,8% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy aoaa?i??, iaeaaeaei
208,8 oen. aeanyoei caie?. I?ioa aeaiee caiaeueiee oiiae ia caaacia/oaaa
86,4% aea?aeaaieo naeyi i’yoeaeanyoeiiith aieiaeiith ii?iith. Cia/ia
??cieoey o ?ici??ao caiaeueieo iaae?e?a – a?ae 5 aei 31 aeanyoeie –
oa?aeoa?ecoaaea iino?eia iaeicaiaeey naeyi, ui a naith /a?ao i?ecaiaeeei
aei ianai?/anii? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? cioooaaei o?yae, caeeoath/e a
iaaeioi?eaiino? caieaaieiae?iiy iii?uee?a oa ?ioeo oaiaeae?a, ciaoiaeeoe
iia? oeyoe eiai e?ea?aeaoe??. Na?aae ieo ie a?aei?/a?ii: eiio?neaoe?y
iii?noue o/aniee?a iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy 1830-1831 ??.; naeoey?ecaoe?y
oea?eiaieo caiaeue; e?ea?aeaoe?y a?enueeiaeo iinaeaiue; ia?anaeaiiy aei
?in?enueeeo aoaa?i?e.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “IIAEIIINO? OA IIAeAOEE NAEssI” aiae?cothoueny
iiaeaoee oa iiaeiiino? naeyi, ?o ieaoini?iiiaei?noue.

?aaeaiaioaoe?y iiaeiiinoae naeyi cae?enithaaeanue ia iniia? ?iaaioa??a,
ui neeaaeaeenue iii?ueeaie, ye i?aaeei, ia naith ei?enoue. Ia caaaeath/e
ia anoaiiaeaio o?yaeii o?eaeaiio iaiueio, iii?ueee ca?eueooaaee ?? aei
4-6 aei?a ia oeaeaeaiue, i?eioooth/e e??iae?a i?aoethaaoe o aeo?aei? oa
nayoeia? aei?. I?e/iio, cono??/ath/e ii?? inoaii?o, iii?ueee
canoiniaoaaee ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee iiea?aiiy. Ia??aeei iaiueia
aeiiiaithaaeanue aeiaeaoeiaeie ?iaioaie, oae caaieie “aeo?ieoeyie”,
aeeiiaiiy yeeo ia ca?aoiaoaaeinue a aei? iaiueie. Iae/ano?oa aeeiiaiiy
oaeeo ?ia?o c?inoaei a e?oiuei-in?ii?e ia??iae.

Caaaeueiiai iioe?aiiy iaaoaa? oae caaia nenoaia o?ie?a (a?ae?yaeia oi?ia
i?aoe?), aeeiiaiiy yei? caeiaei 2-3 aei?. Iaiueia aeiiiaithaaeanue
??ciiiai?oieie iaoo?aeueieie ? a?ioiaeie iiai?aie. C iaoith
iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? e??iae?a i?aeoeeoaaeinue ia?aaaaeaiiy
?o a aeai?ia?, i?ny/ieoeoai, i?aoey ia i?aei?e?inoaao. Aenieoaoaoe?y
caeaaeieo naeyi noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue iiaiei nioe?aeueiei aaci?aa’yi, ui
i?ecaiaeeei aei ?oeioaaiiy cia/ii? /anoeie naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa,
ia?aae/anii? nia?o? e??iae?a.

Ana oea cana?ae/oaaei iaiiaeeea?noue a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae
??cieie i?ioa?eaie ianaeaiiy aac ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i, ianaiia?aae
e?ea?aeaoe?? e??iiniiai i?aaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia ?iaaioa?io ?aoi?io 1847-1848 ??., yea ?aaeaiaiooaaea
aei? iaiueie, aeaui iaiaaeoaaea iaoyaeeea? iiaeiiino?, neaniaoaaea
iaoo?aeueio aeaieio oa cai?iaaaeaeoaaea a?aeaoooy aeiaeaoeiaeo
iiaeiiinoae naeyi ca iieaoo, – noaiiaeua e??iinieo ia iie?iooaaeinue.
Iaaiaee, ooenee oa aei?noie?noue iii?uee?a aeioiaeeee aei e?aeiiu?a.

Ii?yae c a?ae?ia?oeiaith ?nioaaee i?iaeoeoiaa ? a?ioiaa ?aioe, ye?
iino?eii aaiethoe?iioaaee, caaacia/oth/e ana c?inoath/? caieoe iii?uee?a
oa aea?aeaae. ?icaeoie oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei coiiaethaaa iino?eio
iio?aao a a?ioao, ui aaei aei iineeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?? iniiaii? iane
ianaeaiiy, eiai coaiae?iiy. Oea aeeeeeaei ii?? naeyinoaa, ui i?iyaeyany
o a?aeiia? niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee, iaaeeiiaii? iaiueie, aoa/ao, aaeanoaao
iaea?eueo iaiaaenieo oi?aaeoae?a, i?aeiaeao iainueeeo naaeea oiui.
?ieiee caai?ooaiiy iaae?aee ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o ? aeey aaaioaaiiy
ianaeaiiy canoiniaoaaeenue a?enueea.

Aea?aeaai? naeyie niea/oaaee a?ioia? iiaeaoee, ye? neeaaeaeeny c o?ueio
iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a: 1) aea?aeaai?, ui aeeth/aee a naaa ia?i/iee,
iiaeooiee iiaeaoie, ca?? ia aeaoooaaiiy aiaeieo oa nooiiooieo oeyo?a
niieo/aiiy; 2) cainuee? a?ioia? – ui??/i?, oei/ania?; 3) i?eaaoi?
ie?nuee?. Caaaeii iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo naeyi iino?eii c?inoaei, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaaei iio?aao aea?aeaae a a?ioao. O 50-o ?. XIX no. ai?a
aieeinueeeo naeyi aea?aeaa? nyaioa 319010  ?oa. 92 eii., ui noaiiaeei 6%
a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iaaei?iie ii aoaa?i??. Oea cana?ae/oaaei
coaiae?iiy aea?aeaaieo naeyi ? iaiiaeeea?noue niea/oaaoe iiaeaoee.

E??i a?ioiaeo iiaeaoe?a, naeyie aeeiioaaee ?yae iiaeiiinoae, aea iniiaia
oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue iaiuei?. ?? ?ici??, ca?aeii c ?iaaioa?yie, noaiiaea
2-3 aei? ia oeaeaeaiue, aea oaeoe/ii aeiiiaithaaany aeiaeaoeiaeie
?iaioaie, oiio iaiueia c?inoaea aei 4-7 aei?a. Caaaeii noaiiaeua
aea?aeaaieo naeyi i?/ei ia a?ae??ciyeiny a?ae noaiiaeua iaiueciyieo
naeyi.

O 1837  ?. oea?nueeee o?yae canioaaa I?i?noa?noai aea?aeaaiiai iaeia ia
/ie? c I.Eenaeueiaei, ia yea aoei iieeaaeaii caaaeaiiy aaeineiiaethaaoe
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie naeyiaie ? oaeei /eiii ci?oeithaaoe o?iaine
e?a?ie. ?aoi?ia 1839-1841 ??. e?ea?aeoaaea i?aiaeo aea?aeaaieo
ia?oiinoae: cai?noue iiaeooiiai aaaaeaii ia?ie c caie? e i?eaooe?a a?ae
i?iiene?a. Aea?aeaai? naeyie iae?aee n?euenuee? oa aieini? oi?aae?iiy,
ui caeaaeaee a?ae aoaa?inueeeo iaeao aea?aeaaieo ia?oe?a. ?aoi?ia ia
iieaaoeea noaiiaeua aea?aeaaiee?a, a o?eueee i?enei?eea iaeiiaa
?icoa?oaaiiy oa noai?eea oiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo N?EUeNUeEIAI
AINIIAeA?NOAA” i?inoaaeaii aaiethoe?th caiea?ianoaa, aeiiaoiueiai ?
oiaa?iiai oaa?eiieoeoaa, aeiiii?aeieo oa i?aeniaieo i?iiene?a,
noaiiaeaiiy ia?a?iaieo aaeocae.

Caiea?ianoai ia Aieei? iaei ca?iiaee oa?aeoa? ? aaeiny noa?eie
oaiaeaeueieie iaoiaeaie. O ia?o?e iieiaei? OIO  no. aiii iineei /anoeiai
oi?aiaee oa?aeoa?, ui aoei coiiaeaii aaeaeei aaia?ao?/iei ?icoaooaaiiyi
aoaa?i??. ?icaeoie ca?iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
no?eaeiiiae?ai?noth ??/ieo ii?i aen?ao, i?e/iio oea caeaa?eueoiai
i?iyaeyeinue o naeyinueeiio, i?ae iii?ueoeueeiio oe?ai?ianoa?. Eeoa aeey
iaaaeeei? /anoeie caiiaeieo naeyi oe?ai?ianoai noa? aeaea?aeii i?eaooeo.
Anoaiiaeeanue a?eueo-iaio iaeiaeiaa ? aeineoue no?eea no?oeoo?a iin?a?a,
?noioii a?aei?iia a?ae ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a. Ai?iaaaeaeoaaeanue aaaaoii?eueia
nenoaia, ianaiia?aae o caiiaeieo ainiiaea?noaao. O o?eueaa?eao aoee
ai?iaee aeey ae?iuoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo eoeueoo?. Aiie ia?iaeyeenue
naeyiaie, ciaia’ycaieie aeeiioaaoe oeth ?iaioo iiiaae iaiueio. A i?noao
ai?iaeieoeoai iaaoaaei i?iieneiaiai oa?aeoa?o, canoiniaoaaeanue iaeiaia
i?aoey, yea iiea/oaaeany a?ioeia oa i?iaeoeoaie. O aeayeeo
ainiiaea?noaao aoee ? ieiaeia? naaee, i?iaeoeoe?y yeeo
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aeey aeaniiai aaeeoeo oa i?iaeaaeo. Oea noeioethaaei
?icaeoie ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Iiceoeaia cia/aiiy aeey ?icaeoeo
iii?ueoeueeiai oi?aiaiai caiea?ianoaa iaei eoeueoeaoaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo
o?aa. ?o ae?iuoaaiiy caaacia/oaaei oaa?ei aeia?iye?nieie a?oaeie
ei?iaie, ni?eyei iie?auaiith no?oeoo?e oa ?iaeth/ino? caiaeue,
aeniaaeaieo ?ooeiiei niiniaii ia?iaee. ?icoe?aiiy iin?aieo ieiu i?ae
ei?iia? o?aae aaei aei ?inoo a?iaeaeiino? ?ioeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?.

O o?niiio ca’yceo c caiea?ianoaii ?icaeaaeinue iii?ueoeueea ? naeyinueea
oaa?eiieoeoai ia Aieei?. Iayai?noue ooaeiae aecia/aeany aioo??oi?ie
iio?aaaie ainiiaea?noa, ?ici??aie i?ii? caie?, n?iiaeaoae. Ae?iuoaaiiy
ana a?eueoi? e?eueeino? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, iaaoeue oa ?ioeo oaa?ei
aeey ?eieo na?ae/eei i?i oiaa?ecaoe?th ia?oe?a, i?i ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a
oi?aia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa. ?icaeoie a iii?ueoeueeeo
ainiiaea?noaao oi?aiaiai neioa?noaa – iaeia c aaaeeeaeo aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia ?iceeaaeo iaiueciyiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iacaaaeath/e ia
ia?aaaaeaiiy iaiueiii? nenoaie, naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai, oi/a ? aeoaea
iia?eueii, noaaaei ia oeyo oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ii?yae ?c oe?ai?ianoaii ? oaa?eiieoeoaii aeaaeae? a?eueoa cia/aiiy iaee
i?iienee – aaeae?eueieoeoai, ?eaaeuenoai, iiethaaiiy. Iaaio ?ieue
i?iaeiaaeoaaei a?ae?a?aaaoe ?eaaeuenoai. Aiii aoei aeinooiiei ethaeyi
??ciiai a?eo, noao? ? ia aeiaaaei neeaaeieo cia?yaeue i?aoe?. Eiaeee
?eao o a?eueiee a?ae ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ia?o /an i?ioyaii anueiai ?ieo. O
ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. oey aaeocue iaae?aea oiaa?iiai oa?aeoa?o,
iniiaieie iieacieeaie yei? aoee: caeo/aiiy aei i?aoe? a?eueiiiaeiaieo
?ia?oiee?a; aeei?enoaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiue o noaaeiaeo ainiiaea?noaao;
ca?eueoaiiy oi?a?ae? ?eaith ca iaaeaie aoaa?i?? aeey io?eiaiiy a?ioae.
Iioe?aiei aoei iiethaaiiy ia aeeeeo ioao?a ? ca???a. Ieneeanoai
caaacia/oaaei naeyi i’ynii oa ooo?ii, ? iaei aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa?. Oaeo
ae ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaei cae?aiiy a?ea?a, e?niaeo ya?ae oa e?ea?nueeeo
o?aa. ?o aeei?enoiaoaaee ia eeoa aeey aeaniiai niiaeeaaiiy, a e aeey
i?iaeaaeo ia y?ia?eao.

E?niaeie i?iieneaie naeyie caeiaeeny o a?eueiee a?ae caiea?ianoaa /an.
Iaeiioe?ai?o? c ieo – caaio?aey e?niiaoa??ae?a, aeaiiea niiee oa
aeueiaoth, aeaioiaeaiiy iioaoo. Ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aea?aaa
?icaeaaeenue oae? ?aianea ye noiey?noai, oaney?noai, noaeueiao?anoai
(aeaioiaeaiiy aic?a), aiiaea?noai. Ieaee eioeee c eice oa ei?e aea?aa.
Caeiaeenue aii/a?noaii, yea oa?aeoa?ecoaaeinue aeineoue o?oaeii?noeei ?
o?eaaeei ae?iaie/ei i?ioeanii. Iniiaio ne?iaeio – aeiaoo aeeio,
aeiaoaaee o aaaaoueio i?noeyo aoaa?i??. Aoae?aaeuei? i?iienee
iaiooaeoo?iiai oa?aeoa?o ae?iaeyee oeaaeo, i?ioa oaeaeeiio ?icaeoeo
oe??? aaeoc? ia?aoeiaeaeaee oaiaeaeuei? a?aeiineie, ui iicaaaeyee
i?aei?e?ioe?a aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? ?iai/eo ?oe. Cia/iiai iioe?aiiy
iaaoa oe??yiee i?iienae, ?icaeoeo yeiai ni?eyei oaa?eiieoeoai oa aaeeea
e?euee?noue e?niaeo ca???a. Iaea?eueoei iiieoii ei?enooaaeenue ae?iae
?ai?niee?a-/iaioa??a. Aeey caaacia/aiiy naeyi iaeyaii, iianthaeii
ae?iuoaaeenue eueii, eiiiiey, aeaioiaeyeanue i?yaea ? aieieia. Iaeaea o
eiaei?e oao? noiya oeaoeueeee aa?noao aeey aeaioiaeaiiy a?oaiai iieioia,
noeia oa ??cieo i?oeiaei.

Cia/i? i?eaooee oaiaeaee io?eioaaee ? a?ae ?ioeo aaeocae ainiiaea?noaa –
ieei?a, ian?e, aeiieo?aiue, ?aae?caoe?y i?iaeoeoe?? yeeo ia
aioo??oiueiio ? ciai?oiueiio ?eieao aoyaoaaea iii?ueoeuee? ainiiaea?noaa
a oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie.

?icaeaaeeny ia Aieei? e ?io? aaeoc? ae?iaieoeoaa – noeiiia, oeoe?iaa,
cae?ci?iaia, ui i?aoethaaee ia i?noeaa?e ne?iaei? ? ni?eyee ?inoo
eai?oae?noe/ii? i?iieneiaino?. Ca oaiiaie oeueiai i?ioeano Aieeinueea
aoaa?i?y a?aenoaaaea a?ae ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Oa ana ae
iia? ainiiaea?nuee? a?aeiineie iinooiiai ci?oeithaaeenue ?
aei??ithaaeenue o e?a?. Anaa?/ia aea/aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aeiaaa?
neii?aeeiiaaieo coneeue aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a.

O “Aeniiaeao” ocaaaeueiaii i?aenoiee oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae o Aieeinuee?e aoaa?i?? a
ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. aoea i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ci?oeiaiith ?nioth/i?
iaiueciyii? nenoaie ainiiaea?noaa, ?oneo?eaoe?? e?ath oeyoii
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?in?enueeeo iii?uee?a ? /eiiaiee?a, oa iaiaaeaiiy
iieuenueeeo iii?uee?a a caieaaieiae?ii? ? oi?aae?ii? aoaa?i??th.

2. Ia Aieei? aeii?ioaaei iieuenueea iaaiaonueea caieaaieiae?iiy,
iniiaith yeiai aoee eeth/? ? o?eueaa?ee, ?nioaaea i?aiaea oa iinan?y
ia?oe?a, ui i?ecaiaeeea aei ci?ie aeaniee?a.

3. Aeiiii?/iee ? caiaeueiee noaoon e??iinieo naeyi aecia/aany
aea?aeaaith, aieath iii?ueea, niiniaii aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa.
Caieaei?enooaaiiy aea?aeaaieo naeyi aoei coiiaeaia e?euee?noth ?iai/i?
ooaeiae ? ?aaeaiaiooaaeiny oea?nueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii.

4. Iniiaieie oi?iaie aenieoaoaoe?? caeeoaeanue a?ae?ia?oeiaa,
iaoo?aeueia ? a?ioiaa ?aioe; inoaiiy iaaoaaea iioe?aiiy ? ci?ithaaeanue
a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiiii?/ii? eii’thieoo?e. Caaaeii iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
naeyinoaa iino?eii c?inoaei, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaei ana c?inoath/o iio?aao a
a?ioao iii?uee?a oa aea?aeaae, a oea a naith /a?ao noeioethaaei ?icaeoie
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei.

5. Ii/aoeiaeie iciaeaie eai?oae?cio a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Aieei?
aoee – ieiaeiia?ai?iia nenoaia caiea?ianoaa c o?aain?yiiyi,
aaeineiiaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo cia?yaeue oa iaoai?ci?a,
oi?ioaaiiy oeaio??a oi?aiaiai caiea?ianoaa ? oaa?eiieoeoaa a?ey aaeeeeo
i?no ? i?iieneiaeo ina?aaee?a, ?icoe?aiiy i?aiaee oa eoi?ae? caie?,
canoinoaaiiy iaeiaii? i?aoe?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?icaeoie oaiaeaeueiiai ? iaaiaonueeiai caieaaieiae?iiy o Aieeinuee?e
aoaa?i?? a e?ioe? XVIII – ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no.// Iaoeiaee a?niee
AAeO. Na??y: ?noi??y. – Eooeuee. – 1996. – Aei.1. – N.69 – 71, (0,3
ae?.a?e.);

2. Ieoaiiy aa?a?iiai ?icaeoeo Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? a e?ioe? XVIII –
ii/aoeo XIX no. a oe?a?inuee?e iiai?ii?e ?noi??ia?ao??// Iaoeiaee a?niee
AAeO. Na??y: ?noi??y. – 1997. – Aei.2. – N.83 – 86, (0,6 ae?.a?e.);

3. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo ae??aiioiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei
?icoe?aiiai// Ca??iee iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo ? iaoeiaeo noaoae
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1997. – Aei.2. – N.164-166,

(0,2 ae?.a?e.);

4. ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oi?i
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa//I?aei?e?inoai (o??ia) a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. –
Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1997. – N.15 – 21, (0,5 ae?.a?e.).

AIIOAOe?ss

Aoiaeae I.A. Aa?a?iee ?icaeoie Aieeinueei? aoaa?i?? a 1795-1861 ??.-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.- Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, Eooeuee, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii aa?a?io ?noi??th Aieei? e?ioey XVIII –
ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no., iioe?aiiy ?in?enueeiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy a e?a?,
aaiethoe?y iniiaieo aaeocae n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, oi?ie
caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaaieiae?iiy, i?iienee oa ca?iaeaeaiiy
oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei, noaiiaeua naeyinoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aieeiue, Aieeinueea aoaa?i?y, aa?a?ia iie?oeea,
o?eueaa?ie, ?iaaioa??, eeth/, iinani?.

ANNOTATION

Bundak O.A. The agrarian development of Volyn region in the 1795-1861
period. — Manuscript.

Thesis presented to acquire Candidate degree in history. In speciality
07.00.01 — The history of Ukraine.- Lessya Ukrainka Volyn State
University, Lutsk, 1999.

The agrarian history of Volyn of the end of the XVIIIth century to the
first half of the XIXth century, spreading of russian management in the
region, the evolution of the main agrarian branches, of land-tenure
forms and ownership of land as well as trades, and the origin of
commodity — money relations were investigated in our dissertation.

Key words: Volyn, Volyn region, agrarian policy, implements, key,
possession.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aoiaeae I.A. Aa?a?iia ?acaeoea Aieuineie aoaa?iee a 1795-1861 aa.-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – Aieuineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eane Oe?aeiee, Eooee, 1999.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca enoi/ieeia e e?eoe/aneiai iniuneaiey enoi?eia?aoee
a aeenna?oaoeee inaauaia aa?a?iay iieeoeea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa a
Aieuineie aoaa?iee, iai?aaeaiiay ia oi?i/aiea nouanoaothuae nenoaiu
oicyenoaiaaiey e ?oneoeeaoeee e?ay iooai oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa ?onneeo
iiiaueeia e /eiiaieeia, e ia?aie/aiey iieueneeo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa a
caieaaeaaeaiee e oi?aaeaiee aoaa?ieae. Iiiuoee ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aa?a?iuo
ioiioaiee ia iiae?uaaee iniia e?aiinoie/anoaa. Yeiiiie/aneee e
caiaeueiue noaoon e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi ii?aaeaeyeny ainoaea?noaii, aieae
iiiaueea, niiniaii aaaeaiey oicyenoaa. Caieaiieueciaaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi auei iaoneiaeaii eiee/anoaii ?aai/aai neioa e
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeinue oea?neei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Ia Aieuie
aeiieie?iaaei iieueneia iaaiaoneia caieaaeaaeaiea, iniiaie eioi?iai auee
eeth/e e oieueaa?ee, nouanoaiaaea a?aiaea e iinanney eiaiee, /oi
i?eaiaeeea e niaia aeaaeaeueoeaa. Ia?ae/iuie i?eciaeaie ca?iaeaeaiey
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee a naeueneii oicyenoaa Aieuie auee
ieiaeiia?aiaiiay nenoaia caieaaeaeey n o?aainayieai, niaa?oainoaiaaiea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?oaeee e iaoaieciia, oi?ie?iaaiea oeaio?ia
oi?aiaiai caieaaeaeey e aeeaioiiaiaenoaa aie?oa aieueoeo ai?iaeia e
i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia, ?anoe?aiea a?aiaeu e iieoiee caiee, i?eiaiaiea
iaaiiiai o?oaea. Iniiaiuie oi?iaie yenieoaoaoeee inoaaaeanue
io?aaioi/iay, iaoo?aeueiay e aeaiaaeiay ?aiou. Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea
e?anoueyinoaa iinoiyiii ?inei, /oi oa?aeoa?eciaaei ana aic?anoathuoth
iio?aaiinoue a aeaiueaao iiiaueeia e ainoaea?noaa, a yoi a naith
i/a?aaeue noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee.

Похожие записи