Українська культура кінця XVIII ст.–початку ХХ ст.

Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a e?ioey XVIII no. – ii/aoeo OO no.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy

Iaeei c i?aaenoaaiee?a iiai? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? ?.
Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee aaaaea?, ui i?ioean oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?eaaa 130 ?ie?a – a?ae e?ioey
eicaoeueei? aea?aeaae aei ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie. Onth aeiao
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia Oe?a?i? e?ioey XVIII no. –
ii/aoo OO no. a?i ae?eeoue ia o?e iniiai? ia??iaee: ia?oee –
aeai?yinueeee (1780 – 1840 ??.); ae?oaee – ia?iaeieoeueeee (1840 – 1880
??.); o?ao?e – iiaea?i?nonueeee (1890 – 1914 ??.).

Aeai?yinueeee ia??iae

Ia?oee ia??iae iia’ycaiee c eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth
aeai?yinoaa eicaoeueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia E?aiaa?aaeae? oa
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai oeyoaonoaa ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?. A oeae /an o
na?aaeiaeu? ina?/aiiai oe?a?inueeiai aeai?yinoaa i?iaoaeaeo?oueny
?ioa?an aei ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai naiai ia?iaeo, eiai iiaooo, cae/a?a,
ia?yae?a. C’yaeythoueny i?aoe?: “?noi??y Iaei? ?in??” (1822 ?.) Ae.
Aaioeoa-Eaiainueeiai; “Ei?ioeee e?oiien Iaei? ?in?? c 1506 ii 1770 ??e”
(1777 ?.) Aaneey ?oaaia; “Ei?ioeee iien Iaei?in?? c 1734 aei 1776 ??.”
Ieaenaiae?a Aacai?iaeueea; “Iien aan?eueieo oe?a?inueeeo
i?inoiia?iaeieo ia?yae?a” (1777 ?.) A?eai??y Eaeeiianueeiai; ca??ea
“Oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? i?ni?” (1834 ?.) Ieoaeea Iaeneiiae/a.

Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a aaeoc? e?oa?aoo?e iia’ycaia c oai?/?noth
Eioey?aanueeiai (1760 – 1838 ??.), aaoi?a iiaie “Aia?aea” – ia?oiai
oai?o iiai? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, iaienaiiai ia?iaeiith iiaith.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice iiai? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e aoa
A.O. Ea?oea-Iniia’yiaiei (1778 – 1843 ??.), aaoi? oai??a: “Ia?ony”,
“Na?aeaoia Ienaia”, “Naaoaiiy ia Aii/a??aoe?” oa ?io?.

Aaaeeeaei eoeueoo?iei ina?aaeeii, iaaeiei yeiai ia’?aeioaaeeny
e?oa?aoi?e-?iiaioeee, aoa Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao. *?eueia i?noea
na?aae ieo iaeaaeaei I. ?. Einoiia?iao (1817 – 1885 ??.) – aaoi?o
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ia??iaeo eica//eie oa
aecaieueii? ai?ioueae, a oaeiae ?noi?e/ieo ae?ai ? iia?noae (“Naaa
*aeee”, “Ia?ayneaanueea i?/”, “*a?i?a?aea” oa ?io?).

I?aeaaeeie oe?a?inueeiai i?ioan?eiiai oaao?o aoee caeeaaeai? a Oa?eia?
oa Iieoaa? – aaaeeeaeo ia oie /an oeaio?ao oaao?aeueiiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie.
A 1808 ?ioe? i?ney o?eaaei? ia?a?ae iiiiaeth?oueny ?iaioa Oa?e?anueeiai
oaao?o, aee?aeoi?ii, ?aaeena?ii ? aeoi?ii yeiai o 1812 ?ioe? noaa A.O.
Ea?oea-Iniia’yiaiei. Ia /ie? Iieoaanueeiai oaao?o noiya ?. I.
Eioey?aanueeee, c ?i?oe?aoeae yeiai aeoi? I. N. Uaie?i aoa aeeoieaiee c
e??iaoeueei? iaaie?.

A?o?oaeoo?ia ienoaoeoai Oe?a?ie oe??? aeiae ca?eueiyeiny a?ae /oaeeo
aieea?a ? i?iaeiaaeoaaei noaa?aeaeoaaoe naith naiiaooi?noue. A
a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oaeao iai?ai? iiceoe?? caeiaa eeane/iee noeeue. Ia
ii/aoeo O?O no. ia eiai ci?io i?eeoia iiaee noeeueiaee iai?yi – aii??.
Iaeiae a?i iiaeiai aoa iinooieoeny oe?a?inueeei aoae?aie/ei o?aaeeoe?yi
i?e caaoaeia? iaeeo aoaeeie?a, aaea?ae, ?aie?a, ye? iaae?aee nai???aeieo
oe?a?inueeee i?eeiao.

Iaea?eueo oaeaiiaeo? neoeueioi?e, ui aeeoee c oe?a?inueeiai na?aaeiaeua,
i?ineaaeee naaa ia iea? ?in?enueeiai ienoaoeoaa. Na?aae ieo ?.I. Ia?oin
(1754 – 1835 ??.) ?iaeii c ?/i?, oaia? *a?i?a?anueea iaeanoue, yeee noaa
i?ioani?ii, a caiaeii ?aeoi?ii Iaoa?ao?cueei? Aeaaeai?? Ienoaoeoa. Ca
i?anoi??//y nai?? ienoaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a?i noai?ea /eiaei
oaeaiiaeoeo neoeueioo?ieo ?ia?o o a?iic? oa ia?io??, na?aae ieo
iai’yoieee – I?i?io ? Iiaea?nueeiio o Iinea? (1804 – 1818 ??.), A.
??oaeue? a Iaean? (1823 – 1828 ??.).

O 1853 ?. a i. Ee?a?, ia iaeueiaie/iio aa?ac? Aei?i?a, ca i?iaeoii
neoeueioi?a A.?. Aeaioo-Iaeeiianueeiai oa a?o?oaeoi?a E.Oiia aoa
nii?oaeaeaiee iai’yoiee eiycth Aieiaeeie?o Aaeeeiio. Aeeiiaa eiai
a?aeiiee ?in?enueeee iaenoa? i?iaoeueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy I.E. Eeiaeo
(1805 – 1867 ??.).

Aaaeeeaee aianie o ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa
c?iaeee O.A. Oaa/aiei (1814 – 1861 ??.) oa eiai iine?aeiaieee E.I.
AEai/oaeieeia (1828 – 1912 ??.) ? E.I. O?ooianueeee (1826 – 1893 ??.).

O.A. Oaa/aiei aoa iaeiei ?c iaeaeaeaoi?oeo iaeno??a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa. A?i aeineiiaei aieiae?a oaoi?eith aeaa?ae?,
ie??, ?enoiea ie?aoeai ? ia?ii. O.A. Oaa/aiei ? aaoi?ii iiiaae iaei???
oeny/? oai??a ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa. Iaaeaeue, ia caa?aaeiny iiiaae
165 eiai oai??a, o oiio /ene? iiioiaioaeueii-aeaei?aoeai? ?iciene oa
neoeueioo?e.

O.A.Oaa/aiei, ye ooaeiaeiee-?aae?no, iaeiei ?c ia?oeo i?aaaeeai
ciaethaaa aeeooy ? iiaoo naeyinoaa (“Ia ian?oe?” – 1843 ?., “Naeyinueea
?iaeeia” – 1843 ?.). Eiai neaaaoia “Eaoa?eia” (1842 ?.) iaienaia
iiae?aii aei ia?iaeieo ea?oei, aea eiaeai aeaiaio cia?aaeaiiy ?
neiaieii. Oeaio?aeueia iinoaoue ea?oeie oiniaeth? Oe?a?io, aeoa – ??
neeo oa iaiiei?o.

Iaeiei ?c i?ia?aeieo aeai??a ienoaoeueei? oai?/ino? O.A.Oaa/aiea aoa
ii?o?ao. O oeueiio aeai?? ooaeiaeiee noai?ea iiiaae 130 ?ia?o.

Ia ia?oo iieiaeio XIX no. i?eiaaea? ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ioceee. Aeoiaeyoue o na?o ia?o? ca??ee ia?iaeieo i?naiue
– “Oe?a?inuee? iaeiae??” (1831 ?.) I. Ia?eaae/a, “Aieine oe?a?inueeeo
i?naiue” I. Iaeneiiae/a (1834 ?.).

Ia?iaeieoeueeee ia??iae

Ae?oaee ia??iae aa?a na?e ii/aoie a?ae aenooio ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e
a?ai? o 40-o ??. O.A.Oaa/aiea e o?eaa? aei e?ioey 80-o ??. XIX no. Ia
aeaiiio aoai? i?ia?aeia i?noea o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? caeia?
aeaiie?aoe/ia ?ioae?aaioe?y, yea nai?th iaoith noaaeoue “neoae?iiy
ia?iaeia?”.

Iaaeiei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a?aee?eoiai o 1834 ?., cao?ooaaeany
a?oia iieiaeeo ?iiaioee?a, ye? i?iyaeyee aaeeeee ?ioa?an aei
iaeaooiueiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A na?aaeiaeu? ?iiaioee?a iniaeeao
?ieue a?ae?a?aee i?ioani? oi?aa?neoaoo I.Einoiia?ia, ienueiaiiee,
?noi?ee ? aoiia?ao I.Eoe?o, aoiia?ao I.Ia?eiae/.

O a?oaei? 1845 ?. aiie canioaaee iie?oe/io oa?iio i?aai?caoe?th –
“Ee?eei-Ieoiae??anueea a?aonoai”. O ea?oi? 1846 ?. aei oiaa?enoaa
oa?eoia O.A.Oaa/aiei. Ia aeoieo /eai?a oiaa?enoaa an? neia’yinuee?
ia?iaee iathoue i?aai a?eueii ?icaeaaoe naith eoeueoo?o, aiie i?aaiooue
ooai?eoe neia’yinueeo oaaea?aoe?th, noieeoeath yei? ia? noaoe Ee?a.
A?aonoai aenooiaei ca e?ea?aeaoe?th e??iaoeoaa, iioe?aiiy ina?oe. O 1847
?. oiaa?enoai aoei ?ica?iieaii, a eiai /eaie caa?aooiaai?.

Iieiaea oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y iai?ee?ioe? 50-o – ia ii/aoeo 60-o ??.
noai?th? nai? oiaa?enoaa – oae caai? a?iiaaee, aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi yeeo
aoei iioe?aiiy ina?oe (noai?thaaee oeiee c oe?a?inueeith iiaith
iaa/aiiy, aeaeaaaee i?ae?o/ieee oe?a?inueei? iiae). Ia?oa a?iiaaea aoea
noai?aia o Ee?a? (aoiaeeee: I. Ae?aaiiaiia, I. *oaeinueeee, I.
Noa?eoeueeee, O. ?eeuenueeee, I. Eiienueeee oa ?i.). Iio?i oae? a?iiaaee
aeieeee o Oa?eia?, Iieoaa?, *a?i?aia?, Iaean?.

Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay iniaeeai ae?acii i?icao/aea o oai?/ino?
O.A. Oaa/aiea oa I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Aaeeeee oe?a?inueeee iiao O.A. Oaa/aiei caeeoea aeeaieee ne?ae a ?noi???
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?aae?noe/ii a?aeia?acea o
nai?o oai?ao aeeooy ? iiaoo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aeneiaea eiai i??? oa
niiae?aaiiy (“Eiaca?” (1840 ?.), iiaie “Aaeaeaiaee” (1841 ?.), “Oa?aniaa
i?/”, “Aaiae?y” oa ?i.).

Oai?/?noue O.A.Oaa/aiea iaea aaeeeee aieea ia aeooiaio eoeueoo?o
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aiia oa?eoea a cieioee oiiae eoeueoo?e
?a?iiaenueei? oa na?oiai?.

I?ae aieeaii oai?/ino? O.A. Oaa/aiea i?ioiaeeea e?oa?aoo?ia
ae?yeuei?noue oe?ei? ieayaee a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo iiao?a ? i?ica?e?a.
Ia iea? iiac?? ie?aeii i?aoethaaee E. Ae?aia, N. ?oaeainueeee, I.
*oaeinueeee, I. Eoe?o oa ?i. Aeaiie?aoe/iee iai?yi oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e o i?ic? i?aaenoaaeyee Ia?ei Aia/ie, Iaian Ie?iee, I.
Eioethaeinueeee, ?. Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee, ?. O?aiei, Eany Oe?a?iea. ?o
oai?e caeeoeee aeeaieee ne?ae o na?aeiiino? ia?iaeo, ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith
iaoe?iiaeueieo ? iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a oe?a?ioe?a.

?aea? O.A. Oaa/aiea ?icaeaaa ioae?oeeno, a/aiee ? a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiia (1841 – 1895 ??.). ?noi?e/ia caneoaa I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa
iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?i noaa ia caoeno aeooiaiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
aenooiea i?ioe aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe??, i?ioe caai?iie oea?nueeeie oeacaie
ia?iaeii? iiae. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiia oa?eoia a ?noi??th eoeueoo?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ye aeaeaoiee oieueeei?eno. Eiio iaeaaeaoue iaoeia?
i?aoe? c ?noi???, oieueeei?o oa aoiia?ao??: “?noi?e/i? i?ni?
iaei?onueeiai ia?iaeo” (1874 – 1875 ??.), “Iaei?onuee? ia?iaei? ia?aeace
? iiia?aeaiiy” (1876 ?.) oa ?i.

A 60-o ??. XIX no. “A?oenoe/ia oiaa?enoai” a ?eenaaaoa?aae? aia?oa ia
Oe?a?i? iinoaaeei i’?no O. Oaa/aiea “Iaca? Noiaeiey”, a a 70-o ??. iia?o
N.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai “Caii?iaeaoeue ca Aeoia?i”. A Ee?a? ae?ya
aiaoi?nueeee oaao?, aea ii/eiaee naith oai?/?noue eiiiiceoi? I. Eenaiei
(1842 – 1912 ??.) oa ae?aiaoo?a I. Noa?eoeueeee (1840 – 1904 ??.). O
1882 ?. a ?eenaaaoa?aae? i?e aeoeai?e o/ano? I. E?iieaieoeueeiai (1840 –
1910 ??.) aoa noai?aiee i?ioan?eiee oaao?. Aei i?ia?aeii? o?oie oa?eoee
a?aeii? c??ee oe?a?inueei? noeaie I. Naaeianueeee (ni?aaaei? i??caeua
Oia?eaae/, 1856 – 1933 ??.), I. Naenaaainueeee (ni?aaaei? i??caeua
Oia?eaae/, a?ao I. Naaeianueeiai, 1859 – 1930 ??.), I. Caiueeiaaoeueea
(ni?aaaei? i??caeua Aaeanianueea, 1854 – 1934 ??.). Oaao? c aaeeeei
oni?oii aenooiaa o Ee?a?, *a?i?aia?, Iieoaa?, Oa?eia?.

Neooa/?a e?aueo iia?ieo noeai ?a?iie oa Aia?eee a?aaeaee nai?i oaeaioii
ni?aa/ee nano?e E?ooaeueieoeuee? (Aaiia, 1887 – 1965 ??.; Nieii?y, 1872
– 1952 ??.).

Na?aae a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae oeueiai ia??iaeo aeae?eythoueny nai?th
ienoaoeueeith oe?ii?noth iia?i? oaao?e a Iaean? (1884 – 1887 ??.), Ee?a?
(1897 – 1901 ??.) oa Eueaia? (1897 – 1900 ??.), Euea?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo (1873 – 1877 ??.).

Iniiaiiieiaeieeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aae?noe/ii? oeiee a aaeoc?
neoeueioo?e aoee E. Iicai (1849 – 1921 ??.) oa I. Caa?ea (1830 – 1917
??.). Ia?oee c aaeeeei oni?oii i?aoethaaa o aeai?? neoeueioo?e iaeeo
oi?i (“Eiaca?”, “Oeiea?”, “Ia?anaeaioe?”), ae?oaee – a aeai??
neoeueioo?iiai ii?o?aoa (ia?io?iaee ii?o?ao O.A. Oaa/aiea, iai’yoiee
I.A. Aiaieth a I?aeei?). Na?aae iiioiaioaeueieo oai??a ne?ae iacaaoe
iai’yoiee A. Oiaeueieoeueeiio o Ee?a? (neoeueioi? I. Ieeaoei, 1879 –
1888 ??.).

A ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa? Oe?a?ie ooaa?aeaeo?oueny ?aae?noe/iee
iai?yi, ui iaea?eueo yne?aai aeyaeeiny o aeai?? iaecaaeo. Na?aae
oe?a?inueeeo iaecaaeeno?a aeae?eythoueny A. I?eianueeee, I. Eaa/aiei.
Iaea?eueo a?aeiiei aoa ooaeiaeiee N. Aaneeuee?anueeee (1854 – 1917 ??.).
Eiai iaecaae? “Eica/a eaaaaea” (1893 ?.), “Aei?i?ianuee? ieaai?” (1896
?.) ? ni?aaaei?ie oaaeaa?aie ienoaoeoaa.

?aea?th iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoea i?ieiyoa ioceea o??? aeiae.
Aoea noai?aia ia?oa oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia iia?a “Caii?iaeaoeue ca
Aeoia?i” (1862 ?.), ioceeo aei yei? iaienaa eiiiiceoi? N.
Aoeae-A?oaiianueeee (1813 – 1873 ??.). N. Aoeae-A?oaiianueeee –
oe?a?inueeee eiiiiceoi?, iia?iee ni?aae, ae?aiaoo?a. Iaa/aany a
Ee?anuee?e aeooiai?e nai?ia???. A?i aoa e?auei ni?aaeii oi?o nai?ia???,
c 1838 ?. ni?aaa o I?eaeai?i?e eaiae?. Ia nthaeaoe c oe?a?inueeiai
aeeooy eiiiiceoi? iaienaa oai?e: “Oe?a?inueea aan?eey”, “I?/ ia
ia?aaeiaei? ?aaia Eoiaea”.

Aaeeeee aianie o ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? ioceee, iiioey?ecaoe?th
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? i?ni? c?iaeee eiiiiceoi?e I. Nieaeuenueeee (1832
– 1887 ??.) – iia?e “Iacaia”, “Iaenueea i?/”; I. A?ean (1852 – 1909 ??.)
– iia?a “Eaoa?eia”.

Na?oiao neaao oe?a?inuee?e ioce/i?e eoeueoo?? i?ei?n oaeaiiaeoee
eiiiiceoi?, i?ai?no, aee?eaaio, iaaeaaia oa a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/ I.A.
Eenaiei. Oe?iei a?aeiieie noaee eiai iia?e “Iaoaeea Iieoaaea”,
“??caeayia i?/”, ”Oa?an Aoeueaa”, aeeoy/? iia?e “Eica-aea?aca”, “Iai
Eioeueeee”, ?iiaine ia neiaa ?aaia O?aiea, Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Oaeaiiaeoeie i?iaeiaaeoaa/aie oai?/eo caiia?o?a I. Eenaiea aoee
eiiiiceoi?e E. Noaoeaiei, I. Eaiioiae/, N. Ethaeeaae/.

Iiaea?i?nonueeee ia??iae

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? naiai aaiaceno oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee
?oo i?iieea? o na?aaeiaeua ia?iaeieo ian. A?i o?eaa? aae aei ii/aoeo
ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o Aaee/ei?

Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ui ?icii/aeiny ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?,
iaei cia/iee aieea ia i?iaoaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? o
Aaee/ei?, yea ia?aaoaaea o neeaae? Aano??enueei? ?iia???.

Aaaeeeao eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeo i?n?th a Aaee/ei? aeeiioaaee
aeooiai? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee: A?aei-eaoieeoeueea aeooiaia nai?ia??y o
Eueaia? oa Aeyei-a/eoaeuenueeee ?inoeooo a Ia?aieoe?. C ?i?oe?aoeae
aaeeoeueeeo ieo?iiieeo?a oa ?ieneii?a I.A?eyinueeiai, A.Aiaaeiae/a,
I.Eaaeoeueeiai oa ?ioeo aeooiaieo ae?y/?a i?e oea?eaao Aaee/eie aoee
a?aee?eo? ia?ao?aeuei? oeiee, ye? iioe?thaaee na?aae ia?iaeo ina?oo,
i?iiaaoaaee aeinyaiaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

ssne?aao noi??ieo a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ia oa aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aienaa ?.ss.O?aiei (1856 – 1916 ??.) – aeaeaoiee
oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee, o?einio, ?noi?ee, aeiiii?no, iiaiciaaaoeue,
oieueeei?eno oa aoiia?ao, aecia/iee a?iiaaenueeee oa eoeueoo?iee ae?y/.
?.O?aiei i?iaeiaaeea o?aaeeoe?? nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, cie?aia O.Oaa/aiea,
ia iea? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, ai?n aaaiiee aeeaae o ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueii? ? nioe?aeueii? na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Oai?/ee oaeaio ?.O?aiea ye ienueiaiieea aeyaeany a ?yae? eiai
iiia?aeaiue oa iia?noae, aea ?aae?noe/ii a?aeia?aaeaii aeeooy ?ia?oiee?a
oa naeyi Aaee/eie: “Ia ?iaio?”, “Iaaa?iaiee a??oiee”, “Ai?eneaa
ni??oueny”, “Caoa? Aa?eoo” oa ?i.

A ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e ?.O?aiei caeia? iaeia c i?ia?aeieo
i?noeue ye aeaeaoiee iiao. Aaeeea ia?iaeia aeciaiiy i?eianee eiio
iiaoe/i? ca??ee: “C aa?oei ? iecei”, “Aeaai? ? iiaa”, “C?a’yea eenoy” oa
?i.

O 1877 – 1882 ??. ?.O?aiei iaienaa aecia/i? oai?e iie?oe/ii? e??eee –
“A?/iee ?aaiethoe?iia?”, “Eaiaiy??”, “Oiaa?eoai ?c oth?ie”, a yeeo /?oei
i?icao/aa caeeee aei iiiaeaiiy na?oo ia canaaeao aoiai?cio ?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

?.O?aiei – iaea?eueoee a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ia?aeeaaea/ c on?o
?a?iiaenueeeo iia. ?.O?aiei cae?aa ? aeeaiei aea/aa ia?iaeio oai?/?noue.

Ii?yae c ?iaiaie O.A.Oaa/aiea oa ?.ss.O?aiea ne?ae iacaaoe
I.N.A?ooaanueeiai (1866 – 1934 ??.) – aeaeaoio iinoaoue oe?a?inueei?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. A?i ? aaoi?ii iiiaae aeaio oeny/ iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o
aaeoc? a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? oa e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Iiiaae 15 ?ie?a
I.N.A?ooaanueeee i/iethaaa Iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea, yea
i?ney ?ai?aai?caoe?? (1892 ?.) oaeoe/ii aeeiioaaei ooieoe?? Aeaaeai??
iaoe. Oiaa?enoai ia’?aeiaei iaeaea an?o i?ia?aeieo no?aeii- ?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo, a oaeiae aaaaoueio ?a?iiaenueeeo a/aieo. Ii?o/ c
I.N.A?ooaanueeei ie?aeii i?aoethaaee A.E?einueeee, A.Aiaothe, ?.O?aiei,
I.Iaaeee, O.Aiae.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *