Eaaca?e – naia a?aaeath/a caaaaeea ano?io?ceee

A 1963 ?. aia?eeainueeee ano?iiii aieeaiaenueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy I. Oi?aeo
c?iaea iaeia c iaea?eueoeo a?aee?eoo?a a ano?iiii?? OO a. Oea
a?aee?eooy, i?ioa ia? naith ia?aae?noi??th. Aeecueei 1960 ?. iaaaeeea
e?euee?noue ?aae?iaeaea?ae aoei aeoaea iaae?eia ioioiaeiaii ?c c??eaie,
ui aoei iiaiith ianiiae?aaieith. Aaeaea aeioaia? eini?/i?
?aae?iaeaea?aea ioioiaeithaaeeny aai c aaeaeoeeaie, aai c ooiaiiinoyie .
I/?eoaai? iioiee ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaii? iaa?oue a?ae iaeaeeae/eo c??ie
iiaeii? aooe oe?ae iacia/i?. A oei /anii ioioiaeiai? ?c c??eaie
?aae?iaeaea?aea aoee aeineoue ?ioaineai?. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui
ano?iiiie-iioeee c?aco ae caoe?eaaeeeny oeeie c??eaie. I. Oieaeo
iaea?aeaa ? aeine?aeea niaeo? oaei? aeineoue yne?aai? c??ee 13-e
aaee/eie, ioioiaeiaii? c ?ioaineaiei ?aae?iaeaea?aeii 3N 273. Oeae
niaeo? i?noea e?i?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ye? nii/aoeo i? c yeeie
eaai?aoi?ieie e?i?yie ioioiaeieoe ia aaeaaaeiny. Aaeeea ae aoa iiaeea
ano?iiii?a, eiee Oi?aeo c iiaiith aeinoia??i?noth ioioiaeiea oe? e?i?? c
iniiaieie e?i?yie aiaeith na??? Aaeueia?a, aeiaaeeie oaeeue yeeo ci?uai?
a /a?aiio noi?iio ia ia/oaaio ca oeo ae?a aaee/eio, a?aeiia?aeio
oaeaeeino? aeaeaeaiiy aeaea?aea 42000 ei/n! Oaea oaeaee?noue aeaeaeaiiy
c aaeeeith a??ia?aei?noth icia/a?, ui ia’?eo 3N 273 ciaoiaeeoueny a
Iaoaaaeaeoeoe?, a niinoa?aaeoaaiee /a?aiiee cnoa niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e
iaoiiaeaiee ?icoe?aiiyi Anana?oo. Canoiniaoth/e caeii Oaaaea iaea?aeeii
a?aenoaiue aei oeueiai aeaea?aea aeecueei aeaio i?euey?ae?a na?oeiaeo
?ie?a. C oaeeie a?aenoaiyie ano?iiiie ua oiae? ia cono??/aeeny. Oei
a?eueoa aeeaii, ui, ia aeeaey/enue ia a?iiaaei?noue a?aenoai?, ia’?eo 3N
273 aeineoue yne?aaee. Ca?aene aeo?ea?, ui na?oei?noue 3N 273 i?eaeecii
a noi ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? na?oei?noue iaoi? Aaeaeoeee, a?aaionueeith
ci?yiith nenoaiith, ui aaaaea?oueny. C ia’?eoaie oaei? aeniei?
na?oeiino? ano?iiiie oiae? ua ia cono??/aeeny. Ne?ae iii?oeoe, ui aeeai?
aeanoeaino? ia’?eoo 3N 273 aoee a?aee?eo? o?eueee caaaeyee oiio, ui a?i
aeyaeany ?aae?iaeaea?aeii. Ia iaa? ? aaaaoi oeny/ c??i/ie 13-e aaee/eie,
? na?aae ieo ia’?eo 3N 273, aaaaoie?aoii iio?aieyth/ee a iie? ci?o
iioe/ieo oaeaneii?a ? aeiaa? ?iee ??oo/a i?/ei ia i?eaa?oath/ee aei naaa
oaaae. C?aco ae i?ney c’ynoaaiiy i?e?iaee iaoaaaeaeoeee 3N 273 aaoi?
oe??? noaoo? i?eeoia aei ia?aaeienaeueiiai aeniiaeo, ui aeene 3N 273
iiaea i?iyoeny c /anii. ?aaeyinuee? ano?iiiie A.N.Oa?ia ? TH.I.Ao?aiia
?aoaeueii aeine?aeaeoaaee noa?? oioia?ao?? iaaa, ia ye? aeiaaeeiai
iio?aieya oeae ia’?eo. Oe? oioia?ao?? caa??aaeeny a «neeyi?e
a?ae?ioaoe?» Aea?aeaaiiai Ano?iiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. Ooa?iaa?aa.
?acoeueoaoe ia?aaa?oeee iaeni?eea?o? i/?eoaaiiy: 3N 273 i?iya na?e aeene
ca aeae?eueea ?ie?a iaeaea ia oe?eo ci?yio aaee/eio, oiaoi i?eaeecii a
2.5 ?ace! Iacaaa?ii oea a?aee?eooy ?aaeyinueeeo o/aieo aoei
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ia a?eueo aaaaoiio iaaeyaeiaiio iaoa??ae? a NOA.

A?aee?eooy ci?iiino? 3N 273 aoei ae?enia ia?aaeienaeueiei. Aeiiei?
ci?ii?noue ano?iiiie ciaoiaeeee ? aea/aee o c??ie ??cieo oei?a. Aea ae,
caeaaaeiny, 3N 373 — oea aaeaeoeea, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?eeueeii?a
c??ie, eiaeia c yeeo, cae/aeii, iiaeiia aei?ii?ithaaoe iacaeaaeii. Ioaea
i?i ci?ii?noue «caeaaeaeaiiai» ? ona?aaeiaiiai ca /anii aei?ii?ithaaiiy
oaei? aaee/acii? e?eueeino? c??ie ia iiaei aooe ? iiae! Oa ana ae
ci?ii?noue, ? i?eoiio cia/ia, aoea a iayaiino?! C oiai i?inoiai oaeoo,
ui oa?aeoa?iee /an ci?ie iioieo (a, ioaea, na?oeiino?) aoa a?ey 1 ?ieo,
c i/aaeaei?noth aeo?eaei, ui e?i?ei? ?ici??e aei?ii?ithth/i? iaeano? ia
ia?aaeuothoue 1 na?oeiaee ??e — aaee/eia, i?e/aiii iaea aeey aaeaeoee.
Ca?aene ne?aeoaaa aeniiaie, ui aei?ii?iththoue ia c??ee, a uinue ?ioa.
A?aeiinii oeueiai «?ioiai» iiaeia aoei o?eueee neacaoe, ui oea ia’?eo,
aei iaaii? i??e aeecueeee ii nai?e i?e?iae? yae?ai naeoa?oianueeeo
aaeaeoee, aea o?eueee a oeny/? ?ac iiaooi?oa ? aeoeai?oa. Aei ?a/?,
iii?oeii, ui ?noi?e/ii ci?ii?noue aeeneo yaea? naeoa?oianueeeo aaeaeoee
aoea a?aee?eoa i?ci?oa, a naia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo aaeaeoee a cia/i?e
i??? noeioethaaeiny aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia’?eo?a, nii??aeiaieo ii nai?e
i?e?iae? 3N 273 ? «eaaca??a», ui iaea?aeaee iacao, “eaac?ci?yi?
?aae?iaeaea?aea” («eaace-ci?yi?» ia’?eoe).

A?aenoaiue aei eaaca??a

O i??o iaeiie/aiiy aeaieo iaaeyae?a a?eueo?noue ano?iiii?a i?eeoea aei
aeniiaeo, ui eaaca?e aeae? a?ae ian, i?ae aoaeue-ye? ?io? ia’?eoe,
aeinooii? iaaeyaeai. Aea iaaaeeea /anoeia ano?iiii?a caoaa?aeaeoaaea, ui
iaeia?aeiieea?o? aeai? iaaeyae?a aiai?youe i?i i?inoi?iao aeecuee?noue
eaaca??a ? ia aeoaea aeaeaeeo aaeaeoee.

*a?aiiee cnoa

A?eueo?noue eaaca??a ?ioaineaii aei?ii?ith? ?aae?ioaee?. Eiee ano?iiiie
oi/ii aecia/eee iieiaeaiiy oeeo ?aae?iaeaea?ae ia oioia?ao?yo,
iaea?aeaieo o aeaeeiiio na?oe?, aiie ciaeoee c??eiiiae?ai? ia’?eoe.

Uia anoaiiaeoe i?e?iaeo aeeaieo iaaanieo o?e, noioia?aooaaee ?o niaeo?.
? iiaa/eee cian?i ianiiae?aaia! Oe? “c??ee” iaee niaeo?, ??cei
a?aei?iiee a?ae an?o ?ioeo c??ie. Niaeo?e aoee aaniethoii iaciaeiieie. O
a?eueoino? eaaca??a aiie ia i?noeee ia o?eueee aeia?a a?aeiieo ?
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey cae/aeieo c??ie e?i?e aiaeith, a ieo acaaae? c ia?oiai
iiaeyaeo ia iiaeia aoei ciaeoe aeiaei?e e?i?? iaa?oue yeiai-iaaoaeue
?ioiai o?i?/iiai aeaiaioa. I?aoethth/ee a NOA iieiaeee aieeaiaenueeee
ano?io?cee I.Oi?aeo c’ynoaaa, ui e?i?? a niaeo?ao aeeaieo aeaea?ae
iaai?ciaii? eeoa oiio, ui aiie neeueii ci?uai? a /a?aiio iaeanoue
niaeo?o, a iani?aaae? oea e?i?? aeia?a a?aeiieo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a
(?ai?oa anueiai aiaeith).

I?e/eia cnoao niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e eaaca??a aoea i?aaeiaoii aaeeeeo
iaoeiaeo aeeneon?e, o ?acoeueoao? yeeo i?eai?/oth/a a?eueo?noue
ano?io?cee?a i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui /a?aiiee cnoa niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e
iia’ycaiee ?c caaaeueiei ?icoe?aiiyi Iaoaaaeaeoeee.

A niaeo?? ia’?eo?a 3N273 ? 3N48 /a?aiiee cnoa aeinyaa? iaaoaaei?
aaee/eie. Cnoa e?i?e aei /a?aiiiai e?ioey niaeo?o iiaea aooe iciaeith
aeaeaeaiiy aeaea?aea a?ae niinoa??aa/a. *ei oaeaeoa a?aeaeaey?oueny
aeaea?aei na?oea, oei a?eueoa /a?aiiee cnoa a eiai niaeo??.

Oa?aeoa?iee, ui a niaeo?? i?aeoe/ii an?o aaeaeoee (a aeey aeaeaeeo
aaeaeoee oea i?aaeei ia ia? aeiaeiiai aeeeth/aiiy) e?i?? a niaeo??
caaaeaee ci?uai? aei eiai /a?aiiiai e?ioey. *a?aiiee cnoa i?iii?oe?eiee
a?aenoai? aei aaeaeoeee.

Oaeaee?noue aeaeaeaiiy

O iaeaeaeueoeo c a?aeiieo aei oeeo aaeaeoee /a?aiiee cnoa aaeueie
aaeeeee. A?aeiia?aei? eiio oaeaeeino? aeaeaeaiiy aei??ththoueny
aeanyoeaie oeny/ e?eiiao??a a naeoiaeo. Aea o ia’?eoo 3N48 /a?aiiee cnoa
ia?aaa?oea an? ?aei?aee. Aeeoei, ui a?i ianaoueny a?ae Caie? c
oaeaee?noth o?eueee i?eaeecii oaea?/? iaioa oaeaeeino? na?oea! sseui
aaaaeaoe, ui oeae ia’?eo i?aeei?y?oueny caaaeueiiio caeiio /a?aiiiai
cnoao, eaaei ia/eneeoe, ui a?aenoaiue a?ae Caie? aei ia’?eoo 3N48 ??aia
3,78 ie?ae. na?oeiaeo ?ie?a! Iai?eeeaae, ca 8 1/3 oaeeei i?ii?iue na?oea
aeieaoeoue aei Niioey, ca 4 ?iee – aei iaeaeeae/i? c??ee. A ooo iaeaea 4
ie?ae.?ie aacia?a?ai? iaaeno??ie? iieueioe – /an, ii??aiyiiee c
o?eaae?noth aeeooy iaoi? ieaiaoe.

Aeey ia’?eoo 3N196 a?aenoaiue, oaeiae ciaeaeaia ii /a?aiiiio cnoao,
aeeoea ??aiith 12 ie?ae. na?oeiaeo ?ie?a, oiaoi ie oeiaeee i?ii?iue
na?oea, yea aoei iineaia aei ian ua oiae?, eiee i? Caie?, i? Niioey ia
?nioaaei! Ia’?eo 3N196 aeoaea oaeaeeee – eiai oaeaee?noue aeaeaeaiiy ii
i?iiaith ci?o aeinyaa? 200 oeny/ e?eiiao??a a naeoiaeo.

A?e eaaca??a

Ca no/anieie ioe?ieaie, a?ee eaaca??a aei??ththoueny i?euey?aeaie ?ie?a.
Ca oeae /an eiaeiee eaaca? aei?ii?ith? aaee/acio aia?a?th. Iai iaa?aeii?
i?ioeane, ye? iiaee a neoaeeoe i?e/eiith oaeiai aia?aiaeae?eaiiy. sseui
i?eionoeoe, ui ia?aae iaie iaaec??ea, a ye?e “cai?y?” aiaeaiue, oi ??
iana iiaeiia a i?euey?ae ?ac ia?aaeuoaaoe iano Niioey. Oei /anii no/ania
oai?aoe/ia ano?io?ceea aeiaiaeeoue, ui i?e ian? a?eueo i?ae a 100 ?ac?a
ia?aaeuoth/i? niiy/io, c??ea iaieio/a ao?a/a? no?ee?noue ?
?iciaaea?oueny ia ?yae o?aaiaio?a.

C a?aeiieo iei? eaaca??a, caaaeueia /enei yeeo a?eueoa 10 000,
iaeaeeae/ee aeaeaeaiee ia 260 000 000 na?oeiaeo ?ie?a, iaeaeaeueoee – ia
15 ie?ae. na?oeiaeo ?ie?a. Eaaca?e, iaaooue, iaenoa??o? c ia’?eo?a,
niinoa?aaeoaaieo iaie, ine?eueee c a?aenoai? a i?euey?aee na?oeiaeo
?ie?a cae/aei? aaeaeoeee ia aeaei? i? a iaeei oaeaneii. I?ioa oea “aeeaa
ieioea” iiee ui a/eiaii iac?icoi?ei iai. I?e?iaea eaaca??a aeioaia?
iiai?noth ia c’yniaaia.

Iaaecae/aeia na?oei?noue

I?aeei?yth/enue oiio ae caeiio einiieia?/iiai aeaeaeaiiy, ui ?
aaeaeoeee, aeaea?aea 3N273 ? 3N48 nai? ii nia? neeueii a?ae??ciythoueny
a?ae cae/aeieo aaeaeoee, iiae?aieo iao?e Aaeaeoeoe?. Ia?o ca ana a?aaea?
?o iaaecae/aeia na?oei?noue, a nioi? ?ac ia?aaeuoth/a na?oei?noue iaoi?
Aaeaeoeee.

Caeaaaeiny a, ia’?eoe, oae? aeaeae? a?ae Caie?, iiaeii? aooe aeinooiieie
eeoa niinoa??aa/o, ica?i?iiio iaeiiaooi?oeie no/anieie oaeaneiiaie.
Iani?aaae?, iai?eeeaae, ia’?eo 3N273 iiaeia ciaeoe a noc??’? Aieinny
aa?ii?ee ye c??i/eo 12,6 ci?yii? aaee/eie. Oae? c??ee aeinooii? iaa?oue
ethaeoaeuenueeei oaeaneiiai.

Oa?iiei ? ? oie oaeo, ui ca nai?ie ?ici??aie eaaca?e yaii iaioa
aaeaeoee: aaeaea aiie aeaeyaeathoue ye oi/eia? aeaea?aea na?oea, oiae?
ye iaa?oue iaeaeaeueo? aaeaeoeee noiae? ia ?icieo? ieyie, ui na?oyoueny.

Aeaea?aei aia?a??

sseeie ae aeaoeeaeie ii iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaeii? aooe oe?
aeaea?aea na?oea, yeui c a?aenoai? a i?euey?aee na?oeiaeo ?ie?a aiie
caeathoueny oaeeie yne?aaeie!

Iaeaaae/a ieoaiiy, iia’ycaia c eaaca?aie, — oea iiyniaiiy a?aaionueeiai
aeae?eaiiy aia?a??. sseui eaaca?e ? ni?aaae? ciaoiaeyoueny ia
einiieia?/ii aaeeeeo a?aenoaiyo a?ae ian (oiaoi /a?aiiee cnoa ae?enii
iia’ycaiee c ?icoe?aiiyi Anana?oo), oi iio??aii iiynieoe, ye aeieea? oey
iaeneeuei?oa na?oei?noue. Caeeoa?oueny caaaaeeith, yea ae aeaea?aei
aia?a?? i?aeo?eio? na?/aiiy eaaca?a. ssnia iaeia, ui yeee ae ia aoei oea
aeaea?aei, cina?aaeaeaiee a?i o a?aeiinii iaaaeee?e iaeano? i?inoi?o,
oiaoi aeinoaoiuei eiiiaeoiee. A oea naia ii nia? aaea aiai?eoue i?i oa,
ui iaoai?ci aeae?eaiiy aia?a?? a eaaca?? aaeueie iacae/aeiee.

Aaaaoi ano?io?cee?a aaaaeathoue, ui eaaca?e iia’ycai? c yae?aie
aaeaeoee, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaaiiio nooiai? aaiethoe??. Iai?eeeaae,
yae?i aaeaeoeee I87 iaaaaaoi yne?aa?oa ca ?? ciai?oi? /anoeie. Aea ?
aaeaeoeee ? ?ioeo oei?a, oae caai? naeoa?oianueee aaeaeoeee, o yeeo
eiio?ano yne?aaiai yae?a c ?aooith neaaina?oii? /anoeie ae?aaeaiee ua
a?eueo ??cei. Iiaeeeai, eaaca?e – ianooiiee nooi?iue oe???
iine?aeiaiino?. sseui aiie ?icoaoiaai? aeoaea aeaeaei, oi ie aa/eii
o?eueee ?o yne?aaa yae?i, neaaea ae iaieiiea (yeui aiia acaaae? ?)
i?inoi cian?i ia aeaeia.

Aeneiaeth?oueny oaeiae i?eiouaiiy, ui, ye ? a aaeaeoeoe? I87, aeae?eaiiy
aia?a?? a eaaca?ao, iiaeeeai, iia’ycaii c iayai?noth iaaeianeaieo /i?ieo
ae??. Ii/eiath/e c na?aaeeiith 70-o ?ie?a ?aeay i?i oa, ui a?aaionueea
aeae?eaiiy aia?a?? a eaaca?ao iiynith?oueny /i?ieie ae??aie, i?eaeaaea
aaeeeo iiioey?i?noue.

I?ioean aeae?eaiiy aia?a?? oaae iia’ycothoue c ?iaioith nee oyae?iiy, a
?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca?a – oea neio?io?iiia aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie a iaai?oiiio iie?.

Aeaye? ano?iiiie aaaaeathoue, ui iioiee aia?a?? a?ae eaaca??a cia/ii
ieae/a, ine?eueee a?aenoai? aei ieo neeueii ia?aa?eueoai?. sseui
eaaca?e, neaae?ii, a 100 ?ac?a aeeae/a aei ian, i?ae ie aeoia?ii, oi ie
caaeuo?ii a 10 000 ?ac?a ?o na?oei?noue i?e ?ic?aooieao iiooaeiino?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ii ?o niinoa?aaeoaai?e yne?aaino?. Ano?iiiie, ye?
aeio?eiothoueny oe??? oi/ee ci?o, aeoiaeyoue c oiai oaeoo, ui eaaca?e
/anoi aeaei? ia iaa? ii?yae c iaeoey?ieie (iacae/aeieie) aaeaeoeeaie.
Oe? aaeaeoeee, oi/a ? aeaui iacae/aei? ii nai?e no?oeoo??, iathoue
cae/aei? /a?aii? cnoae, yeei a?aeiia?aeathoue oaeaeeino? aeaeaeaiiy,
??ai? aeae?eueeii a?aenioeai a?ae oaeaeeino? na?oea. A eaaca?e,
?icoaoiaai? ia iaa? iiaeeco a?ae ieo, iathoue /a?aii? cnoae a 10 – 20
?ac?a a?eueoa!

sseui eaaca?e ciaoiaeyoueny ii non?aenoao c aeineoue aeecueeeie
aaeaeoeeaie, i?ae iiynieoe ?o aaee/aci? /a?aii? cnoae? ?aeeia ?icoiia
iiyniaiiy – aoaeo Aeiiea?a, aea /iio ie caaaeaee niinoa??aa?ii eeoa
/a?aiiee cnoa (aeaeaeaiiy) ? i?eiee – o?ieaoiaa (iaaeeaeaiiy)? ? ye
?a/iaeia iiaea aooe aeeeiooa (caaaeaee a iai?yi? a?ae ian!) c oaeeie
aaee/acieie oaeaeeinoyie ? caa?aaoe i?e oeueiio oi?io ?aeeiiai ia’?eoo?

A?aeiia?aeue na?ae/eoue: oea i?eiio iaa?aeiii. Ca 15 ?ie?a ia aaeaeiny
aecia/eoe i? a?aenoai? aei eaaca??a, i? ?o i?e?iaeo ? aeaea?aea ?o
eieinaeueii? aia?a??. Iiaeeeai, caaaaeea eaaca??a oa?oue a nia? eeth/
aei yei?nue iiai? iaeano? ano?io?ceee, ye?nue iia? iiaeeeaino?
aeieeiaiiy aaeeeeo /a?aiieo cnoa?a a iaa?aeiieo iai neooaoe?yo aai iia?
niiniae aaia?aoe?? a?aaionueeeo aia?a?e, yeui eaaca?e ciaoiaeyoueny
aeoaea aeaeaei. Niiae?aaoeiaiiny, ui a iiaeaeueo? ?iee iai aaeanoueny
iiaeieaoe oe? o?oaeiiu? a iiyniaii? i?e?iaee aeaeaeaieo iaeanoae
Anana?oo, a yeeo ?icoaoiaai? eaac?ci?yi? ia’?eoe. A ca?ac ie iiaeaii
o?eueee neacaoe: iaaooue, oea i?e?iaei?, a ia ooo/i? ano?iiii?/i?
ia’?eoe, ine?eueee iiee ia c?icoi?ei, ye oeea?e?caoe?y iiaea a “c?iaeoe”
eaaca?.

Ci?ii?noue ? ?ici??

Ua iaeia caaaaeea eaaca??a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeaye? c ieo i?iythoue
naith yne?aa?noue c ia??iaeii a aeae?eueea ae?a, oeaei?a aai ?ie?a,
oiae? ye cae/aei? aaeaeoeee ia ciaoiaeyoue oaeeo aa??aoe?e.

Iineianuee? ano?iiiie A.N.Oa?ia ? TH.I.Ao?aiia ae??oeee c’ynoaaoe, ye
iiaiaeeeeny o ieioeiio “aeeai? c??ee”. Aiie oaaaeii i?iaeyioee 73
iaaaoeae, ia yeeo c 1896 ii 1963 ?. aoa a?aeia?aaeaiee ia’?eo 3N273.
Aeniiaie, aei yeiai i?eeoee ?aaeyinuee? o/ai?, iiaeia aaaaeaoe oe?eeii
aeinoia??iei. A a?i a?aaeath/ee. Aeyaeeiny, ui 3N273 i?iya naith
yne?aa?noue! ? ia o?ioe, a aeoaea iii?oii – a?ae 12,0 aei 12,7 ci?yieo
aaee/ei, oiaoi iaeaea a aeaa ?ace. Aoaaee aeiaaeee (iai?eeeaae, a
ia??iae c 1927 ii 1929 ?.), eiee ca iao?eaaeee /an iio?e aei?ii?ithaaiiy
a?ae 3N273 c?inoaa a 3 – 4 ?ace! ?iiae? ca aeae?eueea ae?a ia’?eo
i?iyany ia 0,2 – 0,3 ci?yii? aaee/eie. I?e oeueiio ciai?, iioe/ii, ia
a?aeaoaaeiny i?yeeo ?ioeo ?noioieo ci?i – “aeeaia c??ea” iaci?iii
caeaaaeany c??eith, oi/a ? ci?iiith. Iiae?aia yaeua i?ci?oa aoei
ciaeaeaii ? o ia’?eoo 3N48.

A?aeii? oeny/? ci?iieo c??ie, ui c ??cieo i?e/ei ci?iththoueny. Aea
na?aae cae/aeieo aaeaeoee ia aoei ca?a?no?iaaii aeiaeii? ci?iii?. Oi/a
aaaaoi ooi c ieo i?noeoue oeny/? ? i?eueeiie ci?iieo c??ie, eieeaaiiy ?o
na?oeiino? a?aeaoaathoueny a ??ciia?e ? oae? ia?noioi? aeey aaeaeoeee a
oe?eiio, ui caaaeueia aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaeaeoee caaaeaee caeeoa?oueny
i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei. AEiaeai iioe/iee ?ino?oiaio ie?o ia iiaea oeiaeoe
oi/a a uiiaeiaio? eieeaaiiy na?oeiino? yei?-iaaoaeue c aaeaeoee.

Caeeoathoueny o?e iiaeeeaino?. Ia?oa c ieo aacaeocaea: c??ee aaeaeoeee
ci?iththoueny a?ae?aco ? iaeiaeiai, ye ii eiiaiae?, a iaeiiio ?eoi?. C
o?ce/ii? noi?iie oaea iiyniaiiy iano?eueee aano?aeia, oae noia?a/eoue
an?i iaoei ciaiiyi i?i einiin, ui ia caneoaiao? na?eiciiai ?icaeyaeo.
Ae?oaa iiaeeea?noue — aeeai? ia’?eoe, noiae? c aaeaeoeeaie ii oa?aeoa?o
/a?aiiiai cnoao, iathoue o?ce/io i?e?iaeo, a/eiaii a?aei?iio a?ae
aaeaeoee. I?ioa, a?eueo?noue ano?iiii?a i?eionea?, ui eaaca?e – aeoeai?
yae?a iaaeaeaeaeeo aaeaeoee.

Aacia?a/ii, ui eaaca?e – oea ia i?ioyaei?, ?iceeaeai? ia aeanyoee oeny/
na?oeiaeo ?ie?a ci?yi? nenoaie, a ye?nue aaeueie eiiiaeoi? o?ea
iaaaeeeeo ii??aiyii ?ici???a ? eieinaeueii? iane (i?euey?aee niiy/ieo
ian). A?aeiinii iae? ?ici??e iiaeooue iiynieoe oaeaee?noue eieeaaiue
na?oeiino? anueiai ia’?eoo a oe?eiio, a aaee/acia iana – ?aeeii iiaeeeaa
i?e/eia aeiyoeiai? yne?aaino?, aai, oi/i?oa ca na?oei?noue iaaaniiai
o?ea. *ei ianeai?oa c??ea, oei yne?aa?oa aiia na?oeoue. Oey
caeiiii??i?noue aeoiaeeoue ye c iaaeyae?a, oae ? c oai?aoe/ieo
i??eoaaiue.

Ia o?eueee ii ian?, aea ? ii iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca?e ??cei
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae an?o a?aeiieo iaaanieo oae. Iaa?oue iaeiia?o?
c??ee “ae?aeiooue” ii??aiyii c ieie. Iaeiia?o? c??ee aei?ii?iththoue
na?oea a aeae?eueea i?euey?ae?a ?ac a?eueoa, i?ae Niioea o?eueee o
iiiaio naiai iiaooiueiai aeaooo. ?yaeiaee aea eaaca? caaaeaee a aeanyoee
oeny/ ?ac aei?ii?ith? a?eueoa

?io?a/a?aiia ? ?aioaai?anueea aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie ano?iiiiai aaeaeiny ca?a?no?oaaoe ?io?a/a?aiia ?
?aioaai?anueea aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a; aiie ciaeoee, ui iiooaei?noue
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeayeeo ia’?eo?a a oeeo iaeanoyo niaeo?o iaa?oue
a?eueoa, i?ae o aeaeei?e iaeano? ? ?aae?iae?aiacii?. sseui i?aenoioaaoe
aia?a?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy o an?o iaeanoyo niaeo?o, oi aeyaey?oueny, ui
aeaye? eaaca?e aaia?othoue a 100 000 ?ac?a a?eueoa aia?a?? a naeoiaeo,
i?ae a?aaionuee? aaeaeoeee ca oiiae, ui iao? ioe?iee a?aenoaiae aei
eaaca??a a??i?.

?icaeoie ?aioaai?anueei? ano?iiii?? aeiiii?a anoaiiaeoe, ui a?eueo?noue
eaaca??a aeyaeeany iiaooi?ie ?aioaai?anueeeie aeaea?aeaie. Aeayeee iaoye
ia oea iiaeia aoei iii?oeoe ua a ?acoeueoao? iaeia?oeo ?aioaai?anueeeo
iaaeyae?a eaaca?a 3N273, a a inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo iana?aaoi???
“Aeiooaei” (“IAAI-A”) aoei ciaeaeaii aaea a?eueoa 100 eaaca??a c
neeueiei ?aioaai?anueeei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi.

Aeoiaey/e c oeeo iaaeyae?a, aaaaeathoue, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae
?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy ?aioaai?anueea aei?ii?ithaaiiy – oa?aeoa?ia
aeanoea?noue eaaca??a.

E?aoi? eaaca?e

Iniaeeao oaaao ano?io?cee?a ? o?cee?a i?eaa?ioee e?aoi? (iiaea?ei?,
iio??ei?) eaaca?e: iiaea?eiee eaaca? a noc??’? Aaeeei? Aaaeiaaeeoe?
(1978), iio??eiee eaaca? a noc??’? Eueaa (1980) ? oaeee aea eaaca? a
noc??’? ?ea (1981). Eiaeiee c ia’?eo?a aoa eaaca??a-aeeciyo,
?icoaoiaaieo iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ia a?aenoai? aeae?eueeio eooiaeo
naeoiae, ui iathoue aeoaea noiae? niaeo?e ? /a?aii? cnoae. I?ioa,
eiia??ii, ia?a?aoiaai? eaaca?e ia ? “?noeii?” e?aoi? eaaca?e, a eeoa
cia?aaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai aeaea?aea. ?icuaiethaaiiy iaeiiai cia?aaeaiiy
ia aeae?eueea a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th a?aa?oaoe?eiiai iiey ianeaii?
aaeaeoeee, ui aeyaeeany ia oeyoo i?ae eaaca?ii ? iaie. I?ii?iiy na?oea
a?ae eaaca??a iiaea aee?eaeyoeny i?ae ae??th a?aa?oaoe?? aaeaeoee, ui
a?athoue ?ieue aeaea?ae a?aa?oaoe?eiiai oieonoaaiiy. Oae? a?aa?oaoe?ei?
e?ice iiaeooue niioai?thaaoe oi?ie aeaeaeeo aaeaeoee, ui, ia aeoieo
aeayeeo o/aieo, a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaeeeiianooaaieo iaiaeii??aeiinoae a ?iciiae?e? ?a/iaeie o Anana?o?.

Ia aeeeth/aii, ui aoaeo a?aa?oaoe?eii? e?ice a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao
noai?ththoue ia aeaeae? aaeaeoeee, a ianeai? /i?i? ae??e. ?iae?enuee?
ano?io?ceee A. Iaaeiaiaaoai ? N. *eo?a iaa?ioee oaaao ia aeiaaeee, eiee
aeaeii iiaeai?ia cia?aaeaiiy eaaca?a, a aaeaeoeee, ui aeeeeeaea oea
yaeua, iiaeeco ia ciaeaeaii. Inue ? c’yaeeany a?iioaca i?i oa, ui aoaeo
noai?ththoue i?aeoe/ii oi/eia? /i?i? ae??e c ianith, a i?eueeii ?ac
ia?aaa?ooth/i? iano Niioey. Ine?eueee aeioaia? i?aea aeiaeia /i?ia ae??a
ia ciaeaeaia, oi iiee aaaeei neacaoe, iane?eueee aeecueea aei ?noeie
oaea a?iioaca.

Ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e ?niothoue a i?e?iae? “?noeii?” iiaea?ei? eaaca?e,
caeeoa?oueny i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeeneon?e.

?aae?ino?oeoo?a eaaca??a

?aae?ino?oeoo?a eaaca??a aaaaoi a /iio iaaaaeo? ?aae?iaaeaeoeee, oae ui
cae/aeii ii iaei?e eeoa oe?e no?oeoo?? a?ae??cieoe eaaca?e iaiiaeeeai.
Oae naii, ye ? o ?aae?iaaeaeoee, aeoaea /anoi niinoa??aathoueny
iiaea?ei? ?aae?iaeaea?aea, i?ae yeeie ciaoiaeeoueny eiiiaeoiee, ?iiae?
ci?iiee, ?aae?iaeaea?aei, ni?aiaaeath/a ii nai?o eii?aeeiaoao ?c
c??eiiiae?aiei iioe/iei ia’?eoii — eaaca?ii. A aeoaea ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
o iaeaeeae/eo eaaca??a a?ey c??eiiiae?aiiai ia’?eoo niinoa??aathoueny
aeoaea neaae? i?ioyaei? ooai?aiiy. A?ae eaaca?a 3N 273 aeoiaeeoue
neaaeee no?oi?iue — aeeeae i?ioyaei?noth aeecueei 20″. Ia oae?e
aaee/aci?e a?aenoai? oeei eooiaei ?ici??ai a?aeiia?aea? e?i?eia
i?ioyaei?noue aeecueei 100 oeny/ na?oeiaeo ?ie?a. Oeae no?oi?iue, e??i
iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aei?ii?ith? oaeiae ?aae?ioaee?, oae ui eaaca?
3N 273 iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iiaea?eia ?aae?iaeaea?aei. Ne?ae iii?oeoe,
ui aiaeia?/i? aeeeaee niinoa??aathoueny oaeiae ? o aeayeeo
?aae?iaaeaeoee. Iniaeeai oe?eaaee aeeeae o iaei??? c iaeaeeae/eo aei ian
?aae?iaaeaeoee, i?i yea eoeiaoueny aeae?.

Aaaeeeaei ieoaiiyi ? i?eiaeaaei?noue eaaca??a aei neoi/aiue aaeaeoee.
Aeiaaee /an ia iiaeia aoei ae??oeoe ieoaiiy a iiceoeaiiio cia/aii?. Oea
? c?icoi?ei, aaeaea eaaca?e aei?ii?iththoue a nioi? ?ac ?ioaineai?oa ca
«ii?iaeuei?» aaeaeoeee, oiio inoaii?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a oiio ae
neoi/aii?, aoaeooue aeoaea neaae?, uia aea/aoeny niaeo?ineii?/ii. Aaeaea
e?eoa???i i?eiaeaaeiino? aei iaeiiai neoi/aiiy ? iaeiaeiaee /a?aiiee
cnoa o aaeaeoee ? eaaca??a. O?eueee aeey iaaaaaoueio, ii??aiyeueii
aeecueeeo eaaca??a, aaeaeiny ciaeoe neoi/aiiy aaeaeoee, a yeeo aiie
ciaoiaeyoueny.

A aeaiee /an a?aeiia ? caianaia a eaoaeiae iiiaae oeny/o eaaca??a, ui ?
aeicaiey? aeeiiaoe ?o noaoenoe/iee aiae?c. Ia?o ca ana, aaeaeiny
iiaoaeoaaoe «ooieoe?th na?oeiino?» eaaca??a, oiaoi ?o ?iciiae?e ii
iiooaeiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy. C ia? aeoiaeeoue, ui a?aeiinia e?euee?noue
eaaca??a oaoaa? o i??o c?inoaiiy iiooaeiino? ?o aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Iaeaaaeeea?oei ?acoeueoaoii oaeeo noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui ia a?eueo ?aii?o aoaiao aaiethoe?? Anaeaii?, eiee ?? ?ici??e
aoee a 3-5 ?ac?a iaioa iei?oi?o, eaaca??a aoei iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae
ca?ac. A oo a?aeaeaeaio aiioo eaaca??a aoei iaeaea no?eueee ae, ne?eueee
? «ii?iaeueieo» aaeaeoee. Ia iiaeia aeeeth/eoe a?iioaco, ui oiae? an?
aaeaeoeee aoee eaaca?aie! Oeae aaaeeeaee aeniiaie, i?ioa, ia? iio?aao
aeey naiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a iiaeo iaaeyaeao.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oa ianoaaeia, ui e?euee?noue eaaca??a, ii/eiath/e
?c cia/aiiyi /a?aiiiai cnoao, ui ia?aaa?oo? aeayeo iaaeo (a?aeiia?aeiee
ca?eueoaiith aeiaaeeie oaee? a 4,5 — 5 ?ac?a), ??cei iaaea?. Cae/aeii,
ia iiaeia aeeeth/eoe /enoi ?ino?oiaioaeueio i?e/eio oeueiai yaeua, i?ioa
oe?eeii iiaeeeai, ui eaaca?e c aaeeeeie /a?aiieie cnoaaie i?inoi
a?aenooi?. Oaea a?aenooi?noue i?e?iaei?oa anueiai iiynieoe oei, ui ye?ac
a oeth aiioo ?icaeoeo Anana?oo ooai?thaaeeny oeyoii eiiaeainaoe?? aaco
aaeaeoeee. Aei oeueiai (oiaoi i?e aaeeeiio /a?aiiiio cnoa?) i? aaeaeoee,
i? eaaca??a i?inoi ia aoei. Oaeee aeniiaie, cae/aeii, iaa ae aeoaea
aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey i?iaeaie aaiethoe?? Anaeaii?, ine?eueee aeicaieea
ae ooi/ieoe aiioo oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeoee, a ioaea, ? c??ie. Iio??ai?,
i?ioa, ua iia? aenieiye?ni? iaaeyaee, uia eiai i?aeoaa?aeeoe.

Aeua ie aaea aiai?eee i?i ci?ii?noue iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a.
sse e?aei?e i?iya oaei? ci?iiino? ne?ae caaaeaoe i?i «niaeao» eaaca?a 3N
279. A aeaiee /an a?i niinoa??aa?oueny ye ceaaea ci?iia neaaea c??i/ea
18-e aaee/eie. I?ioa ia noa?eo ano?iiii?/ieo oioia?ao?yo aeiai?iiiai
/ano (oiaoi caaeiaai aei a?aee?eooy eaaca??a) oeae ia’?eo aeyaeany
?noioii a?eueo yne?aaei — iaeaea 13 aaee/eie! Oea icia/a?, ui a?i aoa
yne?aa?oa, i?ae oaia?, a nioith ?ac! Ciath/e ii /a?aiiiio cnoao
a?aenoaiue 3N 279, iiaeia ciaeoe, ui i?ae /an «niaeaoo» eiai na?oei?noue
aoea iaeaea a nioith ?ac a?eueoa, i?ae o 3N 273 ? a aeanyoue oeny/ ?ac
a?eueoa, i?ae o iaoi? Aaeaeoeee! ? i?e oeueiio ?ici??e aei?ii?ithth/i?
iaeano? i?e/aiii iae?, iaioa na?oeiaiai ?ieo. A aeaiee /an eaaca? 3N 279
aaaaea?oueny iaeiiaooi?oei «iayeii» Anana?oo. Ie aa/eii, ui ?iceeae
cia/aiue na?oeiinoae ia’?eo?a iaoaaaeaeoee iaaecae/aeii aaee iaeaea
oae?e aea, ye o c??ie!

Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee eaaca??a iathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy
ci?iiino? ?o ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy, iniaeeai ia naioeiao?iaiio
ae?aiacii?. I?e oeueiio aoei iieacaii, ui iiiaioe iaeneioio iioieo
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaeii? i?iyoeny caeiiii??iei /eiii ?c ci?iith aeiaaeeie
oaee?. Oae naii iiaeiai i?iyoeny ? nai oa?aeoa? ?aae?iniaeo?o (ae?aa?aia
ia 15 noi?., aea i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaeyae?a niaeo??a eaaca??a a
??ci? iiiaioe /ano). Ia i?aenoaa? oai??? neio?io?iiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaeia ii a?aeii?e /anoio?, a?aeiia?aei?e iaeneioio
?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy, ? aaee/ei? iaeneiaeueiiai iioieo aecia/eoe eooia?
?ici??e aeaea?ae ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy, ye? aeyaeythoueny ii?yaeeo
oeny/ieo /anoie naeoiaee aeoae. Ciath/e (ii aaee/ei? /a?aiiiai cnoao)
a?aenoai? aei eaaca??a, iiaeia oaia? ciaeoe e?i?ei? ?ici??e iia’ycaieo c
ieie eiiiaeoieo ?aae?i-aeaea?ae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o ?ici??e iaioa
iaeiiai na?oeiaiai ?ieo, o caiae? c ioe?ieaie, iaea?aeaieie ia iniia?
aiae?co ci?iiino? iioieo.

Aeioaia? ie aiai?eee o?eueee i?i ?aae?i ? iioe/iiio aei?ii?ithaaii?
eaaca??a ? ?aae?iaaeaeoee. Oei /anii, a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ana a?eueoa
cia/aiiy i?eaeaaaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oeeo
ia’?eo?a iaoaaaeaeoee. Aia?oa ?aioaai?anueea aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae
iicaaaeaeoe/iiai ia’?eoo aoei ciaeaeaii ua a 1971 ?. ia ia?oiio
niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio ?aioaai?anueeiio noiooieeo «Ooo?o», ui caeeaa iniiae
no/anii? ?aioaai?anueei? ano?iiii??. Oeei ia’?eoii iicia/eeany iaeia c
iaeaeeae/eo ?aae?iaaeaeoee NGC 4486. ?ioei ?aioaai?anueeei aeaea?aeii
iaoaaaeaeoeee aeyaeeany yne?aaa naeoa?oianueea aaeaeoeea NGC 4151. Ia
i?aeeyaa? noii?ao, ui aei?ii?ith? aeoeaia yae?i oe??? aaeaeoeee.
Iacaaa?ii aoa ciaeaeaiee neaaeee iio?e ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
? a?ae ia?oiai a?aee?eoiai eaaca?a 3N 273, a oaeiae a?ae ?aae?iaaeaeoeee
Eea?aeue-A. Iiaee aoai o aea/aii? iicaaaeaeoe/ieo ?aioaai?anueeeo
aeaea?ae ianooiea a 1979 ?., i?ney caioneo eini?/ii? eaai?aoi??? ?iai?
Aeiooaeia. Ia oe?e iana?aaoi??? /ooeea?noue i?eeiaeueii? ?aioaai?anueei?
aia?aoo?e aoea a 1000 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae ia «Ooo?o», i?e aeoaea oi?io?e
eooia?e ?icae?euei?e caeaoiino?. A ?acoeueoao? aeyaeeiny iiaeeeaei
cae?enieoe ianiaa aecia/aiiy ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaeeei?
e?eueeino? eaaca??a, a oaeiae naeoa?oianueeeo aaeaeoee. E??i oiai, aoa
iaea?aeaiee aaeeeee iaaeyaeiaee iaoa??ae ii ?aioaai?anueeiio
aei?ii?ithaaiith neoi/aiue aaeaeoee, ui i?aaenoaaey? iniaeeaee ?ioa?an.

Anueiai aoei aeine?aeaeaii ?aioaai?anueea aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?eueo i?ae
100 eaaca??a ? aaeeeo e?euee?noue naeoa?oianueeeo aaeaeoee ? neoi/aiue.
I?aeoe/ii an? eaaca?e ? aeaea?aeaie ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
iiooaei?noue yeiai i?iy?oueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao, a?ae nioeo /anoie
iiaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaoi? Aaeaeoeee aei cia/aiue, a oeny/o ?ac
ia?aaa?ooth/eo iiaio iiooaei?noue Aaeaeoeee. sse i?aaeei, ?aioaai?anueea
aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a ci?iia; oea oeaco? (ye o ?ac?
?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy), ui aiii aeieea? a iae?e iaeano?. Iayai?noue
iiaooiueiai ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a ? aeoeaieo yaea?
aaeaeoee na?ae/eoue i?i a?aiae?ici? i?ioeane, iia’ycai? c iaa??aii aaco
aei oaiia?aoo?e ii?yaeea nioi? i?eueeii?a a?aaeon?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny
oai. Iaaooue, /anoeia ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iia’ycaia c
aa?y/ith ieaciith, a noai?th?oueny ?aeyoea?nonueeeie aeaeo?iiaie, ui
aca?iiae?thoue c iieai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaeeei? aonoeie (yaeua Eiiioiia).
A aeaiee /an, eiia?ioth/e o?eueee ?aioaai?anuee? ? iioe/i? iaaeyaee,
aaeaeiny a?aee?eoe ?yae iiaeo eaaca??a. Oea iai/ii aeaiiino?o?, ui
«i?iieeath/a» caeaoi?noue ?aioaai?anueei? ano?iiii?? iiaea aooe iaa?oue
aeua, i?ae o ?aae?iano?iiii??.

Ciaeoeeny »cieee?» eaaca?e

A 2000 ?ioe? a?oia aano?ae?enueeeo ano?iiii ia /ie? c ?.Oaanoa?
(R.Webster; Iaeueao?inuee?e oi?aa?neoao) i?eeoea aei aaeueie
ianiiae?aaiiai aeniiaeo: na?aae an?o ?nioth/eo o Anana?o? eaaca??a a?ey
80% caeeoathoueny iaa?aee?eoeie. sse a?aeiii, eaaca? — iaeiia??ii
iiaooi? oi/eiaa aeaea?aei ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy; ii iaei?e c a?iioac,
a?i ? aeaeaeaiith aeoeaiith aaeaeoeeith, yea iaea?aeo? aia?a?th a
?acoeueoao? aee?aoe?? ?a/iaeie ia iaaeianeaio /i?io ae??o, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?? eaaca?a. I?ia?aoe iaaeyaee aeae?eueeio
no?eueiee?a eaaca??a, aano?ae?enuee? o/ai? ciaeoee, ui aei?ii?ithaaiiy
a?ey 80% c ieo iaaecae/aeii neeueii cnoiooa a /a?aiio /anoeio niaeo?o.
Ano?iiiie ae, ui i?aoeththoue c iioe/ieie i?eeaaeaie, ooeathoue eaaca?e,
ye i?aaeei, na?aae aieoaeo ia’?eo?a. sseui a?eueo?noue eaaca??a —
/a?aiia, cia/eoue, iniiaia ?o iana iai ana ua iaa?aeiia. I?ioa a aa?aci?
1996 ?. aiae?enuee? ano?iiiie N.Na?aeaeaio ? N.?ie?ian «caniiei?ee »
nai?o eieaa, iieacaaoe, ui eaaca?e, ui niinoa??aaeeny aano?ae?enueeeie
o/aieie, «iaoeiia? «. Oaanoa? ? ?? ni?a?ia?oieee aaaaeaee, ui
«ii/a?aii?iiy » ia’?eo?a, ui aea/athoueny, aeeeeeaii eini?/iei ieeii,
i?enooi?i a aoaeue-ye?e a?eyeaaca?iie iaeano?. I?ioa aiae?enuee?
ano?iiiie oeacothoue, ui eaaca?e, ui niinoa??aaeeny aano?ae?eoeyie,
aieiae?thoue ieineeie, «niethniooeie » ?aae?iniaeo?ii. ?ioeie neiaaie,
niaeo?aeueia yne?aa?noue ?o aei?ii?ithaaiiy a ?aae?iae?aiacii? c
i?aeaeuaiiyi /anoioe cieaeo?oueny aeoaea iiaie?. A oea aaaaea?oueny
aaaeeeaith iciaeith oaeeo ia’?eo?a. Eaaca?e, ui aea/aeeny a?oiith
Oaanoa?, neeueii aei?ii?iththoue ia aenieeo ?aae?i/anoioao — a /a?aii?e
iaeano? iioe/iiai niaeo?o. O oaeiio ?ac? niinoa?aaeoaaia /a?aiia
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeeeeea?oueny ia eini?/iei ieeii, a ia? oo ae
neio?io?iiio i?e?iaeo, ui ? ?aae?iaei?ii?ithaaiiy eaaca??a: ca?yaeaeai?
aeaeo?iie aei?ii?iththoue, ?ooath/enue c ?aeyoea?nonueeith oaeaee?noth
ii ni??ae? ocaeiaae iaai?oii-neeiaeo e?i?e. Aea i?e oeueiio
caoaeaeo?oueny eeoa ieineee niaeo? /a?aiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?ia eeoa aeey iaaaeeei? a?oie eaaca??a. Oaeei /eiii, /enei
«oiouaieo » ano?iiiiaie eaaca??a i?ye ia iiaea aooe cia/iei.

Ano?iiiie ia?aoo? iiaa/eee eaaca?e ae?oaiai oeio

I?eiouaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy eaaca?ia ae?oaiai oeia aoei aia?oa icao/aii ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a, eiee aoea iiaoaeiaaia ?aeeia iiaeaeue eaaca??a ?
?ioeo yne?aaeo ia’?eo?a, ui i?aeaeeaeythoueny aia?a??th a?ae ianeaieo
/a?iuo aeu?.

Cae/aei? eaaca?e ciaoiaeyoueny ia a?aenoai? aeae?eueeio i?euey?ae?a
na?oeiaeo ?ie?a a?ae Caie?. Eaaca? ae?oaiai oeio, ye ? cae/aeiee eaaca?,
? aeoaea yne?aaei aeaea?aeii ?aioaaiianeiai ? ?ioiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
aea ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?oeo ioi/ai? oia?ith aaco ? ieeo, yea ciaioo?
eiai yne?aa?noue aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaeeie oaeeue. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e,
aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano iiaa/eoe eaaca? ae?oaiai oeio i?eiio ia
aaeaaaeiny.

? inue ia aeiyo ethaenueeee iiaeyae aia?oa iiaeyioa ia oeae
ano?iiii?/iee ia’?eo. Ca cayaith ano?iiii?a, oey ciao?aeea ? aaaeeeaei
e?ieii ia oeyoo aei ?icoi?iiy oiai ye ia ci?? ?nioaaiiy Anana?oo
ooai?eee /i?i? ae??e ? aaeaeoeee. A ?iaioao a?aee o/anoue oao?aoe? c
aeae?eueeio iana?aaoi??e c ??cieo e?a?i na?oo, o oiio /ene? c
oi?aa?neoaoo Aeaeiina Oiieeina ? I?aaeaiii? ?a?iiaenueei? Iana?aaoi???.
Aeey iiooeo eaaca?a ae?oaiai oeio aoee aeei?enoai? ?aioaaiianeee
einie/aneee oaeaneii «Chandra» ? iacaiiee Aaeeeee Oaeaneii Very Large
Telescope (VLT) c I?aaeaiii? ?a?iiaenueei? iana?aaoi??? a *ee?.
Ciaeaeaiee eaaca? ae?oaiai oeio ?icoaoiaaiee a i?aaeaiiiio nicaacaeee
Ia/ue ia a?aenoai? 9 i?euey?ae?a na?oeiaeo ?ie?a a?ae Caie?.

A eiaei?e aaeaeoeoe? eaaca? a oeaio??

Eaaca?e — oea yne?aa? aeaea?aea aei?ii?ithaaiiy a iioe/i?e ? ?ioeo
/anoeiao niaeo?o. Cae/aeii aiie ciaoiaeyoueny a oeaio?? yei?-iaaoaeue
aaeaeoeee. Na?aae ano?io?cee?a iioe?aia aeoiea, ui eaaca? ? ii??aiyii
iaaaeeeei aa?y/ei aaciaei aeeneii, ui ioi/o? /i?io ae??o, iana yei?
iiaea neeaaeaoe 1011 ian Niioey.

Iaaeaaii oao?aoe? aaaaeaee, ui ?aae?iaaeaeoeee aeaooiaai? ?iaeoa, i?ae
“eaaca?i?”. I?ioa, i?ney oiai, ye ciaeoee a oeaio?? ?aae?iaaeaeoeee
Eaa?aeue A, ?icoaoiaaii? a 750 iei. na. ?ie?a a?ae ian, e?eo?oia
aeaea?aei ?io?a/a?aiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ni?aiaaeath/a c
?aae?iaeaea?aeii, aeoiea ea?aeeiaeueii iii?iyeany uiaei i?eno?ith an?o
aaeaeoee. ?io?a/a?aiia aeaea?aei noiaea ia eaaca?, aea a?i aeeaii
neaaeee ? iaaeaeeiee a iioe/i?e iaeano?.

A?aeiii, ui yne?aa?noue eaaca?a a ?io?a/a?aiiiio i?ii?ii? i?iii?oe?eia
eiai ?ioaineaiino? a ?aioaai?anueeiio ae?aiacii?. Aaeaeoeea Eea?aeue A —
iiaooi? aeaea?aei ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeiee eiio aea ?ioaineaiino? eaaca? aoa ae iiaeiai aoa
aei?ii?ithaaoe a ?io?a/a?aiiiio ae?aiacii? a 200 ?ac?a neeuei?oa, i?ae
niinoa??aa?oueny. Oaeee eaaca? iiaeia a aoei eaaei niinoa??aaoe a
iioe/iiio ae?aiacii?.

Iaaeae?, o/ai? i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo, ui a oeaio?? ?aae?iaaeaeoeee
Eaa?aeue A ?icoaoiaaiee naia eaaca?, i?ioa, a?i ae?aio?oueny
oi?i?aeaeueiith oia?ith aaco ? eini?/iiai ieeo (“aoaeeeii”).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?io?a/a?aiia aeaea?aei a oeaio?? Eaaaaey A eaaeeoue ca
u?eueiith aiaeiaaith oia?ith. I/aaeaeii, aiii ? ? /anoeia oiai ae
“aoaeeea” c ae?aiao?ii aeecueei 10 na. ?ie?a, yeee aoa ?ai?oa
ciaeaeaiee. ?c Caie? “aoaeee” aeaeiee c oi?oey, oiio aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui
eaea aei ian c oeaio?o aaeaeoeee, iiaeiia i?ieoe e??cue aeineoue u?eueia
neoi/aiiy iaoa???. Ca?aeii iaaeyaeai ano?iiii?a, neoi/aiiy i?iionea? ia
a?eueoa 1/200 anueiai ?io?a/a?aiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, iinooiath/iai c
ia’?eoo, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ona?aaeei? iueiai. sseae ia oey ianoaaeia,
eaaca?, ui eaaeeoue a oeaio?? Eaaaaey A, aeaeyaeaa ae a 10 ?ac?a
yne?aa?oa, i?ae iaaeieeoiy eiai aaeaeoeea. Oeae eaaca? — ?yaeiaee na?aae
iiae?aieo ia’?eo?a, aea a?i, iaaooue, iaeaeeae/ee aei ian. Ianooiiee ca
iei ii a?aenoai? eaaca? CN 273 aieiae?? a 30 ?ac?a a?eueoith
na?oei?noth.

A?aee?eooy i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oa, ui aoei aeioaia? /enoi oai?aoe/iei
oaa?aeaeaiiy, ca?aeii yeiio an? aeoeai? aaeaeoeee aeaooiaai? a iniiaiiio
iaeiaeiai, aea i?e iaaeyae? ?c Caie? aiie iiaeooue aeaeyaeaoe ??cii —
caeaaeii a?ae nai?? i???ioaoe?? uiaei ian.

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