2

25

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa

AAOIAIIA TH??E IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE 621.315. 592

AAeNI?AOe?EIA *OOEEA?NOUe IAI?AI?IA?AeIEEIAEO IAOA??AE?A A?OIE A2A6,
IENEAe?A AAAEEEO IAOAE?A OA II?OAAOIAI E?AII?TH C ?AAEUeIITH IIAA?OIATH
C EEANOA?IEIE NO?OEOO?AIE

01.04.10 — O?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa ae?aeaeo?ee?a

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei- iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

?i.?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Nieioeia Aaeaioei Aiae??eiae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa, ?aeoi? oi?aa?neoaoo,
caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie
Eeoia/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/, ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI
Oe?a?ie, ea??aiee a?aeae?eaiiy “O?ceea iiaa?oi? oa i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ea”;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?eue/aiei Aaneeue
Aaneeueiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
i?ioani?;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eo?iaoia Oai?eue
Aeaeaiaoiae/, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa,
caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH??y
Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i.*a?i?aoe?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “10” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 14ii aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae41.051.01 a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa (270026, Iaeana, aoe. Ianoa?a, 27,
aaeeea o?ce/ia aoaeeoi??y).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, Iaeana, aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “29”/a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I. I.Oaae/oe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ? iaeiei c aeooaeueieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee. I?i oea na?ae/eoue cia/iee ianya
ioae?eaoe?e oa i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aieo i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e o oe?e
aaeoc? o?ceee ? oaoi?ee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a. Cia/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie
aecia/a?oueny ?icaeoeii no/aniiai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy, iaei??th ?c
iniiaieo caaea/ yeiai ? noai?aiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
naini??a aac?a. ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? caaea/? iio?aao? aeeaieiai aea/aiiy
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ia iiaa?oi? iai?ai?iaiaei?e?a, o?ce/ieo
iaoai?ci?a aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?, i?e?iaee oeaio??a aaeni?aoe??.

No/ani? eaaioiaio?i?/i? oai??? aeaeo?iiii-iieaeoey?ieo i?ioean?a ?
eeane/ia aeaeo?iiia oai??y ia aeicaieythoue /?oei i?iaiicoaaoe
aeaeo?iii? oa aaeni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? oaa?aeeo o?e. Oea iia’ycaii c
oei, ui o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo o?e iaaeinoaoiuei
aecia/ai?. O ca’yceo c oeei aeooaeueieie ? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo
iaoai?ci?a aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oaa?aeeo o?e. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe,
ui a e?oa?aoo?? ia ?nio? /?oeiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a, aac yeiai
iaiiaeeeai iaeiicia/ii ? iaoaiaoe/ii oi/ii aecia/aoe aaeni?aoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoa??ae?a ? ii??aithaaoe aeai?, iaea?aeai? a
??cieo oiiaao.

Aeooaeueieie ? aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?c
cia/iith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath (oiie? oa?e, ii?eno? iaoa??aee, eeanoa?i?
no?oeoo?e). O?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oeeo no?oeoo? aecia/athoueny ia?aaaaeii
ia?aiao?aie ?o iiaa?oi?. Oi?ioaaiiy ae??aiiaeenia?n?eieo eeanoa??a
i?ecaiaeeoue aei eaaioiai?ici??ieo aoaeo?a. Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue
oaeeo no?oeoo? i?aeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeanue.

Ooai?aiiy eeanoa??a ??ciiiai?oieo eiio?ao?aoe?e ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo
o?e aiane?aeie eaaoaaiiy ?o iiaa?oi? oa ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? aoiiaie
aaaeeeo iaoae?a i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai ?o aieeao ia aeaeo?iii? oa
aaeni?aoe?ei? aeanoeaino? oiieeo oa??a iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a. ??ci? oi?ie,
?ici??e oa o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? eeanoa??a aecia/athoue oe?ieee
niaeo? ia?aiao??a oaeeo no?oeoo?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a
iathoue oaeiae i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? aaciaeo
naini??a iiaiai iieie?iiy. Iei? aeooaeueiith ? ?ic?iaea o?ce/ieo
iiaeaeae aeaeo?iiieo oa aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae aeniei/ooeeaeo,
naeaeoeaieo ? noaa?eueieo naini??a.

Ie?aia i?noea caeiathoue naeaeoeai? yeino? naini??a. Iiooe
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa eaaoth/eo aeii?oie aeey noai?aiiy
naini??a iio?aao? ?icoe?aiiy ianyao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aeey iioei?caoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae
aaci/ooeeaeo aeanoeainoae, caeaaeiino? ?o a?ae ia?aiao??a nenoaie
iai?ai?ia?aeiee- aaeni?aao, ine?eueee ?icaeyiooe aenia?eiaioaeueii an?
iiaeeea? eiia?iaoe?? iaoa??ae?a, eaaoth/eo aeii?oie oa aac?a acaaae?
iaiiaeeeai.

Aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iathoue oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye?
iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiiyi iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee naini??a ca ?aooiie
eiii’thoa?ii? ia?iaee neaiae?a. O ca’yceo c ao?oeeaei ?icaeoeii
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o?aooaaiiy aieeao aeae?eueeio eiiiiiaio
na?aaeiaeua, ui aiae?co?oueny ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, c’yaeythoueny iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey
?ica’ycaiiy iacaaieo aeua i?iaeai.

C’ynoaaiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iaoai?ci?a aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? c iaii?ici??ieie eeanoa?aie ? iiaei
iai?yieii o ?icaeoeo no/anii? iaiiaeaeo?ii?ee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ? oaiaie. ?iaioa a?aeiia?aea?
iniiaiei iaoeiaei iai?yiai ae?yeueiino? iaoeiai- aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi???
?3, eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee IAeO. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeaiiio
iai?yieo i?iaiaeeeenue o ?aieao aini?ic?aooieiaeo oa athaeaeaoieo oai
Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Athaeaeaoi? oaie aeeiioaaeenue ca
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi i?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? AeEIO Oe?a?ie.

1. ?217 “?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey aeao/eeia eiioeaio?aoeee
eenei?iaea, aeaoieene na?u e na?iaiaei?iaea”.

2. ?603 “?ac?aaioea iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ieaii/iuo /oanoaeoaeueiuo
yeaiaioia e enneaaeiaaiea aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey aaciaiaeecaoi?a ia eo
iniiaa”.

3. ?217 “?ac?aaioea iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia ia
eenei?iae a eioaa?aeueiii eniieiaiee”;

4. ?998 “Enneaaeiaaiea oeceei- oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia a ii?enoii e?aiiea
i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee n aacaie”;

5. ?348 I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei- o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a a
ii?enoeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?ao ooieoe?eieo aeaiaio?a
?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?iaeaeo?iieo nenoai”;

6. ?5.44.02/103 AeEIO Oe?a?ie “?ic?iaea iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
i?e?iaeaeo?iieo aaci/ooeeaeo aeaiaio?a aeey aeieia?/iiai eiio?ieth
iia?o?y”;

7. ? 608, 347 I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iieo i?ioean?a a
ie?aeiaeo iaoa??aeao oa IAeI no?oeoo?ao ia ?o iniia?”.

Aaoi? aoa iaoeiaei ea??aieeii oai, aeacaieo a i.i. 4-6,
a?aeiia?aeieueiei aeeiiaoeai oai ii i.i.1-3, 7.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeoe i?e?iaeo
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa iaoai?cie
caeaaeiino? ?? a?ae no?oeoo?e iaoa??ae?a, ?o o?i?/iiai neeaaeo,
aeaeo?iiieo ia?aiao??a, eaaoth/eo aeii?oie, o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? aaciai?
eiiiiiaioe oa oiia aei??thaaiue, o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee oeaio??a aaeni?aoe??.
C’ynoaaoe iaoai?cie eieae?caoe?? oa o?ainii?oo ca?yae?a i?e aaeni?aoe??
aac?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ?ica’ycoaaeenue oae?
caaea/?:

1. Aea/aiiy aeaeo?iiieo, aaeni?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a c eeanoa?ieie no?oeoo?aie, ye? iiaeooue
aooe io?eiai? i?e eaaoaaii? iiaa?oi?, ?iii?e ?iieaioaoe?? aoiiaie
aaaeeeo iaoae?a, a oaeiae i?e aiiaeiiio o?aaeaii? e?enoae?/iiai
e?aii?th;

2. ?ic?iaeoe o?ce/i? iiaeae? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oaa?aeio?eueieo
iaoa??ae?a, ui aeicaieeoue i?iaiicoaaoe ci?ie aeanoeainoae ??cieo
iaoa??ae?a i?e aaeni?aoe?? aac?a oa caaacia/eoe oe?eani?yiiaaiee iiooe
iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a oa oiia ?oiueiai aeaioiaeaiiy c aenieeie
iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Eiiieaeni?noue aeine?aeaeaiue caaacia/oaaeany aeei?enoaiiyi oe?ieiai
iaai?o no/anieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a: aoi?eiii- ?iiii?
ian-niaeo?ineii??, aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai ? aia?ai-aeenia?n?eiiai
aiae?co oa eeane/ieo iaoiae?a: aeeo?aeoe?? ?aioaai?anueeeo i?iiai?a,
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoo Oieea oa ?ioeo. Ia?iaea io?eiaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeeiioaaeanue ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeaethaaiiy ia
AII a i?eeeaaeieo iaeaoao Mathcad, Origin, Pascal.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/oaaeany eiiieaeniei
oa?aeoa?ii aeine?aeaeaiue ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ai?iaiaaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee, aoanoiaaieo aaciaeo na?aaeiaeu aeniei?
yeino? oa /enoioe, ia?iaeith ia AII aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a,
?ioa?i?aoaoe??th ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ia iniia? e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo oa ?o ca?aii o iacaeaaeieo aenia?eiaioao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii oi?aa?naeueia aecia/aiiy aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? (A*) oaa?aeeo o?e, yea iieyaa? a ciaoiaeaeaii? nooiaiy ci?ie
aoaeue yei? o?ce/ii? aaee/eie i?e aa??aoe?? oeneo aaco ? aea?
iiaeeea?noue iaoaiaoe/ii iienoaaoe aca?iiae?th ??cieo aac?a c
iai?ai?ia?aeieeaie iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oiueiai oeio, no?oeoo?e, oiia
aei??thaaiue. Aaaaeaia aecia/aiiy aeicaiey? e?euee?nii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
eiioeaio?aoe?eio caeaaei?noue /ooeeaino?, ciaoiaeeoe iaeano? iaeneioi?a
A*.

2. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeea?no?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ie?aie c iiaa?oiath, yea eaaiaaia iaoiaeaie
iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy (IE) c aaciai? oace oa ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe??
aaaeeeie iaoaeaie Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, a oaeiae aoiiaie oaeueeiaai?a S,
Se, Te. Aecia/aii o?ce/iee iaoai?ci aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aei eenith
oiieioa?iaeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? i?noyoue eeanoa?i?
no?oeoo?e iaoae?a (noa?e/i?, ieoeiaeaei? eeanoa?e oa a?nea?e) ia
iiaa?oi? oa??aeiai o?ea. Cao?eniaaii aieea aaeni?aiaaieo /anoeiie ia
o?ainii?o ca?yae?a i?e ci?i? ?ici???a ? oi?ie eeanoa??a, a oaeiae
o?ainii?o ca?yaeaeaieo ?ii?a aaeni?aaoo aaeiaae iiaa?oi? ieoeiaeaeieo
eeanoa??a.

3. Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo aaeni?aiaaiiai eenith c
iiaa?oiath iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? ? ca?eueoaiiy ?o aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? aei eenith i?e iiaa?oiaaiio eaaoaaii?. Ciaioaiiy aia?a??
ca’yceo aaeni?aaoa c iiaa?oiath a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie aca?iiae??
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie aaeni?aaoo ? aeaoaeo?a iiaeeo?eiaaii? iiaa?oi?
iai?ai?ia?aeieea i?ae niaith. Iaea?eueo cia/iee aoaeo ia? i?noea i?e
eaaoaaii? aoiiaie ?iae?th. Oea aeicaiey? i?e iecuee?e oaiia?aoo??
aei??thaaiue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe naeaeo?ai?noue oa noaa?euei?noue
ia?aiao??a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?.

4. Anoaiiaeaii o?ce/i?e iaoai?ci aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? ia iniia? ieneae?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a ? ?o
naiaea?/ no?oeoo? aei n??eiaiaeith, ui iieyaa? a ci?i? aenioe aa?’??o
i?ae naiaea?/ no?oeoo?ith i?e aaeni?aoe?? aaco. Aeyaeaii, ui o
aenieieaaiaaieo caa?ooiieeo ie?aie ieneaeo ?iae?th i?e aca?iiae?? c
ieneaeaie acioo A* iia’ycaia ?c ci?iith ?ooeeaino? aeaeo?ii?a.
Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci A* oiieeo ie?aie aii?oiiai a?ae?iaai?ciaaiiai
e?aii?th aei ia??a aiaee, yeee iieyaa? o oiio, ui iiaa?oiaaee
oioiiioaioe?ae a-Si:H caeaaeeoue a?ae aaeni?aoe?? aiaee.

5. Aia?oa aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeea?no? iae?i-,
i?e?i- ? iaiiii?oaaoiai e?aii?th. I?e e?iiaoieo oaiia?aoo?ao
aei??thaaiue c oe?ieiai eiea aeine?aeaeaieo aac?a ia aeaeo?iii?
aeanoeaino? ii?enoiai e?aii?th aieeaa? aaeni?aoe?y aac?a c aenieei
aeeiieueiei iiiaioii. Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue no?oeoo? iae?iii?oaaoiai
e?aii?th aei ai?aeo iaoiiaeaia aieeaii aaeni?aoe?? NH3 ia iiaa?oiaao
i?ia?aei?noue oa ?ii?noue i?aeii?enoiai i?inoi?o. Aeyaeaii, ui a
iaiaeii??aeieo i?e?iii?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao aeieea? aeaeo?i?oo?eia neea,
aaee/eia yei? caeaaeeoue a?ae ina?oeaiiy oa aaeni?aoe?? aeeiieueieo
/anoeiie ia iiaa?oi? ii?. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ea?oaaiiy
aaee/eiith aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? ci?iith ina?oeaiiy c?acea.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aaeni?aoe?? iiey?ieo /anoeiie ai?aeo ?ioaineai?noue
ethi?ianoeaioe?? iaiiii?oaaoiai e?aii?th iaaea? aiane?aeie iaiaaeaiiy
o?ainii?oo ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a ca?yaeo aei oeaio??a aei?ii?ithaaeueii?
?aeiia?iaoe??.

6. I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a aeaa?aaeaoe??
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iai?ai?iaiaeiee?a. I?e/eia aeaa?aaeaoe??
iia’ycaia c i?a?aoe??th ca?yaeaeaieo ?ii?a a?aoee c ia’?io ia iiaa?oith
iai?ai?ia?aeieea. O iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ie?aeao, ye? i?noyoue ia
iiaa?oi? aoiie ? eeanoa?e ?iae?th, oe? i?ioeane ia niinoa??aathoueny.

7. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiiiainaoe?? oaiia?aoo?ieo iioeaie
aiae?co i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ic?iaeaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo aaeni?aoe?eieo /ooeeaeo aeaiaio?a c aeao/eeii
oaiia?aoo?e, yea caniiaaia ia a?aooaaii? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e
iai?ai?ia?aeieea ia aaee/eio A* ? io?eiaii oi?ioee, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii iiaeia nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aiae?co.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi o?aooaaiiy aieeao aeae?eueeio aac?a ia
aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? aeicaiey? ?ic?aooieiaei iaoiaeii i?iaiaeeoe
aaaaoieiiiiiaioiee aiae?c ca aeiiiiiaith iao?eoeue ?ic?iaeaieo naini??a.
Oaea iaoiaeeea aoea canoiniaaia aeey iaeii/aniiai aecia/aiiy NO oa NO2 a
na?aaeiaeuao, ui i?noyoue ieneaee acioo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii oi?aa?naeueiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a.
Aeacaiee iaoiae iiaea aooe aoaeoeaii aeei?enoaiee aeey ii??aiyiiy
ia?aiao??a ??cieo naini??a ? i?e noaiaea?oecaoe?? naini??a ca ia?aiao?ii
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ea?oaaiiy aaci/ooeeaeie ia?aiao?aie iiaa?oi?
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, i?aeaeuaiiy noaa?eueiino? ? ciaioaiiy ?ia?oe?eiino?
aaeni?aoe?eii- aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aia?a??
ca’yceo aaeni?aiaaieo /anoeiie c iiaa?oiath oaa?aeiai o?ea. Oaea
ciaioaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? aoii?a aeiii??a oa aeoeaioi??a ia iiaa?oi? ca ?aooiie
eaaoaaiiy aai ?iieaioaoe?? ?ii?a.

3. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th aeaioiaeaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo naini?ieo
aeaiaio?a, /ooeeaeo aei eenith, ieneae?a acioo, n??eiaiaeith, aiaeith,
aiaee oa ai?aeo.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioee, ui a?aoiaothoue aieea oaiia?aoo?ieo oa ?ioeo
oaeoi??a ia ?iaioo naini??a neeaaeo aac?a, ia iniia? aea/aiiy ?o
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? /ooeeaino? aei aac?a.

5. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th aeaioiaeaiiy naini??a o i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiio
aeeiiaii? c aeoaea iaeith iiooaei?noth, ui niiaeeaa?oueny. Oe? ae?iae
iaea?eueo i?eaeaoi? aeey canoinoaaiiy a aaeocyo, aeey yeeo ?
i?eioeeiiaeie iaea iana oa aaee/eia aia?aiaeeaeaiiy naini??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia:

i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “EUROSENSORS-XII” (Southampton, England,
1998), “EUROSENSORS-XI” (Warshaw, Poland, 1997), I International seminar
on Semiconductor Gas Sensors (Ustron, Poland, 1998), Sensors Springtime
in Odessa (Odessa, Ukraine, 1998), IV NEXUSPAN workshop on sensors
(Idessa, Ukraine, 1997), OPDIM-97 (Kiev, Ukraine, 1997), III NEXUSPAN
workshop on sensors in microsystem (Moscow, Russia, 1996),
“Intrenational conference on electron localization and quantum transport
in solids” (Jaszowic, Poland, 1996), “15th European conference on
surface science” (Lille, France, 1995), “SENSOR-93” (Saint Peterburg,
Russia, 1993), “MERA-92”, “MERA-91” (Ioscow, Russia, 1992, 1991),
“Ecological problems of cities and industrial regions” (Odessa, Ukraine,
1991), “Physik der Halbleiteroberflche” (Berlin, Germany, 1989),
“Festkrperchemie komplexer oxidischer Systeme” (Graifswald, Germany,
1990), “Ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey yeieiaee, yeiiiieee e
yia?aaoeee” (Iaeanna, Oe?aeia, 1998), “Yeieiaey ai?iaeia e
?aae?eoeeiiiuo cii” (Iaeanna, Oe?aeia, 1998), “V iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee ii oeceea e oaoiieiaee oiieeo ieaiie” (Eaaii-O?aieiane,
Oe?aeia, 1995), “Ay?ieinie/aneee eiiieaen: eiiaa?ney e oaoiieiaee”
(AEeoiie?, Oe?aeia, 1995), “Oeceea ieeniuo ieaiie” (Iao?icaaiaene,
?inney, 1994), XVIII eiioa?aioeey no?ai NIA “Aeenia?niua nenoaiu”
(Iaeanna, 1998).

ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Oeceei- oeie/aneea naienoaa ii?enoiai
e?aiiey” (ss?ineaaeue, 1991), “Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua aeao/eee a
iaoeiino?iaiee” (Oeueyiiane, 1990), “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea aiaeeoe/aneiai
eiio?iey ia i?aaei?eyoeyo oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (Iineaa, 1987),
“Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu e niiniau aaoiiaoe/aneiai eiio?iey aoiinoa?iiai
aicaeooa e ia?niaeoeau eo ?acaeoey” (Eeaa, 1987), “Oeceei-oeie/aneea
iaoiaeu e eiaeaia?ii- oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey a aaciaiaeeoe/aneii
i?eai?ino?iaiee” (Iineaa, 1984), ia ananithciie oeiea ii “Oeceea
iieoi?iaiaeieeia n aeoaieeie o?iaiyie” (Oaoeaio, 1984), “Ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo e aaeni?aoeeiiii- iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia
aaciaiai aiaeeca aeey eiio?iey aoiinoa?u” (Iaeanna, 1983);

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 21 noaooyo
a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (c eio?eo 11 noaoae ? naiino?eieie ioae?eaoe?yie
aac ni?aaaoi??a), 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaao ia aeiao?ae, 32 i?aoeyo ?
oacao eiioa?aioe?e. Nienie iniiaieo ioae?eaoe?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
iaaaaeaii a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. An? iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?
?ic?aooieia? aeai? aeeiiaii aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii. A cia/i?e /anoei?
ni?eueieo ?ia?o aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue ?i?oe?aoeaa oi?ioethaaiiy caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy iai?yie?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo, ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

« No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
7 ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoeo. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 373 noi??iee. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 251 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 159 ?enoie?a,
19 oaaeeoeue, 379 a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo iineeaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi i?noeoue iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? ?icaeyiooeo o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiue. O oeueiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaaia
iniiaia iaoa ?iaioe, a?aeia?aaeaia iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ei?ioeee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ca
oaiith aeena?oaoe??. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? ?aaeueii?
iiaa?oi? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa aaci/ooeea? aoaeoe ia i?e, i?iaeaie ?
ia?niaeoeae noai?aiiy aaeni?aoe?eieo /ooeeaeo aeaiaio?a.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?e, yea noino?oueny e?euee?niiai aiae?co
ci?i ia?aiao??a, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e oaiini?aoe?eii- aeani?aoe?ei?e
aca?iiae?? aac?a ?c ?aaeueiith iiaa?oiath iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?
oa iioei?caoe?? iiooeo oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy naini??a iiaiai
iieie?iiy, iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy ia?aiao?a aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a:

(p)=S-1dS/dp,

aea: S- ia?aiao?, ui ci?ith?oueny i?e aaeni?aoe?? aaco ? iiaea iaoe nain
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?no?, ?iiino?, ?iiaaeaino oaa?aeio?eueiiai iaoa??aeo,
oioii?ia?aei?no?, ?ioaineai?no? ethi?ianoeaioe??, aaee/eie
aeaeo?i?oo?eii? neee ia eiioaeoao c?acea ? o.?i.; p- ia?oe?aeueiee oene
aaco (aai eiioeaio?aoe?y aaco o noi?o?).

Cai?iiiiiaaiee ia?aiao? aea? iiaeeea?noue e?euee?nii oa?aeoa??coaaoe
aaee/eio A* aoaeue-yeeo aaci/ooeeaeo iaoa??ae?a o aoaeue-yeiio
ae?aiacii? oeneo aaco oa ciaoiaeeoe iaeano? oeneo, a yeeo o aeaiiai
naini?a ia? i?noea iaeneioi /ooeeaino? aei aeaiiai oeio aaco. Ia?aiao?
A* ? oi?aa?naeueiei, ? eiai iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye i??o
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? i?e i?iaaaeaii? iao?ieia?/ieo aenia?oec
??ciiiai?oieo naini??a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo ocaaaeueiaii? o?ce/ii? iiaeae?
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oiieeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
oa??a. Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeeainoue oiieeo oa??a iia’ycaia c aieeaii
aaeni?aoe?? ia aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a. Aiane?aeie
eieaeueii? aca?iiae?? aaeni?aaoo c oeaio?aie aaeni?aoe?? ci?ith?oueny
ca?yaeiaee noai iiaa?oi?, ui ni?e/eiy? a?aeiia?aeio ci?io iiaa?oiaai?
i?ia?aeiino? iaoa??aeo. Iieacaii, ui aeniea /ooeea?noue aei eenith
oiieeo oa??a naeai?aeo eaaei?th iia’ycaia c oei, ui a i?ioean?
eiiaeainaoe?? ia ?o iiaa?oi? oi?io?oueny eaiae c aenieith i?ia?aei?noth,
ui ? ?acoeueoaoii caaaa/aiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a iaaenoao?iiao?e/iei
eaaei??i. Iaeiae eiioeaio?aoe?y iiaa?oiaaeo aeiii??a- oeaio??a
aaeni?aoe?? eenith caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, a yeee iiiaio i?eieiaii iiaea/o
ia?o CdSe ia i?aeeeaaeeo. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ?iceeaeo
cia/aiue ia?aiao?a aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aeey oa??a CdSe c i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiaeie cia/aiiyie oiaueie oa ieoiii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?.

Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ia iino?eiiio no?oi?
aei??thaaiue G oiieeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa??a n- oeio ae?aaea?oueny
oi?ioeith

G= n+n,

aea: n, n — /ooeeaino? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a n oa ?oiuei? ?ooeeaino?
aei aaeni?aoe?? aaciaeo eiiiiiaio. Aeey aaee/ei n io?eiaii ae?ac:

n = (n-1dn/dys )dys/dp,

aea: n- eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a aeey iai?ai?ia?aeieea i-oeio, ui
iieno?oueny oi?ioeith: n= (enibdhpl-1+hl-1Gs(ys,))/ep; e- ca?yae
aeaeo?iia, ni- eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a o aeaniiio iai?ai?ia?aeieeo; b=
n/p; d- oiaueia oa?o, h, l- oe?eia ? aeiaaeeia i?aeaeaeo?iaeiiai
i?ii?aeeo c?acea; = n/ni; ys=eVs/kT- aac?ici??iee iiaa?oiaaee
iioaioe?ae, Gs- iiaa?oiaaa i?ia?aei?noue, ui a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae?
?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith: Gs =0.5eninLdA(ys,,b); Ld-Aeaaa?anueea
aeiaaeeia;

wmetafile8? ??(???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy ??‘?? ???&?
?MathType??????u?th??????Ooieoe?y F o caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? aei??aith?
wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyyiyyy ??l?? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th?????? Aaee/eie dn/dys ? dys/dp iathoue aeaeyae:

dn/dys =+0. 5hl-1niLdO (ys,,b)/F (ys,);

dys/dp=ao-1exp(-qo) Y2H’Y-HY’

aea: Y=No-wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyya???? ???&?
?MathType???????u?th?????? Aeey iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?- oeio io?eiaii
aiaeia?/i? oi?ioee. Oi?ioee aeey A* iieacothoue, ui ?? aaee/eia
aecia/a?oueny cia/iith e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a iai?ai?ia?aeieea,
aaeni?aaoo oa oiiaaie aei??thaaiue. C iaoith aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, ye?
iaea?eueo aieeaathoue ia aaee/eio A*, iiaeaethaaiiy a ?iaio? aoei
aeeiiaii ia AII.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aiao?ii, yeee cae?enith? iaea?eueoee aieea ia Gs, ?
aaee/eia iiaa?oiaaiai iioaioe?aeo ys, cie?aia, ia caeaaeiino? (ys)
iathoue i?noea aea? iaeano? aeniei? /ooeeaino? aei aaeni?aoe?eii-
aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a: i?e neaaeiio caaaa/oaaii? aeaeo?iiaie iiaa?oi?
? a iaeano? ?iaa?n?? i?ia?aeiino?. A iaeano? ?iaa?n?? i?ia?aeiino?
aaee/eia A* ci?ith? na?e ciae. I?e iayaiino? ia iiaa?oi? aeeaieiai
ca?aei?iiy oa cia/iiai caaaa/aiiy aeaeo?iiaie aaee/eia A* aeoaea iaea ca
aaniethoiith aaee/eiith. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui aaee/eia ?ioaa?aea A
iaea?eueo ??cei caeaaeeoue a?ae ys a iaeano? cia/aiue iiaa?oiaaiai
iioaioe?aeo iiaeeco ioey oa ?iaa?n?? i?ia?aeiino?. Aaee/eia dys/dp ia?
iaeneioi i?e ieineeo ciiao ia iiaa?oi?, oiio cia/aiiy a?eueoa aeey n-
oeio iai?ai?ia?aeieea iiaeeco ys=0 ca iaeiaeiaeo ?ioeo oiia. I?e
ca?eueoaii? ia?aiao?a aei 1, oiaoi i?e iaaeeaeaii? ??aiy Oa?i? aei
na?aaeeie caai?iiaii? ciie, niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy , yea iia’ycaia
c? ciaioaiiyi aieeao ia’?iii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ia aaee/eio G. Oaeei
/eiii, A* c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ?ie? iiaa?oiaai? i?ia?aeiino? Gs.
Iaea?eueo ??cei caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie , yeui 2bx-1>A, yea ia? i?noea
i?e ca?aeiaii? aeaeo?iiaie iiaa?oi? iai?ai?ia?aeieea. Ca?eueoaiiy
ia?aiao?a Eg i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aaee/eie dys/dp. Oiio a naini?ao
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?eueo oe?ieiciii? iai?ai?ia?aeieee. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui aaee/eia A* ia caeaaeeoue a?ae cia/aiue ?ooeeaino?
aeaeo?ii?a oa ae??ie o iai?ai?ia?aeieeo, a caeaaeeoue o?eueee a?ae ?o
a?aeiioaiiy b.

?ic?aooiee caeaaeiino? A* a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo ??ai?a
a?ia?ao?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeiii?iiai oeio Nds ? ?o iieiaeaiiy a
caai?iiai?e cii? ds iieacothoue, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi Nds oa ds
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a aaee/eie. I?e/iio
iaea?eueo ??cei A* caeaaeeoue a?ae Nds a iaeano? e?iiaoieo oaiia?aoo?.
Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui ia?aiao? i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e
ca?eueoo?oueny ? i?e c?inoaii? Nds ciaiaiiee o oi?ioe? oaeaeoa i?yio?
aei ioey a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, i?ae a iaeano? aenieeo. I?e
aeinoaoiuei aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, eiee ia?aiao? nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
cia/aiiy ooieoe?e Y ? H, aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue a?ae aaee/eie
eiioeaio?aoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo aeiii??a i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue. Ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? Nas oa aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a
aeoeaioi?iiai oeio as a?ia?ao?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy A*. Iaeiae, i?e aeinoaoi?e eiioeaio?aoe?? Nas ia caeaaeiinoyo
(ys) aeyaey?oueny ??cea i?aeaeuaiiy /ooeeaino?, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?iaa?n??th ciaeo A*.

C?inoaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo aaeni?aaoo Eta c iiaa?oiath iaoa??aeo a?ae
0,7 aei 1,2 eA, ca?aeii c ?ic?aooieaie, i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy A* ia
46 ii?yaee?a aaee/eie. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? Eta c?inoa?
nooi?iue caiiaiaiiy aeaeo?iiaie, ? a?aeiia?aeii, c?inoa? /anoea ca?yaeo,
eieae?ciaaiiai ia aaeni?aao?.

Iaeiei c iaoiae?a ea?oaaiiy aeaeo?iiieie ia?aiao?aie iai?ai?ia?aeieea a
i?ioean? eiiaeainaoe?? ? aa??aoe?? neeaaeo aoiinoa?e. C?inoaiiy oeneo
eenith i?e eiiaeainaoe?? ie?aee ia? i?eaiaeeoe aei iane/aiiy ia’?io
iai?ai?ia?aeieea eeniai ? c?inoaiiy ia?aiao?a . Aeine?aeaeaii aieea
eenith a oaoiieia?/i?e eaia?? ia aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? oa aaeni?aoe?eio
/ooeea?noue ie?aie naeai?aeo eaaei?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy oeneo
eenith a oaoiieia?/i?e eaia?? i?e eiiaeainaoe?? CdSe i?eaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeiino? c?ace?a ia 8 ii?yaee?a aaee/eie, ci?ie
e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo ? iiyae aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe??
iaaenoao?iiao?e/iiai eaaei?th ia ?oi?e iiaa?oi?. Oea iia’ycaia ?c
cia/iei ?icn?thaaiiyi naeaio iieaeoeaie I2 ? c?inoaiiyi oeneo eenith.
Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue c?ace?a ia? iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy i?e oeneo
eenith a oaoiieia?/i?e eaia?? 0,1 Ia. A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aaeni?aoe?eia
/ooeea?noue iaoiiaeaia caaaa/aiiyi iiaa?oi? aeiii?ieie oeaio?aie Cdi, ui
? oeaio?aie aaeni?aoe?? iieaeoey?iiai eenith.

?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aei??thaaiue aenia?eiaioaeueii
niinoa??aathoueny aeaa iaeneioie aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa??a aei eenith, i?e?iaea yeeo iia’ycaia c
iieaeoey?iith oa aoiia?iith oi?iaie aaeni?aoe?? eenith. O ?icae?e? 2
iaaiaeyoueny oaeiae aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? A* a?ae ia?aiao??a
iai?ai?ia?aeieea oa oiia aei??thaaiue, ui aiae?cothoueny c iiceoe?e
iiaeae? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oa aeeiiaieo ?ic?aooie?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy oa
?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ie?aie naeai?aeo eaaei?th
aoiiaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a (Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb). Iacaeaaeii a?ae o?i?/ii?
i?e?iaee aoiie iaoae?a ia iiaa?oi? aaaeooue naaa ye iaeiiaaeaioi?
aeiii?e. I?e/iio iaea?eueoa aieeaathoue ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aiao?e ie?aie
aoiie ?iae?th, ye? iathoue iaea?eueoo iiey?ecaoe?eio caeaoi?noue oa
iaeiaioo aia?a?th aeoeaaoe?? o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aeine?aeaeaieie
aoiiaie iaoae?a.

Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aoii?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia iiaa?oi? oiieeo
ie?aie naeai?aeo eaaei?th i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie iniiaii? oi?ie
oaiini?aoe?? eenith (a?ae aoiia?ii? aei iieaeoey?ii?), ciaioaiiy aia?a??
ca’yceo iieaeoe eenith ? cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?
iiaa?oi?. A* ?c c?inoaiiyi Ns nii/aoeo ca?eueoo?oueny, aeinyaath/e
iaeneioio i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 1013 51014 ci-2, a i?ney oeueiai
ciaioo?oueny.

I?e nooiai? eaaoaaiiy, iaio?e ca 1015 ni-2, aoiie iaoae?a iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeeie/i? aoiie, ye? aaeni?aiaai? ia iiaa?oi?
iai?ai?ia?aeieea. Ciaioaiiy ia?aiao?a Eta iiaea aooe iia’ycaia o?eueee c
aeeiieue- aeeiieueiith oa aeaeo?inoaoe/iith aca?iiae??th iiaa?oiaaeo
aeiii?ii- aeoeaioi?ieo eiiieaen?a D+-A- (- nooi?iue ia?aiino ca?yaeo a
eiiieaen?), aca?iiae?y i?ae yeeie c?inoa? i?e ca?eueoaii? /enea Ns
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy a?aenoai? i?ae ieie. Aia?a?y aca?iiae?? i?ae
iiaa?oiaaeie aeeiieyie ciaoiaeeoueny ca oi?ioeith Edip-dip=2p2R-3
(p=q(a+1/ko)- aeeiieueiee iiiaio, q=qo, qo- iaeneiaeueiee ca?yae a
eiiieaen?) ? i?e a?aenoaiyo, ui aei??aiththoue i?aeaoiiiei, iiaea
aeinyaaoe 0.5 aA. I?e eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eueoa 1015 ni-2 aaee/eia Eta
iiaea ciaiooaaoeny ca ?aooiie nee, ui ae?thoue c aieo no?oeoo?e
eeanoa??a aoii?a iaoaeo. Ooai?aiiy iaii?ici??ieo eeanoa??a aeiaaaeaii ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiii- i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?e eaaoaaii? iiaa?oi? aeoeaioi?ieie aoiiaie oaeueeiaai?a
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo eenith c iiaa?oiath aei 0.8
aA, oa cia/ia ciaioaiiy A*. Niaae /ooeeaino?, yeee ia? i?noea
iacaaaeath/e ia c?inoaiiy ia?aiao?a Eta, iia’ycaiee ?c cia/iei
ciaioaiiyi aaeni?aoe?eii? ni?iiiaeiino? iiaa?oi?. I?e nooiai? eaaoaaiiy
NSe>1015ci-2 i?ney oa?iiia?iaee o aaeooi? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 500 E
i?ia?aei?noue ie?aie CdSe o aei??thaaeuei?e eaia?? noa? ae??eiaith.
Aei??thaaiy aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aei eenith oeeo ie?aie iieacaee
iayai?noue iiceoeaiiai ciaeo aaee/eie 0,1 a?ae.iae./ia%, ui a?aeiia?aea?
?acoeueoaoai ?ic?aooie?a iayaiino? iaeneioio a ?iaa?n?ei?e iaeano?.

Aeine?aeaeaii o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oa aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue c?ace?a,
ui i?noyoue ia iiaa?oi? ieoeiaeaei? eeanoa?e ?iae?th oa naeaio, ye?
oi?iothoueny ia iiaa?oi? i?e cia/ieo oaeaeeinoyo eiiaeainaoe??. Aeyaeaii
nooo?aa cieaeaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo eenith ?c oaeeie no?oeoo?aie ii??aiyii
c iaeaaiaaieie c?aceaie. Aeaeo?iie a noaoe?iia?iiio aeiaaeeo ?icoaoiaai?
ia iiaa?oi? ieoie iaoaeo ? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue oeaio??a aaeni?aoe??
eenith. O?ce/iith i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy aia?a?? Eta ? aca?iia
aeaeo?inoaoe/ia a?aeooiaooaaiiy ca?yaeaeaieo ?ii?a eenith ia iiaa?oi?
ieoie. I?e oeneao eenith a?eueoeo 100 iaa? ca?a?no?iaaii c?inoaiiy
i?ia?aeiino?, yea iia’ycaia c o?ainii?oii ?ii?a eenith acaeiaae ieoie
?iae?th.

sseui i?iaiaeeoe eaaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? iai?ai?ia?aeieea aaciina?aaeiuei
i?ney eiai eiiaeainaoe??, oiae? oi?iothoueny ieoeiaeaei? eeanoa?e
?iae?th ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea. O?ce/ia i?e?iaea
aeieeiaiiy oaeeo ieoeiaeaeieo eeanoa??a (a?nea??a) iia’ycaia c
ia?aaea/ath aia?a?? ?aeaenoth/eo aaeioiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia iiaa?oi?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai oa?o aei a?nea??a iaoaeo. Cieaeaiiy aia?a?? ca’yceo
eenith c aeine?aeaeoaaieie no?oeoo?aie, ui i?noyoue a?nea?e, iaoiiaeaia
iayai?noth aeaeo?inoaoe/ieo iie?a iiaeeco a?nea??a ? iiaa?oi? ieoie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaioiaeaii? na??? c?ace?a c ?iieaioiaaieie aoiiaie
aaaeeeo iaoae?a Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb a iaeano? aia?a?e 30 eaA ? aeic a?ae
1012 aei 1018 ni-2 aeicaieeei c’ynoaaoe, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia
aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo oa aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue aei eenith
cae?eniththoue ?iie ?iae?th. Aeeaeia i?iieeiaiiy ?ii?a aei??aith?
oiauei? oa?o iai?ai?ia?aeieea.

Aea/aii aieea ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? ia aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? ? A* aei
eenith ie?aie CdSe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ?iii?e ?iieaioaoe??
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a n oa
?oiuei? ?ooeeaino? , yea iia’ycaia ?c caoiieaiiyi a?eueiiai aeaeo?iia
?iiii iaoaeo oa ooai?aiiyi eiiieaeno aeaoaeo?a, iaei?ino?oei c yeeo
iiaea aooe eiiieaen Me-Cdi+ — [Se]+.

I?e c?inoaii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy O aei 1013 ni-2 niinoa??aa?oueny
c?inoaiiy aei 0.46 aA aaee/eie aa?’??o i?ae eieaeueieie ciiaie
(eeanoa?aie) c aenieith i?ia?aei?noth. I?ioa, i?e a?eueo aenieeo O
aaee/eia aa?’??o iaaea? ? i?e aeicao, a?eueoeo 1016 ni-2, ?ooeea?noue
i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, ui iia’ycaii ?c ci?iith
i?ia?aeiino? i?aeoe/ii an??? iiaa?oi?. Aei??thaaiy /ooeeaino? n
iieacaee, ui i?e c?inoaii? aeice O a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa ciaioaiiy ??
aaee/eie, o oie /an ye c?inoa? a?eueoa i?ae ia ii?yaeie aaee/eie,
aeinyaa? iaeneioio i?e O= 1013 ci-2 ? i?ney oeueiai ciaioo?oueny ia
ii?yaeie aaee/eie ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiei c?aceii. Aaaeeeai
i?aee?aneeoe, ui aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue aei eenith niinoa??aa?oueny
i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, ui iia’ycaia c a?eueo nooo?aei iiieaeaiiyi
aia?a?? ca’yceo eenith c iiaa?oiath i?ae i?e iiaa?oiaaiio eaaoaaii?
ie?aie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao a?aeiaeo o aaeooi? ia aeaeo?e/i? ia?aiao?e ?
aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue aei eenith oiieeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa??a
naeai?aeo eaaei?th c ?iieaioiaaieie ?iiaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a Ag, Cd, In,
Sn, Sb iieacaee, ui aoiie ?iae?th ? n??aea ? iaea?eueo aeaeo?e/ii
aeoeaieie aeii?oeaie a ?iieaioiaaieo oa?ao. I?e oeueiio aoiie ?iae?th,
?c ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaieo iaoae?a, iaea?eueo cia/ii aieeaathoue ia
aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue aei eenith.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? ??ciiiai?oieo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? aei n??eiaiaeith, ieneae?a acioo, eenith,
ia??a aiaee.

?icaeyiooi iaoai?ci A* aei H2S oiieeo ie?aeiaeo no?oeoo? ia iniia?
ieneae?a iaoae?a. C’yniaaii, ui iaeneioi /ooeeaino? iaeaaiaaieo ieenieo
ie?aie ciaoiaeeoueny, ye i?aaeei, a iaeano? oaiia?aoo?, a?eueoeo 600 E.
I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaieiiiiiaioieo ieenieo
no?oeoo? oeio “naiaea?/”, ye? aeicaieeee io?eiaoe aeniea cia/aiiy A* i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 433 E ? i?e aeei?enoaii? no?oeoo? SnO2:PbO, io?eiaoe
iaeneioi /ooeeaino? a iaeano? i?e?ieiioeaio?aoe?e H2S (6.1 ia/m3).
Iaea?aeai? no?oeoo?e iathoue /ooeea?noue aei SO2 o 70 ?ac?a iaioo, i?ae
aei iniiaiiai eiiiiiaioo, ui cia/ii e?aua, i?ae o a?aeiieo naini??a ia
n??eiaiaeaiue.

I?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy A* aei i?e?ieiioeaio?aoe?e ieene?a
acioo no?oeoo? ia iniia? ie?aie ieene?a aaaeeeo iaoae?a, io?eiaieo
iaaiao?iiiei ?icieethaaiiyi a aoiinoa?? eenith. Aeyaeaia aeniea
/ooeea?noue oiieeo ie?aie ia iniia? ieneaeo ?iae?th aei NO2, NO.
Aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue iia’ycaia c? ci?iith ?ooeeaino? aeaeo?ii?a i?e
aaeni?aoe?? oeeo ?aaeoe?eii caeaoieo aac?a. *ooeeaino? aei eiiiiiaio?a
O2 ? CO neeaaeathoue wmetafile8? ??E????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyy@?? ?? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th?????? I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aii?oiiai
a?ae?iaaiaciaaiiai e?aii?th aoei iii?/aii, ui i?e c?inoaii? aia?a??
eaaio?a na?oea, yea iaaea? ia iiaa?oith ie?aee ca iayaiino? ?
a?aenooiino? ia??a aiaee, a?aeiioaiiy oioii?ia?aeiinoae = ph/pho c?inoa?
i?eaeecii ia ii?yaeie aaee/eie (pho, ph- oioii?ia?aeiino? c?ace?a
aii?oiiai a?ae?iaaiaciaaiiai e?aii?th aei ? i?ney aaeni?aoe?? H2O). Oeae
oaeo na?ae/eoue i?i aieea iiaa?oiaaiai aee?eaeaiiy cii ia aaee/eio
oioii?ia?aeiino? ie?aie a-Si:H. Aeey i-oeio aii?oiiai e?aii?th c
o?aooaaiiyi ?aeiia?iaoe?? ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a /a?ac ??ai? Ect, Edb,
Evt io?eiaii aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey ia?aiao?a :

wmetafile8? ??????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@ ??aea — eiao?oe??io iiaeeiaiiy na?oea, d-
oiaueia oa?o, x- a?aenoaiue a?ae iiaa?oi?, ys- iiaa?oiaaa aee?eaeaiiy
cii, = e2g/or, r= 11,6, g= 1016 ni-3 eB-1. O ?ac? neaaei? aani?aoe??
ia?aiao? i?aeoe/ii aei??aith? 1. Oea icia/a?, ui aaee/eia
oioii?ia?aeiino? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iiaa?oiaaiai aee?eaeaiiy cii. A
iaeano? neeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy na?oea ( 105 ni-1) ia/eneaiiy i?eaiaeyoue
aei caeaaeiino? =ys(1-exp(-ys)). Oaeei /eiii, niaae oioii?ia?aeiino?
iia’ycaiee c aee?eaeaiiyi cii ia 0.1 eA, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy
oaiio ?aeiia?iaoe?? /a?ac oainoe cii. Ia iniia? aoaeoo aieeao
aaeni?aoe?? ia?e aiaee ia aaee/eio iiaa?oiaaiai aee?eaeaiiy cii
aeine?aeaeaii i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? aaeni?aoe?eio oioi/ooeea?noue
oa??a a-Si:H aei H2O, yea aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith ph= ph-1dph/dp.
*ooeea?noue ph aei ?ioeo aaciaeo eiiiiiaio?a (CO, CO2, H2, N2, NO2, O2,
CH4) a?aenooiy. Oeae ?acoeueoao ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey
naeaeoeaiiai aei??o aieiaino? aaciaeo na?aaeiaeu.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oiieeo ae??aiiaeenia?nieo
oa??a ieneaeo oeoaio, eaaiaaieo aoiiaie iao??th, anoaiiaeaii, ui
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue c?ace?a ea?o?oueny aaee/eiith i?aee?enoae?/iiai
aa?’??o, aaee/eia yeiai ci?ith?oueny i?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith. Aoiie
iao??th aenooiathoue ye oeaio?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith ? i?aeaeuothoue
/ooeea?noue no?oeoo?e aei O2.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo
aeanoeainoae ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th (Por-Si) ca ??ciiiai?oieo oaoiieia?/ieo
oiia o?aaeaiiy a aeaeo?ie?oao ia iniia? ooi?enoiaiaeiaai? eeneioe, i?e
aeiaeaoeiaeo ina?oeaii? oa oeueo?acaoeia?e ia?iaoe?. ?ici??e ii?
eieeaathoueny a?ae 1 ii aei 10 iei a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo oiia
? iaoa??aeo i?aeeeaaeee. Ia e?aii?? ?-oeio oa? Por-Si oi?io?oueny
i?aeoe/ii iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy eaaoaaiiy. Aeey oi?ioaaiiy ii?oaaoi?
no?oeoo?e ia c?aceao i-oeio iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiaeaoeiaa
ina?oeaiiy. Oea iia’ycaia c oei, ui i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ?ic/eiaii?
e?aii?th a?ae?a?athoue ae??ee.

Iniiaiee aieea ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo oa?o ia? aonoeia aiiaeiiai no?oio.
Iaeiae i?e aonoei? no?oio iiiaae 80 iA/ni2 oaeaee?noue ?inoo i?aeoe/ii
ia ca?eueoo?ony, ui iia’yco?oueny ?c ianoa/ath ae??ie a iaeano?
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? ?ic/eiaiiy e?aii?th.

Ian-niaeo?iiao?e/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoi?eiieo ?ii?a anoaiiaeaii
aenieee nooi?iue a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th, ui aeinyaa? a
ie?aieo c?aceao 45 ao%. Anoaiiaeaia i?enooi?noue aoii?a eenith, ooi?o,
aoaeaoeth a no?oeoo?? iaoa??aeo. Iniiaia iana aoii?a aiaeith
cina?aaeaeaia o i?eiiaa?oiaa?e iaeano? ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii aeai? aea/aiiy aeaeo?e/ieo oa oioiaeaeo?e/ieo
aeanoeainoae c?ace?a Por-Si caeaaeii a?ae ia?aiao??a e?aii?th ? ?aaeei?a
o?aaeaiiy. C aiae?co aieueo- aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeieeaa?, ui
eiioaeoe u?eeiiiai oeio c aethi?i?th iiaeooue iaoe ye ii?/i?, oae ?
aei?yieth/? aeanoeaino?. Aeia?a ii?/i?noue caaaeaee aeyaeyeany ia
c?aceao, io?eiaieo ia C-Si c aenieei ??aiai eaaoaaiiy (AEAN-0,01,
AEAeA-0,03). Ia c?aceao c iaioith ieoiiith i?ia?aei?noth i?aeeeaaeee
niinoa??aathoueny ye ii?/i? (AEAO-7,5) eiioaeoe, oae ? eiioaeoe ui
aei?yieythoue (EAeA-10). O c?ace?a c eiioaeoaie, ui aei?yieythoue,
anoaiiaeaii aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?i?oo?eii? neee (A?N), a ?acoeueoao?
aaeni?aoe?? ia??a ai?aeo /e ii?ii?iaiiy na?oeii c aeaeeii? iaeano?
niaeo?o. Aei??thaaiiy aoaeoo Oiea a aaeooi? oa a aoiinoa?? ia?e ai?aeo
iieacaee, ui aaeni?aoe?y aaco c eiioeaio?aoe??th 490 ??i ia c?aceao
i-oeio (AEAO-7,5) i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaeo?ii?a
o 24 ?ac?a ? ciaioaiiy ?ooeeaino? o 69 ?ac?a. Ia c?aceao Por-Si,
io?eiaieo ia ?-i?aeeeaaeeao, aieea aaeni?aoe?? NH3 aoa i?ioeeaaeiei.

Ia ae??aiiii?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao a iaeano? i?e?ieiioeaio?aoe?e ai?aeo
niinoa??aaeiny ciaioaiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, iaeiae i?e c?inoaii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aaco a?aeaoaaeinue ca?eueoaiiy i?ia?aeiino?, ui iia’ycaii
c? ci?iith oeio i?ia?aeiino? iaoa??aeo. Aaee/eia ci?i n ? i?e
oaiini?aoe?? NH3 ?noioii caeaaeaea a?ae a?ia?ao?? c?acea. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth c?ace?a Por-Si ? aeniea cia/aiiy ?iiino? no?oeoo?e C, ui o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeinyaaea aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a iaiioa?aae. I?e
aaeni?aoe?? ai?aeo niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy ?iiino? o 1.5 24 ?ace.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aei ia?e ai?aeo
c?ace?a iae?i- oa i?e?iii?enoiai e?aii?th c ??ciith oaoiieia??th
aeaioiaeaiiy iieacaei, ui aaee/eia A* aeey ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th iiaea
iaoe ye iiceoeaiee, oae ? iaaaoeaiee ciae. Niinoa??aaany cia/iee ?iceeae
?? cia/aiue caeaaeii a?ae a?ia?ao?? c?ace?a oa oiia aei??thaaiue. Aeey
?icoi?iiy caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? aaco c ii?oaaoith no?oeoo?ith
iiaoaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue A* iae?iii?oaaoiai e?aii?th.
Aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue Por-Si iiaeaii o aeaeyae?:

Z=-Z-22C2C — R-2R.

Ooo Z=(2C2+R-2)-0.5- ?iiaaeain aea?aaeaioii? noaie no?oeoo?e, ui
neeaaea?oueny c ?iiino? C=C1/2, ? iii?o R=(R1-1+(2R1+R2)-1)-1,
aa?ieiooeo ia?aeaeueii, C ? R- ?oi? aaeni?aoe?ei? /ooeeaino?, C1-
?iiino? no?oeoo?e, R1, R2 — aeaeo?e/i? iii?e acaeiaae ? aaeea iiaa?oi?
e?enoaeo, R3- ii?? e?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th. Ine?eueee aeei?enoiaoaaany
e?enoae?/iee e?aii?e c iecueeith aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth, a
aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue c?ace?a Por-Si aoea cia/ii iaioith, oi aianeii R3
iiaeia ciaoooaaoe. Oiae? R aei??aith?

R= (1/R1+1/2R2)-1R1-1R1+ (2R2)-1R2.

I?iaaaeaii ia/eneaiiy aaee/ei R1, R2, C aeey ?aeaaeueii? noaie
ii?oaaoiai iaoa??aeo c ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieie ii?aie.
Ni?aaaaeeea?noue oaeiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeieeaa? c aiae?co ii?oieia??
iiaa?oi? iae?iii?oaaoiai e?aii?th. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo A* iieno?oueny
aeanoeainoyie iaeiiai ina?aaeeo, noi?iiaaiiai /aa?oth ciie i?ae 4
ii?aie, ii?? yei? Ro a n/m ?ac iaioee ca R1 (n, m — /enei ii? i?ae
aeaeo?iaeaie ii aeiaaeei? ? oe?ei? i?aeaeaeo?iaeiiai i?ii?aeeo).
Aaee/eia Ro= R1 = (n+),

aea: n=G1-1+G2-1-1d[G1-1+G2-1]/dysdys/dp,

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???]? ???]c
???u?????????»????-????CT???CI???N????N???u?
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a`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ??—?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????A1/2???¦i ???u??
???????»????-????®i???d5 ???-?????d= ???]›
???]› ???]I
???u?????????»????-????N‹???N???N3???N«???u?
th?????? = 1+b/[eyso/kTEs]-1-b/[eyso2/kTEs]dyso/dp.

Cia/aiiy C caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iiino? iaeiiai ina?aaeeo, ?ii?noue yeiai
aeey aacii?ici?iai aeaeo?iaea yaey? niaith noio neeaaeiaeo
C1ij=od/ln[ri/ro] oa C2ij= or2/(r1-ro), ye? oi?iothoueny, a?aeiia?aeii,
aieiaith iiaa?oiath ? aeiii ii?e. O naith /a?ao, oe? ?iiino?
neeaaeathoueny c aa?ieiooeo iine?aeiaii ?iiino? i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo
CIIC ? ?iiino? ?ioi? /anoeie no?oeoo?e Co. ?ic?aooiie A* caiaeeoueny aei
ia/eneaiiy C ca oi?ioeith Co(Co+CIIC)-1(dCIIC/dys) (dys/dp). Aiae?c
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iieaco?, ui aaee/eia ia? iaaaoeaiee ciae o
an?o aeiaaeeao, eiee ia?aiao? r=Ld/Lb aeecueeee aei 1. Ciae n caeaaeeoue
a?ae oeio i?ia?aeiino? oa?o ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th: aeey n-oeio a?i
iiceoeaiee, aeey ?-oeio- iaaaoeaiee i?e aaeni?aoe?? ia??a ai?aeo. Ciae C
aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith iiaa?oiaaiai iioaioe?aeo. I?e ca?aeiaii?
aeaeo?iiaie ciae C aoaea iaaaoeaiei, a, i?e caaaa/aii?- iiceoeaiei.
Noia?ia aaee/eia A* caeaaeeoue a?ae noie C ? R. I?e ??cieo ciaeao C ? R
iiaea ?aae?coaaoeny neooaoe?y ia /anoio? aei??thaaiiy , eiee
aeeiio?oueny oiiaa 2C2C= R-2R, i?e ye?e Z aei??aithaaoeia ioeth.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aaee/eie A* iaiao?aeii aeae?aoe oiiae,
i?e yeeo ciaee eiiiiiaio iathoue aooe iaeiaeiaeie. I?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aecia/eoe oiiae io?eiaiiy aeniei/ooeeaeo
c?ace?a aei ia?e ai?aeo, ye? iathoue iaeneioi /ooeeaino? a iaeano?
i?e?ieiioeaio?aoe?e NH3.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o c?aceao i?e?iii?oaaoiai e?aii?th ooai?th?oueny
aeaeo?i?oo?eia neea ia eiioaeoao u?eeiiiai oeio i?e ina?oeaii? /e
aaeni?aoe?? ai?aeo. Iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo niinoa??aaany i?e ii?enoino?
c?ace?a a?ey 4347%. O?ce/ia i?e/eia yaeua iia’ycaia c iaiaeii??aeieie
aeanoeainoyie iaoa??aeo acaeiaae iiaa?oi?, ui aaaea aei i?inoi?iai?
eieae?caoe?? iin??a ca?yaeo. C onueiai ia?ae?eo aac?a, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, eeoa aeeiieuei? iieaeoee ai?aeo aeeeeeathoue ci?io
aaee/eie iai?oae ia eiioaeoao U. Ca oiia iaeii/aniiai ina?oeaiiy
iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio A* aei ai?aeo ci?ith?oueny a?ae 36 ppm aei 330 ppm
i?e ca?eueoaii? ?ioaineaiino? na?oea. Oeae aoaeo ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
ine?eueee c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaoe aaee/eiith aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? U =U-1 dU/dc.

Aeyaeaii aoaeo aieeao aaeni?aoe?? aeeiieueieo iieaeoe ai?aeo ia
aaee/eio noaoe?iia?ii? oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? i?e?iii?oaaoiai e?aii?th.
O?ce/iee iaoai?ci aieeao aaeni?aoe?? iia’ycaiee c iaiaaeaiiyi ?ooo
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a aei oeaio??a ethi?ianoeaioe??- eaaioiaeo ieoie
e?aii?th. Aaee/eia A* IL= IL-1dIILdc ia? iaeneioi i?e eiioeaio?aoe??
ai?aeo 30 ppm a noi?o? c iniaeeai /enoei acioii. Aaaeeeai aeiaeaoe, ui
?ia?oe?ei?noue aaeni?aoe?eii- aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a iaioa a?ae 1 n,
ui ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey noai?aiiy oaeaeeiae?th/eo naini??a.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?iaoe/ieo i?ioean?a ia iiaa?oi?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Aeyaeaia ?aeaenaoe?y aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? iecueeiiiieo c?ace?a naeai?aeo
eaaei?th, ui aeieea? i?ney i?aeeeth/aiiy iai?oae aeeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui i?e/eia ?aeaenaoe?? iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi iaiaeii??aeiino? ia
iiaa?oi? oa?o i?e eiioaeo? c eeniai, yea ?ooa?oueny a iai?yieo aiiaeo ?
noeioeth?oueny ?icaeoeii aeaio i?ioean?a: oa?i?/iei ?ic?a??aaiiyi
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie c?acea ? oaiini?aoe??th aoii?a eenith.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ?ici??? iaiaeii??aeiino? 0.8 ii ? /ano ?aeaenaoe??
12 oa., oaeaee?noue aeeooc?? aoii?a eenith ii iiaa?oi? aeinyaa? 1.1
iei/n.

Aeey noai?aiiy /ooeeaeo aei aac?a naini??a aeoaea aaaeeeaeie ? aeai?
uiaei ?ia?oe?eiino? aaeni?aoe?eii- aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a. O ?iaio?
aeine?aeaeaii aieea iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy aoiiaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia
aaee/eio ?ia?oe?eiino? ? oaeaeeino? c?inoaiiy oa niaaeo
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oiieeo ie?aie CdSe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaa?oiaaa
eaaoaaiiy aoiiaie aaaeeeo iaoaee?a i?eaiaeeoue aei i?enei?aiiy oaiio
iai?io iiaa?oi? c aaciaith oacith aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy aia?a??
aaeni?aoe?? oa ca’yceo eenith c iiaa?oiath iai?ai?ia?aeieea. Iaea?eueo
cia/iee aieea ia ?ia?oe?ei?noue aaeni?aoe?eii- aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a
ia? i?noea i?e eaaoaaii? iiaa?oi? aoiiaie ?iae?th. Iaaiaee, iiaa?oiaaa
eaaoaaiiy aoiiaie n??ee, naeaio oa oaeo?o ca?eueoo? ?ia?oe?ei?noue.
Aoiie naeaio ? iaea?eueo aeoeaieie.

Aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae oaeaeeinoae ci?ie
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? dG/dt ia ii/aoeiaee iiiaio /ano aeicaieeee aecia/eoe
aaee/eie aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?e i?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith Eta. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
Eta ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0,35 0,5 aA (i?e iiiioa?iaiio iie?eoo? iiaa?oi?
aoiiaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a) aei 0,7 0,8 aA (i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? aoii?a
oaeueeiaai?a Ns 1015 ni-2), ? aeani?aoe?? Ekd i?e oeo naieo oiiaao o
iaaeao a?ae 0,6 eA aei 0,9 eA. Aaee/eia ? oaeaee?noue ci?ie ?ooeeaino?
aeaeo?ii?a o oa?ao CdSe, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, iaaaaaoi iaio?, i?ae
ci?ie ?o eiioeaio?aoe??.

Aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae dG/dt i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
aaee/eio iiaa?oiaaiai iioaioe?aeo ? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano
oaiini?aoe??- aa?’??o o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee. C i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
noa? iiaeeeai aecia/eoe aaee/eio Eta i?e aaeni?aoe?? ? aeani?aoe??
eenith. Ia eaaiaaieo aaaeeeie iaoaeaie oa?ao CdSe ia?aiao? Eta neeaaea?
0.30.4 eA, a o c?ace?a CdSe, iiaa?oiy yeeo eaaiaaia aoiiaie
oaeueeiaai?a, 0.10.15 eA. Ciaioaiiy aa?’??o o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae iiaa?oi? c aoiiaie iaoaeo aei iiaa?oi? c aoiiaie
oaeueeiaai?a iia’ycaia c? ci?iith o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee oeaio??a aaeni?aoe??
? ciaioaiiyi ?o eiioeaio?aoe??, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aca?iiae??
iiaa?oiaaeo eiiieaen?a.

Niinoa??aaeanue iaiiiioiiia e?iaoeea no?oio i?e e?iiaoieo oaiia?aoo?ao
i?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith ia c?aceao CdSe eaaiaaieo aoiiaie oyaeeeo
iaoae?a, yea iiaycaia c ia?aca?yaeeith iiaa?oiaaeo aeiii??a.
Aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao?a max c o?aooaaiiyi
??aiyiue e?iaoeee Eioea iieacaee, ui oeae ia?aiao? aeniiiaioe?aeueii
ciaioo?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e c aia?a??th aeoeaaoe?? o iaaeao
0.15 0.5 eA caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy eaaoaaiiy. Oey aia?a?y oa?aeoa?eco?
i?ioean ia?aca?yaeee aeiii??a ? ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? noai?a
aaeni?aiaaiiai eenith. Ca?eueoaiiy oe??? aia?a?? coiiaeaii c?inoaiiyi
aaee/eie aa?’??a o?i?/ii? i?e?iaee i?e ca?eueoaii? cia/aiiy Ns.

Iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy iaoai?cio aeaa?aaeaoe?? (ciaioaiiy) A* a
/an? i?e o?eaaeiio ciaoiaeaeaii? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ie?aie a aoiinoa??
eenith i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aeey aei??thaaiue aoei aea?aii
iaea?eueo /ooeea? oa?e. Eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae, no?oeoo?e ? ii?oieia?? iiaa?oi? aeaee iiaeeea?noue
anoaiiaeoe, ui iaoai?ci aeaa?aaeaoe?? iia’ycaiee c aeeooc??th
ca?yaeaeaieo aaeain?e naeaio aei iiaa?oi? ? caiiaiaiiyi ?o aoiia?iei
eeniai, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?ae?enoae?caoe??th ie?aie aei
aaenaaiiaeueii? iiaeeo?eaoe??, noeioethaaiith i?aeaeuaiith
oaiia?aoo?ith. Ia inoaii?o noaae?yo aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
ieeneaiiy iiaa?oi? c ooai?aiiyi ieneaeo eaaei?th, yeee oi?io?oueny
nii/aoeo o aeaeyae? eeanoa??a, a iio?i iie?eaa? iiaa?oith nooe?eueiith
ie?aeith. Oaeaee?noue aeaa?aaeaoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aei??thaaiue. Oiio aeey io?eiaiiy noaa?eueieo a /an?
/ooeeaeo no?oeoo? iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaiiy oaiia?aoo? yeiiiaa ieae/eo.
?ica’ycaiiy oe??? caaea/? iiaeeeai i?e iiaa?oiaaiio eaaoaaii? aoiiaie
aaaeeeo iaoae?a. I?e oeueiio, aeey aiae?co eenith aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoaoe oa?e ieene?a iaoae?a, o?i?/ia no?oeoo?a yeeo ia ci?ith?oueny
a i?ioean? aca?iiae??. Aoee aeine?aeaeai? c?acee c aoiiaie Ag, Cd, In,
Sn, Pb, Sb ia iiaa?oi?. Aei??e A* ? ae?aeoo aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a
ioeueiaiio aac? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 353 E iieacaee, ui iaee?au? ?acoeueoaoe
iathoue i?noea i?e IE aoiiaie ?iae?th. Aeyaeaii cia/io noaa?euei?noue
iaii?ici??ieo ieoeiaeaeieo eeanoa??a ?iae?th i?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee oaoiieia??
aeaioiaeaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo aaci/ooeeaeo naini??a o
i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiio aeeiiaii?. Aeey noai?aiiy ii?iaeueieo oaieiaeo
?aaeei?a aeaiaio?a aoei i?iaaaeaii ?iaioe uiaei ?ic?iaee i?i?aoth?iiai
iaa??aa/a aeey naini?a. Ia oaoiieia?/i?e aac? NEOA “Aeaiaio” i. Iaeane
aoea ii?aoeueiaaia oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy aaci/ooeeaeo aeaiaio?a o
i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiio aeeiiaii?, ui i?noyoue iaa??aa/ ia iniia? aeeooc?eiiai
?- ?acenoi?a a i?aeeeaaeeao e?aii?th i-oeio ? oa?iiaeao/ee aeey
eiio?ieth ?iai/i? oaiia?aoo?e. I?ney e?oia?ao?? c oioioaaeiio OO1
i?iaiaeeee aeeooc?th ai?o a e?aii?? 60-1A2-EAO 4.5 (100). Aeae?
oa?i?/iei niiniaii ia?iuoaaee oa? aenieiye?niiai aeaiieeno e?aii?th
caoiaoee 0.6 iei. *ioe?e aaci/ooeea? oa?e ?icoaooaaeenue ia iiaa?oi?
SiO2 o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? iaa??aa/a ?ici??ii 40200 iei2. Iiaeeco
?iai/i? ciie oi?ioaaany ?-i-ia?ao?ae ca noaiaea?oiith oaoiieia??th
?ici??ii 22 iei2, yeee aeei?enoiaoaaany ye aeao/ee oaiia?aoo?e.
Oi/i?noue aei??thaaiue oaiia?aoo?e neeaaeaea 0.1 E. Naini?
?icoaoiaoaaany a ei?ion? OI-5.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ?ic?iaeaia
oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy naini??a o i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiio aeaeyae?. Oeae
ae??a ? aaciaei ? ia? oeo? 342-A181. Aeaeo?e/ia iiooaei?noue, ui
niiaeeaa?oueny naini?ii, neeaaea? iaiueoa 110 iao. O ei?ion? OO-5
aeeiiaii niaoe?aeuei? aoiaee aeey iiaea/? aaciai? noi?o?. I?e aoanoaoe??
naini?a noi?o iiaeaaaeanue c aaciaaia?aoi??a oeio A?-03I ae?iaieoeoaa
caaiaeo “Aiae?oi?eeaae” i. Ee?a .

Iaeiei ?c ia?niaeoeaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
naini??a ? eiiiainaoe?y iioeaie oeyoii iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
?iaioe naini?a, canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a aaoiiaoe/ii?
eae?a?iaee naini??a, ye? ea?othoueny a?ae i?e?i-AII. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy
aeanoeainoae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a i?iiiio?oueny aeai?eoi
eiiiainaoe?? iioeaie ?ic?iaeaieo naini??a na??? 342-A181. Iioeaeo
aiae?co, yea iia’ycaia c oaiia?aoo?iei oaeoi?ii, iiaeia aecia/eoe c
oi?ioee T= /T (- oa?ii/ooeea?noue, — aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue naini?a).
Aei??thth/e a?aeoeeaiiy ?iai/i? oaiia?aoo?e T ca aeiiiiiaith
i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiai naini?a oaiia?aoo?e, iiaeia nei?aeooaaoe iieacaiiy
/ooeeaiai aeaiaioa. I?e oeueiio, ye iieacothoue ?ic?aooiee, oi/i?noue
aiae?co iiaeia i?aeaeueoe ia iaioa, i?ae o aeanyoue ?ac?a.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co ca aeiiiiiaith
iao?eoeue iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?e?iaeaeo?iieo naini??a (IAN) oeio
342-A181. Oaea ?ic?iaea aeooaeueia oei, ui o a?eueoino? i?aeoe/ieo
caaaeaiue ? iaiao?aeiei aiae?c aiaeii/an aeae?eueeio eiiiiiaio aaciaiai
na?aaeiaeua. Ia aieiae?th/e aaniethoiith naeaeoeai?noth aei aaciaeo
eiiiiiaio?a, IAN iiaeooue aooe aoanoiaai? ia eiaeio eiiiiiaioo ca
oi?ioeith ki= kdys/dpi. I?e ni?euei?e aaeni?aoe?? aac?a /a?ac noio ki
iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe cia/aiiy Gk. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeey
aiae?co noie ieneae?a acioo. Io?eiaii nenoaio ?ioaa?i-
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue, ?ica’ycaaoe yeo, iiaeia aecia/eoe
eiioeaio?aoe?? aaciaeo eiiiiiaio?a.

O aeniiaeo iaaaaeaii iniiai? iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a, ui
aeicaiey? iioei?coaaoe iiooe oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy naini??a iiaiai
iieie?iiy ? nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe /ano ? eioo?a. ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeea?
aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? aeaeo?ii?ee.

O aeiaeaoeo iiaeaii aeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
naini??a 342-A181 o oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean AAO NEOA “Aeaiaio”
I?ii?iiiie?o?ee Oe?a?ie.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

Cai?iiiiiaaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaoiae aecia/aiiy
aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oaa?aeeo o?e aea? iiaeeea?noue e?euee?nii
aeine?aeaeoaaoe caeaaei?noue aaee/eie A* ??cieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
iaoa??ae?a a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeue-yeeo aac?a. ?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i?
iiaeae? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? oiieeo oa??a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
iaoa??ae?a ? i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy aaee/eie A* caeaaeii
a?ae aeaeo?iiieo ? aaeni?aoe?eieo ia?aiao??a oaa?aeeo o?e. Oea aeicaiey?
i?iaiicoaaoe aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? aanoe
oe?eani?yiiaaiee iiooe oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy naini??a c nooo?ai
i?aeaeuaiith /ooeea?noth, naeaeo?ai?noth oa noaa?euei?noth.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aeie ?acoeueoaoaie ?iaioe ?:

1. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy ? ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe??
aoiiaie aaaeeeo iaoae?a ia aaeni?aoe?ei? ? aaci/ooeea? aeanoeaino?
iiaa?oi? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ie?aie naeai?aeo eaaei?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aoiie iaoae?a oi?iothoue ia iiaa?oi? aeiii?i? noaie, ye? aenooiathoue ye
oeaio?e aaeni?aoe?? eenith. Iaea?eueo aeoeaieie aeii?oeaie ia iiaa?oi?
naeai?aeo eaaei?th ? aoiie oa ?iie ?iae?th.

2. Aeyaeaii ci?io aia?a?? ca’yceo eenith c iiaa?oiath iai?ai?ia?aeieea
i?e c?inoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoii?a iaoaeo ia eiai iiaa?oi?. Oea
iia’ycaii c aeeiieue- aeeiieueiith oa aeaeo?inoaoe/iith aca?iiae??th ia
iiaa?oi? i?ae eiiieaenaie i?e c?inoaii? /enea aoii?a iaoaeo. I?e
nooiaiyo eaaoaaiiy a?eueoeo ca 1015 ni-2 ia iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo
niinoa??aa?oueny eeanoa?ioi?ioaaiiy, yea anoaiiaeaii i?yieie aeaeo?iiii-
i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ii?oieia?? iiaa?oi?. Aaeni?aoe?eia
/ooeea?noue iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? c eeanoa?aie iia’ycaia c
aieeaii eieae?caoe?? ca?yaeo, ui ooai?th?oueny i?e aaeni?aoe?? ia
iiaa?oi? eeanoa??a, ia o?ainii?o iin??a.

3. Anoaiiaeaii iaoai?ci aeniei? A* ? naeaeoeaiino? aeaieiiiiiaioieo
ieenieo no?oeoo? ia iniia? ieeno naeioeth oa ieiaa aei n??eiaiaeith.
O?ce/iee iaoai?ci A* iia’ycaiee ?c ci?iaiiyi aaee/eie aa?’??a i?ae
ieenieie oa?aie iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ca ?aooiie aeeooc?? aoii?a aiaeith a
iaeanoue aa?’??o.

Aeyaeaii aenieo aaee/eio A* oiieeo iecueeiiiieo ie?aie ia iniia?
aeeieneaeo ?iae?th. O?ce/ia i?e?iaea A* iia’ycaia c aieeaii aaeni?aoe??
ieneae?a acioo ia ?ooeea?noue aeaeo?ii?a o oa?ao In2O3.

4. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio oioi-A* oiieeo ie?aie aii?oiiai
a?ae?iaaiaciaaiiai e?aii?th, io?eiaieo eiia?iiaaiei iaoiaeii
ieaciio?i?/iiai ?iceeaaeo neeaio ? A* — ?icieeaiiyi e?aii?th, aei ia?e
aiaee. Iaea?aeai? oeei iaoiaeii oa?e a-Si:H iathoue cia/ii iaioo aonoeio
noai?a o caai?iiai?e cii?, i?ae a a-Si:H, ye? aeaioiaeai? ?ioeie
niiniaaie. Oea aeicaieeei aeyaeoe aieea aaeni?aoe?? ia?e aiaee ia
oioiaeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? oa??a oa ?o aaeni?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue.
O?ce/ia i?e?iaea A* iia’ycaia c aieeaii iiaa?oiaaiai aee?eaeaiiy cii ia
?aeiia?iaoe?th ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a o c?aceao a-Si:H.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ci?ie oioii?ia?aeiino? ie?aie a-Si:H i?e
aaeni?aoe?? ? aeani?aoe?? aiaee niinoa??aathoueny i?e e?iiaoieo
oaiia?aoo?ao. Anoaiiaeaia cia/ia naeaeoeai?noue oioi-A* aeaiaio?a ia
iniia? aii?oiiai a?ae?iaaiaciaaiiai e?aii?th aei eenith, aiaeith,
ieene?a acioo ? aoaeaoeth oa ?yaeo ?ioeo aaciaeo eiiiiiaio.

5. I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciai? /ooeeaino? ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th,
iaea?aeaiiai iaoiaeii aiiaeii? aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ia?iaee e?enoae?/iiai
e?aii?th a aeaeo?ie?oao ia iniia? ooi?enoiaiaeiaai? eeneioe. ?ic?iaeaii
o?ce/io iiaeaeue A* no?oeoo? ia iniia? iae?iii?oaaoiai e?aii?th. O
i?e?iii?oaaoiio e?aii?? aeyaeaii iiyao aeaeo?i?oo?eii? neee ia eiioaeoao
i?e aaeni?aoe?? iiey?ieo iieaeoe, yea iia’ycaia ?c aca?iiae??th
i?e?iiie?a ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th c i?e?iiieyie aeeiieueieo iieaeoe.
Naini?e ia iniia? ii?oaaoiai e?aii?th iathoue oaeiae /ooeea?noue aei
ia??a ai?aeo i?e e?iiaoieo oaiia?aoo?ao, ui ia? ia?niaeoeae aeey
noai?aiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiai aiae?caoi?a ia ?aeei?e iao?eoe? e?aii?th.

6. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo ?ia?o aoee ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy
naini??a eenith, ieene?a acioo, aiaeith, ia?e aiaee, ai?aeo,
n??eiaiaeith o i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiio aeeiiaii?.

7. ?ic?iaeaii ? ii?aoeueiaaii aeai?eoi eiiiainaoe?? /eiiee?a, ye?
aieeaathoue ia ?iaioo naini??a na??? 342-A181, ui aeicaiey? cia/ii
i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue IAN. Oea iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey cai?ie noa?iai
ia?eo aiae?oe/ii? oaoi?ee i?e?iaeaeo?iiieie i?eeaaeaie iiai? aaia?aoe??.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae iaii?ici??ieo eeanoa?ieo no?oeoo?. Oae, eeanoa?e ?iae?th ?
e?aii?th ieoeiaeaeii? oi?ie iathoue iia? o?ce/i? aeanoeaino?: aenieo
noaa?euei?noue i?e eiioaeo? c aaciaei na?aaeiaeuai; iayai?noue
o?ainii?oo ?ii?a aaeni?aaoo acaeiaae ieoie; ethi?ianoeaioe?th o aeaeei?e
iaeano? niaeo?o oa ?io?. Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, noai?ththoue iiaee iaoeiaee iai?yiie- aaeni?aoe?eia
/ooeea?noue iaii?ici??ieo eeanoa?ieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAII A ?IAIOAO:

1. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Aeeyiea eiiiie eiieaioaoeee aoiiaie oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia
ia yeaeo?e/aneea ia?aiao?u e /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e eenei?iaeo oiieeo
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4. Waschpanow Yu.A. Eigenschaften realer Oberflchen dnner CdSe
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5. Waschpanow Yu.A. Die Empfindlichkeit des elektrischen Leitwert der
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6. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Aeeyiea iiaa?oiinoiiai ecaeaa cii ia
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7. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Oioi- e aaci/oanoaeoaeueiua naienoaa ii?enoiai
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12. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Yeaeo?iiiua e aaeni?aoeeiiiua naienoaa ?aaeueiie
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14. Aaoiaiiaa TH.A., Niuiouia A.A. Aeeyiea ia?oeeaeueiiai aeaaeaiey
eenei?iaea a oaoiieiae/aneie eaia?a ia yeaeo?iiiua naienoaa e
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15. Vashpanov Yu.A The electronic properties and the adsorption
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16. Aaoiaiia TH.A., Na?aethe A.A., Niuiouia A.A. Aeeyiea iiaa?oiinoiiai
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17. Aaoiaiia TH.I. Aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? oa aaeni?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue
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18. Smyntyna V.A., Vashpanov Yu.A. Localization and gas sensitivity of
microporous silicon sensors// IIIrd NEXUSPAN Workshop on microsystem in
envirronmental monitoring-Satellite of Eurosensors.- Moskow.-1996.- P.
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19. Niuiouia A.A., Aaoiaiia TH.A., Oiiooeiieeia TH.A. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua
/oanoaeoaeueiua yeaiaiou ia iniiaa ieaiie naeaieaea eaaeiey// Oeie/aneay
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20. Sttzel H., Deltschew R., Waschpanow Yu. Einfluss von
Bandverbiegungen an der Oberflche auf die Fotoleitung von
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S.221-225.

21. *oanoaeoaeueiinoue yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ieaiie e
aacai/ Aaoiaiia TH.A.; Iaeanneee ainoieaa?neoao.- Iaeanna, 1988.- 53 n.-
?on.- Aeai. a AEIEOE.-?2469-Oe88.- 1988.

22. Enneaaeiaaiea ia/aeueiuo noaaeee eeiaoeee yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe i?e
oaiini?aoeee eenei?iaea ia ?aaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe ieaiie naeaieaea
eaaeiey/ Aaoiaiia TH.A.; Iaeanneee ainoieaa?neoao.- Iaeanna, 1988.- 23
n.- ?on.- Aeai. a AEIEOE.-?1343-Oe88.- 1988.

23. Iie?ionia I.A., I?ieacieeia A.A., Aaoiaiia TH.A., Ia/eiieeiaa E.A.
Oeceei-oeie/aneea iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey neiaa ii?enoiai e?aiiey aeey
aaciauo e iioe/aneeo naini?ia// O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee
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24. Vashpanov Yu.A., Smyntyna V.A. The influence of water adsorption on
photosensitivity of a:Si-H thin films// IV Nexuspan workshop on sensors
for control of irradiaion.-Satellite of Eurosensors.- Odessa.- 1997.-
P.67-68.

25. Smyntyna V.A., Vashpanov Yu.A. Photosensors on the base of porous
silicon with wide spectral pfotosensitivity //IV Nexuspan workshop on
sensors for control of irradiaion.- Satellite of Eurosensors.- Odessa.-
1997.- P. 69-70.

26. Smyntyna V.A, Vashpanov Yu.A., Grinevich V.S. Binary oxides
semiconductor transducers for H2S sensors// Proc. of the 11th European
conference on solid state trasducers, Warshaw, Poland.- 1997.-
P.542-546.

27. Vashpanov Yu.A. Localization in microporous silicon// International
conference on electron localization and quantum transport in solids.-
Jaszowic, Poland.- 1996.- P.177-178.

28. Smyntyna V.A., Vashpanov Yu.A. The study of optical, photoelectric
and gas sensitive properties of porous silicon// SPIE proceedings.-
1997.- v.3359.- P.542-546.

29. Smyntyna V.A., Vashpanov Yu.A. The influence of ammonia adsorption
on stationary fotoluminescence of micro porous silicon// Proc. of the
12th European Conference on Solid-State Trasducers, Southampton UK.-
13-16 September 1998.-v.2.-P.1068-1071.

30. Aaoiaiia TH.A., Niuiouia A.A. Aaeni?aoeeiiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
oiieiieaii/iuo ieeniuo no?oeoo? oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e ieeneai acioa//
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31. Aaoiaiia TH.A., Niuiouia A.A. Aaeni?aoeeiiiay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
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?ae?aaoeeiiiuo cii” Iaeanna.- 1998.- C.213- 216.

32. Aaoiaiia TH.A., Niuiouia A.A. Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua aeao/eee ninoaaa
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“Ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey yeieiaee, yeiiiieee, yia?aaoeee”.- 1998.-
C.3-7.

33. Vashpanov Yu.A., Smyntyna V.A. Management by adsorption sensitivity
of microelectronic sensors of a ammonia on the basis of porous silicon//
Sensors springtime in Odessa, Satellite of
Eurosensors.-1998.-Odessa.-p.36-37.

34. Smyntyna V.A., Vashpanov Yu.A. Microelectronic sensors to oxygen
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35. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiea yeaeo?ioece/aneeo, oioiyeaeo?e/aneeo e
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e?aiiey n oeaeueth nicaeaiey iiauo iee?iyeaeo?iiuo i?eai?ia//
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iao/ii- oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey “Ay?ieinie/aneee
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36. Aaoiaiia TH.A., AEe?iia A.Ae., Iaoeoaeaiei A.I. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua
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37. Vashpanov Yu.A. Semiconductor microelectronic gas sensitive
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P.54.

38. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Enneaaeiaaiea yeaeo?ioece/aneeo e aaci/oanoaeoaeueiuo
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Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey ii oeceea e oaoiieiaee oiieeo ieaiie,
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40. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Yeaeo?iiiua e aaci/oanoaeoaeueiua naienoaa
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41. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Naienoaa ieeneaiiie ?aaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe ii?enoiai
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42. Yu.A.Vashpanov, V.A.Smyntyna Electrical and gas sensitive properties
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P.81.

43. Aaoiaiia TH.A. Aeeyiea aaeni?aoeee iiey?iuo aacia ia o?ainii?o
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47. A.n. ?1514079 NNN?, IEE G01N27/02. *oanoaeoaeueiue yeaiaio
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48. A.n. ?1596921 NNN?, IEE G01N27/12. *oanoaeoaeueiue yeaiaio
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A.I.Aie/oe .-?4670317; Cayaeaii 10.02.89; Iioae. 01.06.90.- 2 n.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aaoiaiia TH. I. AAeNI?AOe?EIA *OOEEA?NOUe IAI?A-I?IA?AeIEEIAEO
IAOA??AE?A A?OIE A2A6, IENEAe?A AAAEEEO IAOAE?A OA E?AII?TH C ?AAEUeIITH
IIAA?OIATH C EEANOA?IEIE NO?OEOO?AIE- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei —
iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01-04-10 -”O?ceea
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa ae?aeaeo?ee?a”.- Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i.?.?. Ia/i?eiaa, Iaeana 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aaeni?aoe?eii?
/ooeeaino? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a a?oie A2A6, ieneae?a aaaeeeo
iaoae?a ? ii?enoiai e?aii?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aenieo aaeni?aoe?eio
/ooeea?noue iathoue c?acee, ui eaaiaai? ? i?noyoue ia iiaa?oi? eeanoa?e,
iaea?aeai? iaoiaeii iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy oa ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe?? aoii?a
aaaeeeo iaoae?a ? niaoe?aeueii ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi? ii?enoiai e?aii?th.
?ic?iaeaii o?ce/i? iiaeae? aaeni?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? iaoa??ae?a, ia
iniia? yei? i?iaiaeeany oe?eani?yiiaaiee iiooe oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy
aaciaeo naini??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oiie? iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ie?aee, iiaa?oiy, aaeni?aoe?y,
aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino?, oeaio?e aaeni?aoe??, eeanoa?e.

SUMMARY

Vashpanov Yu.A. “ADSORPTION SENSITIVITY OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILMS OF
A2A6 GROUP, OXIDES OF HEAVY METALS AND POROUS SILICON WITH A REAL
SURFACE WITH A CLUSTER STRUCTURE”.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 01.04.10- “Physics of
semiconductors and dielectric”.- Odessa I.I.Mechnikov State University,
Odessa 1999.

The results of investigations of adsorption sensitivity of
semiconductor materials of A2B6 group, oxides of heavy metals and porous
silicon are presented. In dissertation high adsorption sensitivity have
the doped samples which contain on the surface a clusters structure,
obtained by surface doping or ion implantation of heavy metal atoms and
specially processed surface of crystalline silicon. The physical models
of adsorption sensitivity of semiconductor thin films is created. On the
basis of this models a search of technology of gas sensors manufacturing
was conducted.

Key words: thin semiconductor films, surface, adsorption, electronic
properties, clusters.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaoiaiia TH.A. “AAeNI?AOeEIIIAss *OANOAEOAEUeIINOUe IIEOI?IAIAeIEEIAUO
IAOA?EAEIA A?OIIU A2A6, IEENEIA OssAEAEUO IAOAEEIA E II?ENOIAI E?AIIEss
N ?AAEUeIIE IIAA?OIINOUeTH N EEANOA?IUIE NO?OEOO?AIE”- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01- 04-10-”Oeceea
iieoi?iaiaeieeia e aeeyeaeo?eeia.- Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao ei. E.E.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aaeni?aoeeiiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe
(A*) iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo iaoa?eaeia a?oiiu A2A6, ieeneia oyaeaeuo
iaoaeeia e e?aiiey. ?ac?aaioaii ii?aaeaeaiea aaeni?aoeeiiiie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe oaa?aeuo oae. Yoi iicaieeei eiee/anoaaiii iienuaaoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea aacia n iieoi?iaiaeieeiauie no?oeoo?aie e ?ac?aaaouaaoue
oece/aneea iiaeaee aaeni?aoeeiiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieeia,
eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo iicaieyao iioeiece?iaaoue iiene oaoiieiaee
ecaioiaeaiey aaciauo naini?ia.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea iiaa?oiinoiiai eaae?iaaiey, eiiiie eiieaioaoeee
aoiiia oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia oiieeo ieaiie iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo ieaiie a?oiiu
A2A6 ia eo yeaeo?iiua naienoaa e aaeni?aoeeiiioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aunieoth aaeni?aoeeiiioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue eiatho
ia?acoeu oiieeo ieaiie naeaieaea eaaeiey, iiaa?oiinoue eioi?uo
eaae?iaaia e niaea?aeeo eeanoa?u eiaeey e naeaia. Iaia?oaeaii
oiaiueoaiea yia?aee nayce eenei?iaea n eaae?iaaiiie iiaa?oiinoueth
iieoi?iaiaeieea e o?ainii?o ca?yaeaiuo eiiia aaeni?aaoa aaeieue
iaii?acia?iuo ieoaaeaeiuo eeanoa?ia. Oece/aneay i?e/eia oiaiueoaiey
yia?aee nayce naycuaaaony n aeeiieueiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeiii?ii-
aeoeaioi?iuo eiiieaenia e yeaeo?inoaoe/aneei iooaeeeaaieai ca?yaeaiiuo
eiiia aaeni?aaoa ia iiaa?oiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieea.

Onoaiiaeaiu oece/aneea iaoaieciu A* iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo no?oeoo? ia
iniiaa oiieeo ieaiie ieeneia oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia e aii?oiiai
aeae?iaaiace?iaaiiiai e?aiiey e na?iaiaei?iaeo, ieeneai acioa e ia?ai
aiaeu.

Nenoaiaoe/anee eco/ai oece/aneee iaoaieci aaeni?aoeeiiiie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe iae?i-, iee?i- e iaiiii?enoiai e?aiiey e aacai. A*
no?oeoo? ia iniiaa iae?iii?enoiai e?aiiey ii?aaeaeyaony aeeyieai
aaeni?aoeee iiey?iuo aacia ia eiiaaeain aeaiiuo no?oeoo?. A
iaiaeii?iaeiuo iee?iii?enouo no?oeoo?ao iaia?oaeaia yeaeo?iaeaeaeouay
neea, aaee/eia eioi?ie caaeneo io eiioeaio?aoeee aaeni?ae?iaaiiuo
iiey?iuo iieaeoe ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?. Aeey iaiiii?enoiai e?aiiey
iaia?oaeaii oiaiueoaiea eioaineaiinoe ethieianoeaioeee a aeaeeiie
iaeanoe i?e aaeni?aoeee iieaeoe aiieaea aneaaenoaea ia?aie/aiey
o?ainii?oa ia?aaiiaanieo iineoaeae ca?yaea e oeaio?ai eceo/aoaeueiie
?aeiiaeiaoeee.

Aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaai oece/aneee iaoaieci aeaa?aaeaoeee
aaeni?aoeeiiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo no?oeoo? ai
a?aiaie. Iieacaii, /oi oece/aneie i?e/eiie aeaa?aaeaoeee A* yaeyaony
iea?aoeey aeaoaeoia a iauaia e ia iiaa?oiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieea, nei?inoue
eioi?ie yeniiiaioeeaeueii aic?anoaao i?e oaaee/aiee oaiia?aoo?u.
Oiaiueoaiea yia?aee nayce aaeni?aaoa e oaaee/aiea aaeni?aoeeiiiie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe i?e eaae?iaaiee iiaa?oiinoe iicaieyao nouanoaaiii
nieceoue ?aai/oth oaiia?aoo?o e cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeoue eioaineaiinoue
aeaa?aaeaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Aaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou yaeyaony
iaia?oaeaiiay oieeaeueiay oeie/aneay noaaeeueiinoue iaii?acia?iuo
ieoaaeaeiuo eeanoa?ia eiaeey i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee n aaciaie n?aaeie.

Ia iniiaa eco/aiey oece/aneeo iaoaieciia aaeni?aoeeiiiie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe ?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey naini?ia a
iee?iyeaeo?iiiii eniieiaiee n iaeie iio?aaeyaiie iiuiinoueth na?ee
342-Y181.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea eiiiainaoeee oaiia?aoo?iuo e ae?oaeo iia?aoiinoae
aiaeeca i?e eniieueciaaiee naini?ia na?ee 342-Y181, niaea?aeaueo
ano?iaiiue aeao/ee oaiia?aoo?u. Eiiiainaoeey oaiia?aoo?iie iia?aoiinoe n
iiiiuueth iee?ieiiiuethoa?iie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo iicaieyao iiauneoue ia
iaiaa /ai ia ii?yaeie oi/iinoue aiaeeca. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey iaoaiecia
aaeni?aoeeiiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaeeiaeai aeai?eoi
iiiaieiiiiiaioiiai aiaeeca ia iniiaa iao?eoe ?ac?aaioaiiuo naini?ia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oiieea iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua ieaiee, iiaa?oiinoue,
aaeni?aoeey, yeaeo?iiiua naienoaa, oeaio?u aaeni?aoeee, eeanoa?u.

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