«No/ania einiieia?y ? i?iaeaia i?eoiaaii? iane o Anana?o?»

Aaaaeaiiy

I?aaiaiiy i?aaenoaaeoe no?oeoo?o anueiai iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo caaaeaee
aoei iaei??th c ianouieo iio?aa ethaenoaa, ui ?icaeaa?oueny. «yeee
aeaooiaaiee na?o? *iio ?nio?? Ca?aeee ocyany?» — oea i?eeeaaee a?/ieo
ieoaiue. ?o caaeaaaee nia? ethaee ? oiae?, eiee ni?aaaeiuei? iaoee ua ia
aoei, ? iio?i, eiee ciaiiy, ui ca?iaeaeo?oueny ? iaae?a? neeo, ii/aei
na?e iane?i/aiiee ?oo o a?aeooeaii? ?noeie. I?ae /an ?iaioe iaae oe??th
oaiith aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa iaaaeeeiai aiae?co ?noi??? einiieia?? ?
i?iaeaie i?eoiaaii? iane o Anana?o?.

Ia eiaeiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? o ethaeae aoee ??ci? iaioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i
Anana?o. Oe? oyaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaee oie ??aaiue ciaiue ? aeina?ae
aea/aiiy i?e?iaee, yeee aeinyaaany ia a?aeiia?aeiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa. O i??o oiai ye ?icoe?eeeny i?inoi?ia? (? oei/ania?)
ianooaae i?ciaii? ethaeeiith /anoeie Anaeaiith, i?iyeeny ? einiieia?/i?
oyaeaiiy. Ia?oith einiieia?/iith iiaeaeeth, ui ia? Iaoaiaoe/ia
iaa?oioiaoaaiiy, iiaeia ?aooaaoe aaioeaio?e/io nenoaio ie?o E. Ioieaiay
(II a?e i. y.). A nenoai? Ioieaiay a oeaio?? Anana?oo aoea ia?ooiia
eoeynoa Caiey, a iaae?oae ia? caa?oaany I?nyoeue, Niioea, ieaiaoe,
?ooii? neeaaeiith nenoaiith e?e — «yi?oeeee?a» ? «aeeoa?aio?a», ?,
ia?aoo?, ana oea aoei oeeaaeaii a noa?o ia?ooiieo c??ie. Oiaoi nenoaia
i?aoaiaeoaaea ia iien anueiai iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo, oiaoi aoea naia
einiieia?/iith nenoaiith. sse ae ia?aii c iaoi? nueiaiaei?oiuei? oi/ee
ci?o ia aeaeyaeaa oeae «aanue na?o», iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui a i?e
aoei ?aoe?iiaeueia ca?ii — aeaui oey nenoaia iienoaaea a iniiaiiio
i?aaeeueii. Cae/aeii, i?aaeeueiee iien oi?eaany ia anueiai na?oo,
anueiai Anana?oo, a o?eueee iaeaiueei? eiai /anoeie. Ui ae a oe?e
nenoai? aoei i?aaeeueiei? I?aaeeueiei aoei oyaeaiiy i?i iaoo ieaiaoo ye
i?i eoeynoa o?ei, a?eueii ui aeneoue a i?inoi??; i?aaeeueiei aoei oa, ui
I?nyoeue caa?oa?oueny iaae?oae Caie?. Ana ?ioa, ye c’ynoaaeiny, ia
a?aeiia?aeaei ae?eniino?. Iaoea oiae? aoea ua a oaeiio noai?, ui, ca
aeiyoeii ie?aieo aai?aeueieo i?eiouaiue, ia iiaea aeeoe ca ?aiee nenoaie
Caiey — I?nyoeue. Nenoaia ie?o Ioieaiay iaioaaea a iaooe? aeecueei 1,5
oeny/ ?ie?a. Iio?i ?? ci?ieea aae?ioeaio?e/ia nenoaia ie?o I. Eiia?ieea
(XVI a?e ?. y.).

?aaiethoe?y, ae?iaeaia a iaooe? iaa/aiiyi Eiia?ieea, ca’ycaia a ia?oo
/a?ao c oei, ui iaoa Caiey aoea aeciaia ?yaeiaith ieaiaoith. Cieeei
anyea c?noaaeaiiy «caiiiai» ? «iaaaniiai». Nenoaia Eiia?ieea oaeiae
aaaaeaeany nenoaiith «anueiai na?oo». A oeaio?? ie?o aoei Niioea,
iaae?oae yeiai caa?oaeeny ieaiaoe. Ana oea ioiiethaaea noa?a ia?ooiieo
c??ie.

sse ie cia?ii oaia?, iani?aaae? nenoaia Eiia?ieea aoea cian?i ia
«nenoaiith ie?o», a noaiith aoaeiae Niiy/ii? nenoaie, ? a oeueiio
cia/aii? aoea i?aaeeueiith.

Iaaeae? iacae/aeia ?icoe?aiiy ianooaa?a aeine?aeaeaiiai ie?o caaaeyee
aeiaoiaeo ? aaeineiiaeaiith oaeaneii?a i?eaaei aei oyaeaiiy i?i ci?yiee
Anana?o. Ia?aoo?, ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy aeieeei oyaeaiiy i?i Anana?o ye
i?i na?o aaeaeoee (iaoaaaeaeoeee). I?e ?icaeyae? oeueiai ?noi?e/iiai
eaioethaeea ci?i einiieia?/ieo oyaeaiue ynii i?inoaaeo?oueny ianooiiee
oaeo. Eiaeia «nenoaia ie?o» ii noo? aoea iiaeaeeth iaea?eueoi?
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a aea/aii? ia oie /an nenoaie iaaanieo oae. Oae,
iiaeaeue Ioieaiay i?aaeeueii a?aeia?aaeaea aoaeiao nenoaie Caiey —
I?nyoeue, nenoaia Eiia?ieea aoea iiaeaeeth Niiy/ii? nenoaie, ?aea?
iiaeae? ci?yiiai ie?o A. Aa?oaey ? ?i. a?aeia?aaeaee aeaye? ?ene aoaeiae
iaoi? ci?yii? nenoaie — Aaeaeoeee. Aea eiaeia c oeeo iiaeaeae
i?aoaiaeoaaea naiai /ano ia iien aoaeiae «anueiai Anana?oo». Oey ae
oaiaeaioe?y ia iiaiio ??ai? i?inoaaeo?oueny, ye ie iiaa/eii, ? a
?icaeoeo no/anii? einiieia?? a XX noie?oo?.

O?ioe ?noi???

?icaeyiaii aeoaea noenei, ye? aoaie i?ieoia ?icaeoie iaoee i?i Anana?o
aaea o iao /an. No/ania einiieia?y aeieeea ia ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy i?ney
noai?aiiy A. Yeiooaeiii ?aeyoea?nonueei? oai??? oyae?iiy (caaaeueii?
oai??? a?aeiiniino?).

Ia?oa ?aeyoea?nonueea einiieia?/ia iiaeaeue, caniiaaia ia iia?e oai???
oyae?iiy ? i?aoaiaeoth/a ia iien anueiai Anana?oo, aoea iiaoaeiaaia A.
Yeiooaeiii a 1917 ?. I?ioa aiia iienoaaea noaoe/iee Anana?o ?, ye
iieacaee ano?io?ce/i? iaaeyaee, aeyaeeany iaa??iith.

A 1922—1924 ??. ?aaeyinueeei iaoaiaoeeii A.A. O?eaeiaiii aoee iaea?aeai?
caaaeuei? ??oaiiy ??aiyiue Aeiooaeia, canoiniaaieo aei iieno anueiai
Anana?oo. Aeyaeeiny, ui a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? oe? ??oaiiy iienothoue
Anaeaio, ci?iio c /anii. Ci?yi? nenoaie, ui caiiaiththoue i?ino??, ia
iiaeooue ciaoiaeeoeny a na?aaeiueiio ia iaci?iieo a?aenoaiyo iaeei a?ae
iaeiiai. Aiie iiaeii? aai a?aeaeaeyoeny, aai caeeaeoaaoeny. Ie iiaa/eii
aeae?, ui oea ? iaieio/ei ne?aenoaii iayaiino? nee oyae?iiy, ye?
i/ieththoue a eini?/ieo ianooaaao. Aeniiaie O??aeiaia icia/aa, ui
Anana?o iiaeiai aai ?icoe?yoeny, aai noeneaoeny. Aeniiaie oeae icia/aa
ei??iio ia?aaoaeiao iaoeo iaecaaaeuei?oeo oyaeaiue i?i Anana?o ? aeaeaei
ia a?ae?aco c?icoi?a ? i?eeiyoee iaa?oue naiei ia?aaeiaei ?icoiii
ethaenoaa. A 1929 ?. aia?eeainueeee ano?iiii Y. Oaaae ca aeiiiiiaith
ano?io?ce/ieo iaaeyae?a a?aee?ea ?icoe?aiiy iaaeieeoiueiai ian na?oo
aaeaeoee, a?aee?ea ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo, i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/a i?aaeeuei?noue
aeniiae?a A.A. O??aeiaia. Iiaeae? O??aeiaia ? iniiaith anueiai
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo einiieia??. sse ie iiaa/eii aeae?, oe? iiaeae?
iienoaaee iaoai?/io ea?oeio ?ooo aaee/acieo ian Anana?oo ? ?? aeiaaeueio
no?oeoo?o. sseui eieeoi? Einiieia?/i? iiaoaeiae aoee iieeeeai? iienoaaoe
aieiaiei /eiii naia niinoa?aaeoaaio oaia? no?oeoo?o Anana?oo c iaci?iiei
a na?aaeiueiio ?ooii na?o?a a i?e, oi iiaeae? O??aeiaia ca nai?th noooth
aoee aaiethoe?eieie, ca’ycoaaee nueiaiaei?oi?e noai Anana?oo c ??
iiia?aaeiueith ?noi???th. Cie?aia, c oe??? oai??? aeoiaeeei, ui o
aeaeaeiio ieioeiio Anaeaia ia aoea cian?i noiaea ia niinoa?aaeoaaio iaie
nueiaiaei?. Oiae? ia aoei i? ie?aieo iaaanieo o?e, i? ?o nenoai, any
?a/iaeia aoea iaeaea iaeii??aeiith, aeoaea u?eueiith ? oaeaeei
?icoe?yeiny. O?eueee cia/ii i?ci?oa c oe??? ?a/iaeie aeieeee aaeaeoeee ?
?o neoi/aiiy. Ii/eiath/e c e?ioeai 40-o ?ie?a iaoiai noie?ooy any
a?eueoa oaaaa a einiieia?? i?eaa?oa? o?ceea i?ioean?a ia ??ciee aoaiao
einiieia?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy.

A oeae /an A. Aaiiaui aoea aenoiooa oae caaia oai??y aa?y/iai Anana?oo.
A oe?e oai??? ?icaeyaeaeeny yaea?i? ?aaeoe??, ui i?io?eaee ia naiiio
ii/aoeo ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo a aeoaea u?euei?e ?a/iaei?. I?e oeueiio
ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui oaiia?aoo?a ?a/iaeie aoea aaeeea (ca?aene ? iacaa
oai???) ? iaaeaea c ?icoe?aiiyi. Oi/a a ia?oeo aa??aioao oai??? ? aoee
ua ?noioi? iaaeie?ee (caiaeii aiie aoee onoiai?), aiia c?iaeea aeaa
aaaeeea? i?iaiice, ye? iiaee aooe ia?aa??ai? iaaeyaeaie. Oai??y
ia?aaeaa/aea, ui ?a/iaeia, c yei? oi?ioaaeeny ia?o? c??ee ? aaeaeoeee,
iiaeiia neeaaeaoeny aieiaiei /eiii c aiaeith (i?eaeecii ia 75%) ? aae?th
(a?ey 25%), aeii?oea ?ioeo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a iacia/ia. ?ioa aeaaaeaiiy
oai??? iieyaaei a oiio, ui a nueiaiaei?oiueiio Anana?o? iiaeiia ?nioaaoe
neaaea aeaeo?iiaai?oia aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui caeeoeeiny a?ae aiioe aaeeei?
aonoeie ? oaiia?aoo?e ?a/iaeie. Oea aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui inoeaioei a
oiae? ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo, aoei iacaaii ?aaeyinueeei ano?io?ceeii ?.N.
Oeeianeei ?ae?eoiaei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi. Iaeaeaa i?iaiice oai??? aeeneo/a
i?aeoaa?aeeeeny.

Aei oeueiai ae /ano (e?iaoeue 40-o ?ie?a) a?aeiineoueny iiyaa
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaaeyaeiaeo iiaeeeainoae a einiieia??. Aeieeea
?aae?iano?iiii?y, a iio?i i?ney ii/aoeo eini?/ii? a?e ?icaeioeany
?aioaai?anueea, aaiia-ano?iiii?y ? ?i. Iia? iiaeeeaino? c’yaeeeny ? o
iioe/ii? ano?iiii??. Ca?ac ??cieie iaoiaeaie Anana?o aeine?aeaeo?oueny
aae aei a?aenoaiae a aeae?eueea i?euey?ae?a ia?nae?a (ia?nae — iaeeieoey
a?aenoai?, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ano?iiiiaie ? ??aia c?aceiai o?ueii
na?oeiaei ?ieai aai 3 • 1018 ni.).

A 1965 ?. aia?eeainuee? o?ceee A. Iaicean ? ?. Aeenii a?aee?eee
?ae?eoiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ca ui a 1978 ?. aiie aoee oaeinoi?i?
Iiaae?anuee?e i?ai??. Oea a?aee?eooy aeiaaei ni?aaaaeeea?noue oai???
aa?y/iai Anana?oo.

No/aniee aoai a ?icaeoeo einiieia?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie ii/aoeo einiieia?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy, eiee aonoeia
iaoa??? ? aia?a?? /anoeiie aoea aaee/aciith. Ea??aieie ?aeayie ooo ?
iia? oai?aoe/i? a?aee?eooy o o?ceoe? aca?iiae?? aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie
i?e aeoaea aaeeeeo aia?a?yo. ?ioith aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith einiieia?? ?
i?iaeaia aeieeiaiiy no?oeoo?e Anana?oo — neoi/aiue aaeaeoee, naieo
aaeaeoee ? o.ae. c ia?aeiii iaeaea iaeii??aeii? ?a/iaeie, ui
?icoe?y?oueny.

No/ania einiieia?y iiaoaeiaaia i?aoeyie aaaaoueio o/aieo anueiai na?oo.
Iiaeia a?aecia/eoe aaaeeeao ?ieue iaoeiaeo oe?e, noai?aieo a iao?e
e?a?i? aeaaeai?eaie A.E. Aeicao?aii, ss.A. Caeueaeia?/ai, A.I.
E?aoeoeai, I.A. Ia?eiaei, ?.I. Oaeaoieeiaei.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe aecia/ath/o ?ieue ano?io?ce/ieo iaaeyae?a a ?icaeoeo
no/anii? einiieia??. ?? aeniiaee ? aeniiaee ia?aa??ythoueny i?yieie aai
iai?yieie iaaeyaeaie. Nueiaiaei? ie iiaeaii noaeeoe i?i aoaeiao ?
aaiethoe?th niinoa?aaeoaaiiai iaie Anana?oo c oei aea nooiaiai
iaae?eiino?, c yeith ie noaeeii i?i aoaeiao ? aaiethoe?th c??ie, i?i
i?e?iaeo ?ioeo iaaanieo oae.

Ia aeaiiio aoai? aaaaea?oueny, ui ci?yi? nenoaie — aaeaeoeee —
neeaaeathoueny c nioaiue i?euey?ae?a c??ie. ?o ?ici??e /anoi
aeinyaathoue aeanyoe?a oeny/ ia?nae?a. Aaeaeoeee o naith /a?ao c?a?ai? a
a?oie ? neoi/aiiy. ?ici??e e?oiieo neoi/aiue — aeae?eueea i?eueeii?a
ia?nae?a (Iie). ? ? ua a?eueo? ii ianooaaao caouoaaiiy ? ?ic??aeaeaiiy a
?iciiae?e? aaeaeoee. I?ioa, ii/eiath/e c ianooaaaie a aeae?eueea nioaiue
i?eueeii?a ia?nae?a a a?eueoa ?iciiae?e ?a/iaeie o Anana?o? iiaeia
aaaaeaoe iaeii??aeiei.

Iiaeaeue Anana?oo

Ui cia/eoue, iiaoaeoaaoe iiaeaeue Anana?oo? Iaecaaaeuei?oa a?aeiia?aeue
ia oea ieoaiiy oaea: iaiao?aeii ciaeoe ??aiyiiy, yeei i?aeei?ythoueny
ia?aiao?e, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeanoeaino? Anana?oo, ? iio?i ae??oeoe
oe? ??aiyiiy. Aea yeiiiaa ienaoe ye?nue ??aiyiiy aeey anueiai Anana?oo?
A oeueiio ? ianooiieo ?icae?eao ie iieaaeaii, ye oea ?iaeoueny.
C?icoi?ei i?ae neiaii «iiaeaeue» ia?oueny ia oaac? aeae?eaiiy ye?nue
iniiaieo aeanoeainoae, ui oe?eaaeyoue aeine?aeiee?a a ia?oo /a?ao.
Iaia?aae i/aaeaeii, ui eiaeia yaeua iane?i/aiii aaaaoiiai?oia ? an? eiai
?ene ia iiaea iienaoe i?yea nenoaia ??aiyiue. Neacaia oei a?eueoa
ni?aaaaeeeaa aeey Anana?oo. Oiio cae/aeiee iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy
yeiai-iaaoaeue yaeua — oea aeae?eaiiy a iueiio aieiaiiai, oeiiaiai.

Eiee ie aiai?eii i?i Anana?o, ian a ia?oo /a?ao oe?eaaeoue ?iciiae?e
?a/iaeie a iaea?eueoeo ianooaaao ? ?? ?oo. Cia/eoue, iai iaeaaeeoue
iiaoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, ui iieno? ?iciiae?e ?a/iaeie a
i?inoi?? ? eiai ?oo. Ui noino?oueny ?iciiae?eo ?a/iaeie o aaeeeeo
ianooaaao, oi, ye aaea aoei neacaii, eiai iiaeia c oi?ioith oi/i?noth
aaaaeaoe iaeii??aeiei ii i?inoi?o. Iaia? o Anana?o? ? yeeo-iaaoaeue
aeae?eaieo iai?yi?a. sse oi eaaeooue, iao Anana?o iaeii??aeiee ?
?cio?iiiee. Ui aecia/a? ?oo ?a/iaeie a eini?/ieo ianooaaao? Cae/aeii ae,
oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, neee anana?oiueith oyae?iiy — aiie i/ieththoue o
Anana?o?. ?o iaceaathoue oaeiae neeaie a?aa?oaoe??.

Ioaea, aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeae? Anana?oo iaiao?aeii nei?enoaoeny
??aiyiiyie oyae?iiy. Caeii anana?oiueiai oyae?iiy aoa anoaiiaeaiee ?.
Iuethoiiii. Eiai ni?aaaaeeea?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeany i?ioyaii noie?oue
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeie ano?iiii?/ieie iaaeyaeaie ? eaai?aoi?ieie
aenia?eiaioaie. I?ioa A. Yeiooaei iieacaa, ui caeii oyae?iiy Iuethoiia
ni?aaaaeeeaee eeoa a ii??aiyii neaaeeo iieyo oyae?iiy. Aeey neeueieo aea
iie?a iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe ?aeyoea?nonueeo oai??th a?aa?oaoe?? —
caaaeueio oai??th a?aeiiniino?. sse? ae iiey ne?ae aaaaeaoe aeinoaoiuei
neeueieie? A?aeiia?aeue oaea: yeui iiea oyae?iiy ?icaiieoue iaaeath/? a
iueiio o?ea aei oaeaeeinoae, aeecueeeo aei oaeaeeino? na?oea, oi oea
neeueia iiea. ssea neea a?aa?oaoe?eiiai iiey o Anana?o?? Eaaei iieacaoe,
ui iiey oai iiaeii? aooe aaee/acieie.

A.A. O?eaeiai nei?enoaany aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeae? Anana?oo ??aiyiiyie
Aeiooaeia. I?ioa aaaaoi ?ie?a ii?ney c’ynoaaeiny, ui aeey iiaoaeiae
iaoai?ee ?ooo ian a iaeii??aeiiio Anana?o? iaia? iaiao?aeiino?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaeneeaaei?oee iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao oai??? Aeiooaeia. Oea
aoei iieacaii a 1934 ?. Y. Ieeiii ? A. Iaee??. I?e/eia oe??? aeeaii?
iiaeeeaino? iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. Noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ia iaoa??aeueia
iaieiiea ia noai?th? i?yeiai a?aa?oaoe?eiiai iiey o an?e aioo??oi?e
ii?iaeiei?.

Oaia? caa?iaiiny aei ?icaeyaeo nee oyae?iiy o Anana?o?. O aaeeeeo
ianooaaao ?iciiae?e ?a/iaeie o Anana?o? iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeii??aeiei.
?icaeyiaii nii/aoeo neee oyae?iiy, noai?thaai? ia iiaa?oi? eoe? o?eueee
?a/iaeiith naii? eoe?, ? iiee ia ?icaeyaeaoeiaii anth ?aooo ?a/iaeie
Anana?oo. Oae ?aae?on eoe? aea?aiee ia aeoaea aaeeeei, oae ui iiea
oyae?iiy, noai?thaaia ?a/iaeiith eoe?, a?aeiinii neaaea ? canoiniaia
oai??y Iuethoiia aeey ia/eneaiiy neee oyae?iiy. Oiae? aaeaeoeee, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny ia a?aie/i?e noa??, i?eoyaoaaoeiooueny aei oeaio?o eoe? c
neeith, i?iii?oe?ei?e ian? eoe?, ? iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii? eaaae?aoo eiai
?aae?ono.

Oaia? i?eaaaea?ii i?i anth ?aooo ?a/iaeie Anana?oo ciai? eoe? ?
ni?iao?ii a?aooaaoe neee oyae?iiy, iei noai?thaai?. Aeey oeueiai
?icaeyaeaoeiaii iine?aeiaii noa?e/i? iaieiiee ana a?eueoiai ? a?eueoiai
?aae?ono, ioiiethth/? eoeth. Aea, ye aoei neacaii aeua, ui
noa?e/ii-neiao?e/i? oa?e ?a/iaeie i?yeeo a?aa?oaoe?eieo nee ona?aaeei?
ii?iaeieie ia noai?ththoue. Ioaea, an? oe? noa?e/ii-neiao?e/i? iaieiiee
(oiaoi any ?aooa ?a/iaeie Anana?oo) i?/iai ia aeiaeaaeooue aei neee
oyae?iiy, yea aei?iaiao? aaeaeoeea ia iiaa?oi? eoe? aei eiai oeaio?o.
Oaeee aea aeniiaie ni?aaaaeeeaee a caaaeuei?e oai??? a?aeiiniino?. Oaia?
ynii, /iio aeey aeaaaeaiiy caeii?a ?ooo ian a iaeii??aeiiio Anana?o?
iiaeia nei?enoaoeny oai???th Iuethoiia, a ia Aeiooaeia.

Ie aea?aee eoeth aeinoaoiuei iaeei, uia aoea canoiniaia oai??y Iuethoiia
aeey ia/eneaiiy a?aa?oaoe?eieo nee, noai?thaaieo eiai ?a/iaeiith. Iane
?aooe Anana?oo, ui ioi/othoue eoeth, ia neee a?aa?oaoe?? a aeai?e eoe?
i?ye ia aieeiooue. Aea i?yeeo ?ioeo nee a iaeii??aeiiio Anana?o? acaaae?
i?. Ae?enii, oea iiaee a aooe o?eueee neee oeneo ?a/iaeie. Aea iaa?oue
yeui oene ? (a o aeaeaeiio ieioeiio oene o Anana?o? aoa aaee/aciei), oi
aiii ia noai?th? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? neee. Aaeaea oaea neea aeieea?
o?eueee i?e ia?aiaae? oeneo a?ae i?noey aei i?noey. I?eaaaea?ii, ui ie
ia a?ae/oaa?ii i?yei? neee a?ae aaeeeiai oeneo iaoi? aoiinoa?e /a?ac oa,
ui ona?aaeei? ian iia?o?y noai?th? oi/ii oaeee aea oene. I?yeiai
ia?aiaaeo iaia? — iaia? ? neee. Aea iao Anana?o iaeii??aeiee. Cia/eoue,
o aoaeue-yeee iiiaio /ano ? aonoeia, ? oene (yeui aiii ?) ne??cue
iaeiaeia?, ? i?yeiai ia?aiaaeo oeneo aooe ia iiaea.

Ioaea, aeey aecia/aiiy aeeiai?ee ?a/iaeie iaoi? eoe? ?noioia o?eueee
oyae?iiy eiai iane, aecia/oaaia ii oai??? Iuethoiia. Aea Anana?o
iaeii??aeiee. Oea cia/eoue, ui an? iaeano? ?? aea?aaeaioi?. sseui
aecia/eoe ?oo ?a/iaeie a aeai?e eoe?, iiaeia ciaeoe, ye i?iythoueny a
iueiio aonoeia, oene, oi oei naiei ciaeaeaii ci?io oeeo aaee/ei ? a
aoaeue-yeiio ?ioiio i?noe?, o anueiio Anana?o?.

Ia?oa einiieia?/ia iiaeaeue anana?oo — iiaeaeue Aeiooaeia

Ia?oa einiieia?/ia iiaeaeue aoea iiaoaeiaaia A. Aeiooaeiii a 1917 ?.
iacaaa?ii i?ney noai?aiiy iei Caaaeueii? oai??? a?aeiiniino?. sse ? ana
oiae?, a?i aaaaeaa, ui Anana?o iiaeiai aooe noaoe?iia?ia, aiia ia iiaea
iai?aaeaiee aaiethoe?iioaaoe. Oey iiaeaeue noai?thaaeany a?eueo i?ae ca
aeanyoue ?ie?a aei a?aee?eooy A. Oaaaea. A. Aeiooaei, iaaooue, i?/iai ia
ciaa i?i aaeee? oaeaeeino? aeayeeo aaeaeoee, ye? ia oie /an aaea aoee
ci??yi?. Aei oiai ae o oie /an ia aoei ua iaae?eieo aeieac?a, ui
aaeaeoeee — ae?enii aeaeae? ci?yi? nenoaie. Aeneiaethth/e naith
Iiaeaeue, Aeiooaei ienaa: «iaeaaaeeea?oa c? anueiai, ui aai a?aeiii c
aeina?aeo i?i ?iciiae?e iaoa???, iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?aeiini? oaeaeeino?
c??ie aeoaea iae? a ii??aiyii? c oaeaee?noth na?oea. Oiio y aaaaeath, ui
ia ia?oeo ii?ao a iniiao iaoeo i??eoaaiue iiaeia iieeanoe ianooiia
iaaeeaeaia aeiiouaiiy: ? eii?aeeiaoia nenoaia, uiaei yei? iaoa??th
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o??th, ui ciaoiaeeoueny i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano o
niiei?».

Aeoiaey/e c oaeeo i??eoaaiue, Aeiooaei aa?a eini?/io neeo
a?aeooiaooaaiiy, yea ?iaeea na?o noaoe?iia?iei. Oey neea oi?aa?naeueia:
aiia caeaaeeoue ia a?ae iane o?e, a o?eueee a?ae a?aenoai?, ui ?o
?icae?ey?. I?enei?aiiy, yea oey neea iia?aeiiey? aoaeue-ye? o?ea, ui
?icianee ia a?aenoaiue, iiaeiii aooe i?iii?oe?eii a?aenoai?. Neee
a?aeooiaooaaiiy, yeui aiie, cae/aeii, ?niothoue a i?e?iae?, iiaeia a
aoei ciaeoe a aeinoaoiuei oi/ieo eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeao. I?ioa e?eooa
aaee/eie ?iaeoue caaea/o ?? eaai?aoi?iiai aeyaeaiiy aaniethoii
aaciaae?eii?. Ae?enii, oea i?enei?aiiy i?iii?oe?eia a?aenoai? ? a iaeeo
ianooaaao i?e/aiia. Eaaei i?ae?aooaaoe, ui i?e a?eueiiio iaae?ii? o?ea
ia iiaa?oith Caie? aeiaeaoeiaa i?enei?aiiy a 1030 ?ac?a iaioa naiiai
i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy. Iaa?oue a ianooaa? Niiy/ii? nenoaie aai
an??? iaoi? Aaeaeoeee oe? neee i?e/aiii iae? a ii??aiyii? c neeaie
oyae?iiy.. C?icoi?ei, oea a?aeooiaooaaiiy i?ye ia iicia/a?oueny ia ?on?
o?e Niiy/ii? nenoaie ? iiaea aooe ciaeaeaia o?eueee i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
?oo?a naieo iaea?aeaeaeai?oeo niinoa?aaeoaaieo aaeaeoee.

Oae, a ??aiyiiyo oyae?iiy Aeiooaeia c’yaeeany einiieia?/ia iino?eia,
iieno? neee a?aeooiaooaaiiy aaeooio. Ae?y oeeo nee oaea ae
oi?aa?naeueia, ye ? nee anana?oiueiai oyae?iiy, oiaoi aiii ia caeaaeeoue
a?ae o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee o?ea, ia yeiio aeyaey?oueny, oiio eia?/ii iacaaoe
oeth ae?th a?aa?oaoe??th aaeooio.

*a?ac aeae?eueea ?ie?a i?ney ?iaioe Aeiooaeia, A. A. O?eaeiaiii aoea
noai?aia oai??y Anana?oo, ui ?icoe?y?oueny. A. Yeiooaei nii/aoeo ia
iiaiaeaeoaaany c aeaaaeaiiyie ?aaeyinueeiai iaoaiaoeea, aea iio?i
iiai?noth ?o aeciaa.

I?ney a?aee?eooy Y. Oaaaeii ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo ye?-iaaoaeue i?aenoaae
i?eioneaoe, ui a i?e?iae? ?niothoue eini?/i? neee a?aeooiaooaaiiy,
caeaaaeiny a a?aeiaee.

«Ii?iaei?e» Anana?o

Ui aoaea, yeui c? Anana?oo i?ea?aoe anth ?a/iaeio? Ia ia?oee iiaeyae
caea?oueny, ui oaea iia?aoe?y aaniethoii aano?aeoia ? iaea?aeoaaia
iiaeaeue a?aeiia?aeaoeia eeoa oya? oai?aoee?a. Aea oea cian?i ia oae ?
i?/iai oaioanoe/iiai aai oei a?eueoa ia?aiiai a oae?e iia?aoe?? iaia?. A
?noi??? Anaeaii?, iaaooue, aoa ia??iae, eiee aiia aoea i?aeoe/ii
ii?iaeiy, a?eueia a?ae cae/aeii? o?ce/ii? iaoa???, ? iiaeaeue
ii?iaeiueiai Anana?oo iienoaaea oiae? ?? aaiethoe?th.

Aia?oa iiaeaeue ii?iaeiueiai Anana?oo aoea iiaoaeiaaia aieeaiaenueeei
ano?iiiiii A. aea Neooa?ii a 1917 ?. A?eeai aea Neooa? aoa, yeui oae
iiaeia ae?aceoeny, «eeane/iei ano?iiiiii». A?i aaaaoi caeiaany oi/iei
aecia/aiiyi iieiaeaiiy c??ie ia iaa?, iaaaniith iaoai?eith, aoa iaeiei c
i?iia??a ianiaeo oioiiao?e/ieo iaaeyae?a c??ie. I?ioyaii aeanyoe??/ a?i
aea/aa ?oo noiooiee?a THi?oa?a, noai?ea oai??th oeueiai ?ooo, yeo
ei?enoothoueny aeioaia?. A. aea Neooa? a?ae?aco ioe?iea oa aaee/acia
cia/aiiy, yea oai??y Aeiooaeia iiaeiia iaoe a ano?iiii?? acaaae? ? a
einiieia?? iniaeeai. Iiaeaeue Anaeaii? aea Neooa?a aoea iioae?eiaaia a
oie aea ??e, ui ? iiaeaeue Aeiooaeia, ? iaeaea? oe? iiaeae? iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ia?oei aeina?aeii aaeeaaiiy Caaaeueii? oai??? a?aeiiniino? a
einiieia??.

Ioaea, ne?aeoth/e aea Neooa?o, i?eaa?aii c? Anana?oo anth ?a/iaeio.
Iii?noeii a iao ii?iaei?e Anana?o aea? a?euei? i?iai? /anoeiee ia
a?aenoai? iaeei a?ae iaeiiai. *anoeiee iaceaathoueny i?iaieie, ine?eueee
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui ?o iane aeinoaoiuei iae?, uia ia aieeaaoe ia ?o
a?aeiiniee ?oo, a a?eueieie aiie iaceaathoueny oiio, ui ia ieo ia ae??
i?yea neea, ie??i a?aa?oaoe??. O Anana?o? oea iiaeooue aooe, iai?eeeaae,
aea? aaeaeoeee, ?icoaoiaai? aeinoaoiuei aeaeaei iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.
Oiae? iaaaoeaia a?aa?oaoe?y i?eiooo? iaeaea? aaeaeoeee ?ooaoeny iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai c i?enei?aiiyi, i?iii?oe?eiei a?aenoai?. sseui ii
i?enei?aiith ciaeoe oaeaee?noue, a iio?i ci?io a?aenoai? c /anii, oi
eaaei iieacaoe, ui a?aeiinia oaeaee?noue /anoeiie-aaeaeoee no??iei
ia?inoaoeia.

Oaeo caeaaei?noue iaceaathoue aeniiiaioe?aeueiith, aiia ae?aaea?
iaaecae/aeii oaeaeea c?inoaiiy a?aenoai? a?ae /ano. sse?e aea iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie? A «iaeaea ii?iaeiueiio» Anana?o?, oiaoi a oae?e
Anaeai?e, a ye?e iiaeia iaoooaaoe cae/aeiei oyae?iiyi aaeaeoee iaeei aei
iaeiiai, aaeaeoeee iiaeooue i?eaeaaoe aaeee? oaeaeeino? aeaeaeaiiy iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai. Oaeee aeniiaie iaea?aeaa aea Neooa? a 1917 ?. A oeae /an
eiio aoee a?aeii? oaeaeeino? o?eueee o?ueio aaeaeoee, ? a?i ia i?a
i?eeoe aei yeiai-iaaoaeue iaaiiai aeniiaeo i?i ni?aaaaeeea?noue nai??
oai???. Aei nueiaiaei?oiueiai Anana?oo iiaeaeue aea Neooa?a iaa?yae /e
canoiniaia: aeeiai?ea Anana?oo aecia/a?oueny cae/aeiei oyae?iiyi
?a/iaeie. Aea oey iiaeaeue aeyaeeany aaaeeeaith aeey iieno aeaeaeiai
ieioeiai Anana?oo, eiee aiia o?eueee ii/eiaea ?icoe?yoeny.

A?iioaca «Aaeeeiai aeaooo»

?iaioe O??aeiaia iieacaee, ye c /anii iiaeiai aaiethoe?iioaaoe Anana?o.
Cie?aia, aiie ia?aaeaa/eee iaiao?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy o ieioeiio
«neiaoey?iiai noaio» — ?a/iaeie aaee/acii? aonoeie, a cia/eoue, ?
iaiao?aei?noue yei?nue i?e/eie, ui niiioeaea iaaeu?eueio ?a/iaeio ii/aoe
?icoe?yoeny. Oea aoei oai?aoe/iei a?aee?eooyi aeaooath/iai Anana?oo.
Iii?oeii, ui a?aee?eooy aoei c?iaeaii aac iayaiino? yeeo-iaaoaeue ?aeae
i?i naiee aeaoo, i?i i?e/eio ii/aoeo ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo. I?yeeo iaoye?a
ia iiae?ai? ?aea? i? a oai???, i? a aenia?eiaio? ia ?nioaaei. Aea aaea c
oiai oaeoo, ui Anana?o iaeii??aeiee, aeo?eaei, ui /a?ac oyae?iiy iaoa???
aiia ianoaoe?iia?ia, a cia/eoue, o ieioeiio iiaeiia aoea aooe i?e/eia
ii/aoeo ?icoe?aiiy — i?e/eia Aaeeeiai aeaooo.

Iaaeyaeiaa a?aee?eooy aeaooath/iai Anana?oo aoei c?iaeaii aia?eeainueeei
ano?iiiiii Y. Oaaaeii a 1929 ?. Aeaeae? ci?yi? nenoaie — aaeaeoeee ? ?o
neoi/aiiy — ? iaea?eueoeie a?aeiieie ano?iiiiai no?oeoo?ieie iaeeieoeyie
Anana?oo. Aiie niinoa??aathoueny c aaee/acieo a?aenoaiae, ? naia
aea/aiiy ?o ?oo?a aeineoaeeei iaaeyaeiaith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?iaiaoeee Anaeaii?. Aeey aeaeaeeo ia’?eo?a iiaeia aei??thaaoe
oaeaee?noue aeaeaeaiiy aai iaaeeaeaiiy, ei?enooth/enue aoaeoii Aeiiea?a.

Aei??thth/e cnoa niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e a niaeo?ao iaaanieo o?e, ano?iiiie
aecia/athoue ?o iaaeeaeaiiy ? aeaeaeaiiy, oiaoi aei??ththoue eiiiiiaioo
oaeaeeino?, iai?aaeaio ii i?iiaith ci?o. Oiio oaeaeeino?, aecia/oaai? ii
niaeo?aeueieo aei??thaaiiyo, iinyoue iacao i?iiaiaaeo oaeaeeinoae.
I?iia?ii aei??thaaiiy i?iiaiaaeo oaeaeeinoae o aaeaeoee aoa ia ii/aoeo
ieioeiai noie?ooy aia?eeainueeee ano?io?cee A. Neaeoa?. A 1924 ?.E.
Ae?oe ciaeoia, ui, /ei iaioa eooiaee ae?aiao? aaeaeoeee, oei a
na?aaeiueiio a?eueoa ?? oaeaee?noue aeaeaeaiiy, oi/a iaea?aeaia
caeaaei?noue ? aoea aeoaea ia/?oea. A??oe ii?aooaaa, ui oey caeaaei?noue
a?aeia?aaea? caeaaei?noue i?ae oaeaee?noth ? a?aenoaiith ? oiio
na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue einiieia?/ii? iiaeae? aea Neooa?a. I?i ?iaioo
O??aeiaia A??oe, iaaooue, i?/iai ia ciaa.

I?ioa a?aeiiee oaaaenueeee ano?iiii E. Eoiaeia?e ? ?io? ano?iiiie,
iiaoi?eaoe ?iaioo A??oea, ia i?aeoaa?aeeee eiai ?acoeueoaoe. Oaia? ie
?icoi??ii, ui noia?a/iino? aoee ca’ycai? c oei, ui e?i?ei? ?ici??e
aaeaeoee aaeueie ??ci?, ? oiio ?o aeaeei? eooia? ?ici??e ia oeacothoue
i?yii ia a?aenoaiue a?ae ian: aaeaeoeea iiaea aooe aeaeeia iaeaiueeith
ia o?eueee oiio, ui aiia ?icoaoiaaia aeaeaei, aea ? oiio, ui aiia
iani?aaae? iaea ca ?ici??aie.

Aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy aoee iio??ai? iaae?ei? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy
a?aenoaiae aei aaeaeoee. ? oae? iaoiaee aoee noai?ai?. Aia?oa oea
aaeaeiny c?iaeoe ca aeiiiiiaith ioeuenoth/eo c??ie, ui i?iythoue naith
yne?aa?noue, — oeaoa?ae.

Oe? ci?ii? c??ee aieiae?thoue /oaeiaith iniaeea?noth. E?euee?noue
na?oea, aei?ii?ithaaia oeaoa?aeith, — ?? na?oei?noue ? ia??iae ci?ie
na?oeiino? oiane?aeie ioeuenaoe?? o?nii ca’ycai?. Ciath/e ia??iae,
iiaeia ia/eneeoe na?oei?noue. A oea aeicaiey? ia/enethaaoe a?aenoaiue
aei oeaoa?aee. Ae?enii, ci??yaoe ia??iae ioeuenaoe?e ca niinoa?aaeaiiyie
ci?ie aeeneo, aecia/a?ii na?oei?noue oeaoa?aee. Iio?i aei??th?oueny
aeaeeiee aeene c??ee. Aeaeeiee aeene iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiee eaaae?aoo
a?aenoai? aei oeaoa?aee. Ii??aiyiiy aeaeeiiai aeeneo c na?oei?noth
aeicaiey? ciaeoe a?aenoaiue aei oeaoa?aee.

Oeao??aee aoee a?aee?eo? a ?ioeo aaeaeoeeao. A?aenoai? aei oeeo c??ie, a
cia/eoue, ? aei aaeaeoee, a yeeo aiie ciaoiaeyoueny, aeyaeeeny iaaaaaoi
a?eueoeie, i?ae ?ici?? iaoi? aeanii? Aaeaeoeee. Oei naiei aoei inoaoi/ii
anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeaeoeee — oea aeaeae? ci?yi? nenoaie, iiae?ai? iaoi?.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy a?aenoaiae aei aaeaeoee, e??i oeaoa?ae, aaea a ia?oeo
?iaioao canoiniaoaaeeny ? ?io? iaoiaee. Iaeiei c oaeeo iaoiae?a ?
aeei?enoiaoaaiiy iaeyne?aa?oeo c??ie a aaeaeoeoe? ye ?iaeeeaoi?a
a?aenoaiae.

Iaeyne?aa?o? c??ee, iaaooue, iathoue iaeiaeiao na?oei?noue ? a iao?e
Aaeaeoeoe?, ? a ?ioeo aaeaeoeeao, ? ii oe?e «noaiaea?oi?e» aaee/ei?
iiaeia aecia/aoe a?aenoaiue. Aea iaeyne?aa?o? c??ee iathoue a?eueoo
na?oei?noue, i?ae oeaoaeaeu, iiaeooue aooe aeaei? c aaeeeeo a?aenoaiae ?
?, oaeei /eiii, a?eueo iiaooi?i ?iaeeeaoi?ii a?aenoaiae. A?aenoai? aei
oe?eiai ?yaeo aaeaeoee aoee aecia/ai? A. Oaaaeii.

I?e?iaeii, ano?iiiie iaiaaaeeny ia?aa??eoe caeii Oaaaea aeey aaeeeeo
a?aenoaiae. Aeey oeueiai iio??aii aoei iaoe ?iaeeeaoi?e a?aenoaiae
iaaaaaoi a?eueo iiaooi?, i?ae ci?ii? c??ee — oeaoa?aee aai iaeyne?aa?o?
c??ee, ?icaeyioo? aeua.

A 1936 ?. Oaaae cai?iiiioaaa aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye oae? ?iaeeeaoi?e oe?e?
aaeaeoeee. A?i aeoiaeea c ianooiieo i??eoaaiue. ?iaeeeaoi? a?aenoaiae
iiaeiai aieiae?oe iaaiith o?eniaaiith na?oei?noth. Oiae? aeaeeiee aeene
neoaeeoeia iieaae/eeii a?aenoai?. Ie?ai? aaeaeoeee ia iiaeooue neoaeeoe
?iaeeeaoi?ii a?aenoaiae, ine?eueee na?oei?noue ie?aieo aaeaeoee aaeueie
??cia. Iai?eeeaae, iaoa Aaeaeoeea aei?ii?ith? aia?a?y ye aeanyoue
i?euey?ae?a niioeue. ? aaeaeoeee, ye? na?oyoue a nioi? ?ac neaaeee, aea
? ? oae?, ye? na?oyoue a aeanyoee ?ac?a neeuei?oa. I?eionoeii, ui ?
aa?oiy iaaea iiaii? na?oeiino? ie?aieo aaeaeoee. Oiae? a aaaaoeo
neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoee, ui i?noyoue oeny/? /eai?a, iaeyne?aa?oa aaeaeoeea c
aeoaea aaeeeith a??ia?aei?noth iiaeiia iaoe na?oei?noue a?ey oe???
aa?oiuei? iaae?, oiaoi iaoe noaiaea?oio na?oei?noue, iaeiaeiao aeey
aoaeue-yeiai aaeeeiai neoi/aiiy. Iaeyne?aa?o? aaeaeoeee o aaeeeeo
neoi/aii? ?, ioaea, aoaeiiaie, iiae?aieie oeaoa?aeai. Aeaeeiee aeene
oeeo aaeaeoee iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye iieaae/ee a?aenoaiae. *ei aeae?
a?aenoaiue, oei neaaeee aeene.

Ioaea, a einiieia?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny caeaaei?noue ci?yia aaee/eia o —
/a?aiiee cnoa z (oi/i?oa, log z) aeey iaeyne?aa?oeo aaeaeoee neoi/aiue.
Oaea caeaaei?noue ciaeaeaia, a?ao?e ?? i?yiie?i?eiee, ? oea iaae?eii
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aee?eoee Oaaaeii caeii ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo.

«Iaii?iaei?e» Anana?o

Iiaa?iaiiny aei i?iaeaie e?eoe/ii? aonoeie. ssea ae cia/aiiy e?eoe/ii?
aonoeie? Noi?ioeth?ii iaeaaaeeea?oo caaea/o iaaeyaeiai? einiieia??: yea
na?aaeiy aonoeia an?o aeae?a o?ce/ii? iaoa??? o Anana?o?? ?
iaeaieiai?oa: /e a?eueoa oey na?aaeiy aonoeia e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy aai
iaioa?

Oaeei /eiii, eaeaoueny naia aonoei? an?o aeae?a o?ce/ii? iaoa???. ??/ o
oiio, ui o ano?iiii?a ? aaaii? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui, e??i aeaeeieo
c??ie ? aaciaeo ooiaiiinoae, c?a?aieo a aaeaeoeee, iaae?oae aaeaeoee ? a
i?inoi?? i?ae ieie ? aaaaoi iaaeaeei?e aai aeoaea aaaeei
niinoa?aaeoaai?e iaoa???. Ine?eueee oyae?iiy noai?th?oueny an?ia aeaeaie
iaoa???, oi iae?e iaaeaeeii? iaoa??? a caaaeuei?e aonoei? ?a/iaeie
aaniethoii iaiao?aeiee aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iaeaooith aeieth
Anaeaiith.

Ua ?ie?a aeaaaeoeyoue oiio ano?iiiie aaaaeaee, ui Anana?o a iaea?eueoeo
ianooaaao — oea naia ie? aaeaeoee ? ?o nenoai. Aea/ath/e iaoo ci?yio
nenoaio, Aaeaeoeeo, aiie anoaiiaeee, ui a iaaeao ?? aeaeeieo iaae iaeaea
any ?a/iaeia cina?aaeaeaia a c??eao. Anueiai Aaeaeoeea i?noeoue ~200
i?euey?ae?a c??ie. Aac ? iee i?ae c??eaie aeathoue aei iane c??ie
aaniethoii iacia/io aeiaaaeo (a?ey 2%).

Caeaaaeiny, ui ? ?io? aaeaeoeee a iniiaiiio neeaaeathoueny ?c c??ie, ui
na?oyoueny, a i?ino?? i?ae aaeaeoeeaie i?aeoe/ii ii?iaei?e. Aaeaeoeee
c?a?ai? a a?oie ? neoi/aiiy ??cieo ianooaa?a, ooai?thth/e
eii??/anoi-n?o/anoo aaeeeiianooaaio no?oeoo?o Anana?oo. ?ici?? oeiiaeo
ii?iaei?o iaeanoae, a yeeo aaeaeoee iaei aai cian?i i?, aeecueei 30—40
Iie. A?aenoai? i?ae iaea?eueoeie iaae neoi/aiiyi aaeaeoee, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o aoceao eii??/anoi? no?oeoo?e, iiaeooue aooe 100—300 Iie.
A ua a?eueoeo ianooaaao iaoa??y o aeaeyae? aaeaeoee ? ?o neoi/aiue, ui
na?oeoueny, ?iciiae?eaia i?eaeecii iaeii??aeii. Oaea caaaeueia aaee/ia
ea?oeia ?iciiae?eo a i?inoi?? ci?yieo ino?ia?a — aaeaeoee.

sseiiiaa aecia/eoe ona?aaeiaio ii oaeeo aaeeeeo ianooaaao na?aaeith
aonoeio ?a/iaeie, yea iio??aia aeey ae??oaiiy einiieia?/ii? i?iaeaie?

sseui any iaoa??y ae?enii cina?aaeaeaia a aaeaeoeeao, ui na?oyoueny, oi
aeey oeueiai o?aaa i?ae?aooaaoe caaaeueia /enei aaeaeoee a aeinoaoiuei
aaeeeiio ia’?i?, iio?i aecia/eoe iano na?aaeiuei? aaeaeoeee. Iiiaeeaoe
oe? /enea iaeei ia iaeiiai, ie iaea?aeeii iiaio iano ?a/iaeie a aeaiiio
ia’?i?, a iiae?eeaoe ?? ia oeae ia’?i, iaea?aeeii na?aaeith aonoeio, ui
oe?eaaeoue ian.

Oae ano?iiiie ? iinooiaee. I?e oeueiio, ia?o ca ana, iaiao?aeii aoei
ciaeoe iane ie?aieo aaeaeoee. Iaae?eia aecia/aiiy ona?aaeiaii? ii
aaeeeeo ia’?iao aonoeie ?a/iaeie, ui aoiaeeoue a aaeaeoeee, aoei
c?iaeaii aeecueei 30 ?ie?a oiio aieeaiaenueeei ano?iiiiii ss. Ii?oii.
*eneaii? ?iaioe a oeueiio iai?yi?, aeeiiai? c oeo i??, i?aeoaa?aeeee
eiai ?acoeueoao. sseui o Anana?o? iaia? iii?oieo e?eueeinoae iaoa???
i?ae aaeaeoeeaie, yea /iai-iaaoaeue ia aeaeia, oi ? Anana?o caaaeaee
?icoe?yoeiaoueny.

I?ioa, ? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui niinoa?aaeoaai? iaie aaeaeoeee ua
aeaeaei ia ana, ui ? o Anana?o?. A?eueo oiai, iaaeaeeia iana, eiia??ii,
neeaaea? iniiaio /anoeio Anana?oo. Oaeei /eiii, aaeueie iiaeeeai, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei niinoa?aaeoaai? a oaeaneiie i?ae?ani? oci?e a?aaionueeeo
aaeaeoe/ieo na?o?a — oea eeoa iaea aeaeeia /anoeia ?noeiii? iaaeaeeii?
no?oeoo?e ie?o. iaaeaeei? iane Anana?oo iaea?aeaee iacao i?eoiaaii?
iane.

I?eoiaaia iana

?nioth/? o Anana?o? o?ea ? neoi/aiiy ?a/iaeie ano?iiiie ciaoiaeyoue a
iniiaiiio ii ?o aei?ii?ithaaiith. Oea iiaea aooe aeaeeiee niaeo? aai
?io? aeaee aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue — ana iaeii ? iciaee aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
ui aeicaieythoue ?o ?a?no?oaaoe. Naia oaeei niiniaii anoaiiaeaii, ui
aaeeea /anoeia aeaeeii? ?a/iaeie Anana?oo cina?aaeaeaia a c??eao. Ie??i
ieo ? ?ic??aeaeaiee i?aeci?yiee aaeaeoe/iee aac, iee, o?ea ieaiaoiiai
oeio iiaeeco c??ie.

I?ioa, ia a?ae an?o eini?/ieo ia’?eo?a iiaeia i?eeiyoe aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Iai?eeeaae, ?c Caie? ia iiaeia ?icaeyiooe ianeai?, aea aeoaea iaeaiuee?
aeaiaioe iiaea?eieo nenoai. A /i?i? ae??e i?eioeeiiai ia a?aeioneathoue
i?yeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iayai?noue iiae?aieo o?e aaea?oueny anoaiiaeoe
o?eueee ii ?o a?aa?oaoe?ei?e ae?? ia non?ae?a. Aaeeaaiiy oaeiai
iai?yiiai iaoiaeo i?eaaei o/aieo aei ia?aeiiaiiy, ui iani?aaae? O
Anana?o? i?noeoueny iaaaaaoi a?eueoa ?a/iaeia, i?ae oi, yea aeinooiia
i?yiei iaaeyaeai.

sse aeieeee i?aeic?e i?i ?nioaaiiy i?eoiaaii? iane? Iaeaaaeeea?o?
iaaeyaeia? aeai? i?i oea caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai. Ca aeiiiiiaith
?aae?ioaeaneii?a niinoa??aathoueny ?ooe noiooiee?a ie?aieo aaeaeoee
(ieie ? iaeaiuee? aaeaeoeee) aai ?ooo aaciaeo oia?. Oe? ia’?eoe /anoi
?ooathoueny ia a?aenoaiyo aeaeaei ca aeaeeiith iaaeath aaeaeoeee
(iae?aneaiith ianith c??ie, ui na?oyoueny), aea, caeaaaeiny a, i?yei?
iaoa??? a iii?oieo e?eueeinoyo aaea iaia?. I?ioa, ia/eneaia ca oeeie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie iana o??? aai ?ioi? aaeaeoeee, iaae?oae yei?
niinoa??aaeeny oae? ?ooe, aeyaeyeany ?iiae? ?ac a aeanyoue a?eueoa, i?ae
aecia/aia ii ?ooo c??ie ia aeaeei?e iaae? aaeaeoeee. Oea cia/eoue, ui
iaae?oae aeaeeiiai o?ea aaeaeoeee ? yeanue iaaeaeeia ei?iia, ui i?noeoue
aaee/aci? iane. Oyae?iiy oeeo ian i?ye ia iicia/a?oueny ia ?ooe c??ie
aeeaiei ona?aaeei? ei?iie ia e?ath aeaeeii? aaeaeoeee, ine?eueee ie
cia?ii, ui noa?e/ia iaieiiea ona?aaeei? naaa oyae?iiy ia noai?th?, aea
oe? iane aieeaathoue nai?i oyae?iiyi ia ?oo o?e ia ieieeoeyo ei?iie ?
ciai? ia?.

Ua a?eueo? i?eoiaai? iane ? a i?aeaaeaeoe/iiio i?inoi?? a neoi/aiiyo
aaeaeoee. A oaeeo neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoeee ?ooathoueny oaioe/ii. Oiio
ano?io?ceee nii/aoeo aei??ththoue oaeaeeino? ie?aieo aaeaeoee, a, iio?i,
i?ney ciaoiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino?, ia/eneththoue iiaio iano
neoi/aiiy, ui noai?th? caaaeueia iiea oyae?iiy, yea ?icaiieoue
aaeaeoeee, ui ?ooathoueny a iueiio. C?icoi?ei, oey iana aeeth/a? anth
?a/iaeio — ? aeaeeia, ? iaaeaeeia. ? inue aeyaey?oueny, ui ?iiae? iiaia
iana a aaaaoi aeanyoe?a ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? noia?io iano an?o aaeaeoee, ui
na?oeoueny, a neoi/aii?.

Aia?oa i?i i?eoiaaio iano caaiai?eee a 30-o ??. OO a. Oaaeoea?nueeee
ano?iiii O??oe Oea?eee, aei??thth/e ii /a?aiiiio cnoao oaeaeeino?
aaeaeoee c neoi/aiiy a noc??’? Aieinny Aa?ii?ee, iaea?aeaa ianiiae?aaiee
?acoeueoao. I?iiaiaa? oaeaeeino? oeeo aaeaeoee aeyaeeeny aeoaea aenieeie
? ia a?aeiia?aeaee caaaeuei?e ian? neoi/aiiy, aecia/ai?e ii /eneo
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aaeaeoee (oiaoi ii aeaeei?e ?a/iaei?). Oiae? Oea?eee
aenoioa ni?eeao a?iioaco, ui a neoi/aii? i?enooiy iaaeaeeia, i?eoiaaia
iana, aiia-oi ? ? i?e/eiith aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoae aaeaeoee. Aea
iaeaeeai?oei aoei oa, ui, ca?aeii ?ic?aooieai, oey iaaeaeeia iana o
aaaaoi ?ac?a ia?aaeuoaaea iano aeaeeio. Oa ae ea?oeia niinoa??aaeany ? a
aaaaoueio ?ioeo neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoee.

C oeo i?? a?iioaca i?i ?nioaaiiy iaaeaeeii? ?a/iaeie iaiaeii?aciai
i?eoyaoaaeany aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ano?iiii?/ieo iaaeyae?a, ? ia?o ca
ana, aeey iiyniaiiy iniaeeainoae ?ooo c??ie ? aaciaeo oia? ii i?a?oao a
aeeneao aaeaeoee. sseae iniiaia iana aaeaeoeee aoea cina?aaeaeaia a
c??eao, ?o i?a?oaeuei? oaeaeeino? ciaiooaaeeny a o i??o aeaeaeaiiy a?ae
oeaio?o. Iani?aaae? aiie ia o?eueee ia ciaioothoueny, aea o ?yae?
aeiaaee?a iaa?oue c?inoathoue. Oa ae naia a?aeaoaa?oueny ? a iao?e
Aaeaeoeoe?. Uia iiynieoe oea yaeua, iio??aii i?eionoeoe, ui aeaeaei ca
iaaeaie aeaeeieo iaae aaeaeoeee oyaiaoueny iaoa??y, ui ia na?oeoueny,
oaiia. Cae/aeii ?? iaceaathoue oaiiei aaei. C eiai iae?eii iana
a?aaionueeeo ni??aeueieo nenoai oeio *oiaoeueeiai Oeyoo aeyaey?oueny
??aiith i?eaeecii 1012 ianai Niioey, oiae? ye ?a/iaeie, oeeaaeaiiai a
c??eao, o aeae?eueea ?ac?a iaioa.

A 70-o ??. iaoiaeaie ?aioaai?anueei? ano?iiii?? aoa a?aee?eoee aa?y/ee
i?aeaaeaeoe/iee aac, iniaeeai iii?oiee a neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoee. Eiai
oaiia?aoo?a aeinyaa? aeanyoe?a i?eueeii?a a?aaeon?a. Ii cia/aiith
oaiia?aoo?e iiaeia ioe?ieoe oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aa?oaoe?eiiai iiey, a yeiio
ciaoiaeeoueny aac, a ioaea, ? iiaio iano ?a/iaeie, ui ? aeaea?aeii
oeueiai iiey. Aaea ia?o? ?acoeueoaoe ?aioaai?anueeeo iaaeyae?a aa?y/iai
aaco a neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoee i?aeoaa?aeeee i?enooi?noue a ieo i?eoiaaii?
iane, ui ia aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo ie?aieo aaeaeoee.

Ua iaeio i?yio aeac?aeo ia i?eoiaaio iano aaeaeiny iaea?aeaoe i?e
aea/aii? ?ooo I?noeaai? a?oie aaeaeoee. (Aei I?noeaai? a?oie aoiaeyoue
iaoa Aaeaeoeea ? ?? iaeaeeae/? non?aee.) A na?aaeei? 80-o ??. ca
iane?aeeaie aeoaea oni?oii? i?n?? eini?/ii? ?io?a/a?aiii? iana?aaoi???
HPAC (IRAS) aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?oo I?noeaai? a?oie a i?inoi??
iai?aaeaiee a oo noi?iio, aea cina?aaeaeaia aaeeea e?euee?noue aaeaeoee.
A oeueiio iaia? i?/iai aeeaiiai, aaeaea ca caeiiii oyae?iiy aaeeea iana
iiaeiia i?eoyaaoe ioi/oth/? a?oie aaeaeoee. Aea ci??yia oaeaee?noue ?ooo
aeyaeeany aeoaea aenieith (a?eueo 600ei/n), uia ?? iiaeia aoei iiynieoe
a?aa?oaoe?eiith ae??th niinoa?aaeoaaieo aaeaeoee. Oea na?ae/eei i?i
i?enooi?noue i?eoiaaii? iane i?ae aaeaeoeeaie.

Ia?aoo?, iaaeyaee neaaeeo aaeaeoee, i?iaaaeai? ca aeiiiiiaith /ooeeaeo
aeaoaeoi??a aei?ii?ithaaiiy – ICN-iao?eoeue, — aeicaieeee ia i?inoi
i?aeoaa?aeeoe iayai?noue i?eoiaaii? iane, aea ? aeinoaoiuei oi/ii
iicia/eoe ?? ?iciiae?e a neoi/aiiyo aaeaeoee. Oeae iaoiae iaceaathoue
a?aa?oaoe?eiei e?icoaaiiyi, ?aeath yeiai aia?oa aenoioa Oea?eee ua a
1937 ?. Iaoiae oeae caniiaaiee ia oiio, ui a?aa?oaoe?y neoi/aiiy
aaeaeoee ae?? ye cae?ath/a e?ica. Aiia aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe cia?aaeaiiy
neaaeeo aaeaeoee (ye i?aaeei, 22-28 ci?yii? aaee/eie), ui ciaoiaeyoueny
aeaeaei ca naiei neoi/aiiyi. I?e oeueiio cia?aaeaiiy naieo aaeaeoee
noathoue yne?aa?oa ? niioai?ththoueny, aeoyaoth/enue a aeoae ??cii?
aeiaaeeie c oeaio?ii, ni?aiaaeath/ei c oeaio?ii neoi/aiiy. Aiae?coth/e
oae? cia?aaeaiiy, iiaeia a?aeiiaeoe ?iciiae?e aonoeie a «e?ic?», oiaoi a
neoi/aii? aaeaeoee. Aeyaeeiny, ui noai?thth/a oyae?iiy iaoa??y
oyaiaoueny aeaeaei ca iaae? aeaeeii? /anoeie neoi/aiiy.

?nioaaiiy i?eoiaaii? iane ea?aeeiaeueii i?iy? ioe?ieo caaaeueii?
ona?aaeiaii? aonoeie an?o ian Anana?oo. Iiaeeeai, ? i?eoiaaia iana ?
i?ae neoi/aiiyie aaeaeoee. ?? ciaoiaeeoe iniaeeai aaaeei. Aea yeui oea
oae, oi ia aeeeth/aii, ui iiaia na?aaeiy aonoeia ??aia e?eoe/i?e aonoei?
aai iaa?oue aeaui a?eueoa. Oaeei /eiii, iiee ia iiaeia neacaoe, /e
a?eueoa ?noeiia aonoeia an?o aeae?a ?a/iaeie o Anana?o?, i?ae e?eoe/ia
aonoeia, /e i?. Cia/eoue, ie iiee ia iiaeaii neacaoe aacoiiaii, /e aoaea
Anaeaia ?icoe?yoeny iaiaiaaeaii aai ae a iaeaooiueiio aiia ii/ia
noeneaoeny.

*ei ? i?eoiaaia iana? O?aaa i?yii neacaoe, ui o?ce/ia i?e?iaea
i?eoiaaii? iane iiee iaynia. *anoeiai oey iana iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia
aaee/aciei /eneii c??ie, ui neaai na?oyoueny ? oiio i?aeoe/ii iaaeaeeieo
caeaeaea, aai ?ioeo iaaanieo, ui ia na?oyoueny, oae. I?ioa a??ia?aei?oa,
ui i?eoiaaia iana ? nai???aeiei ?ae?eoii oeo o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye?
i?io?eaee a ia?o? ieo? ?icoe?aiiy Anana?oo. I?eoiaaia iana, iiaeeeai, ?
noeoii?noth aaeeeiai /enea aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie, ui aieiae?thoue ianith
niieith ? neaaiaca?iiae?th/eo ?c cae/aeiith ?a/iaeiith. Oai??y
ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy oaeeo /anoeiie. Ieie iiaeooue aooe,
iai?eeeaae, iaeo?eii, yeui aiie aieiae?thoue ianith niieith.

ssea ae i?e?iaea iaaeaeeii? ?a/iaeie? Iiaeeeai, i?eoiaaia iana
noai?th?oueny ia a?aee?eoeie iiee aeaiaioa?ieie /anoeieaie. Ni?aaa a
oiio ui, ca?aeii no/anii? oai??? aa?y/iai Anana?oo, iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaa iana aa??ii?a (i?ioii?a ? iaeo?ii?a — /anoeiie, c yeeo
neeaaeathoueny aoiii? yae?a an?o o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a) ia ia?aaeuo? 10%
a?ae iane, iaiao?aeii? aeey e?eoe/ii? aonoeie, oiaoi o??? aonoeie, yeee
oai?aoe/ii iiaeiai aieiae?oe Anana?o. Oiio caeeoa?oueny aai i?eionoeoe,
ui o Anana?o? e??i cae/aeii? aa??iiii? (aoiiii?) iane i?noeoueny ua
aeoaea aaaaoi ?a/iaeie, ui ia neeaaea?oueny c aoii?a, aai aaaaeaoe, ui
ii?iaei?e i?ino?? (aaeooi) aieiae?? oaeeie aeanoeainoyie, ui aiineoue
na?e aianie a iiaio aonoeio iaoa???. O i?eioeei? iaaa??iiia i?eoiaaia
iana iiaea aooe oeeaaeaia a eaaeeo aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeieao (c ianith a
i?eueeiie ?ac iaioa iane niieith aeaeo?iia), ?nioaaiiy yeeo ne?aeo? ?o
no/ani?e o?ce/i?e oai??? aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie. Iiooee oaeeo /anoeiie
iineeaii aaaeooueny ia iaeiiaooi?oeo i?enei?thaa/ao, aea iiee ia
oa?i/aeeny oni?oii.

I?ioa, /anoeia i?eoiaaii? iane iiaeeeai iieyaa? a o?eao, ui
neeaaeathoueny ?c cae/aeieo aoii?a. Niinoa??aath/e ?a/iaeio, ui
na?oeoueny, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui c??ee, ui i?noyoue iniiaio
/anoeio aeaeeii? iaoa???, — oea eeoa iaaaeeea /anoeia iaa?oue a?ae
aa??iiii? ?a/iaeie. Cia/eoue o Anana?o? iaiaaii aaaaoi iaaeaeeieo ? ia
a?aee?eoeo iiee ia’?eo?a aa??iiii? i?e?iaee, oaeaeoa ca ana aaciaeo o?e
c ianith, i?ii?aeiith i?ae ianith c??ie ? iaaaeeeeo ieaiao (?o
iaceaathoue «oaiieie» ea?eeeaie). Oai?aoe/ii oaeeie ia’?eoaie iiaeooue
aooe /i?i? ae??e ianith aeecueei noa niiy/ieo. Iiaeeeai, ui oe?
iaaeaeei? ia’?eoe — /anoeia ?a/iaeie, ui caeeoeeany a?ae aiioe ooai?aiiy
aaeaeoee, aai caeeoee aaiethoe?? c??ie, ui ?nioaaee ua aei ia?iaeaeaiiy
aaeaeoee. Oi/a oaeeo oaiieo o?e iaa?yae /e aenoa/eoue aeey iiyniaiiy
ia?aaeieno i?eoiaaii? iane, ?o iiooee aeoeaii i?iaiaeyoueny.
Ia?niaeoeaieie a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? ?iaioe ii a?aa?oaoe?eiiio
i?e?ie?icoaaiith.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e aoaeoe a?aa?oaoe?eiiai i?e?ie?icoaaiiy i?eueeii?a c??ie
a Iaaaeeaiiaeo Oia?ao, ano?iiiie ca?a?no?oaaee aeae?eueea aeiaaee?a
oa?aeoa?ii? ci?ie yne?aaino? aeaeaeeo neaaeeo c??ie. Oea iiaea aooe
iia’ycaii c ?nioaaiiyi oaiieo ia’?eo?a a aaei iaoi? Aaeaeoeee. I?ioa c
iaaeyae?a iiee aaaeei inoaoi/ii aecia/eoe, yeo /anoeio iane iaaeaeeii?
?a/iaeie aiie neeaaeathoue.

Aeniiaie

Einiieia?y oaeaeei ?icaeaa?oueny. Aaaaoi iiaeo ?ia?o a oe?e iaeano?
c’yaey?oueny o a?aee?eoiio ae?ooe? inoaii?ie ?ieaie. Aea ?iceacaoe i?i
an? iaiiaeeeai, eiaeia c ieo – oaia aeey ie?aii? ?iaioe.

Nueiaiaei? iiaeia aeinoaoiuei oiaaiaii oeeanoe: Anana?o a iniiaiiio
caiiaiaiee iaaeaeeiith ?a/iaeiith. Aiii ooai?th? i?ioyaei?noue aaeaeoee
? caiiaith? i?aeaaeaeoe/iee i?ino??, eiioeaio?oth/enue a neoi/aiiyo
aaeaeoee.

Ioaea, ni?iae ?ic?a?aoeny, c /iai ae neeaaea?oueny Anana?o, i?eaaee o
iao /an aei aaeueie oe?eaai? neooaoe??. Ia ii/aoeo OOI noi??//y
aeyaey?oueny, ui an? ano?iiii?/i? ia’?eoe, ui aea/aeeny aeioaia?,
neeaaeathoue eeoa iacia/io /anoeo eini?/ii? ?a/iaeie. Oea ni?aaaei?e
aeeeee ethaenueeiio ciaiith. Caeeoa?oueny niiae?aaoeny, ui iia?oi?
iaoiaee ano?iiii??, oae?, ye iaoiae a?aa?oaoe?eiiai i?e?ie?icoaaiiy,
aeicaieyoue a iaeaooiueiio i?ieeoe na?oei ia caoiiethth/o ? caaaaeeiao
i?iaeaio iaaeaeeii? ?a/iaeie a iao?e Aaeaeoeoe? ? o Anana?o?.

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