Становлення Української Православної Церкви.(реферат)

?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «Noaiiaeaiiy

Oe?a?inueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae»

Ooai?aiiy Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae a 9 no. aeiiiiaaa? ci?oeiaiith ca’yce?a
c a?aeaie. A?enueeia? iioiaee, aeeieiiaoe/i? ciineie e iniaeeai
oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee Ee?anueei? ?on? c A?caio??th ooai?ththoue
ni?eyoeea? ianoaaeie aeey iioe?aiiy o?enoeyinoaa na?aae iaoeo i?aaee?a.
Nia?oo i?eeiathoue eiai aa?oe iaoiai a?iiaaeyinoaa, a a?ae ieo aiii
ia?aoiaeeoue ? a iece. A?ae iio??aieo aeey oiai aeaea?ae ia aea?
iiaeeeaino? i?inoaaeeoe ioeae i?ioean iia?eueii? o?enoeyi?caoe?? iaoiai
ia?iaeo. Noa?iaeaaiy o?aaeeoe?y iaoa aeaco? ne?aee o?enoeyinoaa a Ee?a?
ua a 9 no. o ca’yceo c eaaaiaeith i?i eiyc?a Aneieueaea oa Ae??a. C
iaai?noth iiaeia oaa?aeeoe, ui a ia?o?e iieiaei? 10 no. a Ee?a? aaea
aoea oea?eaa Nayoiai i?i?iea ?e??. Aieaa?nuee? iioiaea Nayoineaaa ua
aeoae/a ca?eueoothoue aieeae o?enoeyinoaa, ? a inoaii?e /aa?o? 10 no.
e?euee?noue eiai i?eoeeueiee?a noa? iano?eueee aaeeeith, ui noaaeoueny
ieoaiiy i?i ia?ao?ae aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ia a?e iiai? ?ae?a??. Ai?ioueaa
ia?o?e o?enoeyinueei?, c iaeiiai aieo, ? i?eoeeueiee?a noa?eo
iaoe?iiaeueieo a??oaaiue, c ae?oaiai, /anaie aeoaea caaino?thaaeenue.

Aaeeeee eiycue Nayoee Aieiaeeie? (980-1015) c iioea?a
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ioe?ieaoe cia/aiiy i?oeii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?enoeyinueei? oea?eae aeey aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
??oo/a noa? ia a?e o?enoeyinoaa ? aeecueei 988 ?. io?anoeany nai c?
nai?th ?iaeeiith e ii/aa oe?eoe o?enoeyinoai ne??cue ii nai?e aea?aeaa?.
Eiycue iiaae?a aeieuoaaoe ?aeie?a: Ia?oia i?ea’ycaee aei e?inueeiai
oainoa ? iioyaee a Aei?i?i, ii aei?ic? aeee eiai iaeeoeyie. I?ney
aeieuoaaiiy ?aeie?a aeooiaainoai ? eiycue oiaeeee ii i?noo c
i?iiia?aeaeth. Aaaaoi eeyi o?anoeeeny c ?aae?noth; ae?oa? ia oio?ee ?
neooaoe i?iiia?ae?; o?ao? eieeaaeeny, ye eieeaaany eieenue ? nai eiycue.
Oiae? Aieiaeeie? aeaeaa iiaae?iiy, uia a ianooiiee aeaiue on? iao?auai?
yaeeeny aei ??ee, a ooi ia yaeoueny, aoaea noi?ioeaieeii eiycth.

Oea ae??oeei caeeaoaaiiy oeo, ui eieeaaeeny. “sseae iiaa a??a aoea a ia
aa?iith, – aeoiaee aiie, – oi eiycue oa aiy?e ia i?eeiyee a ??”, ? i?oee
o?anoeoeny; ?io? yaeeeny ia ??eo c? no?aoo. Caacyo? yce/ieee a?aee a?ae
eiyaeiai ai?ao a noaie oa e?ne. Ia ?ioee aeaiue i?ney eiyaeiai iiaae?iiy
ia Aei?i?? a?aeaoeiny caaaeueia aiaeio?auaiiy ia?iaeo. Oiae?, ii neiao
aeaai/anoeaiai e?oiienoey, caiey ? iaai ?aae?ee, aa/a/e aaeeeo
e?euee?noue ethaeae, ui ?yoothoueny. “Aiaea aaeeeee, nioai?eaoe iaai e
caieth, – aieaa o ?aae?niiio caoiieaii? Aieiaeeie?, – i?ec?e ia iiauo
ethaeae Naieo, aeae ei. Ainiiaee, oaaaeaoue Oaay, eae oaaaeaee no?aiu
o?enoeaineea, e ooaa?aee a ieo aa?o i?aaoth e iania?aoeioth”.

I?ney aiaeio?auaiiy eiycy, eiyaeiai a?enueea oa anueiai noieueiiai
Ee?aa o?enoeyinoai c?iaeeiny ia ?on? iaioth/ith a??ith. Aiaeii/an i?oei
ooai?aiiy iniaenoi? iii?niith ?in?enueei? oea?eae, aeey ?nioaaiiy yei?
aoee a iayaiino? an? iio??ai? oiiae. Aiia iaea a Ee?a? cia/io ianoao, ui
iacaaa?ii ii/aea ua ca?eueooaaoeny /a?ac iioe?aiiy ue?i? a??e ? iica
Ee?aii, na?aae ??cieo neia’yinueeeo oa ?ii?iaeieoeueeeo ieaiaiao ?on?;
iaea naith ???a?o?th, ui neeaaeaeany c ieo?iiieeoa Ieoa?ea, ?ieneii?a oa
nayuaiee?a, ui i?eaoee c Eiinoaioeiiiiey ? Ei?noiy, ?, iaaooue,
aeae?eueeio nai?o noa?eo, ooa?eueieo. Aaciina?aaeiuei i?ney
aiaeio?auaiiy ia?iaeo aaeeeee eiycue noaa onthaee aoaeoaaoe aeey ??
aiaineoae?iiy nayo? o?aie. Iinooiiai noaee aecia/aoeny ? a?aeiioaiiy
iiai? oea?eae aei ?? iaoa?? – oea?eae A?aoeueei?, a oaeiae i?noeaa?
aioo??oi? ?? a?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ? noni?eueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aiaineoae?iiy ia neia’yinuee?e iia? a ia?aeeaaeao Nayoeo Ee?eea oa
Iaoiae?y, iieaaooaaei ni?aao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy caiice/aii? a?ae a?ae?a
?ae?a??, e aiia a?eueii ne??cue ciaoiaeeea nia? i?eoeeueiee?a. Iiaainoai
iaoeo i?aaee?a, ua neaaei ?icaeiaia ?, iaaooue, ia ioi?ieaia a ?ae?a?eio
nenoaio, ua ia iaei neeueii? ciai?oiuei? i?aai?caoe??, ia iaei o?ai?a ?
ae?iaeaii? ae?aoeueei? aa?noae e aoei a?eueoa ca’ycaia c
n?iaeii-?iaeiaei iiaooii, i?ae ?c a?iiaaenueeei, ia a neeao aoei aeaoe
iiaaaeiee ii?? o?enoeyinoao c eiai ?icaeiaiith aeiaiith ? aeoaea
nie?aeiith oa neeaaeiith oea?eiaiith i?aai?caoe??th, e inoaiiy, i?e
aeoeai?e o/ano? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, aeo?niyea iiaainoai. *ei aeeae/a aei
Ee?aa eaaeaea i?noeaa?noue, oei eaaoa i?euaiethaaeiny ooo o?enoeyinoai,
a aeaeaeeo aea i?ai?/ieo e?ayo (ye a Iiaai?iae?) ia iaoiaeeeiny aac
ciai?oiueiai i?eiono. Caeaaeaei oea a?ae eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo e?ath.
Eaae?e nayuaiee?a oa ?ieneii?a i?iaaaeeee ni?aao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
o?enoeyinoaa. Ianooiieee Nayoiai Aieiaeeie?a, iniaeeai ss?ineaa ?
(1019-1054), i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?icii/aoo ni?aao. Iiaainoai inoaoi/ii
onooieei nai? i?noea o?enoeyinoao a 11 no. ?, oaeei /eiii, ii/aeiny
?noi?e/ia aeeooy I?aaineaaii? oea?eae.

Nayoee Aieiaeeie? c iaoith o?ni?oiai caeeaeaiiy c A?caio??th iaeaieany c
nano?ith a?aoeueeeo ?iia?aoi??a oea??aiith Aiiith ? i?aeo?eioaaa ca’ycee
c a?aeaie. O?enoeyinueea aiaineoae?iiy iaei aaee/acia cia/aiiy a ni?aa?
iioe?aiiy o?enoeyinoaa oa ao?eaiiy eiai a ia?iaei? iane. Oiio e nai
Aieiaeeie? ? eiai ianooiieee aeyaeee aeaaao aoae?aie/o ae?yeuei?noue –
noa?aiii aoaeoaaee oea?eae.

Ia?oei aoae?aaeueieeii o?ai?a aoa ia?oee ?in?enueeee eiycue-o?enoeyiei,
Nayoee Aieiaeeie?, yeee iiaae?a i?ney aiaeio?auaiiy ia?iaeo “?oaeoue
oea?eae ii a?aaeai”. O Ee?a? a?i iniaenoi iinoaaea oea?eao a ?i’y
nayoiai Aanee?y (naiai Aiaaea ii o?enoeyinueeiio ?iai?) ia iaai?a?, aea
noiya ?aeie Ia?oia. ?ioo oea?eao, eai’yio, a ?i’y Oni?iiy Aiai?iaeeoe?,
a?i iiaoaeoaaa ia i?noe? aaeanoaa aa?ya?a Oaiaei?a oa ?iaiia ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aoeueeeo iaeno??a, ye? aoaeoaaee ?? 5 ?ie?a (aei 996 ?.),
i?ee?anea ?? n??aeii oa cieioii, ? i?ecia/ea ia ?? oo?eiaiiy aeanyoeio
a?ae naiai ia?oeo ? nai?o i?no, a?ae /iai aiia ? aoea iacaaia
Aeanyoeiiith. Caeeoeeiny i?ney iueiai ? aeae?eueea ?ioeo oea?eia, – o
Aa?anoia?, o Aaneeueia?, Aeoai?iae? ? o.ae.

I?ney Aieiaeeie?a noa?aiieie aoae?aaeueieeaie oea?eia noaee eiai ae?oe –
Inoeneaa ? ss?ineaa. Ia?oee caoaeoaaa Niai? Niano a *a?i?aia?, ae?oaee –
aaaaoo Ee?anueeo Nio?th ia c?acie Nio?? Oea?aa?aaenueei?, oea?eao
Aeaaia?uaiiy ia Cieioeo Ai?ioao Ee?aa, “aea ?aaeinoue aoaeao a?aaeo oiio
anaaaea nayoui Aeaaiaauaieai”, oea?eae a ee?anueeeo iiianoe?yo nayoiai
Aai?a?y (Aiaaea aaeeeiai eiycy) ? Nayoi? ??eie (Aiaaea eiai ae?oaeeie).
Eiai nei Aieiaeeie? caoaeoaaa Nio?th Iiaai?iaenueeo. Aieiaeeie? Iiiiiao
aoaeoaaa niai?e o ?inoia? ? Niieainueeo, nei eiai TH??e – o Nocaeae?,
Aiae??e Aiaiethaneee – aaaaothuee Niai? Oni?iiy o Aieiaeeie?? oa
Aiaiethanueeee iiianoe?.

Aaaaoi oea?eia caoaeiaaii iaoeie a?o?ianoe?yie, i?eaaoieie iniaaie ?
oe?eeie ia?iaeieie iaueiaie. C /anii o?ai?a, iniaeeai ii i?noao, noaei
aeoaea aaaaoi, i?i ui iiaeia noaeeoe ii ca?noeao e?oiien?a i?i ??ci?
i?nuee? iiaeaae?; iai?eeeaae o 1124 ?ioe? o Ee?a? cai??ei aei 600
oea?eia, o Aieiaeeie?? a 1185 ?ioe? – 32, o Iiaai?iae? a 1217 ?ioe? –
aei 20 o?eueee a iaei?e iieiaei? i?noa ? o.ae. Oo?i, oea?eae aoee
a?eueoith /anoeiith aea?aa’yi?. Eai’yieo aoei o?ioe, aeey ?o
aoae?aieoeoaa caa?oaeeny cae/aeii aei iiii/? a?aoeueeeo aai i?iaoeueeeo
iaeno??a. I?e ca?nooe? i?i iiiiaeaiiy Nocaeaeueneiai niai?o a 1193 ?ioe?
e?oiienaoeue, ye i?i /oaei, iii?/a?, ui ?ieneii ?iaii ia ooeaa aeey oiai
iaeno??a a?ae i?ioe?a, a caaeiaieueiyany nai?ie ?in?enueeeie.

Oea?eaa aoea ia o?eueee i?noeai aiaineoae?iiy, a e ina?aaeeii
a?iiaaenueeiai, aeiiii?/iiai e ina?oiueiai aeeooy, ai eiei oea?eae
a?aeaoaaeeny c?a?aiiy aeey ae??oaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo ni?aa, aeieeaee ?eiee
(y?ia?ee), caniiaoaaeany oeiea oa oieoaeue, a /a?ac oa ia?ao?yeuei?
oea?eae iaee iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy. ?acii c ia?ao?yeueieie
oea?eaaie a ian aeieeee iiianoe?? – /ieia?/? e ae?ii/?. Iao? eiyc? aoee
ooiaeaoi?aie e iiianoe??a, ca ?o i?eeeaaeii ?oee e i?eaaoi? iniae. Ia?o?
iiianoe?? aa/eii a Ee?a?, a na?aae ieo ia?oa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeiio iiianoe?aa?, caniiaaiiio a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 11 no.
i?aiiaeiaieie Aioii??i oa Oaiaein??i. A?i iineoaeea c?aceii oa
i?eeeaaeii aeey an?o iaoeo iiianoe??a, aoa ina?oi?i oeaio?ii, aaa aaaaoi
oea?eiaieo ae?y/?a ? iaa acaaae? aaeeea cia/aiiy a ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aae aei naii? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?ieo.

?in?enueea oea?eaa aoea oeaooiaaia o aeae? iniaenoi? ieo?iiie??
Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai iao??a?oaoo. Ia?oei ?? ieo?iiieeoii aoa ieo?iiieeo
Ieoa?e († 992 ?.), yeiai Aieiaeeie? ocya ?c Ei?noiy. I?ae /an eiai
ae?yeueiino? o?enoeyinoai o?eueee ii/aei nai? iioe?aii? ii ?on?,
oiane?aeie /iai ?in?enueea ieo?iiie?y i?e iueiio ua ia anoeaea
oeaoooaaoeny. Ia?oee i?aaeeueiee ono??e aeaa ?e eiai niaaeei?iaoeue
Eaiio?e († 1008 ?.), ui o 992 ?. ?icae?eea ?? ia ?ia?o?? ? i?ecia/ea
ia?oeo ?ia?o?aeueieo ?ieneii?a. Naith eaoaae?o ia?o? ieo?iiieeoe aei
aaeeeiai eiycy ss?ineaaa iaee a Ia?ayneaa?, iio?i, i?e ss?ineaa?, eiee
aoei nii?oaeaeaii ee?anueeee Nio?enueeee niai? ?c ieo?iiiee/ei
aoaeeieii, ia?aeoee ia i?iaeeaaiiy a Ee?a.

?in?enuee? ieo?iiieeoe iae?aeeny e i?ecia/aeeny a A?aoe?? naiei
iao??a?oii ca caiaeith ?iia?aoi?a ?, c?icoi?ei, ?c a?ae?a. Oiio, ia ?on?
aiie aoee /oaeeie ethaeueie ? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, ? ii iia?, ? ii
iaoe?iiaeueiei neiiao?yi, e ia iaee aei naaa aeia??e i? a eiyc?a, i? a
ia?iae?. Iio??aii i?e oeueiio iaoe ia oaac? ? oo «aeo?io» ?aiooaoe?th,
yeith a?aee caeaaia ei?enooaaeeny ia ?on? ? yeo aeneiaeaii a cai?ooe?
e?oiienoey: “nooue ai A?aoee euenoeae e aei naai aeia”. I?e oiio ae aei
?in?enueei? ieo?iiie?? iai?aaeyeenue iaa?oue ia e?au? ethaee c a?ae?a. C
25 ieo?iiieeo?a-a?ae?a o ia?o? /ioe?e c iieiaeiith noi??//y ?nioaaiiy
?in?enueei? Oea?eae ia a?eueo 5-6 /ieia?e cayaeee naaa ina?/aieie ?
aeaai/anoeaeie. Oea oae? ye Aai?a?e (c 1062 ?.), ethaeeia ina?/aia, aea,
ye /oaeee ianoe?, iieeioa naith ianoao i?ae /an i?aeoniaeoe? ae?oae
ss?ineaaa; eiai niaaeei?iaoeue ?iaii II (c 1077 ?.), ca na?ae/aiiyi
e?oiieno, iaa/aiee eieaaie, aei an?o eaneaaee, iie??eeaee, iia/aciee ?
aiaeii/an e?aniiiiaiee, eiee iio??aii aoei nayoeie eieaaie o?oeoe
noiieo; Ie/eii? ?, a?aeiiee nai?ie iineaiiyie aei Iiiiiaoa. ?io? o?eueee
ieiio?oue caaaeothoueny a e?oiienao, a i?i iaeiiai – ?iaiia O (c 1089
?.) iaa?oue i?yii cai?/aii, ui a?i aoa ia ina?/aiee ? i?inoee ?icoiii.
Oei /anii aeaye? ieo?iiieeoe c ?in?enueeeo eeoeee i?ney naaa aeia??
niiaaaee ? ii nai?e aeina?/aiino?, ? ii aeaai/anoth, ? ii aeaaiae?enoao
aei ianoae. Inue ii?yaeie ia?oeo ieo?iiieeo?a: 1) Ieoa?e; 2) Eaiio?e;
3) ?iaii (c 1008 ?.); 4) Oaiiaiio (c 1036 ?.); 5) Nayoee ?ea??ii (c
1051 ?.); 6) Aai?a?e (c 1062 ?.); 7) Nayoee ?iaii ?? (c 1077 ?.); 8)
?iaii O (c 1089 ?.); 9) ?o?ai (c 1089 ?.); 10) Ieeieae (c 1097 ?.);
11) Ie/eii? ?(c 1104 ?.); 12) Ieeeoa (c 1122 ?.); 13) Ieoa?e (c 1130
?.); 14) Eeeiaio Niieyoe/ (c 1147 ?.); 15) Einoyioei (c 1156 ?.); 16)
Oaiaei? (?c 1161 ?.); 17) ?iaii IV (c 1164 ?.); 18) Einoyioei ?? (c
1167 ?.); 19) Ie/eii? ?? (c 1182 ?.); 20) Iaoo?e (c 1201 ?.); 21)
Ee?ee (c 1224 ?.); 22) ?ineo (c 1237 ?.).

Oea?eiaia aeeooy, i?ioa, o aaaaoueio a?aeiioaiiyo ? naia ia iiaea ia
i?aeiaaeaoe i?ae aieea aeaaee aea?aeaae. ?iciiae?e ?on?, ianaiia?aae,
a?aeaeany ia ?ia?o?aeueiiio ?iciiae?e?. Ia?oee ?iciiae?e ?in?enueei?
oea?eae ia ?ia?o??, ye ie aa/eee, aoei c?iaeaii a 992 ?ioe? ieo?iiieeoii
Eaiio??i. An?o ?ia?o?e, oeaooiaaieo oiae?, e?oiien ia?aoiao? o?noue: o
Ee?a?, Iiaai?iae?, *a?i?aia?, ?inoia?, Aieiaeeie?? Aieeinueeei oa a
A?eai?iae?, aea ne?ae aeiaeaoe aei oeueiai ia?ae?eo, ui oiae? aoee
iinoaaeai? ?ieneiie ? a ?io? i?noa oae? ye Oiooi?ieaiue, Oo??a ?
Iieioeuee, aea eiycyie neae?ee ae?oe Aieiaeeie?a. I?ioyaii ianooiiiai
/ano aei ae?oai? iieiaeie 12 no. anoaiiaeaii ua aeae?eueea ?ia?o?e, oae
ui on?o noaei aae 15, ie??i Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie??: Iiaai?iaenueea,
?inoianueea, Aieiaeeie?nueea ui ia Aieei?, A?eai?iaenueea,
*a?i?a?anueea, TH?’?anueea, Ia?ayneaanueea, Oieinueea, Iieioeueea,
Oo??anueea, Niieainueea, Ia?aieoeuenueea, Aaeeoeueea, ?ycainueea oa
Aieiaeeie?nueea ui ia Eeycuei?. Iaaee ?o ?iciianthaeaeaiue aeecueei
ca?aaeeny c iaaeaie a?aeiia?aeieo ?i eiyc?anoa. Aiane?aeie noa?iai
?ae?a?eiiai eaaeo noni?euenoaa anyea noni?eueia ni?eea cina?aaeaeoaaeany
cae/aeii a?ey yei?-iaaoaeue nayoei?, o?aio, ? aoea, aeeaey/enue ca
?ici??ii, o oi?i? aai i?eoiaeo, aai ?ia?o??. Iiaee oae?e,
a?aeie?aieaoenue a?ae noa?iai, iaiaaaany c?iaeoeny naiino?eiei ? a
oea?eiaiiio a?aeiioaii?, caaanoe a naaa iniaeeao ?ia?o?th, oiio ui
oeea?eueia naiino?ei?noue aac oea?eiaii? caeaaaeany iaiiaiith. Oae, o 12
no. i?ney aeae?eaiiy iiaeo eiyc?anoa ?c noa?eo, ?c Ia?ayneaanueeiai
oae?eo – Niieainueeiai, ?c Aieeinueeiai – Aaeeoeueeiai, ?c
*a?i?a?anueeiai – ?ycainueeiai, yaeeeny ? iia? ?ia?o??: Niieainueea – o
1137 ?ioe?, Aaeeoeueea – o 1157 ?ioe?, ?ycainueea – o 1198 ?ioe?. C
iaae?iiyi oae?eo cieuoaaeany ? ?ia?o?y; iai?eeeaae, iai?ee?ioe? 11 no.
i?ney c?oeioaaiiy iieiaoeyie Oiooi?ieai? caiaiaea ? oaioaoiy ?ia?o?y.
I?aeianaiiy oae?eo i?aei?iaei ? ?? ?ia?o?th; o 1165 ?. aaaaoee Iiaai?iae
aeeeiiioaa nai?io aeaaeeoe? ?iaiio oeooe a?o??ieneiia, – oiae? ua ia?oee
? ?aeeiee ia ?on?. Aeae?, yeith a ia i?oeiith aoea ?aei?noue ?in?enueei?
oea?eae ? ye ae aiia ia i?eeoaaeany i?i oa, uia caa?aaoe oeth
?aei?noue, cae/aeia i?aaiaiiy eiaeiiai oae?eo aei naiino?eiino?, aei
iaioi? caeaaeiino? a?ae Ee?aa ? aei aeeooy iniaiyeii ia??aeei
a?aeaeaaeiny ? ia oea?eiaieo a?aeiioaiiyo ?ia?o?aeueieo ?ieneii?a aei
ieo?iiieeoa ? noeneoaaei eiai caeiii? i?aaa ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy.

Oaoa?nueea iaaaea 1237—1240 ??. iaea aaee/aci? aieeae ye ia iie?oe/ia,
oae ? oea?eiaia aeeooy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. Ee?a, ui ua a ae?oa?e
iieiaeo 12 no. ao?a/a? nai? iiia?aaei? cia/aiiy, oaia? cian?i
i?aeoiaaea?. Na?aae iiiaeeiieeo caiaeue Ee?anueei? ?on? c?inoathoue iia?
iie?oe/i? e eoeueoo?i? ina?aaeee. Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue
aeii?iothoue Aaee/ oa Aieeiue. O i?ai?/ieo e?ayo ii?o/ ?c Iiaai?iaeii oa
Aieiaeeie?ii c 14 no. ii/eia? c?inoaoe Iineaa, ui iiaie? i?aeaeaa? nia?
?io? eiyc?anoaa iiiaae Ieith oa Aieaith. A?ei?onuee? caie? oa a?eueoo
/anoeio oe?a?inueeeo caae?a? Eeoianueea aea?aeaaa (a 14 no.), a caieth
Aaeeoeueeo – Iieueua ca Eaceie?a Aaeeeiai. Ioaea, eaeooue iia? iie?oe/i?
aieeae oa aca?iia?aeiineie, yeeo ia aoei aei 1240 ?. Oa?eoi??y
Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie?? ?icaeaa?oueny i?ae Eeoaith, Iieueuath,
Iiaai?iaeii, Iineaith oa ?i. Ee?anueeiio ieo?iiieeoia? aeiaiaeeoueny
iaoe ni?aao ia o?eueee c ??ciiieai?iiith aeaaeith, a e ??ciia??iith.
Oaea ??cieoey e iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa iii?ae cacia/aieie aea?aeaaaie
neeueii oo?oaeiththoue eiai iieiaeaiiy. Aeecuee?noue oaoa?nueeeo ei/iaei
oa iaaacia/i?noue aeeooy a aeecueeeo aei noai?a i?noeaainoyo
i?eiooothoue iaoeo ieo?iiieeo?a ooeaoe nia? niie?eiiai
i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy. Ee?ee ??? (1245-1281), Iaenei (1283-1305) oa Nayoee
Iao?i (1308-1326) ia neaeyoue ia iaeiiio i?noe?, a i?iythoue nai?
in?aeee, iaeaeiaoa ia?aaoaath/e ia i?aii/? o Aieiaeeie??-ia-Eeycuei?, a
Iao?i – a Iinea?. Eiyc? iineianuee? iaea?eueoa iiaeiaathoueny
ieo?iiieeoai, ye? a?ae /an?a Iao?a aia?a?eii i?aeo?eiothoue iineianueeo
iie?oeeo, /ei iano?iththoue i?ioe naaa ?io? iie?oe/i? oeaio?e,
aiane?aeie /iai c’yaeythoueny ni?iae iiae?eo ?aeeii? ieo?iiie??.

Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y cinoaaaeany ?aeeiith e ioiiethaaea naith
aeiiiiaieuenueeo oa?eoi??th aei iieiaeie 15 no., eiee Iineaa ??oo/a
naia?oaaeany a?ae Ee?aa. I?eaiaeii aei oiai iineoaeeea iiyaa a
Ee?anuee?e ieo?iiie?? a?aea ?neaei?a, i?eoeeueieea oi?? c ?eiii.
Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeee iao??a?o ei?enoaany nai?i i?aaii i?ecia/aoe
ee?anueeeo ieo?iiieeo?a, ? a oe?e ni?aa? ?ieiee ia iueiai aieeaaa
a?caio?enueeee ?iia?aoi?. C ii/aoeo 15 no. A?caio?y ia?aaoaaea o
no?aoi?e iaaaciaoe?: oo?ee-iniaie cae?aeeny iieeanoe e?iaoeue ??
iie?oe/i?e naiino?eiino?. ?iia?aoi? ?iaii V??? Iaeaieia (1425-1448)
ooeaa nia? ii?yooieo ia Caoiae? a iaie ?, uia noeeeoe eiai ia naith
noi?iio, iiaiaeaeoaaany ia oi?th, naaoi ia i?aeaeooy no?aeii? oea?eae
aeaae? ?einueeiai ?ieneiia. Aeey cae?eniaiiy nai?o ieai?a ?iia?aoi?
i?aeae?aa nia? na?aae i?aaineaaiiai aeooiaainoaa i?eoeeueiee?a nai??
?aea?. Iao??a?oii a?i c?iaea iaeiiaeoioey ?ineoa, a oie ? i?ecia/ea
ee?anueeei ieo?iiieeoii ?neaei?a, ui c-ca naiai a?aoeueeiai iao??ioecio
aeaa caiaeo a?aoe o/anoue o niai?? o Oei?aioe??. Ni?aaae?, a?a aoa oai,
noiya ca oi?th e iiaa?ioany aei nai?? ianoae aaea ye i?aaenoaaiee iaie c
oeooeii ea?aeeiaea. A Iinea? a?a cono??a neeueiee ii??, a oiio e ionea
o?eaoe ca?aeoe e o?eiaany aeayeee /an a iaaeao Eeoae oa Iieueu?, oi/ ?
ooo a?i ia cono??/aa nia? i?eoeeueiee?a, iacaaaeath/e ia i?aeo?eieo
na?onueei? aeaaee oa eaoeinueeiai aeooiaainoaa. Aeaoooaaaoenue a ?oae??,
?neaei? aeiaeany i?ecia/aiiy ia ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa oaae
i?eoeeueieea oi?? A?eai??y Aieaa?eiiae/a, ui iio?i a?aeiiaeany a?ae
oi??. Iineaa oei /anii aeiaeaaeany caoaa?aeaeaiiy aea?aiiai a
ieo?iiieeoe niai?ii ?ieneii?a ?iie, ?ieneiia ?ycainueeiai. Caoiaee
?neaei?a a Oea?ai?iae? oa i?ci?oa iie?oe/i? iiae?? ia?aoeiaeaeaee oaeiio
caoaa?aeaeaiith. Oiae? Iineianueeee niai? 1458 ?. ooaaeea naiino?eii,
aac iao??a?oa, i?iaieineoe ?iio ieo?iiieeoii, i?e /iio eiio aoei aeaii
oeooe «ieo?iiieeo Iineianueeee ? anay ?on?», i?ae oei ye iiia?aaei?
ieo?iiieeoe, e o?, ui aeeee a Iinea?, an? oeooeiaaeeny «ieo?iiieeo
Ee?anueeee ? anay ?on?». A?ae oeueiai /ano ia oa?eoi??? ?aeeii?
Ee?anueei? ?on? aa/eii aaea aea? ieo?iiie??: Iineianueeo oa Ee?anueeo.
Ia?oa c ieo ioiiethaaea Iineianueeo aea?aeaao (i?aoaiaeoth/e ? ia
Iiaai?iae), a ae?oaa – i?aaineaaio ethaei?noue Eeoae oa Iieueu?. Ooo
ciaoiaeeeeny oae? ?ia?o??: Niieainueea, *a?i?a?anueea, Iieioeueea,
Oieinueea, Ia?aieoeuenueea, Euea?anueea, Aieiaeeie?i-Aa?anoaenueea,
Eooeueei-Ino?icueea oa Oo?iai-I?inueea. Aei oeeo aeaa’yoe o?aaa ua
aeiaeaoe ?ia?o?th naiiai ieo?iiieeoa. Niieainueea oa *a?i?a?anueea
?ia?o??, ye i?eei?aeiii?, /anii iaeaaeaee aei Iineae, a Euea?anueea a
1414-1538 ??. i?aeeyaaea aaciina?aaeiuei ieo?iiieeoia?.

O 13 no. ?ioaineaii i?iaaaeyoue i?n?iia?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ia oa?eoi???
Iaei? ?on? /aioe? Aeii?i?eainueeiai i?aeaio, aea aac aeiaeieo
iane?aee?a. Aiie ianeoaiaothoue eeoa oa eaoieeoeueea ianaeaiiy, yea
c’yaeeiny ia Iae?e oa A?e?e ?on? aaea a 14 no. a i?noao, yeei
oe?a?inuee? oa eeoianuee? eiyc? iaaeaaaee i?iaoeueea (Iaaaeaao?cueea)
i?aai. A oeeo i?noao eaoieeee (i?ioe?, iieyee oa ?i.) ia?aaoaaee a
oi?ea?eaeiaaiiio iieiaeaii? a ii??aiyii? c ?onueeeie (i?aaineaaieie).
ssaaeei oa A?oiao ca?eueooaaee eaoieeoeueeo ethaei?noue, i?aeo?eioaaee
noa?? oa caaiaeeee iia? eaoeinuee? ?ia?o?? oa ia?ao?? (a Ee?a?, A?eueii,
Ia?aieoe?, Eueaia?, Eooeueeo). Aea? oea?eae aeeee niie?eii, eiaeia naia
ii nia?, e ni?aaa c’?aeiaiiy ?o o oi?i? Oei?aio?enueei? oi?? ia iaea
i?yeeo iane?aee?a. Iaea?eueoee i?eoeeueiee oaei? oi?? ieo?iiieeo ?neaei?
aea?aany aei ?oae??, a eiai ianooiiee ? o/aiue A?eai??e nai ionea aoa
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae oi?? a 1458 ?. ? aia? i?aaineaaiei. Iaei aiai?eoue ia
ei?enoue oi?? e oae caaiee “Eeno ieo?iiieeoa Ieoa?ea aei iaie Neenoa IV”
(1476 ?.). Ioe?ithaaoe oe? yaeua oea?eiaiiai aeeooy iaiao?aeii c iaeyaeo
ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th na?aaeeie 15 no., ai i?aaineaaia ianaeaiiy a?ae
aa?o?a aei iec?a ia aeoiaei a?aeiiaeyoeny a?ae nai?? a??e, a i?ioeaiiio
?ac? an? ni?iae oi?? caeeoeee a ii nia? ae?aciee ne?ae.

A e?ioe? 16 no. noaeany iiae?y, ui aianea ?iceie ? aeiaaie?oith caiaeeo
ai?ioueao a eiii i?aaineaaii? oea?eae e oe?a?inueeiai oa a?ei?onueeiai
ia?iae?a; oea – Aa?anoaenueea oea?eiaia oi?y. ?e, cae/aeii,
i?eae?eythoue aaaaoi oaaae an? aeine?aeieee ieioeiai Iieueu? oa Oe?a?ie,
i?e/iio ?? iiyniththoue iaei? iie?oe/ieie iioeaaie oiai /ano, ?io? –
iaii?yaeeaie a i?aaineaai?e oea?ea?. ? oie, ? ae?oaee iiaeyae o?aaa
aaaaeaoe iaeiiaieei. Oaea neeaaeia yaeua, ye Aa?anoaenueea oea?eiaia
oi?y, aeeeeeaia aaaaoueia i?e/eiaie ye aioo??oiueiai (aeey oea?eae), oae
? ciai?oiueiai oa?aeoa?o. Ooo iathoue i?noea ?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/oe? oiiae, iai?yi aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e noai i?aaineaaii? ???a?o??, ii?aeueiee ??aaiue ??,
aioo??oi? aca?iia?aeiineie o i?aaineaai?e oea?ea? – ana oea ?acii c?
niaoeeo?/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeiae oa iano?i?i iaioth/eo /eiiee?a
Iieuenueei-Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae i?ney Ethae?inueei? oi?? 1569 ?. ?
aeeeeeaei caaaeaio oea?eiaio oi?th. Ca aeoieo i?i ia?, ia aac aieeao
eaoeinueei? ???a?o??, aoiieeeny ?ieneiie: eooeueei-ino?icueeee ?ieneii
Ee?ee Oa?eaoeueeee oa euea?anueeee ?ieneii Aaaeaii Aaeaaai; iacaaa?ii
inoaii?e a?aenoaa a?ae oi? aeoiee, a cai?noue iueiai yaeany
aieiaeeie?nueei-aa?anoaenueeee ?ieneii ?iao?e Iio?e, iaaooue, iaeeiieee
?aeaeiee i?eoeeueiee oi??. Aiie, aeania, e i?iaaee oeth ni?aao, ai
oiae?oi?e ieo?iiieeo ee?anueeee Ieoa?e ?aaica oa ?io? ?ieneiie aoee
ianeaieie ethaeueie. Ee?ee Oa?eaoeueeee oa ?iao?e Iio?e ii?oaee a ?ei
(1695 ?.) ? oai aeaee caiaeo ca oi?th a?ae ?iai? an??? i?aaineaaii?
oea?eae. Oaeee a/eiie aeaio ?ieneii?a aeeeeeaa neeueia iao?aiiy ia
Oe?a?i?-?on?. I?eoeeueieee oi?? c?a?aeeny a Aa?ano? aeey o?i/enoiai
i?iaieioaiiy ?aeiaiiy c ?eiii o aeiaoi? 1596 ?. Ooaee ae i?eaoee e
i?aaineaai?: ?ieneii Aaaeaii Aaeaaai (euea?anueeee) ? Ieoa?e
Eiienoainueeee (ia?aieoeuenueeee), aaaaoi i?aaenoaaiee?a /i?iiai e
a?eiai aeooiaainoaa, a?aonoa ? iiiaeeiieeo caiaeue. I?aaineaai? ooai?eee
na?e niai? i?ae aieiaoaaiiyi iao??a?oiai aeca?oa a?o?iaiae?eoa Ieeeoi?a.
Oaeei /aiii, iaeii/anii a Aa?ano? a?aeaoaaeiny aeaa niai?e – oi?aonueeee
(ui neeaaeaany o?eueee c aeuiai aeooiaainoaa) ? i?aaineaaiee, iinoaiiae
yeeo aoee oe?eeii i?ioeeaaei?. Ei?ieue Nea?cioiae ??? aoa ia noi?ii?
oi?ao?a, aeciaa ?o iinoaiiao ? i?iaieinea oi?th c ?eiii aeieiiaiei
oaeoii, a ia i?ioanoe e iinoaiiao i?aaineaaieo oaaae caa?iaii ia aoei.
Iie?ath/enue ia i?eoeeuei?noue ei?iey, aia?a?eio i?aeo?eieo
eaoieeoeueeiai aeooiaainoaa oa iieuenueei-eaoeinueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa,
a?o???a?-oi?aoe iiaie? caae?aee nia? oea?eiai? e iiianoe?nuee? ia?oee,
oai?eo eaae?e i?aeaeaaeiiai ?i aeooiaainoaa, iinooiiai ciaoiaeeee nia?
i?eoeeueiee?a na?aae i?uainoaa e na?aae naeyinoaa. Iioe?aiiy oi??
aeeeeeaei aace?ia/i? noaeia? i?ioeane oa caeieioe a ianao. Ia ae?oaiai
oi?aonueeiai ieo?iiieeoa ?iao?y Iio?y i?aeaioiaeyany aoaioao, yeee
ne?i/eany o?eueee oei, ui a iueiai aoei a?ae?oaaii e?eueea iaeueoe?a. O
A?oaanueeo i?noeaaee oi?aonueeee a?o??ieneii ?inaoao Eoioeaae/
iano?eueee iano?i?a i?ioe naaa i?aaineaaieo i?uai, ui aiie eiai
caii?aeoaaee (1623). Ca oea A?oaanuee aoei iicaaaeaii Iaaaeaao?nueeiai
i?aaa, 19 iniaai iae?oaaii aieiae, aeecueei nioi? i?uai, ui aoaeee a?ae
noaeo, cai/ii i?enoaeaeaii aei nia?o?, a iaeii ?o caa?aii aei nea?ao.
Caeieioe aoee ? a ?ioeo i?noao. Acaaae? i?ae i?aaineaaieie oa oi?aoaie
eoea aia?oa ai?ioueaa, iaaea?ia oi?th iacaaii aoei “eino?th ?icaei?o”.
Ia?o ca ana ii/aeany ai?ioueaa e?oa?aoo?ia, c’yaeeiny aaaaoi iieai?/ieo
oai??a, aea iaeia noi?iia ai?iieea naaa e iaiaaeaea ia ae?oao. C aieo
i?aaineaaieo aenooiaee iaee?au? a/ai? neee, e ?o oai?e e aein?
cinoathoueny oe?iieie iai’yoieeaie oe?a?inueeiai ienueiainoaa, ye
“Aiie?enen” O?enoioi?a O?eaeaoa, “O?aiin” Iaeao?y Niio?eoeueeiai,
“Iae?iiae?y” Caoa??? Eiienoainueeiai. A?aonoaa aeaeaaaee oe? iieai?/i?
oai?e. Iaeii/anii c e?oa?aoo?iith ai?ioueaith eoea e ai?ioueaa i?aaiaa,
ia a?oio? naeiiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ooo aeyaeyee neeueio aeoe?th
i?aaineaai? iaaiaoe oa oeyooa, ye? ia??aeei aenooiaee ni?eueii c
i?ioanoaionueeith oeyooith. Ia a?oio? i?aaiaiio aoei c?iaeaii aeoaea
aaaaoi, ai aei iieiaeie 17 no. ia i?ioiaeeei aeiaeiiai naeio, aea a ia
noaaeeany ni?aaa «a?ae?a-ae?coieo?a», naaoi i?aaineaaieo, ? iane?aeee
aoee aeoaea aaaeeea?. Oae, a 1609 ?. i?aaineaaiei iiuanoeei th?eaee/ii
iaeiaaeoaaoeny a?ae oi?aonueei? ???a?o??, a a 1632-34 ??. i?aaineaai?
aeiaeeeny nai?? aeanii?, aeciaii? aea?aeaaith (oi?ea?eaeiaaii?) ???a?o??
c ee?anueeei ieo?iiieeoii Iao?ii Iiaeeith ia /ie?. Eiio i?aeeyaaee
?ia?o??: Eooeueea, Euea?anueea, Ia?aieoeuenueea, Oieinueea oa
iiaiooai?aia A?ei?onueea.

Aa?noae na?onueeiai i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy iniaeeai aia?a?eii ai?iieee
naith a??o; ae?acieeii iano?i?a ian o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? aoei
eicaoeoai. Aiii caaaeaee a?aenoithaaei ?ioa?ane i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, ?
oai, aea aieeae eicaoeoaa aoee neeuei?, naaoi ia Oe?a?i?, oi?y ia iaea
oni?oo. Caaaeyee eicaoeoao a Ee?a? oi?aoe iaiaaeeeeny o?eueee
Aeaeoaeoeueeei iiianoe?ai, a Eaa?e ia iiaee caoiieoe. Caaaeyee eicaeai ?
Iao?o Naaaeaea/iiio ??onaeeinueeee iao??a?o Oaioai a 1620 ?. iiiiaea
i?aaineaaio ???a?o?th c ieo?iiieeoii ?iaii Ai?aoeueeei ia /ie?. Ioioe?e
Oi??an na?ae/eoue, ui eicaee nai?ie i?ioaiiyie, iia?icaie oa ca?ieii
ia?aoeiaeaeaee iioe?aiith oi??. O 1632 ?. aiie /a?ac aeaiooaoe?th aei
naeio a?aenoiyee i?aaa nai?? oea?eae.

C e?ioey 17 no., eiee a?eueo?noue oeyooe i?ae aieeaii iie?oe/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ianoaaei i?ney 1654 ?. ia?aeoea ia a?e
eaoeinoaa, i?aaineaai? a?aonoaa i?aeoiaee, a eicaoeoai, a?ae?a?aaoe
naith ?noi?e/io ?ieue, ao?aoeei nai? cia/aiiy, – oiae? i?aaineaaia
oea?eaa, cinoaaeony aac nai?o i?iaiaea??a oa iai?iioe?a, iicaaaeeany
nai?? ???a?o??. Ia oi?th ia?aeoea a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a?eueo?noue
ia?iaeieo ian. Aaaaoi oeiaeeei oiae? i?aaineaa’th ? oa, ui i?ney 1654 ?.
/anoeia Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie?? iieieeany a iaaeao Iineianueei? aea?aeaae,
a /anoeia caeeoeeany a Iieuenueei-Eeoianuee?e aea?aeaa?. Iao?
ieo?iiieeoe Neeueaano? Ein?a (1647-1657), Ae?iien?e Aaeaaai (1657-1663)
oa ?ineo Iaethaiae/-Ooeaeuenueeee (1664-1675) ia ni?a/oaaee Iinea?, ?
eiee oa ?icii/aea caoiaee, uia i?aeaa?iooe oe?a?inueeo oea?eao i?ae
aeaaeo iineianueeiai iao??a?oa, aiie noaee ia a?e Iieueu?. AEeao/e ia
oa?eoi??? inoaiiuei?, cacia/ai? ieo?iiieeoe ia iaee iiaeeeaino? ea?oaaoe
oea?eiaieie ni?aaaie E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, a oei /anii Iineaa aeiaeeany
ci?oeiaiiy nai?o aeeeth/ieo aieea?a ? ia oea?eiai? ni?aae a Iieueu?. A
1685 ?ioe? aiia ca aeiiiiiaith oo?aoeueeiai o?yaeo ae?aaea a
eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai iao??a?oa Ae?iien?y IV caiaeo ia oa, uia
Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y ia?aeoea i?ae eaiii?/io caeaaei?noue aei
iineianueeiai iao??a?oa, yeee aeaaineiaea ia ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa
eieeoiueiai i?aaineaaiith eooeueeiai ?ieneiia eiycy Aaaeaiia
Nayoiiiee-*aoaa?oeinueeiai.

O 1686 ?. a Iinea? i?ae Iieueuath ? ?in??th aoei ae?iaeaii oiiao, oae
caaiee ie? A?aeeioeueoianueeiai (aai «a?/iee ie?»). Oeae ie? aeaaaa
i?aai ?in?enueeiio o?yaeia? a oe?eyo iai?iie i?aaineaaieo a?ae
oi?aonueeeo ooene?a ao?o/aoeny o aioo??oi? ni?aae ?a/? Iiniieeoi?,
i?aaineaaia ianaeaiiy Iieueu? a?aeaeaaaeiny i?ae i?ioaeoi?ao
iineianueeiai oea?y. Caaaeyee oeueiio i?aaineaai? ia?ao?? oa iiianoe?? a
Iieueu? i?aeeyaaee ee?anueeiio ieo?iiieeoia?, a oie, o naith /a?ao,
i?aeeyaaa iineianueeiio iao??a?oo, a iio?i ? Nayuaiiiio Neiiaeia?.

Ia i?ioyc? 18 no. Ee?anueea ieo?iiie?y i?ae aieeaii ?in?enueei? oea?eae
caciaea aeayeeo ci?i. Aoei neaniaaii i?aai aeai?o ieo?iiieeoa oa
?ieneii?a; iiaie? a?aei?iyeinue aeai?ia ia/aei uiaei ieae/iai
aeooiaainoaa. Iae 1700 ?. c Ee?anueei? aeaaeai?? aeeeeeathoue aei Iineae
oa Iaoa?ao?aa iaoeo o/aieo /aioe?a, e o? caeiathoue a ?in?? aae aei
/an?a Eaoa?eie ?? an? a?o???aenuee? eaoaae?e. Oiio, c iaeiiai aieo, any
?in?enueea oea?eaa i?aeaea?oueny neeueiei aieeaai oea?eae oe?a?inueei?.
A?ae /an?a Eaoa?eie ?? ieo?iiieeo ee?anueeee ao?aoea nai? cia/aiiy
ia?oiai ???a?oa aeey ?ioeo a?o???a?a, ao?aoea anyeo iaae iei aeaaeo ?
noaa cae/aeiei ?ia?o?aeueiei aeaaeeeith.

A e?ioe? 19 – ia ii/aoeo 20 no. oe?a?inuee? caie? iiae?eaii ia oae?
?ia?o??: Oa?e?anueeo, *a?i?a?anueeo, Iieoaanueeo, Eaoa?eiineaanueeo,
Oa?niinueeo (1837 ?., eaoaae?a a Iaean?), Oaa??enueeo (1859 ?., eaoaae?a
a N?ioa?iiie?), Iiae?euenueeo (eaoaae?a a Eai’yioe?), Aieeinueeo
(eaoaae?a a AEeoiie??) ? Ee?anueeo; a 1907 ?. iinoaea ua Oieinueea
?ia?o?y. A aeanyoe oe?a?inueeeo ?ia?o?yo iae?/oaaeiny a 1900 ?.
i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy 19 i?eueeii?a.

O 1870 ?. i?ioi???ae A. A?a/oeaae/ aea? ia?o? c?acee i?iiia?ae? ia
oe?a?inuee?e iia?. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oyaee? ianoaaeie, i?eeeaae eiai ia
cinoa?oueny aac iane?aeoaa/?a: I. Ii?a/aanueeee ia?aeeaaea? ia
oe?a?inueeo iiao *aoaa?i?aaiaae??, I. Eoe?o – iaei ia anth A?ae?th. A
1906-1908 ??. Nayuaiiee Neiiae aeaea? oe?a?inueea ?aaiaae??.
C’yaeythoueny ni?iae aeaeaiiy iiioey?ieo eieaeie ?ae?a?eiiai ci?noo
oe?a?inueeith iiaith. Noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i oe?a?inueeo iiao ye iiao
aiaineoaeaiao. Ii/aeany caiaeea ai?ioueaa iii?ae ???a?o??th oa
i?eoeeueieeaie oe?a?i?caoe?? oea?eae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Oey ai?ioueaa
i?eaaea aei ?iceieo. I?eoeeueieee iiaii? oe?a?i?caoe?? ooai?eee ie?aio
Oe?a?inueeo Aaoieaoaeueio I?aaineaaio Oea?eao ia /ie? c ieo?iiieeoii A.
Eeie?anueeei (c 1921 ?.). Aea, o ca’yceo c iacae/aeiei niiniaii ??
ooai?aiiy, aaoi?eoao OAIOe ii/aa iaaeaoe ? a 1930 ?. aiia
naiie?ea?aeoaaeanue.

Aecia/aiiyi A?o???aenueeiai Niai?o ?in?enueei? I?aaineaaii? Oea?eae
(?IOe) 25-27 aeiaoiy 1990 ?., o a?aeiia?aeue ia caa?iaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
aieneiiaoa aei Nayo?eoiai Iao??a?oa Iineianueeiai ? anay ?on? Aeaen?y ??
e anueiai aieneiiaoa ?IOe, Oe?a?inuee?e I?aaineaai?e Oea?ea? (OIOe)
iaaeaii iacaeaaei?noue ? naiino?ei?noue a ?? ea?oaaii?. OIOe –
niaaeei?ieoey ae?aaiuei? Ee?anueei? ieo?iiie?? (a iaaeao Oe?a?ie) ?
Oe?a?inueeiai aeca?oaoo ?IOe.

Naiino?ei?noue ? iacaeaaei?noue OIOe o ea?oaaii? iioe?th?oueny ia
eaiii?/i?, aiaineoaeaia?, ainiiaea?nuee?, o?iainia? oa aeooiaii-ina?oio
noa?e aioo??oiueiai aeeooy ?? ?ia?o?e. Niai?iee ? iieeoiaii-eaiii?/iee
ca’ycie OIOe ?c Anana?oi?i I?aaineaa’yi yaey? /eainoai I?aaenoiyoaey
OIOe o Nayuaiiiio Neiiae? ?IOe, ? o/anoue oe?a?inueeiai aieneiiaoa a
A?o???aenueeeo oa Iii?nieo Niai?ao ?IOe. Ciaeii ia?aaoaaiiy OIOe o
aeaaiaeaoiiio eii? Anana?oiueiai I?aaineaa’y ? noaoooia i?aeianaiiy
?iai? I?aaenoiyoaey ?IOe ca aiaineoae?iiyie ? aeaaineiaaiiy Nayo?eoei
Iao??a?oii iiaiia?aiiai I?aaenoiyoaey OIOe. A?aeiia?aeii, oe?a?inueeee
aieneiiao, iaaii aeneiaethth/e a??iiia/aeueiue i?eioeei niai?iino?
Oea?eae O?enoiai?, aa?a o/anoue o aeai?ao Nayo?eoiai Iao??a?oa
Iineianueeiai ? anay ?on?, a I?aaenoiyoaeue OIOe – a ia?yae?
ianoieiaaiiy I?aaenoiyoaey ?IOe. ?aaeuei? i?aaa ? eaiii?/iee noaoon OIOe
oaeoe/ii iaaeeaeathoue ?? aei iiaiioe i?aa ? noaoono Iii?nii? Oea?eae,
aac oi?iaeueiiai aecia/aiiy inoaiiuei? Iii?niei Niai?ii ?IOe.

I?aaenoiyoaeue OIOe – ieo?iiieeo Ee?anueeee ? anay Oe?a?ie c oeooeii
«Aeaaeaiiee». Eaiii?/iee noaoon OIOe oa ?? I?aaenoiyoaey aeciai? Aeaaaie
Iii?nieo aaoieaoaeueieo i?aaineaaieo Oea?eia. ?aceaeaioe?y I?aaenoiyoaey
OIOe – Ee?ai-Ia/a?-nueea Oniainueea Eaa?a. I?aaenoiyoaeue OIOe c 1992
?ieo – Aeaaeaiiee Aieiaeeie? /Naaiaeai/, ieo?iiieeo Ee?anueeee ? anay
Oe?a?ie.

Nayuaiiee Neiiae OIOe caeeaaea? ? neaniao? ?ia?o?? a iaaeao Oe?a?ie,
aeooiai? oeiee, iae?a? eaiaeeaeao?a ia a?euei? ?ieneiinuee? eaoaae?e,
aeaaineiaey? a?aee?eooy iiianoe??a, iaaiai?th? ? ae??oo? an? ?io?
ieoaiiy aioo??oiueiai aeeooy OIOe a ia??iae i?ae A?o???aenueeeie
Niai?aie OIOe. A?o???aenueeee Niai? OIOe, a?aeiia?aeii aei Noaoooo i?i
ea?oaaiiy OIOe, ? aeuei i?aaiii niai?iiai ea?oaaiiy. A?o???aenueeee
Niai? OIOe naiino?eii ? iacaeaaeii iae?a? I?aaenoiyoaey OIOe –
ieo?iiieeoa Ee?anueeiai ? anay Oe?a?ie.

A OIOe ia??iaee/ii cae?a?oueny Anaoe?a?inueeee Oea?eiaiee Niai?
(iii?niee) ca o/anoth aieneiiaoa, i?aaenoaaiee?a aeooiaainoaa, ui ?
/aioeyie, oa ie?yi OIOe aeey iaaiai?aiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo ieoaiue
aioo??oiueiai aeeooy OIOe.

No?aeia I?aaineaa’y – oeny/ie?oiy o?aaeeoe?eia ?ae?a?y oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo (?one/?a). OIOe – iaea?eueoa i?aaineaaia iaueia a Oe?a?i?: aiia
ia?aoiao? o?eaeoeyoue i’youe i?eueeii?a o?auaieo o?enoeyi. O neeaae?
OIOe 35 ?ia?o?e, 37 a?o???a?a, ? iaeia aeooiaia aeaaeai?y (Ee?a,
Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueea Eaa?a), 5 nai?ia??e, 22 aeooiaieo o/eeeua, 3200
iaae?eueieo oe?e. Iaea?eueo? iiianoe??: Nayoi-Oniainueea
Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueea Eaa?a, Nayoi-Oniainueea Ii/a?anueea Eaa?a, ye? ?
caaaeueiii?aaineaaiuie o?enoeyinueeeie nayoeiyie ? i?noeyie ianiaiai
iaeiiieoeoaa.

OIOe – Oea?eaa-io/aieoey: nioi? oeny/ o?enoeyi iino?aaeaeaee a
?acoeueoao? ?ai?an?e ?c aieo aiaiai?/i? aeaaee a N?N?, oeny/a
nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a, ui ? /aioeyie, ? ie?yi aoei ?icno??eyii oa caneaii
a nea??nuee? oaai?e. Na?aae ieo – ia?oee Nayuaiiiio/aiee ?in?enueei?
Oea?eae, ieo?iiieeo Ee?anueeee Aieiaeeie? /Aiaiyaeaineee/, aaeoee
a?eueoiaeeaie o 1918 ?. Aoei c?oeiiaaii aaaaoi o?ai?a, iiianoe??a.
Caai?iiaii oea?eiaio aeia?iae?ei?noue. Inoaii?i /anii OIOe iinooiiai
iiaa?oathoueny o?aie, iiianoe?? ? iaeii, ?ai?oa iaoe?iiae?ciaaia
aea?aeaaith. A?aeiiaeythoueny nioe?aeueia ae?aeii?y OIOe:
oea?eiaii-ia?ao?yeuei? oeiee, e?ea?i?, iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe?? ?
i?yioaaiiy, iaoa yeeo – aeiiiiiaa noa?oeyi, ?iaae?aeai, a?aeiei ? o.ae.

Ia eaiii?/i?e oa?eoi??? OIOe ae?thoue aea? eieaeuei?, ia aeciai?
Iii?niith I?aaineaaiith Oea?eaith, iaoe?iiae?noe/ii i???ioiaai?
?iceieueieoeuee? th?enaeeeoe?? – Oe?a?inueea I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa
Ee?anueeiai iao??a?oaoo (OIOe-EI) ia /ie? c ?iceieueieeii «iao??a?oii
O?ea?aoii» ? Oe?a?inueea Aaoieaoaeueia I?aaineaaia Oea?eaa (OAIOe).
Aaeeea /anoeia ?oi?o i?eoiae?a ?icoaoiaaia a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie
(Aaee/eia, Aieeiue), ye? ?noi?e/ii aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo ?a/? Iiniieeoi?
(Iieueu?). Ia oeeo aea oa?eoi??yo ae?? Oe?a?inueea A?aei-Eaoieeoeueea
Oea?eaa (oi?aonueea, OAEOe). Aeoea?coaaeany ae?yeuei?noue
inaaaei-?ae?a?icieo oa ieoeueoieo naeo, ui i?aeoeeothoue i?icae?oeci
na?aae i?aaineaaieo Oe?a?ie. Aca?iia ai?ioueaa ?iceieueieoeueeeo,
naeoaionueeeo ? i?ioi?aonueeeo nee a Oe?a?i?, yea cae?enith?oueny ia
oii? aeooiaii?, iie?oe/ii? o? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece a e?a?i?, ii?ooo? ie?iee
o?ae aeeooy OIOe, noai?th? iaaeeiioan?eio iai?oaeai?noue ? i?iaieo?
a?aee?eo? nooe/ee i?ae aeooiaieie iaueiaie.

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