Множинні та поєднані ураження опорно-рухового апарата. Ускладнення при лікуванні переломів. Сучасні принципи ампутацій та протезування (реферат)

???? ? ??:

I???? ? ????? ???iy ???-???? ???a. O????iy ?e ????? ??e??a. N??? ????
????e ? ????a?y

I????a ??? ??? ? ???a ????ey??ny ? ?????o (?????) ? ?????. ??????e
?????y? ???th? ?????y ??? ???, ?i ???? ? ???a ?? ? ??e ?????y a ??o ???
??????i ???? (??? , ???o).

A???? ???? ?????, ???ee ? ??????, ???????y ?????a ?????th?ny ???
?????o, a ????? y?? ??????ny ??? ????o ? ????? ?????.

I???? ????? ???, ? ?????y ?? ?i ??? ?????o ???a a ??e ?????, a ??ae
?????y ?? ?i ??? ???i-??????? ????a ???o ?? ? ??e.

I????? ?????y? ????ny ????? ?????y ?????o ???a a ?io ?i ???o ?????, ?i
?????y ?????o ???a ? ???a ?oo ? ??e.

E?????? ???th? ?????y y? ???? ?ae ??????? ???th?o ????a: ?????i,
?????i, ??a???i ? o.ae.

A ??? ?n o ????e ????? ? ???? ??iy? ???y?? ???? ? ???a?? ????iiy ye
?????? ? ?????? ?????y.

I?????? ? ?????? ?????y ca ???e ??? ???a ???th? ?ae 50% aei 82,5% ??o
????? ? ?th? ???o ????th ? ??o, ye ? ????th, ?e ? ? ?ny?i ???ue. A??
?o???, ? ????? ???? ??????, ????o ??a ???.

I?????? ? ?????a ??? ? ae?a ???ith ? ?????th ?y ??y ?????th, ? ????? ?
??? ?????? o 12-95% ????a, a ????? ?ae ?ny? ? ?’??o ????iy. I????? (??a
50%) ??????ny ????iy ??? ???a ?? ? ??e ? ?????? ???.

I????, ????? ? ?????? ?????y ?????oth?ny ????th ????th ???/?o ?iy?a,
?????th?ny ???i ????yi ???? ???? ???e ????o, ?o???e ?ae ?n ?????e,
?????th a ?????, ???i ????i ??????? ? ???th ?????th. O?? ?????y ????i
??? ?????th?ny ?????? ??i, ???th ?????ith, ????e a ???? ????? ? ?o?iy ?
??????i ???.

A ???? 10-15 ??a a ????e ????? ? ? ???? ???????ny ???i — ?????. I?????
– ? ?????ue ?? ? ??? i????ue, y? ???oth? ????????? ????y, ???? y?? ????
?ae ??e???e ???i c ????? ? ?ae ????i ??? ?o ? ????. A?i ?? ????????
?iy?yi, y? ??? ? ?y???ue o ???i ????o ? ????? ????? ???o ?? ? ??e ?
?????o ???a. C????, ? ?y?e ???? ??i ???? ????th? ??? ????o ???o ????iiy
? ?ye ? ??? ? y??o. Oey ???a y?y??ny ???i ????? ?y ???? ?????a ? ????a
y? ? ??ath? ???? «?????».

I?? ??y ???ue ?? ????e. O??i «?????» ??ei ???nth??? ? ?????y ??ae i???o
??????a ??? ???????e, ???? ?y ?o, ?i ????ny ???yi ????? ???????? ????.
E??? ??i «?????» y?y? ??th ???? ???e, ??? ?????? ? ?????ue ???ae?iy,?
??? ????e ?? ???i ? ?y???ue ??, ?????e ? o.ae.

I???? – ? ??? ? ???y ?????? ???? ??i ????? ? a?o ???: ???? ????, ??????
??????, ??? ?a????, ??????e. I???i ? ???i a ?????? ? ???? ???? ????o.

*??? ????? ???? 5-8% ?ae ??o ????? ???o ?? oa ??e ? ?????o ???a.

Ia ???o ??? ???? ????iy ????? ?iy? ???y?? ???e-?ae 50 ? 70% ??o ?????
????a, ? ???o – ???y c ???, y? ?ny?th? 23-40%.

I????? — ? ? ??? ?? ???i?a ? ????? ?????o ???a. Oea ??a ?????? ? ?????
???e, y? E?? o 1955 ?. ??? «?????a ????. A?a ?????o??ny ???? ? ???????i
???i??, a ???? ???? y?? ? ??ee ?? ??aey? ? ???? ????, a ????y ????o
???e, y? ???othoue ??th ????a.

O????? ???a ?? ye ?????? ?e ? ??????? ???. Aei ?????? ?iy?a ?ae?ny?ny a
??o ??o ???? ???e, ??a i?? ?????ue ????? ????, ?y???ue ???????i ????o
?????y ? ???e?o ?i ????? ?????o,a ?????? ?????? ???? ???a, ? ????? ?
????th ? ???y??i-????? ?????. Aei ??, ?? ??????n? ???e ???a ? ??? ?
???ae?iy ???ath? ?????? ????? ???e ?????? ???e.

Aei ??????? ?i? ?????? ???e ???yo?y ??ae ???? ?????? ? ????? ???????
???? ????o (??, ?????, ???iy ??????, ???a ???? ????a, ??? ?i????? ?????y
? ??a).

Ia ??ath?? ???i ????? ?????? ???e ??i ?????, ? o ??? ???? ??? ???e ????
??e ?????e ?y ??y ??, ye ?????a?a ???a ??????ue. Ae??e ?? ???????ny ???
????iyi ???? ???? ???a ? ???, a ??o ??o ??? ??y?????iy (???i-???? ?
???e ?????? ???y). E?e oey ?????n? ?ny?? ????? ??y ???? ??? ??????i. A??
????e, ? ?????ue ??ae ??? c ?????ith ???a???th ?ny?? ? 20-25%.

I????ia (?????a ???a) ???????ny ??? ?????y?:

1.C??e ???????ny ?i?? ????i ?oy??y.

2.I???i ????iy ????? ???th? n???th ? ????? ????iy ?o ? ??? ?????o ???a.
I????, ?e ?????? ???? ?? ? ??e ?e ???? ???? ? ????? ????? ????? ?????e,
??e ?e ????? c ???i-???ith ???th ?? ??? ??????? ? o.i.

3.C?????ny ??? ?????, y? ?e??y? ? ????? ??o (???a ?????a, ????y, ???
???y ? o.ae.)

4.N???????ny ????iy ?iy?a ????? ????a ?e ??????????o ?????yo, ?????yo
??? ? ??? ? o.ae., ? ???aey? ? ??????o ???e.

O ???? ????/?? ???e ????yth? ???? ????a. Aei ??? ??? ??? ??????e, ??e
????o ??i?th??ith ? O??? ? e?????y ?.?.Ae?y?? (1987),y? ????eth? ?e ???e
??i?:

1.A??? ??? (?? ?e ????)

a)???y ?? (?e???ue ???? ??i – ??)

a)???y ??????? ????? (????noth ? 7 ?a). O ?e ???? o ?? ??????? ???? ?c
??ai ????o ?? ????e ?????a ??????ue.

a)???y ???? ????? ?i ???e???? (? 3-4 ???a)

2.I??? ????????? (?????th ? 10 ? ??? ???a a ????? ?ae ????? ??o
??i??o.oy??? e ?ny? ?????y).

3.I??? ???????.O ?e ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????o ? ? a ???th ??o –
?i??y ??? ? ??.

??? ??eyth? ??ae ??o, ???th ? ??o ??e ?????? ???e.

E???a ???a ???? ???o ?????ny ?c ????a, y? ?????oth? ?e, ?????o, ???
???? ??????ue, ??? ?????y ?????o ???a ? ??????i ???o.

O?o ?????, ? a ?e ??? ? ??? ?? ???th?ny ???y ?????? ? ?????i? ????,
????? ???iiy y? ?????? ? ?????y ???????? o???e ????o, a ? ?? ? ?a ????ny
???a ???? ? ???? ?????.

A??a ???????ue ? ?????ue ? ?o ??yae a ???e ?? ????? ??? ???nth??ith
???ith ??????? ???y ???? o ??? c ?????th. sse ???i, ? ???o ??? ?ae??ny
????a ???? ? ????i ????yi, ?? — ???y?ny ???? ????? ????y, ?? — ????
?????, a ?? ??? ? ?????c, a ????? — ?a????y.

O?a ???a ia ?? ????? a ??? ?? ??y ?????y ????? ???? ????, a ?’?o c ?i
????? ?o ????y ??oath?ny ???????. A ?ith ??o ???????ue ????a ?e ?????
????a ??ae? ????? ?oy??y ? ??iaith ???????ath ? ?????ny o ??o ???, ?oy?a
???a ??y??????i ??i?, ??y? ????ith ??y? ????i ??o, ???? ???a ??, ???ith?
????iy ?????o ? ??????o ???ey?e, ??????iy ????a.

A ?’yc? c ???th ????th ??????o ?????a ?e ?????? ?e?? ??????i ?????? a
?????e ?n ?y? ??????e ??oth?, ? ??? o?????a ????y ????a ?e ????? i????ue
? ???iy ?????, ?????e ? ???????? ?????a.

A???th ??th ????y ????a y?y??y ??? ? ??a ?????y ???? ?i??e. N??a ????y
???? ????a , y? ????? ? ???????? ???????y o 30-40 % ????a ??y ???????i
????y ?i ??y ??????? ??????.

A ?’?o c ?i, ?a ???? ???nth??iy ???th? ???e ?????-???????i ?????? ?
????th ye ????o ?????e ?e ? ????a ?????? ?????.

N??????? ????-o???????a ae???a a ??e ??? ??? ???? ????, ???? ? ????
?ny???y. I????i c ??? ??i ??????y ????ue ???????o ???????a, ????ethth?ny
?a ???, ???eyth?ny ? ????oth?ny a ????o ???eo ??, ??o a???? ???e
????y, ?????ny y??ue ????-???????? ????, ????ny ??a????ue.

I??, ? ??y?? ? ????o ??i?? a ????? ????-???????? ???o?a, ? ????? ?? ? a
?o ?n ??????ny ??e ?yae ???e, y? ??? ???oth? ????? ????y ? ??????ue ?o ?
??? ????a ????y. A??eyth? ??ue i???o ?? ????? ???e: ??????, ?????-????,
????? — ?????, ???????, ????? ? ?a’????.

1. Ae?????? ???e.

A??a ???, y? ???????ny ????? ? ?????? ?????y?, ??? y?o ? ???? ?? ??ii
??????, ???oth? ????? ? ??i? ?????e. I???oiy ?????y ???????? ? ??? ???a
?????e, ????iy ??????y? ???? ???????a ????? ? ???o ??????o ???e ?e
?????yo c ????th ??????th, ???? ?????o ???a. A????, ? ???e ??? ?e ??o
???th? ?i ?y ????iy ??????o ????a ? ??? ???e, ?i ?e ?????? ?????yo a?
????? ??i.

I??, ?????a ????iy ?????? ????iy ??o ??? ?c ????yi ???? ???????a,
?????iy ????? ???a ????iy, ?????ue ? ?????i ? ????? ???? ????o ??? c
????iyi ???? ??i, ????o ? ?????? ????? ???ath? ???a ?????y a ??????
?????i? ???e.

2.E????? – ???? i???.

E????? ???a ?eth?? ?? ????????o ???a, y? ???yth? ?y ???i ???i a ???
????? c ????th ??????th ???e ?c ???? ???? ????o ???a a??? ????o ?????e,
??? ?? ?????e ???a ????y.

A ???? – ????????e ???? ????? ??? e?????? ???e ?? ???? ???a ???iy, ?e ye
??? ?e ????? ??i??iyo ?i ???th??yo ???i ???????e ??? ??? ? ???e ye
???a???? ?e ? ?????? ???iiy. Oea ???? ?ae ????, y? ????? ye ??th
?????th, ?e ? ?????e ???e, ????oy? ? ?????th ???a, ????ith ???????th,
???? ? ???i – ???????e ?????y?, ?????th ???i, ????i ? ????? ????y ???e ?
???ee, ? ?? ?aee?i ????e ? ?e ???eth???o ????? ?????a ????? ? ??????
?????.

C??a ??a ??ae ????? – ????o ???e, y? ye ???i, ???oth?ny c ?????e, ???
??? ????a ? ???a ????y. I???? ????a ???a o ??? ????o ???????i ??? ????y
?i ???? ?ai ?????iy ? ??? ???th?ny ?c ?????a.

I? ???? ?ae ??? ??? ????y ? ???i ???i ???th? ???? ????, y? ye ??th??
???y ???aey? ? ??th ? ?c?o ????? ? ????? ?????a.

A????y ????? – ????o ???e ?acy?? ??ae c ?????th ???o ??????? ????a ?
????o ????o ????e a ?????o ????o ??? ? ??? ??????? ?????. Oea ????ny
????y ????o ???nth???? ????? ???o ?? ? ??e, ??i? ????th ? ??????? a
????? ????? ?????o ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???e c ????iyi
???a?? ? ???????? ?????? ???i.

3.E?????-????? ???e.

A?????ue ???????i ???o a ?????? ??????o ????o ?????e ?y ??????,
?????i-??????? ????a, ????a ? ??????a, ??????i ???????th ? ????a, a ?io
??? ? ????ai ?oy??y, ????? ????y ????th ?o ?????iy — ?ue ???? ???e
????a, y? ???ath? ??? ? ?????y.

I???o ???nth??? ???? ???e ? ???i ????? ?????a y?y??ny ?????iy ??ey??
o?a, ??????o ????o ?????e, y? ?????? ????i ????, ?????ue ??ae??y ????th
? ????e ?????o ???i?, ????iy ?????y ???y, ?????ue ?????? ??.

O?o, ?? ?i ?/?e ? ? ??? ??, ???i ? o??? ???e, ?????? ? ?’???? ????e ??
???e ? ???, ?a ? ??????? ?o ????, ?????e ??????ue ?i ?????ue ?????iy ??o
????? ????a ? ?y? ? ??? ??????? ?????a.

4.I??????? ???e.

A?ae?i, ? a ?????o ????o, ? ???yi ?????? ?????-??????? ???o ???eyth?
?e?? ??o — ??? ????? ???e.

I???i ????e ????????? ???? ? ???oth?, ? ?y ????i ????y ????-???????
o??o ???? ?a??y ?? ?y???ue ?????? ????e. A ?y?o ?????? ?????oth?ny ????
???, ???????ue y?o ?? ????i ???? ? ???a ????y.

I?? ?c ????o ????a a ?????? ??? y?y??ny ?????ue ?????? ????? ?y ???y
?????? ???? ?????i, ?eth?th? ? ??? ?????-???????? ? ??????, ??? ??? ?
o.i.

I???i ????? ????e ???th? ?e i?????e ?????? ????????? ???, ?????ue ???
???e ???eth ? ?????-??????i ???? ? ????yi ????? ???y, ?????a ?????
?????? ?????y ??? ????-?????? ?????, ????? ??ey?a. I????? ??a ????iy
???? ??????? ??ae y?y??ny ???? ????? ???e. ???? ?????? ????????? ???? a
???? ???? ???? a?ae ????o ? ?????? y??? ????a ????????o ??????a, ??
?????, ?????, ????.

5.I??? ?????-???? a????? .

6.N?c???? ???e.

Oea ??a ???e y?y??ny ????o ???nth??ith, ?e ye ?? ??y? ?ay?? c ????noth
???a, y?e ?o ????. I??? ? ????? ??y ?????? ? ????? ??????a.

Ae???i ????????, c ??? ??, ?? ?? ????iy ?????, ? ????y ???? ??ue ? ?????
???e ?y ??????i ?o a?????y. C ???i ??, ?? ????a ? ??? ?????th ?????e ?
??e? a ??? ????, ?a ? ?????th ?? ? ??i ??????i ????y, ?????th, a ???i ?
?????ith ??o ???i?? — ??e ? ??? ???-??? ? i?a ? ?ae.

A????? ? ?????iy.

A?????th ?????ny ????? ????y, y? ??a??a ? ????y ????e ? ??y?. ss?i ????y
????e ???y? ? ??? ???o, ? ?? ????? ????y ?????y ?????y??th.

A????y ? ??? ???th ?????th. A??y ?i ????th ???i ?yae ???a, y? ?? ?a’y??
c ????-????e ??e??e (????iy, ???a ????? ? o.i.), ?e ? ????yi ?????? ???:
????y ? ????e, ??y ???o ? o.i.

I???iy ? ?????, ??? ?????, ???a ????ue ???i ??? ?????? ???
???????i. I?e ??o ??cy??i ???i ?? ??????ii ? ??? ???? ???th??y, ??
?????y, ?a e ????e ?? ???i, ?? ??????? ?????.

sse ???? I. ?. I??? “ ? ?? ?c i???e ? ???? ???e ?????, ???e ????i ??? ?
??e c ?? ???y, ye ????? ? ???? ?????iy ???? ? ?????.”

A???th? ?? ???a, ??? ? ?a? ??????y ???????? ?????? ?????a a ??? ??ey?ny
???y ? ????? ? ?o ??yae ??o ?????i ?aea ???? ???c ??eth?? ???? ? ?????.

1.A???e ????e c ?????yi ? ?????yi i’y?a, ???, ??????o ??i ? ???? ????
????a ? ??y?.

A??o ?? a ????? ??????? ???? ????e ?? ?? ?????y. A?ae?i, ? ????? ???i
????iy ae??????? ??? a ??? ????? ??a??? ?y ???a ? ??? ???? 12-14 ?ae?, a
?y ????a, y? ?eth?th? ??? i’y?? ???, a ? ??????? a/c ?????y – 8-9 ??i.
A???????e ae????iy? ????, ? ??? ??iae??y ???y? ??? ????? ???i ????.

I??? ???????y: 3 ??? ?i ae ????e ??a.

I????? ???? ???ey?ny ?ae ?i???iy ?????th ??????? ????.

2.Iay???th ??? ?????, y? ???? ??th ???i.

3. A???a ????e ???????i ????iy (???c, ???y, ???, ??? ? ?????iy, ??????a
? o. i.)

4. C?y??? ??e?.

5. Ae?????? ????? ???e, y? ? ??ath?ny ????th c ?y???th ????c??? ??a.

6. O????e ??i???o c ????? ????th?? ????? ?????o ???a.

7. A???? ? ??? ?? ????e, y? ???th? ?????ith.

???? ????e:

????yth? ???th? ?? ????e:

-i???? – ?????, y? ???th? c i?ith ????y y?i ???????? ?n?? ????e. A?e
???th?ny a ?’?? IOI ???th?ny a ??? 24 ???;

-???? ????? – ?????, y? ???th?ny ??y ???o??? ye ??????i ?e ? ??????i?
????y ?e ?????yo ???th ????th, ???nth???e ????e ?????y?, ????, ????y c
????iyi ?????e?? ???;

-i???? — ???th?ny ??, y? ???th?ny a ?’y?o c ?y???th ??????ath?o ???, ?i,
?. ??????? c ???ath?? ????? ?????? a?????o ???a;

-????, ?i ?????? – ye ????o ???i ????o ????e, ?e ??o ???, ??y ????? ?e
????o ????yo.

A????th ??a ????e ?ae ????i ????iyi, ?? ? ? ??th?? ? ??????? ???e ????i
????iy, ???oth? ????oe?th.

I???? ????e ????? y?yth?ny: ?????y i’y?o ???, ??? ???, ???a ??, ??a’y?a
??i, ???a, ???iy ??.

A ????? ?ae ?????y i’y?o o??i ????? ??th?:

-??????e — ?? i’ye? ???e ????th?ny ?????ey?i ? ??? ?? ????e ? ??? ???.

-?????? – ?ee ??? ??y ???y??i ?????y ?????ny ???????, a ??i ????th? ??
??? i’y? ???e.

-??????? – ???y? ???y?? ???c ???, ??i i’y?a, a ??i ???, ??i
???? ?? ???? ?a?i ???th??ny ?e ??? ???o.

Ia ?????? ??, a ?’y?o c ???? ?????y? ? ???e ?????oth?ny ??i. I???o
????i, a ?? ? ???nth??? y?y??ny ????e ???a ?????. E??? ???thth?ny ? ???
? ?ae???? ???? ?????e a ???????? 2/3: 1/3. Oea ???y? ???? ????e ??? c
?ae ?????iy, ? y?y??y ??????ith ?????i ?????iy, ????th ??c?, ??????e.

ss?i a ??? ?eth???ny ? ???y, oi ????y ?????ny ????????th, ye? ? i’y? –
??????????th, a ?? ????e ?? ??????ny ???yi — ????????????????ith. I?e
??? ?? ??????y ??ae ????th ?a??ith. A ????? ?ae ???e ???: 1)????????;
2)??????; 3)???ai-????a. O?? ????? ???th?ny ????-?????e. A?????? ??o ??
???th? ??, y? ?th? ?????ue ?a????y ? ?? ???. Oea ?? ? ?a ??a ? I???o
(????th ???y? ? ??? ?????i ???? ??? ???e ? ??y ????? ???e iy??? ??? ??
?? ?????y ?ae ??? ?o ???) ????y ??? ? A????-O?????? (????th ???y? ? ???
?????i ???? ? ??y i??? ??????a ?i ?????y ?ae oeth ?ey?o).

I?????? ????? — ?? ??y ??ath??y ???y?o ????a i’y? ????th?ny ???y?i
???????, a ??i ?ae ????i ??? ??ath? ???? ????th ? ????th ??o, a ??i
???th ? ??th. O?a ????y ???th? ?????i i’y?i ??e ?????, ui ??? ????
??????? ????? ??, ???? ????a.

C???i, ? ?????? ???e ???/?o ????e ???i ??????.

A???i ?e ????yo y?y??ny i??? ???a. Oea ?’y?? c ?i, ? ?? oy?a ?????y ye
???? ?? ???? a ??y??????o ???? ? ????? ?????? ???e ???a. I?a ??i? ??
?????e ???i ??i ??y n????????? ???e ??y ????? ?? a ??????? ??y?o ? 5-6 ?
?c ?? ?oy???y. I????? ????a ??a ??oey?.

Aeey ?????i ????? ??y ????? ? ????th?? ?????iy ???a ???iy ?? ???a ?????
??o. I???th??y ??? ???i ?????y ?c ??i??iy ???y. E?y ??? ???yth? ???ai, a
? ????ith ? ???????? ?n?e — ???y? ??’y??a ????iy ?? ?a?y.

C???y ????o ?e ????? ???oe?? ????a ? ??y?? ????i ?????? ????i. N?ae ???
?????e ??o, ? ?? ? ???? ???? ?? ??’y?? ???, ? y?y??ny ??????ith
???i-???? ???a. Ia ??? ?? ???? ???????e ??i ?????? ???? ?i ????a ????y ?
??o ??? ?ae ?n ????iy ????e. I?ney ????? ??y??? ? ????iy ???????, y? ??
? ?? ??????o ????? ????? o ????.

C??? ?y ???y ? ? ????y — ? ????y ???a ??????ue ?????iyi. I?????y —
?????y ????? ????e, ?i ????y ??????e ????e ????? ???? ???a ?? ? ??e ?
????th ????? ????a. Aeey ??? ?? ?????oth?ny: ???e, ???? ???e, ???e,
??i??? ??oy.

I??? ?ey?ny ?:

1. ?????

2. ???i-?????

3. ????

A????i ?iy? ?e ??? ??????? ???e ???? ????e. ???a ???o ??????ny ???????e
??????e c ??e. I??, ?th? ??? ????? ????, ?? ?????? ? c??? ????
???nth??iy a ?y?o c ?i, ? ?i?c ??? ? ? ????? ????? ?ey, ? ????? ? ?ai
?????? ????.

Aeey ??, ?a ?????? ???? ?????iy a ?????i ???? ???? ??y ?????, ?? ?????a
?????????y — ?????iy ? ??????o ???. Ia ?y? c ??o??? ????e ???a ?? ? ????
????: ????y ??e ???th i??? ?e ?? ??y?, ?????y ???? ????i ???o, y?
y?yth?ny ????th ?y ???? ?????iy a ????.

N?ae ???e ? ?????y ??o ??e:

1.O????iy ?a’y?? c ????? ? ????e ????e a ??? ??th??y ??.

2.I???iy c ?? ??y: ?y??? ???, ????a ?????iy, ???e, ???????.

3 O???? ?? — ?? o ????e ?ey?? ????e.

4 E???a ??a.

5 A????? ??a.

1. A??ey?? ???, ????o ? ????o ???? ??????i ???a. A??a ???y ???????ny
??????? ???? ????yi ????? ??o ? ??? a ?? ?o????i ???o, ? ???th??ny ? ??
???y ????. N???????ny ????a e??? ????y c ?? i’y?o ??? ????i ???? ?
?????a ???y ??? ????o ? ???i-?????e ???.

A ?????e ???? ?????ny, a a ?????e – ?????ny ????iy ???iiy ????i ????y ?
???e ????iy ?? ???y??? ???e; ???ath?ny ???e ??????? ? ?????iy ???o i’y?o
???. I???th c ???? ?? ???o ???? ???? ???o a ????ee ? ????? ?? ?? ???e
???a ?ith ?c ????.

A ????? ?ae ???? ???th??y a ???e ?? ?????ny ? ????/? ???a:

A ???e ???? ??????? (? ??? ?? ?i ??? ??y ???) ???? ? ?????? ? ????y ??
?y ???????i ???? ?ith ?c ????, ????y y?i ???????o ???, ??????y ???a a ??
????, ?????y ????? ????????? ???? ? ????y ???? ?????. *? ??? ???y?ny
???? ???, ?i ?? ????i ? oy?? ?? ????e ???a ??????i ???o.

A ?????e ? ???? a ?????e ???? ???th??y ????i c ???e?ith ??????th ?????
???y ?i ???????i-???eth??? ?????? ???; ????????a ???y ?? ?? ??a ???iy,
?ae a ???e ????; ????y ????? ????a ?th? ??ai???e ? ???????? ????, ??
??????? ????y ???i ?? ?? ?????, ?a ??????i.

I. A ?????e ???? ???th??y ????? ?e ?? ?i??:

A???, ?????y oa ????. I?ae ???ith ??th ??????? ????? iay???ue
???i-?????? ?a??o c ??????? ???i ???? ???? ??c ??? ?i ??. A ??o ???? ???
??? c ????? ???????i, ? ???? ????y ?????? ????i??, a ?e ?????? (? ???
??? ??i) – ?e??????-???eth??i?i ??????i ????y.

O?a ?????y ???????ny ??????th ????? a ?? ?????y ??? ? ????ith ?y???th
???? ?y ??? ?ith. A ??o ???? ? ???o ??? ?????y ?? ?? ????? ?i?????
??????? ? ????????a e????y. I??, ?e ??????? ??? ??i?? ????i ???i ????
???? ????, ???? y?i ??????? ???e ? n???e ??e ?????i ????iy;
?????o??-???eth??? ?????? ????y a ?e ???, ye ???i, ???????.

O?a ???? – ? ??? ?????? y?o-??? ????-????-?????? ??i, ?????o ?y ????i ?i
???o ????iiy ????????i ???o. A ?e ??? c???th??y ????? ???th?ny ???????
???????i-???? ?????? ????y ye ? ???o, ?e ? i’y?o ???. Oea ??, ??????
????? y?? ???i ???? ??? ?e ????y ??????, ? ?e ?????o ??????? ??? ??i ?
??a ???? ?i ????a?iy, a ?? ?i ?ny??iy ??o-?? ?e??? ????.

O???? ??????o – ???th??y ?ae??a ???o ?i ?? c ????? ?????? ?????, ??
?iy?? ?? a eth?e ??? ?e ?y??? ??? ?????i ???oth?? ??i?.

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