Ткачество Японії

ANOOI:

I?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai eiaeii? e?a?ie o na?o? ia? naith iniaeeao oaoi?eo
oa iaethiee. Ienoaoeoai eiaeiiai ia?iaeo — oea eiai aeeooy, eiai aeooa,
eiai ieioea, no/ania oa iaeaooi?. On? oo?aioe oa iaae??, ?aeaaee oa
?ic/a?oaaiiy /ano ciaoiaeyoue na?e ae?ac o ienoaoeoa?, yeui ia a iaeiiio
eiai aeai??, oae a ?ioiio.

*anoi ienoaoeoai iiai?oa, ia?aeiieea?oa oa yne?aa?oa iiaea ?iceacaoe i?i
ia?iae ?ioi? e?a?ie, i?ae iaeaeaoaeuei?o? iiene iaiae??aiee?a, ye?
aa/aoue /ano?oa ca ana eeoa ciai?oith noi?iio aeeooy.

Iiaeia neacaoe, ui aaia?ao?/i? oiiae oa oa?aeoa? ia?iaeo aeaii? e?a?ie
noai?eee iniaeeaino? i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Iaei??th c oaeeo e?a?i ?
ssiii?y. Oae yea aiia neeaaea?oueny c ino?ia?a, ooo aeoaea aaaaoi
aieiae, aea iaia i?yeiai ia?aiaaeo oaiea e oieiaeo, ye? aeineoue aaaeei
ia?aiineoe. A?aeiia?aeii, ooo ? yni? i?eeiaoe /ioe?ueio ii? ?ieo. Ethaee
iiaeooue ianieiaeaeoaaoeny e?a?aeaeaie, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey /ioe?ueio
i?? ?ieo. C aeaai?o /an?a o ssiii?? ? iaeei ae?ac: «Ni?a — i?nyoeue —
ea?oe». Oea iieaco? e?ano i?e?iaee ii? ?ieo: ni?a aceieo, i?nyoeue
ainaie e ea?o? iaaani?. I?e?iaea ssiii?? aeoaea niie?eia, aiia ia ia?
aenieeo a?? oa oe?ieeo ??/ie. Oaea i?e?iaeia ioi/aiiy aea? iiaeeea?noue
ianaeaiith ssiii?? ethaeoe i?e?iaeo oa aoaee aeecueeei aei ia?.

I?e?iaea ae aeiiiiaaaea ?icaeoeo o yiiioe?a /ooeino? oa aeoii/aiino? a
ia?acioai?/iio ienoaoeoa?. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoo?aeuei? iaoa??aee aeey
ia?iaee aeoai??a, iaeno?e iaiaaathoueny yeiiiaa iiai?oa iieacaoe niaeo?
iiaeeeainoae. Oea oaeiae iiaeia iiaa/eoe ? o a?aeiioaii? aei iaethiea.
Oae, cia?aaeoth/e ea?oeo, yiiioe? iaiaaathoueny caeeoeoe eiai i?e?iaeio
e?ano, oiae? ye o ?a?ii? i?eeiyoi iiaea?i?coaaoe, ? oi?ia ci?ith?oueny
iano?eueee, ui aaaeei ai?ciaoe iniiaio oi?io ea?oee aai no?oeoo?o eiai
iaethiea.

Ui noino?oueny oa?aeoa?o naieo yiiioe?a, oi o?aaa a?aei?oeoe, ui aiie
c?inoathoue niie?eiiio i?e?iaeiiio ioi/aii?, a oaeiae aaeeaathoue
i?e?iaeio ?aeo. Iaeiae ?o aeeooy neeaaeaia c eiio?ano?a: ooi oa no?oa
aaee/acieo i?no oa ?aeee?/iee niie?e naeeu, niie?eii-aaee/aaa ai?a
Ooaec?, yea o nai?o iaae?ao oiaa? iano?eiio neeo aoeeaio. A?aeiia?aeii,
o ienoaoeoa? a?aeia?aaea?oueny ioae?a no?eiai?noue ia?iaeo c
aaaaoia?eiaith eoeueoo?iith o?aaeeoe??th oa aeooaai? iio?yn?iiy, ye?
iia’ycai? c aieiaie/ei ieioeei. O eiaeiiio ae?ia? a?aeia?aaea?oueny
oa?aeoa? ia o?eueee aaoi?a, aea e an??? e?a?ie, ?? ?noi???. ssiiioe?
aeia?a ai?thoue i?eaeaoe ae?iao i?inoo ynio oi?io (ui ?iaeoue ?o
ianoiaeeie ia iaeno??a Eeoath, ye? ae?iaeythoue oaeoii?/io neeaaeio
oi?io i?aaeiaoo). Iaeiae i?inoa oi?ia ia eeoa? ae??a ooaeiaeiuei?
oe?iiino?.

ssiiioe? /ooei ni?eeiathoue on? iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeiiai iaoa??aeo, ?
/oaeiai aieiae?thoue ienoaoeoaii a?aeia?aaeaiiy iaoa??aeo a ooaeiaei?o
ae?iaao.

?NOI?E*IA *ANOEIA:

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea e?a?ie o ia??iae i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y
(e?iaoeue 16 — na?aaeeia 19 no.)

Aeey oiai, uia iaea?eueo iiaii ioe?ieoe ienoaoeoai ssiii?? e?ioey
16-na?aaeeie 19 no., ne?ae i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeeny o
yiiinueeiio oiaa?enoa? a oeae ia??iae.

I?ci? na?aaeiueia?//y aeeth/a? ia??iaee Iiiiyia (aai Aaecoo? Iiiiyia) oa
Aaei. A oe? ia??iaee a iaeano? ienoaoeoaa a?aeaoeeny aaee/aci? ci?ie.

Ia??iae Iiiiyia.

I?ci?e oaiaeae?ci, ui ioiieth? aeaiee ia??iae (c 1573 aei 1615 ??.)
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui aoa iieeaaeaiee e?ae aeiaaio?eaaeei
i?aeoniaiei a?eiai oa anoaiiaeaia oeaio?ae?ciaaia aeaaea iaae aaeeeeie
oaiaeaeaie (aeaeia). E?iaoeue 16 no. noaa iaaeath ia o?eueee iie?oe/ieo,
aea e eoeueoo?ieo aiio. Iin??i iiaeo ooaeiaei?o iai?yie?a aoea aa?o?aea
aieiaie/i-oaiaeaeueiiai noaio, yea ei?enooaaeany cia/iith i?aeo?eieith
aaaaoiai eoiaoeoaa. Oe??ieaiiy iieiaeiai oa iiaiiai aia?a?? eoiaoeueeiai
noaio noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny aeaiie?aoecaoe??th niae?a, iiaeyae?a oa
iiiyoue. ?icoe?aiiy oi?a?ae? c ??cieie e?a?iaie, a oiio /ene? ?
?a?iiaenueeeie, aeiiiiaaaei c?inoo i?no, ?icaeoeo ?aianae, a ne?aeii ca
oeei ?icoe?thaaeiny ? oyaeaiiy i?i na?o.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie 16 no. ana a?ae/ooi?oa noaiiaeoueny ia?ainieneaiiy
aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, ia?ao?ae a?ae ?ae?a?eii? na?aeiiino? aei
na?onueei?. A ienoaoeoa? ca?eueoeeiny no?aie?iiy aei yne?aai?
aeaei?aoeaiino?, aaaaoiaa?aiino?, ieoii? aeaeiaeuiino?. Aea iaeii/anii
e?iaoeue 16 no. aoa ai?eiaii iiia?aaeiuei? aiioe. Naia o ia??iae Iiiiyia
(ia aeeaey/enue ia eiai ei?ioeo o?eaae?noue) a?aeoai?eeeny a aeeoo?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey a?o?oaeoo?e, aeeaiieno, aeaei?aoeaieo ?aianae c??eiai
na?aaeiueia?//y i?eioeeie i?inoioe oa i?e?iaeiino?. Ua aei ii/aoeo
aeaiiai ia??iaeo a ssiii?? aeieeei «aeeoo?noaa?aeaeoth/a» ienoaoeoai.
Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?ioeanii ni?a?nioaaiiy oa
aca?iii?iieeaiiy noa?iai oa iiaiai.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa:

A oeae ia??iae aei aeaaee i?eeoia ai?iiee noai, yeee o nai?io aeeoo? ia
aoa iia’ycaiee ca noa?eie cae/ayie oa o?aaeeoe?yie. C ?ioiai aieo, ua c
e?ioey ieioei? aiioe iinooiiai oe??ieyeiny aeiiii?/ia iieiaeaiiy
ao?aeoac??, o yei? ?icaeaaeeny iia? niaee, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee ??
aaee/aciei aeiiii?/iei iiaeeeainoyi.

I?e?iaeii, ui oe? eane, ye? i?aeiyeeny, i?aae’yaeee nai? iia? aeiiae aei
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Noeioeii, yeee ua a?eueo iineethaaa oeth
oaiaeaioe?th, aoei i?iieeaiiy a ssiii?th ?iicaiii? eoeueoo?e caaaeyee
oi?a?ae? c ?a?iiaeoeyie. Iaeeaeaiith i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa oiai /ano
aeiiiiaaaee oae? niaoeeo?/i? yaeua, ye ono?aie?iiy aei ?iceioo,
aeno?aaaaaioiino? oa aoaeoai. O caieao, o?aiao, aoaeeieao aaaaoeo
eoioe?a aeieeaee oa ?icaeaaeeny iiae?ai? niaee. Oe? caiee oa aoaeeiee
iinooiiai noaee i?noeai cina?aaeaeaiiy iaeno??a i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.
Aea, c ?ioiai aieo, aieiaea?yi oeeo aaaaoeo aoaeeie?a oa ia?oe?a, i?ae
oi o i?ioeaaao nai?io yne?aaiio aeeooth, oio?einy noai?eoe aoiinoa?o
niie?eii? oa /enoi? e?ane oa ooeoiie?aiiy. Oae ?iciianthaeeeiny /aeia
oea?aiii?y, iaeiei c iaeaaee/i?oeo iaeno??a yei? aoa Nai-ii ??eth.

Oe?iei ?icaeaaeiny aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ia?a ?c cieioa oa n??aea, cieioi
noaei aeei?enoiaoaaoeny cia/ii a?eueoa, i?ae o iiia?aaei? /ane. ?ioith
iniaeea?noth aeoai??a i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa aoei oa, ui oaia? aiie
i?ecia/aeeny aieiaiei /eiii aeey caaeiaieueiyiiy iianyeaeaiieo iio?aa
ethaeeie.

sseui ?ai?oa iniiaiee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa aoa
iia’ycaiee c ?ae?a?eieie ia?yaeaie a o?aiao oa iiianoe?yo, oi oaia? iia?
oi?ie oa aeaee i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa aeeeeeaeeny aeeoo?aeie iio?aaaie.

I?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai oe?iei ?ic?eoeiny ? o i?ia?ioe??. (Oea aecia/aeiny
oei, ui o ?iceeaeai? ii an?e e?a?i? aieiae?iiy aeaeia i?e?caeeee aeey
?iaioe iaeno?e i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa, a ia??iae Aaei iiae?aia
oaiaeaioe?y iineeeeany ua a?eueoa.)

Ne?ae caa?iooe iniaeeao oaaao ia iaoaeaaeo ae?iaao, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oaeao. ?c o?ii?e a?aeiii, ui
Aaecoo? oa Inaenueeee iaeaoee aoee i?ee?aoai? oa?ieie aeoai?aie
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa c iaoaeo. Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano caa?aaeeny oae?
aaaaoi i?ee?aoai? ae?iaaie c iaoaeo nii?oaee, ye naiai?i o?aio
Aeaeaiaec?, ea?aiii neioi?nonueeiai o?aio Oiaeieo-aec?iaecy, eaiaaeoei
o?aio Iiaec?aec? oa neioi?nonueeee o?ai ?n?ii-I?eoia??.

Ii i??? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy /aeii? oea?aiii?? oe?ie? ianooaae io?eiaei
aeaioiaeaiiy eioaee?a aeey /ath, iniaeeai a E?ioi. A?aeeeaeii eioaee?a
noaee caeiaoeny iaeno?e Iaain? oa I?n?io?a, iiioey?iei noaa iaenoa?
Ooaec? Naec??i, c ?iaeo I?n?io?a, yeee aeaioiaeya ia?i/eoi a?oa?
eioaeee, ye? aeoaea iiethaeya Nai-ii ??eth.

E?auei aeoai?ii Ooaec? ? iaoaeaaee e?ooa? c cia?aaeaiiyi ae?aeiio, ui
ieooaiee A?a?aie». yeee caa??aa?oueny a neioi?nonueeiio o?ai?
Oi?eoi?-aec?iaecy.

Aeey i?ee?aoaiiy ?ioa?’???a oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaee-a -iaethiee ia
ae?iaao c eaeo, ye? iie?eo? cieioei aai n??aiei ii?ioeii. Aeoaea oe?eaa?
iaee-a a ?nioth/eo e aein? neioi?nonueeiio o?ai?* Oeoeoaonoia-aec?iaecy
oa o?ai? Aeaeeaeoaec?, ye? ia?iaeai? a na?aaeei? c iaaa/aiith ?ai?oa
?ice?ooth. Iaethiee ia eaeo, ye? aeie?eo? cieioei ii?ioeii,
i?ee?aoathoue ieoa? o?aio Eiaeaeaec?; aiie oaeiae a?ae??ciythoueny
a?aaeath/ith ?ice?ooth. Oae? ae ??ci? i?aaeiaoe aeiiaoiueiai iiaooo, ui
aoee aeani?noth Oi?oii? O?aea?n?, ye? a?i caiia?a o?aio Eiaeaeaec?. ?o
a?ae??ciy? ia no?eueee iaenoa?i?noue aeaioiaeaiiy, ne?eueee aeooeai?noue
oa iaaeeeoie cieioa. Aeaioiaeyeeny i?aaeiao^ aeiiaoiueiai iiaooo c eaeo
c iaethieaie, ye? iie?eo? cieioei aai n??aiei ii?ioeii, ia yeeo
cia?aaeaeeny ?iicaioe? oa ??ci? i?aaeiaoe o ei?aenueeiio noee?
?ie?onoiaai? iooeyie, a oaeiae i?aaeiaoe, iia’ycai? c o?enoeyinueeeie
ia?yaeaie. Ana oea ?iaeoue ae?iae c eaeo ua a?eueo oe?eaaeie c oi/ee
ci?o no/aniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ?ioa?’??ao aoae?aaeue o aa?oi?e /anoei? ia?aai?iaeie e?iiao iaae
?icnoiooeie no?iaie c’yaeeany aeoii/aia aeaei?aoeaia ??cueaa. ?? iiaeia
iiaa/eoe a e?ionueeeo o?aiao I?n?-oiiaaiaec? oa Aeaeoieoiaec?, a oaeiae
o o?ai? Aecoeaaiaec? a Iaoeon?ia.

Iniaeeaee ?icaeoie a oie ia??iae iaea?aeaei aii/a?ia ae?iaieoeoai. I?ae
aieeaii ooaeiaei?o niae?a aeaeaoieie iaeno?aie /aeii? oea?aiii??
noai?thaaeeny aenieiooaeiaei? i?eiaeaaeiino? aeey i?eaiooaaiiy /ath.
Aeoaea aenie? aeiiae i?aae’yaeyee iaeno?e /aeii? oea?aiii?? aei
ooaeiaeiueiai ioi?ieaiiy /aoee aeey acaiaooaaiiy /ath (oyaai), neeyiee c
e?eoeith aeey aa?y/i? aiaee (i?aeconan?), aace aeey ea?o?a (oaia?ea) oa
?i. An? oe? aeaee ea?ai?ee, ui aeieeee a ia??iae Iiiiyia,
i?iaeiaaeothoue aeacoaaoe aaee/aciee aieea ia oi?io oa iaethiie no/anieo
yiiinueeeo ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a. Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene ciaeoea ea?ai?ea,
aeaioiaeaia a Naoi, N?ii, I??aa, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a i?ia?ioe?yo Iaa?? oa
?n?ii. A E?ioi iaenoa? O?aec??i ii/aa aeaioiaeaiiy ea?ai?ee, ui
iaceaa?oueny ?aeo-ye?, ae?iae yei? a?ae??ciyeeny iniaeeaith e?anith.
I?aaeiaoe aeey /aeii? oea?aiii?? a aaeee?e e?eueeino? ii/aee
aeaioiaeyoeny a A?aecai, N?aa?ae?, ?aa, Ea?aoeo.

A Naeaa oa E?ioi a ?aeii? I?n?aec?i ii/aee ?icaeaaoeny oeaoeueea
ae?iaieoeoai oa oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei.

Ia??iae Aaei (Oieoaaaa).

O ia??iae Aaei (aai Oieoaaaa) iie?oe/ia aeaaea ciaoiaeeeany o ?oeao
o?yaeo n?aoia-aaeooo. Ia??iae Aaei oyaioany, ii/eiath/e c iaae?iiy aeiio
Oi?oii? (1615) aei ?aaiethoe?? Iaeaec? (1868). A oe? ?iee (aoaie) o
ca’yceo c iineeaiiyi nenoaie oaiaeaeueiiai eiio?ieth a?eueiee ?icaeoie
ienoaoeoaa aoei oe?aaii. A?eueo oiai, o 1639 ?. niaoe?aeueiei caeiiii
i?i cae?eooy e?a?ie aoei oaeoe/ii caai?iiaii i?iieeaiiy a ssiii?th
caii?nueei? eoeueoo?e, ienoaoeoai oa eoeueoo?a iiaee ?icaeaaoeny eeoa o
?aieao ?cieueiaaii? aea?aeaae. O ii??aiyii? c ia??iaeii Iiiiyia
ienoaoeoai a oe? ?iee ciaioeeiny. Aea iaa?oue a oeeo oiiaao aiii
i?iieeaei o ia?iaei? iane, iaa?oue oiae? ?nioaaei ienoaoeoai, ui
ooiaeeei nai?i ei??iiyi o aeeaeio ia?iaeiiai aeeooy, oa ienoaoeoai
i?noeaaiai oa?aeoa?o.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? oeueiai ia??iaeo i?ae aieeaii ienoaoeoaa e?a?i
ac?aonueeiai iaoa?eea, a oaeiae aieeaiaenueeiai ienoaoeoaa, ye?
i?iieeaee a ssiii?th /a?ac Iaaanae?, neeaeeny oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy a
ssiii?? iiaeo ienoaoeoa. Iaeiae o naiiio e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei c’yaeeany
aaeeea e?euee?noue /enoi oi?iae?noe/ieo oai??a.

Oeaoeoai oa ?icien oeaiei. Iaeii/anii c ae?iaieoeoaii oeaiei, yea
?icoe?thaaeiny, ia e?oiieo oaenoeeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? iniauai? ca
inoaii?i neiaii oaoi?ee, a ssiii?? aaeeeo ?ieue i?iaeiaaeo? a?aoe
ae?aai? ooaeiaei? ?aianei aeaioiaeaiiy oa oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei a?o/io —
?aianei, yea ?nio? a e?a?i? aeecueei i?aoi?e oeny/? ?ie?a. Ia ii/aoeo 8
no. ii?yae c oeacii i?i ?icaaaeaiiy oooiaiai aea?aaa oa ae?iaieoeoa?
oiaeiaeo oeaiei oa ia?/?, iaiao?aeieo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iaeaae
i?eaeai?ieo, ioi?ieaiiy ieoieo oea?aiii?e o aoaeae?enueeeo o?aiao. A>
oie aea /an -iaea?ae-aei-?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? ??ci? niiniae ?icieno»
oeaiei, ye? caa?aaeeny aei iaoeo /an?a.

Aacoiiaii, a ssiii??, ye ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao na?oo, ia??iae aieiaea?noaa

7 ?o/iiai oeaoeoaa oa oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei a?o/io i?oia iacaaaeaee. Iaeiae
eonoa?ia i?aoey yiiinueeeo oaenoeeueiee?a caa??aa?oueny ?, iaaooue,
caa?aaeaoueny a iaeaooiueiio, oiio ui o?eueee aiia iiaea o iiai?e i???
caaeiaieueieoe iiieo ia oi?eaeuei? oeaieie o??? aeniei? yeino?, yea
iaaeinyaeia a noaiaea?oiiio iaoeiiiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

Oeaieie, ye? aeaioiaeai? ia ?o/iiio noaieo oa iioa?aiaai? ?ineeiieie
aa?aieeaie, noai?ththoueny a aaaaoueio /anoeiao e?a?ie oa neeaaeathoue
ii?yae c ea?ai?eith iaea?eueo i?ioea?oath/o aaeocue ia?iaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa. ? aieieii, ? oa?ae ia?iaeieo oeaiei a ??cieo i?noeaainoyo
a?ae??ciythoueny. Caeaaeaoue aiie ? a?ae i?ecia/aiiy iaeyao. Iaea?eueo
o?aaeeoe?ei? eueiyia iieioii (a aea?eo iiaiaeo), aaaiaiyi? oeaieie (aeey
iianyeaeaiiiai iaeyao), oiae (aeey nayoeiaeo aeiaaee?a), oeaiei c
aaiaiiaiai aieieia (a?eueo ca ona ia ino?ia? Ie?iaaa).

I?aei? a?aeo?iee eieuei??a, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeinyaioo? eeoa i?e
aeei?enoaii? i?e?iaeieo aa?aiee?a, neeaaeathoue /a??ai?noue
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaeaae c ?o ??ciiaa?aieie oci?aie — a?ae i?inoeo nioa oa
ee?oei aei aeoii/aieo aeeaiienieo i?iaiaio?a, iice/aieo o i?eaeai?ieo
iaeno??a ae?aaiino?.

Ii?yae c oeaieie eieuei?iaeie c??aie aaeeea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ssiii??
iathoue ??ci? iaoiaee oa?aoaaiiy. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao aai iaethiie, aai
oii cae?eaathoue, iaeeaaeath/e ?eniaee eeae aai i’yeee a?ne oa oa?aoth/e
iiaa?oith, yea caeeoeeany a?eueiith. A ?ioeo aeiaaeeao oa?aoaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaia?iaiai o?aoa?aoo. Oe? iaoiaee a?aeii?
c 8 no. I?eaeai?i? iaeno?e oa?aoaaee oaeeie niiniaaie oci?/aoee oiae.
Oa?aoaaiiy ii o?aoa?aoo ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ? ia ae?iae, ye? c?iaeai? c
iaia?o (e?ooa??, a?yea-iiaoaea).

Na?aae oaenoeeueieo aeoai??a ia?iaeieo iaeno??a ssiii?? iniaeeai i
neaaaoi? ae?iae c ino?iao Ie?iaaa. Ooo» aei na?aaeeie 19 no. aoea
?iciianthaeaeaia nenoaia aceiaiiy iiaeaoe?a aeeeth/ii oeaieiaie,
c?iaeaieie a?o/io, ui iaiaei aeiiiiaaaei aeinyaiaiith aenieiai ??aiy
iaenoa?iino? a ia?iaeiiio oeaoeoa?.

Iniaeeai iiethaey?oueny a oeeo oeaieiao oa, uia?aeaea/aiee oci? eano??,
yeee aaaea na?e ii/aoie c ?iae?? oa i?aaenoaaey? niaith eiiiiceoe?? ?c
ieyi oa e?i?e, ye? aa?iii?/ii ii?aeiothoueny ca eieuei?ii oa ?eoiii, a
oaeiae nioae oa ee?oeie io?enoeo, caeaieo, /i?ieo aai aeaeeoieo oii?a.

Ae?aai? o?aaeeoe?? i?iaeiaaeothoue oea/? i?ai?/iiai ?aeiio Oioieo. Aiie
noai?ththoue iaeya c a?oaiai neiueiai iieioia, yeee aeoeoee ia a?oaeyo ?
ia niei? a?eeie aaaiaiyieie ieoeaie o aeaeyae? neeaaeieo oci??a /ano?oa
anueiai aaiiao?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o. E?oii? oci?e aeoeaathoueny ia ae?ii/eo
noeiyo, ae??ai? — ia /ieia?/eo., Oeaieie e?anea? yne?aa?noth i?iaiaioo
oa aoaeoiei niiinoaae?iiyi a?eiai eieuei?o oa oaiii-neiueiai oiio. Oe?
aeaa eieuei?e iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeai? a ia?iaeiiio iaeyao oa /anoi
cono??/athoueny ia oeaieiao ?c cia?aaeaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo iioea?a:
aeo?aaey, /a?aiaoe, ninie — neiaie?a aeiaaie?ooy, ea?ia -neiaieo
ioaeiino?, ioao?a oa ea?o?a, ye? c?iaeai? ii o?aoa?aoo.

Iaeno?e — i?ioan?iiaee i?iaeiaaeothoue o?aaeeoe?? i?eaeai?ieo oea/?a,
noai?thth/e aei?ia? oeaieie — oiae oa ia?/o. Iaeno?e ?o/ii? ia?/?
ei?enoothoueny ye cieioeie ? n??aieie ieoyie, oae ? oa?aeoa?iith aeey
yiiinueei? ia?/? aeoeaei^ cieioaaeie aai n??aeynoeie nioaeeaie iaia?o
oe?eiith a 1 ii. Oae, iaenoa? Oaeaeci Oaoeoio?a (i. Oaea?aaecoea)
noai?ea oiaeiaee iiyn ca oaiith «O?noue a?aeiieo iiao?a», ye? aoee
nea&aoianai?ie a??oaie a 9-12 no. i?e ?iia?aoi?nueeiio aeai?? a E?ioi.
Ooaeiaeiee iieacaa ?o a oiiai?e, noee?ciaai?e iaia??, yea oa?aeoa?ia
aeey aeeaiieno yiaoi-a. Aeae?eueeiia i?yieie oa aeaiooeie e?anethieaie
?c?i iaiaethaaa aieiae oa iaee//y, ia aaaeath/e ia?aaeaoe ?o
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?ene. Aieiaia eiai oe?eue — neiiiiioaaoe on? o?ao?e,
iaee//y, aieiai? oai?e oa aaaee? noei?, ye? i?ae?eiathoueny ieoieie
neeaaeeaie, a ia’?aeiaiee caaaeueiei ?eoiii e?i?e oa eieuei?iaeo ieyi
oci?, yeee aacia?a?aii iiaoi?th?oueny ia oeaiei?. *a?aiia noeiy’/
a?aeiii? iiaoane oa i?eaeai?ii? e?anoi? Iiiii Eiiao?, iiouaio aieiao
yei? c ?iciouaiei ca iiaeith oiai /ano aeiaaei aieinnyi iiaeia iiaa/eoe
ia o?aaiaio? iiyna caa?oo ce?aa, i?ee?aoaia e?eiaei, nei?i, a?eei
oci?aie. Aiie eiio?anoothoue c /i?iith oaeeath ?? aieinny, yea, a naith
/a?ao, e?aneai i?aee?aneth? i?aei? a?aeo?iee ?? iaeyao. A iaeyc? ?ioeo
ia?niiaae?a ia?aaaaeathoue oi iane/aiee nei?e, oi caeaiee, oi
/a?aiii-ei?e/iaaee, oi aeiaoee oiie, o anueiio aaaaonoa? oa ??ciiiai?oo?
?o iai?aoii?a oa a?aeo?ie?a, ye? ?ic?iaeai? a aeeaiieno yiaoi-a.

Iaei?aei?o? oa iaeoiio? ithaine eieuei?o, aa?iii?y eieuei?iaeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue a?ae??ciythoue aaaaoi yiiinueeeo ae?ii/eo e?iiii, ye?
neaaaoi? ? a iao /an. Ia iiaeia ia ethaoaaoeny /oaeiaith ?icoea?oeith
oaeaoo, c oacaiaie, iioa?aiaaiiai ooaeiaeieeii Oaecai E?io?a (i.
Eaiaaecaaa); iniaeeaith aeooeai?noth a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueii oa e?aneai
?icoaoiaaiee aeaei?.

Nayoeiaa e?iiii iaa?aeiiiai iaeno?a aeaioiaeaii c canoinoaaiiyi ?ioeo
ooaeiaei?o cania?a. Aiii a?ae ?oee ?icienaia aaaaoueia ae?oeei?yie,
??enaie, i?iiaie, o?ecaioaiaie, ye? caiiaiththoue anth iiaa?oith
oeaieie. ?icien ?ioaineaieie oa?aaie, a yeeo ia?aaaaea? /a?aiiee eie??,
ia a?eiio, aeiaoiio oa n??aeynoiio oii?, aeiiiaiaiee aeoeaeith oiaeii oa
cieioaaeie iaia?iaeie ieoyie, yeeie oe?eeii aeiiaiaii cia?aaeaiiy
ia?aaeii? ea?aoe o e?aiio ieaeiueiio eoo? oaeaoo. ?icien e?iiii c
aeei?enoiaoaaiiyi ae?aai?o iioea?a, ?iciianthaeaeaieo a einothiao
aeoi??a oaiaeaeueiiai oaao?o «Ii» oa i?nueeiai oaao?o «Eaaoe?»,
oa?aeoa?iee aeey iaeno??a eeane/iiai iai?yieo
aeaei?aoeaiiai-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Iaeno?e ae, ye? i?eieeathoue aei
iiaeo iai?yie?a neee o ?icienao oe?i.

ssiiinuee? oe?ie neeaaeathoueny c aea?aa’yii? ?aie, yea iie?eoa eaeii,
ia yeo iaoyaioo? iai?? aai oeaieia. Aiie aoee iaia’yceiaith
i?eiaeaaei?noth aoaeae?enueeiai ?eooaeo, a i?ci?oa oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeoaaeeny o iianyeaeaiiiio.

Aoa i?eeiyoee iaoiae ae?iaieoeoaa oeaiei, yeee i?eeiyoee a Eeoa? aiioe
I?i. Aeaioiaeyeeny aenieiye?ni? oeaieie: cae/aeia oa cieioa ia?/a,
aa?oao, aiaaeaiiaa oeaieia, aoean, aeaianueeee oiae. A?aaea?
iaenoa?i?noue aeaioiaeaiiy oeaieie aeey einothi?a aeoi??a oaao?o «Ii».

*oaeiaa ca aeeiiaiiyi aeoeaea oa yne?aaee oci? cieioith oan??aiith
ieoyie — n?ai??. A oeae ia??iae aei ssiii?? aaiceeeny ?iicaii?oeaieie,
iai?eeeaae, cieioa ia?/a, oaooa, iaaeaiee neoaoeue, iieane?i. ?coeeo
iaoa??ae?a aeaioiaeyeeny oooey?e aeey /aeieo i?eiaeaaeiinoae.Ana /ano?oa
noaee ia?aoiaeeee a?ae iaeyao ?c iaoa??? c aeoeaieiiaethieii aei iaeyao
?c oeaiei c ?icoa?aiaaiei oa aeoeoei iaethieii.Oae aoa iieeaaeaiee
ii/aoie oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith oa?aoaaiiyoeaiei.

Ia??iae Aaei.

I?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai ia?oeo aeanyoe??/ ia??iaeo Aaei oniaaeeoaaei oa
i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?icaeaaoe o?aaeeoe??, ye? aecia/eeeny a ia??iae Iiiiyia.
Aeoai?e i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa noaee a?eueo aeoii/aieie oa ooaeiaeiuei
ae?acieie, a ieo c’yaeeeny iia? iioeae. Iaeiae a iiaeaeueoiio noai o
e?a?i? noaa?e?coaaany, o a?ae??caiiio a?ae ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa na?o? ana
a?eueo iineethaaeany aiao?y, a ooaeiaei?e oai?/ino? ii/aee i?iyaeyoeny
oi?iae?noe/i? oaiaeaioe?? (oiaoi iai?oeeeny ?ene iiae?aaeaiiy ?iaioai
noa?eo iaeno??a oa aeaiaioe noee?caoe??, ye? noaee oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
ienoaoeoaa). Ana oea i?ecaaei aei iaiaaeaiiy i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
iaeeie oi?iaie, aeyaeeany oaiaeaioe?y c?iaeoe oe? i?aaeiaoe yeiiiaa
a?eueoa aeoii/aieie oa oiieeie. Aea a oe?eiio ae?iaieoeoa ae?ia?a
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa a ia??iae Aaei iaeeaeeiny. Aeiiii?/i?
iiaeeeaino? i?nueeeo nei?a ae?inee, u i?ecaaei aei ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? iaeno??a, a oaeiae aeae?a oa e?eueeino? i?aaeiao?a, ui
ae?iaeyeeny, ye? a?aeia?aaeaee niaee ethaeae. Iniaeeai a na?aaeei?
ia??iaeo Aaei, o ?iee Aai?ieo (1688-1707) oa ?iee E?oi (1716-1736),
c’yaeeiny aaaaoi oaeaiiaeoeo iaeno??a, ye? i?aoethaaee a iaeano? iaee-a,
oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei, ea?ai?ee oa ?i.

Oaiaeaeuei? eiyc? i?aaioee ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? a nai?o i?ia?ioe?yo, a
?acoeueoao? oai aeieeei ae?iaieoeoai ae?ia?a i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa,
yea iaei nai? iniaeeaino?. A oeueiio oaeiae caeeth/aeany oa?aeoa?ia ?ena
iiai? aiioe. C’yaeeeny ??ci? oeee iaeno??a, ye? u?eueii ne?aeeoaaee ca
iaeiaioeie iniaeeainoyie a iaenoa?iino? aeaioiaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. O e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei iniiaia oaaaa noaea
i?eae?eyoeny ieoaiiyi oaoi?ee i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. A ia??iae
Aoiea-Aoinae (1804-1830) niinoa??aaany oei/aniaee i?aeeii i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa, aea a e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei, a ?iee caoiaeo aeaaee aaeooo,
eiee oaeethaaiiy oa aaaeeaie ioaaoeee anth e?a?io (inoaii? ?iee ia??iaeo
Aaei, oae caaiee ia??iae «aaeoiaoeo», iciaiaioaaeeny aaeeeith
e?euee?noth iianoaiue naeyi oa i?uai, ye? iio?i i?ecaaee aei c?ooaiiy
oaiaeaeueii? nenoaie), i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai i?eeoei o caiaiaae, ? a
oaeiio noaiiaeu? aiii caeeoaeiny aae aei ?aaiethoe?? Iaeaec?.

C on?o aeae?a i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa a ia??iae Aaei a?eueoa ca ona
?icaeaaeeny ea?ai?ea oa oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei. I?ia?an i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa caeeth/aany a oiio, ui ae?iae a?aeiia?aeaee ia no?eueee
iio?aaai ?ae?a??, ne?eueee aeiiaai iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy ethaeae. Ia
iiaeia, cae/aeii, ?aii?oaaoe ? a?aeiia?aeiee ca’ycie i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa c ?ae?a??th, ine?eueee caaaeyee aoaeoaaiith iaaciea?a aeiia
Oieoaaaa oa aeiiii?aeieo aoaeae?enueeeo o?ai?a,?inea iio?aaa a on?o
aeaeao i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Ona oea ni?eyei ianiaiio aeaioiaeaiith
ae?ia?a ooaeiaei?o ?aianae.

Iaeiae ?icaeoie i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa a ia??iae Aaei aoa ia no?eueee
ye?niei, ne?eueee e?euee?niei. A oie /an neacaany aieea ?iicaiii?
eoeueoo?e. Iaea?aeaee ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oae caaiiai «iaethiea aa?aa??a»
(on? ?a?iiaeoe?, ye? e?aieeaye- &i ssiii?th, iaceaaeeny «aa?aa?aie»)
-cia?aaeaiiy ?a?iiaeoe?a oa ?iicaiieo noae?a. I?aaeiaoe eoeueoo?e, ye?
i?iieeaee a ssiii?th /a?ac Iaaanae?, noeioethaaee ?icaeoie oaoi?ee ? a
ye?enue i??? aeacoaaee- aieea ia ci?no i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Oea
aeiiiiaaaei ?aoi?i? a iaeano? ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa oaoi?ee
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa, yea a?aeaoeany a e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei.

A aeaioiaeaii? iaoaeaaeo ae?ia?a iniaeeai a?aaeath/ei aoa ?icaeoie
oaoi?ee ??cee ii iaoaeo. Iiynithaaeiny oea a ia?oo /a?ao oei, ui ia/?
noaee i?ee?anith iaeyao naio?a?a, oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaea?aeaei
aeaioiaeaiiy ??cieo cieioeo ae?ia?a c oiieith ??ceith.

Oaoi?ea ??cee ii iaoaeo oaeineiiaethaaeany iaeno?aie ?c ?iaeo Aioi,
a?aeiiiai ua c /an?a Io?iiao?, iaeno?aie, i?eiaeaaeieie aei ??cieo
aeiaeaoeiaeo a?eie oeueiai ?iaeo — a aiie a?oioaaeeny iaae?oae aeiio
Ooaec?aa?a, — ?, ia?aoo?, iaa?aeiieie aoee/ieie_??cieeaie. Aaeeeo
e?euee?noue aenieiooaeiaei?o ae?ia?a aeaioiaeyee i?aaenoaaieee oe?e
?eiy, Ia?a, Oaiaii oa ?i.

A oaoi?oe? cieioiai eoaaiiy aeaioiaeyeeny aieiaiei /eiii oeoaa oa ??ci?
i?ee?ane. Aiie a?ae??ciyeeny aaeo?i?noth oa ?ie?onoaoe?yie ?c neiiiai?
e?noee. Iaea?eueo a?aeii? O?ai oeoaa, Oanth oeoaa, Iaa?? noean?. Ia
aeoaea iaaaeee?e ieiu? ca aeiiiiiaith ??cee oa ?ie?onoaoe?? neiiiaith
e?noeith iaenoa?ii _authaeyeeny -cia?aaeaiiy ethaeae, oaa?ei, ?ea,
ioao?a, ?ineei.

Ii?aeiaiiy ??cee c ?ie?onoaoe??th — oeiiaa iniaeea?noue yiiinueeiai
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Oe? o?aaeeoe?? caa?aaeeny aei iaoeo /an?a. Aea
a oie aea /an no?aie?iiy aei aeaioiaeaiiy oa ?aoaeueii? a?aeae?eee
(iniaeeai ae??aieo i?aaeiao?a) i?eaeaei aecia/aio iaiaaeai?noue oeueiio
aeaeo i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.

Oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaea?aeaei e iaoaeaaa eeooy. Aeaioiaeyeeny
eioaeee aeey /ath, aoaeae?enueea ooa??, ienueiia? i?eiaeaaeiino?,
aeca?eaea, ae??aie/ee, a oaeiae e?ooa??, aecaiieee, ai/ee aeey aeiuiai?
aiaee, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a o?aiao oa iiianoe?yo. On? oe? ae?iae
aeiiaithaaeeny c aaeeeei ienoaoeoaii. Iniaeeaee ?icaeoie iaea?aeaea
oaoi?ea a?aeeeaee ae??aieo neoeueioo?ieo i?ee?an ‘ca aeiiiiiaith
aineiaeo oi?i. Iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa a?aee?eeeny
c ae?iaieoeoaii oaeeo ae??aieo ae?ia?a, ye iaoeea (aeae a?aeieo o oi?i?
i?i?aoth?ii? neoeueioo?e) ? yiaoa (eeoaiueeiaa /i?ieeueieoey c
iaiceeeii), i?i?aoth?i? a??eee aeey ?oe, i?an-iai’?, oooey?e aeey
iaiceee?a, /i?ieeueieoe?. Iaea?eueo oi?eeie iaeno?aie e?ioey ia??iaeo
Aaei aoee Io?aoa Naei?i, Ea?aiiiiy Ethaae oa ?io?. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui
oeae iai?yiie a i?eeeaaeiiio ienoaoeoa? ?nioaaa aae aei ia??iaeo Iaeic?.

A ae?iaao ?c eaeo, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei ii/aoeo Ia??iaeo Aaei, /anoi
iiaoi?thaaeeny oi?ie oa oaoi?ea eaeiaeo ae?ia?a ia??iaeo Iiiiyia. Oae
caai? eiaoeo iaee-a (aeae iaee-a, ye? aia?oa ii/aa aeaioiaeyoe Oiiiai?
Eiaoeo) a?ae??ciyeeny i?ea?iaeuei?noth caaeoio, ni?eeaith ?ie?onoaoe??th
iaoaeaaeie ieanoeiaie oa ?aeiaeiaie.

AEaaai i?io?eaea ae?yeuei?noue oe?e o?aaeeoe?eiiai i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa, ye? aeieeee a ia??iae Io?iiao?. Iaea?eueo a?aeiieie ?o
i?aaenoaaieeaie aoee ?aa?an? Aeioi c Eaaa oa ssiai ioi Nthin? c E?ioi. O
na?aaei? a?ee, a na?aaeei? ia??iaeo Aaei aenoioeeny nai?ie aeaeaaie/eie
?iaioaie a noee? Eiaoeo Iaaoa Ei??i a Iaaaa Oa??oeo.

Aa?eoee a iiaeo iaenoa?ii aeeiiai? ae?iae c oiieei iaethieii iaee-a, a
yeiio aoei aeoaea aaaaoi cieioa. I?aaenoaaieeii o?aaeeoe?eii? oeiee
oeueiai aeaeo ienoaoeoaa a oie ia??iae aoa N?ii? Naenae.

O e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei ciai?oi?e aeaeyae ae?ia?a noaa aeii?ioth/ei ? a
caaeoi?, ? a oaoi?oe? aeeiiaiiy, a ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue iinooiiai
a?aeoiaeeea ia ae?oaee ieai. Aaeeeei iiieoii ii/aee ei?enooaaoeny
ei?iaee ?i?i oa a?aa?ioe?, iie?eo? oiieeie iaethieaie iaee-a.

Iaea?eueo a?aeiieie iaeno?aie oeueiai ia??iaeo aoee I?aecoea Oi?, Eiia
Ei?th, Eiia Eiinae oa ssiaaea Aec?eanae. Ne?iii? eaeiaai? i?aaeiaoe aeey
/aeii? iaenoa?i? aeaioiaeyee e?ionuee? iaeno?e ?iaeo Iaeaio?a.

Cia/ii iie?aueeanue oaoi?ea oa?aoaaiiy oa eaeoaaiiy iiaeai aeey ia/?a,
aeae?eeeany a iniaiao aaeocue i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Oi?eaeuei?
i?aaeiaoe ii/aee aeaioiaeyoeny a i?ia?ioe??. Oae, a?aeii? eaeia? ae?iae,
ye? iie?eo? oiieei ??ciei iaethieii n?oeoa oa i?oeoaeaa, a oaeiae ae?iae
o?ie?i (eaeia? ae?iae, ae?eo? iaethieaie, iiaeeaeaiiy yeeo caiiaiai?
cieioith oieueaith aai cieioei ii?ioeii), oaenth (ae?iae, ae?eo? oianoei
oa?ii yne?aai-/a?aiiiai eaeo) oa aecieieoio?? (ae?iae ?c eaeo c ??ciei
iaethieii ea?o?a, o?aa, aea?aa, iioa?aiaaiei a caeaiee, aeiaoee aai
/a?aiiee eieuei?e, ? ciiao ae?eo? eaeii).

A yeino? i?eeeaaeo oaeeo ae?ia?a iiaeia i?eaanoe o?ie?i Aaaeceii, oaenth
?c Io?aeai?, aecieieoio?? ?c Oaeaiaoeo. Iaea?eueo yne?aaei i?eeeaaeii
aeei?enoiaoaaiiy ienoaoeoaa eaeo a i?ee?aoaii? a?o?oaeoo?ieo nii?oae
iiaea neoaeeoe Iaacieae Oinaao a I?eei. A iueiio c?o/ii a?aeia?aaeai?
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia??iaeoAaei.

Aaee/aciee ?icaeoie iaea?aeaei aii/a?ia ae?iaieoeoai caaaeyee
ei?aenueeei ea?ai?eai, ye? aoee aeaacai? a ssiii?th Oi?oii? O?aea?n?. Ia
ii/aoeo ia??iaeo Aaei ye ?ac ? aoee c?iaeai? ia?o? e?iee aei ??ceiai
?icoe?aiiy ea?ai?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa a e?a?i?. Oaiaeaee caeiyeeny a nai?o
i?ia?ioe?yo iiooeaie iaoa??aeo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ea?ai?ee.
Iianthaee aoaeoaaeeny aii/a?i? ia/?. Ana oea ?iaeeiny aeey ?icaeoeo
aii/a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa a eeaiao. Iinooiiai a naieo ??cieo eooi/eao
e?a?ie ii/aee ae?iaeyoeny oa?aeoa?i? aeey oiai aai ?ioiai ?aeiio
ea?ai?/i? ae?iae.

Oaoi?ea ?o ae?iaieoeoaa ia?aaeaaaeany a?ae ?aeiio aei ?aeiio, ui ni?eyei
oaeaeeiio ?? oaeineiiaeaiith. Ia Ethnth iaea?aeaee a?aeii?aoue-ea?ai?/i?
ae?iae oeio a??oa-ye?, aeaioiaeai? iaeno?ii Iaaan?ia Iain?aa,
oaeaoi??-ye?, noai?ai? Eo?ica Iaaaiana, oa ?i. A ?aeii? Othaiao
i?aoethaaa iaenoa? Ii?? Oa?oiioi, yeee noai?ea ea?ai?/i? ae?iae oeio
oaa?-ye?; oe? ae?iao ii i?aao iiaeia a?aeianoe aei oeo eoeueoo?ieo
oe?iiinoae, ye? caeeoeeeny a?ae i?no Aoi?ieo-e?o?.

A aii/a?ieo ia/ao A??oa ii/aee aeaioiaeyoe ea?ai?/i? ae?iae, ye? aei
oeueiai ia ae?iaeyeeny a ssiii??, iai?eeeaae, ae?iae c a?eiai oa?oi?o
oaeoaec? oa oa?oi?o niiaoeoea, ?icoa?aiaaiiai eiaaeueoii oa ae?eoiai
aaceieuei?iaith aeaco?’th. A?aeiiee ea?ai?e Naea?aea Eae?aiii, yeee
inai?a ae?iaieoeoai oaaaoeoea (ia ae?eoee aeaco?’th ae??a iaiineany
eieuei?iaee iaethiie,-* a?i ciiao iaiaethaaany), oaeiae aeeoia ?c A??oa.

A na?aaeei? ia??iaeo Aaei a E?ioi ii/aa i?aoethaaoe iaenoa? Iiiiio?a
I?inae, yeee oaeineiiaeea oaoi?eo oaaaoeoea. Eiai i?eeiie aoee i?eeiyo?
a ea?ai?oe? e??i?aeco-ye? oa aaaa-ye?. Ana oea i?ecaaei aei aeieeiaiiy
oaoi?ee e?-ye?, a ye?e ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy yiiinuee?
iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? ea?ai?/iiai ienoaoeoaa.

A ea?ai?oe? oeio e?-ye? e?ioey ia??iaeo Aaei o ca’yceo n
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi caeaiiai /ath c’yaeeeny iniaeeaiai aeaeo ae?iae.
Iaea?eueo aeaeaoieie iaeno?aie, ye? i?aoethaaee a oaoi?oe? e?-ye?, aoee
Ieoaea Aenae, Aie? Iieoaae, I?i/ai? Aeioao?. Iia? aeaee ea?ai?ee, yea
ne?aeoaaea c?aceai ae?ia?a I?inay, c’yaeeeny a i?ia?ioe??. Iniaeeai
a?aeii? ae?iae oaeaiaoeo-ye? oa aeaoaaea-ye? (Ia?a). A?aeiia oaeiae
o?ioe iacae/aeia aeey oeueiai ia??iaeo ea?ai?ea eaiaecai-ye?, yea
oniaaeeoaaea, c iaeiiai aieo, oaoi?eo I?inay, a c ?ioiai — iniaeeaino?
ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a ?aeo-ye?. Ie??i oeueiai a i?e a?ae/oaaany aieea
aieeaiaenueei? ea?ai?ee.

A ienoaoeoa? ea?ai?ee oiai /ano iaea?eueo na?aeei no?oiaiai
aoeaoai?/?noue Iaaoa Eaiaecaia. Ia ii/aoeo ia??iaeo Aaei
iaea?eueoeieiaeno?aie, ye? i?aoethaaee o oaoi?oe? ?aeo-ye?, c’yaeeeny
Eiaoeo oaAeii’th. A e?ioe? oeueiai ia??iaeo iaa?oue oae? ea?ai?/i?
ae?iae, ye ii?aa-ye?,iaee niaoeeo?/i? ?ene, ye? ia? ea?ai?ea ?aeo-ye?. ‘

A ia??iae Aaei ii/aee aeaioiaeyoeny niaoeeo?/i? aii/a?i? ae?iae
i?noeaaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aaiei-ye? a ?na, ?ioyia-ye? a Iaa?? oa ?i.
C?inoaiiy iiieoo ia ea?ai?/i? ae?iae i?ecaaei aei iaeeaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? oaeeo noa?eo oeaio??a aii/a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye A?aecai,
Oaiaa, N?aa?ae?.

Iaeiae a oeae ia??iae sse oeaio? aii/a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ye ? ?ai?oa,
i?ioea?oaa Naoi.

A ienoaoeoa?^?iC/a?eo/oeaiei a ia??iae Aaei oaeae a?aeaoeeny na?eici?
ci?ie. Iiia?aae anueiai, oaeineiiaethaaeany oaoi?ea iaianaiiy iaethiea
ia oeaieio. Aei oeueiai oiieee iaethiie ia e?iiii ?iaeany eeoa iaeiei
niiniaii — ca aeiiiiiaith aeoeaee. Iaeya aeui? ciao? i?ee?aoaany oeaiei
oci?ii, aeoeaeith, cieioei oa n??aiei. N e?ioey ia??iaeo Io?iiao?
iinooiiai ii/aee ei?enooaaoeny oaoi?eith n?ai??-aeciia, i?e ye?e
iaethiie iaiineany oa?aith ia caeaoo oeaieio, aea oaeei oeyoii ?iaeeeny
eeoa i?ino? iaethiee. A na?aaeei? ia??iaeo Aaei aeiee iaoiae
thaecai-aeciia — oaoi?ea ?o/iiai oa?aoaaiiy c aeiaeaaaiiyi o oa?ao
a’yaeo/i? ?a/iaeie. A oeueiio caeeth/aeany ei??iia ci?ia a oaoi?oe?
oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei.

Oaoi?ea thaecai-aeciia aoea i?eeiyoa iaeno?aie Eaaa. Aiia caaaaoeeeny
iiaeie niaoeeo?/ieie i?eeiiaie oa ia?aoai?eeany a iiao oaoi?eo eaaa
?aecai-aeciia. Oaea oaoi?ea ?o/iiai oa?aoaaiiy iio?aaoaaea aaaaoi
?iai/eo ?oe oa aaeeei? nii?iaee. Oiio aeiee a?eueo eaaeee iaoiae, yeee
caeeth/aany a oa?aoaaii? oeaiei ca aeiiiiiaith iaia?iaeo o?aoa?ao?a, ui
ni?eyei oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith na?aae ianaeaiiy ?icoa?aiaaieo
e?iiii. A oeae ia??iae oaeineiiaethaaeany oaoi?ea n?ai??-aeciia, aeiee
iaoiae, caaiee theaoa-aeciia, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ia aaaiaiyi?e oeaiei?
iaei??th oa?aith ?iaeeai noai?thaaany noee?ciaaiee iaethiie. Iaeiei ?c
iioe?aieo iaoiae?a oa?aoaaiiy oeaiei o e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei aoa
eiiii-aeciia. N aeaai?o /an?a iaeaaaei?oa i?noea na?aae aenieiye?nieo
oci?/aoeo oeaiei caeiaa i?neaecei. C iiyaith oa c?inoaiiyi iaoeiii?
oaoi?ee oaea oeaieia ii/aea aeaioiaeyoeny o i?ia?ioe??.

C?inea ye?noue ae?ia?a ?c aaiaoeo oa aea?aaa, oaeineiiaethaaeany oaoi?ea
noiey?ieo ?ia?o. Aea?aa’yi? ae?iae, ieaoai? ei?ceie — c ?aooith, on?
i?aaeiaoe ia?iaeiiai ooaeiaeiueiai i?iieneo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny no?ia?noth
oa i?inoioith, ui a?ae??ciyei ?o a?ae ae?ia?a i?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O
e?ioe? ia??iaeo Aaei iaea?eueo iioe?aiei aeaeii ae??aieo ae?ia?a
i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa aoee iaoeea, ye? c’yaeeeny caaaeyee iiae? iineoe
ia iiyn? oooey? aeey ?iaiii? ia/aoee oa eenao?. Aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iaoeea
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ??ciiiai?oi? iaoa??aee: aea?aai, aaiaoe, eai?iiy,
neiiiaa e?noea, ??a, iaoae oa ?i. A oeeo ae?iaao i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
oni?oii ia?aaeaaaeany e?ana naiiai iaoa??aeo, aei oiai ae oiie?noue
?iaioe noia?ie/aea c

Ono?aie?iiyi a iaeeo oi?iao ia?aaeaoe aecia/aieie. Iaeno?aie iaoeea aoee
Nthaecai, Oiiio?ey, Oiai.

OOIEOe?IIAEUeI?NOUe OE?IE

A no/anieo ?ioa?’??ao ia oae aaea e /anoi iiaeia cono??oe oaeee i?aaeiao
oeaiiai ioi?ieaiiy, ye oe?ia. Iani?aaae?, oa naiioa, yeo aiia caeaoia
noai?eoe, aoea ia?aoeiaeith aeey iea, aea ia aeey aooa, aeoaea
?ethci?ia. A i?noey, iaa?oue o neeaaeaiiio aeaeyae?, aiia caeia?
aeineoue aaaaoi. Oiio iaiao?aei?noue ?? iayaiino? a cae/aeieo
iaeiaaaa?eoieo eaa?oe?ao noia?a/ia. ?ioa ni?aaa — a cai?nueeeo
aoaeeieao, eioaaeaeao. Ooo, ye i?aaeei, aeeoeia? i?ei?uaiiy a?eueo?, oa
?iiae? c’yaey?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iiae?eeoe eiai ia ooieoe?iiaeuei?
ciie «ethaenueeiai ianooaao» ia o?eueee aano?aeoii, aea e i?aaeiaoii.

Oe?iith iiaeia uinue i?eoiaoaaoe, oea ?? iniiaia caaaeaiiy. Aaaeeai o
aeeoy/?e e?iiao?, noaeaae?, aaiia, a?eia — ona, ui caaaiaeii.

E??i oiai, oe?ia ? aeiaeaoeiaith eieuei?iaith ieine?noth, ui iaaea? ?e
yne?aai ae?aaeaia cia/aiiy. Oa e acaaae?, aiia aoaea ioaeei oe?eaaei
i?aaeiaoii.

Oaeei /eiii, oe?ia ye i?aaeiao ?ioa?’??o, ?nio?, aiia iiaea aeoeaii
i?aeo?eioaaoe a ?ioa?’??? aoaeue-yeee noeeue, ? i?e aaaeaii? aai
iaiao?aeiino? ?? iiaeeeai nii?oaeeoe aac iniaeeaeo aeo?ao. A
iaei?ino?oiio aa??aio? oea ana o? ae ?aie, iaoyaioo? «/ioeaie», oa ii
aea? iaaani? iaoe? ia eiaeia «eie?ioea», inue ? any oaoi?/ia
i?aioae??noue. Caoa yeee i?ino?? aeey aeaei?oaaiiy!

Onueiai iaeei i?eeeaae: oe?ia iiaea noaoe aeoai?ii ienoaoeoaa, yea
ni?aaey? iacaaooi? a?aaeaiiy, yeui caoyaiooe ?? oiaeii, yeee ?icienaiee
a oaoi?oe? aao?eo, ? i?aena?oeoe c? cai?ioiiai aieo. sseui a i?ei?uaii?
a?aenooi? a?eia, oeae i?eeii iiaea noaoe /oaeiaei ??oaiiyi o ai?iouea? c
eeaono?ioia??th.

Aecia/aii, oe?ia ia? i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy, ? aei ia? o?aaa i?eaeeaeoeny
oaaaei?oa!

OE?IA A AEINOEE?

Iaiao?aei? iaoa??aee:

• Eueiyia iieioii, 60 ni oe?eiith, 5,1 i aeiaaeeiith (ia 3 naeoe??)

• 6 iaeie, iai?eeeaae, c e?ueie, 1,70 i aeiaaeeiith

• 6 iaeie 0,7 i aeiaaeeiith

• 10i oio?o c iaoo?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a, iai?eeeaae, necaeth

• aaaeaaa i?yaea aeey iaiceee?a

• 12 oo?oi?a 3,5 o 40 ii aai o?ioe a?eueoiai ?ici??o

• 30 aei/ie

• iieioie, i?ae, iiaeeoe?, ae?eeue oa naa?aeei 2,5 ii, aea?aa’yiee eeae

1. ?ic??caoe oeaieio ia 3 ??ai? /anoeie. Ia?iaeoe c??ce
iiaea?eiithi?aeaeaeith ii 5 ni. Ia a?aenoai? 2 ni a?ae e?ath, c
?ioa?aaeii 14,5 nii?iaeoe ia ia?iaeaieo c??cao ii 5 aei/ie.

2. Ia aeiaaeo iaeeao aeeiiaoe iiaeai ae??ce: ia aeaio ia?ao iaa?aenoai?
11 ni a?ae c??c?a, ia na?aaei?e — 9 ni.

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ffffffffffffffefffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0101ffffffffffffffffffffffef
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0101ffffffffffffffffffffffefffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffff0101ffffffffffffffffffffffefffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0101
0c00000040092900aa00000000000000b600850000000000040000002701ffff03000000
0000

3. O e?ae, i?inaa?aeeea ae?eeai, i?ee?ooeoe oo?oiaie ei?ioe? /anoeie
?aie.

4. Iaoyaiooe oeaieio ia ?aie, i?inieeoth/e oio? a aei/ee oa
cae??iethth/e e?ioe? a eooiaeo c’?aeiaiiyo ?aie.

5. Ne?ooeoe aea? aeiaaeeie oio?o oa iaa’ycaoe o?anoiiiae?ai?c’?aeiaiiy
oae, ye iieacaii ia iaethieo.

OAOI?EA ?ICIENO OEAIEI

N /iai ii/aoe?

Ia?oa, ui iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe, oea noeeue, o yeiio ae oi/aoa ioi?ieoe
naith eaa?oe?o.

No?ie, iaoyaioo? oeaieiith, aeaa?? oa a?eia, ui ?i?oothoue ?icnoioo?
yiiinuee? ia?aai?iaeee «oonoia», aeiiiiiaeooue i?eaeaoe cae/aei?e
i?nuee?e eaa?oe?? aoiinoa?o e?a?ie niioey ia noiae?.

Caa?ne c eaaeei iaaeaiei iaethieii, eeaioaaa eiaae?a, iiaeooee,
iieiaeioe? oa aaeee? aaaaeo?e iaaaaeathoue i oaieeo e?oi?o aeiyo o
cai?nueeiio aoaeeieo.

Ai?ei i?ae?a?aia ae?ai??iaea no?i, iaaeaea iaae?a oeaieiaie ??cii?
oaeoo?e oa iaethiea o a?oaeuei? oa niaeuei?, ??ciiiai?oia ioi?ieaiiy
a?eii oa aeaa?ae — ana oea aeicaieeoue noai?thaaoe ?ene aioe/iino?,
aii??o, aa?iei, iiaea?io oa ?ioeo noee?a.

Uia i?aaeeueii i?ae?a?aoe oeaieio aeey ?icieno, iaia’yceiai o?aaa
ea?oaaoeny aeaeii iaeaooiueiai aeoai?o. Aeey aaaaeo??a, ethno? o
no?aeiiio noee?, caa?n?a i?ae?eaea oiiea, iai?ai?ici?a oeaieia, a
iino?eueia a?eecia, eiaae?e, aeaei?aoeai? iiaeooee, ii?oue??e, iaaeaea
iaae?a oa no?i iio?aaothoue a?eueo oianoiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeoaea aaeeea cia/aiiy i?e aeai?? oa?ae aeey ?icieno ia? i?e?iaeiee
eie?? iaoa??aeo e oa, yea ia?aieao?iiy ieoie aeei?enoiaoaaeiny i?e
aeaioiaeaii? oeaieie: iieioiyia, na?aeaaa, o?eeioaaeia, aeaea?aeiaa aai
ia?/aaa. Ia?o i?ae i?enooieoe aei ?iaioe, ia?aa??oa ia iaeaiueeiio
i?iaiiio oiaoi/eo, ye oa?aa iiaeeia?oueny oa ?icieeaa?oueny ia aea?ai?e
aaie oeaiei?. Oae ae ciiaeaoa i?ae?a?aoe iioeiaeueio oaoi?eo ?icieno ?
iaethiie aeey aaoiai ae?iao.

AAAEEEAI! Oeaieio ia?aae ?iaioith iaiao?aeii aei?aoe c aeei?enoaiiyi
ieth/eo cania?a aeey aeaeaeaiiy ai?aoo (?a/iaeie, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny
i?e inoaoi/i?e a?aeae?eoe? oeaiei ia oaa?eeao). Oea iaiao?aeii aeey
e?auiai i?ie?aoaiiy oeaieie. Iiia?aaeiuei caii/oaaoe oeaieio c i?aeueiei
ii?ioeii ia iio??aii, oae ye a?i, ye i?aaeei, ia? a?aea?ethth/ee aoaeo.

Aea?? oaoi?ee

? aaaaoi oaoi?e ?o/iiai ?icieno oeaieie, eiaeia c yeeo ia? naith
niaoeeo?eo. sseui ae aia?oa ae??oeee ni?iaoaaoe naaa a oeueiio
ienoaoeoa?, ie ?aeiiaiaeo?ii ii/aoe c iaea?eueo ae?aaiueiai oa i?inoiai
niiniao. A?i ia? aaaaoi iaca: o?eo?e, ieaiee, a iaea?eueo a?aeiia
-aoceeeiaa oaoi?ea. I?e an?e nai?e e?an? oa iacae/aeiino? aoaeo?a, ye?
iaea?aeo?ii, oaoi?ea aeeiiaiiy aeineoue i?inoa.- Ia?aae iie?aoaiiyi
aecia/ai? i?noey ia noo?e oeaiei? ooai ia?aa’yco?ii oiieith iiooceith,
oio?ii, no??/eith aai i?inoi caa’yco?ii aoceeeii. I?e iie?aoaii? ia oeeo
ae?eueieoeyo caa??aa?oueny i?e?iaeiee eie?? oiio. Iaethiie caeaaeeoue
a?ae nenoai? ca’ycoaaiiy: iiaeia iaea?aeaoe eiea, aa?oeeaeuei? aai
ai?eciioaeuei? nioae, ?o ii?aeiaiiy. Oeaieia iiaea aooe ia?aa’ycaia
oaeei /eiii, ui i?ney iie?aoaiiy ?iciouai? aoceeee ia?aoai?ththoueny o
iaethiie noee?ciaaii? ea?oee, eenoa oa ?i. Ana?aaeeio aoceee?a iiaeia
eeanoe ae??ai? i?aaeiaoe — ?oaeceee, eai?ioe? aai ?io? oaniii? aeaoae?,
uia iaea?aeaoe a ?acoeueoao? iie?aoaiiy oci? o aeaeyae? i?ia?e?a
aecia/aii? eiio?ao?aoe??. Oeaieia iiai?noth iia?oaea?oueny o ?ic/ei nie?
aai niaeiai? ciee, eei’yoeoueny a iueiio 10-15 oaeeei, iio?i ooaee ae
aeiaea?oueny oa?aa. Iiaeaeueo? iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeyoueny ii ?ino?oeoe?? ia
oiaeiaoe? oa?ae. No/ani? aa?aieee aeicaieythoue ?iaeoe iie?aoaiiy
oeaieie o i?aeueieo iaoeiao i?e oaiia?aoo?? 60°N. Iio?i oeaieia
i?iieaa?oueny aac ?ica’ycoaaiiy aoce?a ? oa?aa cae??ieth?oueny. Aenooaia
oeaieia iiaea ua ?ac ia?ae?aooaaoeny a ?ioee eie??.

AAAEEEAI! Iie?aoaiiy eaea a?ae a?eueo na?oeeo oii?a aei a?eueo oaiieo.
Ia ne?ae ?iaeoe a?eueo o?ueio eieuei?iaeo ia?ae?eoo?a. Aac ciaiiy
eiei?enoeee ae ?eceeo?oa cai?noue i?ea?iaeueiiai aeoai?o iaea?aeaoe
«uinue» iaaecia/aii-a?oaeiiai eieuei?o ? iacaaaeaee caaoaeoe aaaeaiiy
caeiaoeny oeei aeaeii oai?/ino?.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy ianooiieo oaoi?e ?icieno iio??aia niaoe?aeueia
i?aeaioiaea oeaieie, yeo iaiao?aeii iaoyaiooe ia ?aio oa ia?aeeanoe ia
ia? iaethiie. I?e oeueiio aeia?a ei?enooaaoeny aoeaaeaie, uia ia
iioeiaeeoe iaoa??ae.

Iioeaii aeey ?icieno iiaea noaoe aoaeue-yeee iaethiie, yeee aai
niiaeiaaany. Eiai ne?ae nii/aoeo ia?aeeanoe ia eaeueeo, a iio?i /i?ieie
/i?ieeaie aai ooooth — ia a?eee u?eueiee iai??. Aioiaee oaaeii
i?aeeeaaeathoue i?ae oeaieio, iaoyaiooo ia ?aio, cae??ieththoue eeaeeith
no??/eith, iio?i ia?aeeaaeathoue eiioo?e iaethiea ia ?icieno?io
iiaa?oith. sseui oeaieia u?eueia ? iai?ici?a, i?ae ?aio i?aeaiaeyoue
eaiio oa ina?oeththoue oaaeii cieco. O i?iaeaaeo ? aioia? iioeae aeey
iaethie?a, ye? ia?aeeaaeathoueny ia oeaieio i?anoaaiiyi oothaii.

AAAEEEAI! A aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo iaethiie ne?ae ia?aeeaaeaoe ia aaea
iaoyaiooo ia ?aio oeaieio oa i?ney oeueiai ci?iaoe ?? c ?aie ia iiaeia.

Eiioo?iee ?icien iniiaaiee ia aeei?enoiaoaaii? ?aca?aoth/eo neeaae?a, ui
iaiaaeothoue ?ico?eaiiy oa?ae ia iieioi?. Ooaeiaeiy iniaeea?noue oeueiai
niiniao ?icieno a oiio, ui iaia’yceiaee eieuei?iaee eiioo? iaaea?
iaethieai /?oeee a?ao?/iee oa?aeoa?. I?e oeueiio e?euee?noue eieuei??a
ia iaiaaeo?oueny. ?aca?aoth/ee neeaae iaiinyoue ia oeaieio o aeaeyae?
caieiooiai eiioo?o. Aeia?a i?iieeaiiy ?aca?ao aei oeaieie —
iaeaaaeeea?oa oiiaa o eiioo?iiio ?icieno. sseui i?e iaianaii? eiioo?o
caeeoaoueny i?iionee oa ?ic?eae, oa?aa aeeaea ca ei?aeiie iaethiea.
Oiaua eiioo?o iaaiaeee e eiinenoaioe?y ?aca?aoth/iai neeaaeo caeaaeaoue
a?ae u?eueiino? oeaieie, ?? oaeoo?e, a oaeiae a?ae iiaeeiath/iai ai?iiy
oeaieie. U?euei? iaoa??aee, caaaeyee nai?e no?oeoo??, iio?aaothoue aeey
e?auiai i?iieoo a?eueo oe?ieiai eiioo?o oa ??aeeiai ?aca?aoth/iai
neeaaeo. *anoi ii oeaieiai oaeiai oeio ?aca?a iaaiaeeoueny n iaio
noi??i. I?e ?iaio? ia u?euei?e oeaiei? iaaiaeyoue oianoee eiioo?, a ia
i?ici?eo, eaaeeo oeaieiao – a?eueo oiieee. I?ney oiai, ye eiioo?
iaethiea iaaaaeaiee, eiio aeathoue i?inioiooe. ,

AAAEEEAI! Ia?aae iaianaiiyi oa?e iaiao?aeii ia?aa??eoe ye?noue
iaaaaeaiiy ?aca?ao ia cai?ioiiio aioe? c?aceo, e?aiioa o na?aaeeio
eiaeii? oi?ie aiaee. sseui a aoaeue-yeiio i?noe? aiaea i?iaeaa? ?aca?a,
oeth ae?eyieo ne?ae i?inooeoe e iaaanoe ?aca?a ua ?ac, aea aaea ia
cai?ioi?i aioe?. I?ney oeueiai ciiao ia?aa??oa ye?noue e?i??.

Ia ii/aoeo e?i?? ? ia ae?eyieao, aea ?oea ?ooa?oueny iia?euei?oa,
cae/aeii io?eiothoueny e?aie?. Uia oeueiai caiia?aoe, ne?ae yeiiiaa
a?eueo ??aiii??ii aanoe o?oai/eo aai iaeia?a/iee othaeeo ii oeaiei?, a
ia ii/aoeo ?iaioe — aai oaeaeei iioneaoe e?i/ee o?oai/ee ia iiaa?oith,
aai ii/eiaoe iaianaiiy ?aca?aoth/iai neeaaeo aaciina?aaeiuei c eenoa
iaia?o, iiia?aaeiuei iaeeaaeaiiai ia ?iai/o iiaa?oith oeaieie.

Ii/eiaoe caeeaeo eieuei?ii ne?ae c iaena?oe?oeo oii?a, uia eaaoa aoei
ia?ae?eoe a?eueo oaiiei oiiii iaaaaeaiee a?ae. I?e oeueiio ia ne?ae
caaoaaoe, ui ae?eyiee iaethieo iaiao?aeii ??aiii??ii ianeuaoe oa?aith,
uia ia noai?thaaeeny ?icaiaee oa i?aiee.

Iaa?eea aeiiaith?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi ooaii?a. ?iaioe iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe ia noie? c ??aiith iiaa?oiath. Iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe
e?aney?nueeo aeioeo, yea iaoyaiooa aaeeiaith eiaae?ith.

?aio c iaoyaiooith oeaieiith iieeaae?oue ia no?e. Ooaii?ee iiono?oue o
i?eaioiaeaio ae?oeiaaio oa?ao, c?ia?oue i?iaiee a?aeoene ia iaia??,
aeaeaeeaoe i?e oeueiio caeao oa?ao, ? o?eueee i?ney oeueiai c?ia?oue
a?aeoene ia oeaiei?. Iia?aoe?th iiaoi??oue aeae?eueea ?ac?a. I?ney
cae?i/aiiy ?iaioe ooaii?ee o?aaa i?iieoe oa aenooeoe.

Niin?a a?eueiiai ?icieno, yeee aeoai?y?oueny aac aeei?enoaiiy
?aca?aoth/iai neeaaeo, aeoaea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eiioo?iiai oa
aoceeeiaiai, ye iaoiaeii ?iaioe, oae ? ciai?oi?i aeaeii aioiaiai ae?iao.
Oey oaoi?ea aeecueea aei aeaa?aeueiiai aeeaiieno. Ooo iiaeeea? i’ye?,
aeeaiienia? ia?aoiaee oiio aac ??ceeo eiioo??a oi?ie. ?icien aeyaey?
nai?ia?accy aaoi?nueeiai ii/a?eo oa i?eaea? ae?iaai
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, yea aeanoeaa ?o/i?e i?aoe?.

Oeaieio iaoyai?oue ia ?aio. I?aeaa??oue aaiio eieuei??a o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eaeoiaiei ia?acii. Ia?ia?oue oeaieio oa?aaie o
a?euei?e aeeaiieni?e iaia??, aeei?enoiaoth/e ia eiie?aoiee ia?acioai?/ee
iioea, a aoaeue-yeee anioe?aoeaiee ia?ac: in?ii?e, ceiiaee, aaniyiee
iaecaae, ?ai?oi?e ?aiie, noo?iee, ooiai oa ?i. O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c
caaeoiii iaiao?aeii i?ae?a?aoe ? aaiio eieuei??a. Iaethiie iaiinyoue ia
oeaieio a?eueieie iaceaie ? o?eueee inoaoi/ia a?aeae?eea ?iiae?
aeoai?y?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oieiaeiiai ?aca?aoth/iai neeaaeo.

A?eueiee aeaa?aeueiee ?icien iniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii? nieyiiai ?ic/eio
aai niaoe?aeueieo aeaa?aeueieo ??oio?a. Iaoyaiooo ia ?aio oeaieio
i?iieoothoue aiaeiei ?ic/eiii iiaa?aii? nie? aai aeaa?aeueiei ??oioii, a
i?ney aeneoaiiy ?icienothoue oa?aaie. Oae ye nieyiee ?ic/ei iaiaaeo?
?ico?eaiiy oa?ae ii oeaiei?, iiaeia i?aoethaaoe a?eueieie iaceaie.
?icien aeeiiothoue ii i?eioeeio aeaa?aeueiiai aeeaiieno: a?ae na?oeiai
aei oaiiiai, a?ae aa?oiueiai e?ath aei ieaeiueiai.

Ua iaeei niin?a a?eueiiai ?icieno oeaieie iniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii?
e?eooae?a nie? aai ii/aaeie. Oeaieia iaoyao?oueny ia ?aio ?
ia?iaey?oueny ??aeeeie aa?aieeaie. Iio?i ia ua iie?o oeaieio, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c caaeoiii iaethieo, ianeiathoueny e?eooae? nie?, ye?
aeoeaii i?eoyaothoue aei naaa aa?aiee, oeei naiei ?iaey/e oaii?oeie o?
ae?eyiee oeaieie, ia ye? aiie iaiinyoueny. Iaea?aeaiee aoaeo neeueii
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o e?enoae?a. I?ney aeneoaiiy ia oeaiei? n?eue
aeeeaeathoue. Aoaeo, yeee iaea?aeo?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith nooi? ii/aaeie,
noiaeee ia nieyiee. Iaeiae, yeui n?eue, i?eoyaoth/e aei naaa aa?aiee,
eiioeaio?o? eiai ia oeaiei?, oi ii/aaeia, iaaiaee, aea?eth? iioa?aiaaio
oeaieio. Oeae niin?a aeoaea i?inoee oa aeinooiiee, a aieiaia — aea?
oe?ieee i?ino?? aeey aenia?eiaio?a. A?eueo i’yeee aoaeo iiaeia
iaea?aeaoe, canoiniaoth/e ia nooo ii/aaeio, a ?? eiioeaio?iaaiee ?ic/ei
(1 /aeia eiaeea ii/aaeie ia 50 ie aiaee), a yeee iaiaeathoue iaiceee oa
iaiinyoue ia oeaieio iaethiie a iaia?? e?aieiai? aai oo?eoiai? a?ao?ee.

Niin?a aeaeoaaiiy aa?aieea ia oeaieio /a?ac o?oai/eo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
aeaiee niin?a, iiaeia iaea?aeoaaoe aaaaoi ??ciiiai?oieo ??ciieieuei?iaeo
oaeoo?. Oe?eaa? aoaeoe aea? ?icieeaiiy aa?aieea aeae?eueeio eieuei??a.
Iaiinyoue oa?ao e?aieath aeeeth/ii ia nooo oeaieio, iio?i /a?ac o?oai/eo
iaa?aaeii ?icaeoaathoue ?? ia aecia/ai? ae?eyiee oeaieie. A ?acoeueoao?
iaea?aeothoue oe?eaaee aoaeo, yeee iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a yeino?
aeeaiienii? ia?oiiniiae i?e noai?aii? iioeao aoeaoo aai iaei??? ?ineeie.

A?eueiee ?icien niiniaii aa?ia?ao??. Aa?ia?ao?y noi?oue i?ae ana?aaeei?
i?ae ?o/iei oa iaoeiiei niiniaaie ?icieno. A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
iaiao?aeii iaea?aeaoe ??aii iioa?aiaai? iiaa?oi?, aiia iacai?iia. O
?iaio?, ie??i aa?ia?ao?a oa ioeueaa?ecaoi??a, ye? cai?aaeythoueny
??aeeith oa?aith, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ??ci? aa?aieee a
aa?icieueieo iaeoieao. I?aeoeea ?iaioe c aa?ia?aoii ia? aaaaoi i?eeii?a.
Oaoi?ea ci?uaiiy iniiaaia ia ?icieeaii? aa?aieea oeyoii iai?ioethaaiiy
i?noieaoii — ioeueaa?ecaoi?ii. No?oi?iue aa?ia?aoa a oeueiio aeiaaeeo
i?aoeth? a ?oeao ye iaiceee, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy iai?aoii?a
oa ia?aoiae?a eieuei?o. Oaoi?eith ?icieethaaiiy iaea?aeothoue
cia?aaeaiiy c i’yeei, i?ae oath/ei, ?icieoei eiioo?ii. A aa?ia?ao??
iiaeeeaa aeinyaei?noue iaeaea aaciaaeiiai ??ciiiai?ooy eieuei??a oa
a?aeo?ie?a.

Oeaieio iaoyai?oue ia ?aio. I?eaiooeoa aaiio aa?aiee?a c 3-4 eieuei??a
oa cai?aaoa aa?aiee a aa?ia?ao. ?iciee?oue oa?ao ia iaaaee/e?e /anoei?
oeaieie. Aiaeia?/io iia?aoe?th c?ia?oue c ?ioeie aa?aieeaie, caeeoath/e
iaaaee/e? ae?eyiee aaea iaianaiiai eieuei?o. Aa?ia?ao?th iiaeia
aeeiioaaoe ? ii aaea iioa?aiaaiei oeaieiai.

I?ieei’y/aio oeaieio iaoyai?oue ia ?aio, iioa?aoeoa a aoaeue-yeee eie??
na?aaeiueiai oiio. C?acie i?inoo?oue. Iio?i iine?aeiaii aeeiiaeoa on?
aeuaaeacai? iia?aoe??, ciaioea e?euee?noue ?icn?yieo eieuei??a aei
aeaio.

?io? i?eeiie ?iaioe c aa?ia?aoii aoaeothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? o?aoa?ao?a
oa iie?eaieo oaaeii?a — «ianie». Oeaieio iaoyai?oue ia ?aio. I?eaiooeoa
o?aoa?aoe ianeeaaeieo aaiiao?e/ieo oi?i.

AAAEEEAI! I?e aeei?enoaii? iaia?iaeo aai c?iaeaieo c i’yeiai iie?ia?iiai
iaoa??aeo o?aoa?ao?a, ?o iaiao?aeii-i?ee??ieoe aei oeaieie ii ia?eiao?o
eeaeeith no??/eith, uia caa?ia?aoe ci?uaiiy o i?ioean? ?iaioe. Iniaeeai
oea aaaeeeai i?e aeei?enoaii? oaiiii?a, iaiceee?a oa aoaee.

I?aeaiooeoa aaiio aa?aiee?a. A caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeath/iai aoaeoo
?ici?noeoue o?aoa?aoe ia oeaiei? o a?aeiia?aei?e iine?aeiaiino?, ?
caoa?aoeoa a?euei? ae?eyiee a?aeiia?aeiei eieuei?ii. I?ney eiaeii?
iia?aoe?? oeaieio ne?ae i?inooeoe. I?aoethth/e oaeei /eiii, ia caaaeaee
aaea?oueny ia?aaeaa/eoe ?acoeueoaoe, oiio a?ae ei?aeooaaoe eiiiiceoe?th
iiaeia ia inoaiiueiio aoai?, aeei?enoiaoth/e o?aoa?aoe — «ianee». A
yeino? «ianie» canoiniaothoue aeea? aai noo? ?ineeie, ??ci? n?oee,
ia?aaeeaa, i?aeoiaeyoue oaeiae a?ioee, ?oaeceee, eenoe cae/aeiiai
iaia?o, ea?oiio oa ?i.

?iaioa c oaaeiiaie aea? aaeeeee i?ino?? aeey noai?aiiy neeaaeiiai
iaethieo. A aa?ia?ao?? aeoaea aaaaoi caeaaeeoue a?ae aaoiai aeina?aeo oa
niaeo. Iaa?oue a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee eiiiiceoe?y aaea caaaeaia
ooaeiaeieeii, ?? aeeiiaiiy iio?aao? ?aoaeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy oa
ooaeiaeiueiai /oooy. ?acoeueoao iaaaaaoi caeaaeeoue a?ae ienoaoeoaa
iai?ioethaaiiy aa?ia?aoii, a?ae oi?iiy iai?aaeoe no?oi?iue ?icn?yii?
oa?ae, o?eaaeino? i?ioeano ?icieeaiiy, oaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ia?aoiaeo c
iaeiiai oiio a ?ioee ? o.ae. Neaaeei i?noeai aa?ia?ao?? ? aeoaea
iaaecia/aiee, ?icieoee eiioo?. Uia c?iaeoe eiai a?eueo /?oeei,
aa?ia?ao?th ?iiae? ii?aeiothoue c eiioo?iith oaoi?eith. Oiaoi nii/aoeo
iaaiaeyoue eiioo?e iaethiea, a iio?i iaiinyoue oa?ao aa?ia?aoii.
Iaaeie?eii iaoiaeo aa?ia?ao?? oaeiae ? aeieeiaiiy «ooiaio» ?ica?eceaii?
oa?ae, ui iio?aao? a?ae i?aoe?aieea iniaeeai? ia?aaeaa/oaaiino? oa
iaa?aaeiino?. ?iaioa aa?ia?aoii, cacae/ae, aaaeaoueny a niaoe?aeueieo
caoenieo ianeao (?ani??aoi?ao) ? a aeia?a i?ia?o?aieo i?ei?uaiiyo.

?icien ii oeaiei? «i?ae ia?io?» (ia?ae?ia). Oey oaoi?ea aeoaea aoaeoeaia
? a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?ii?ia?caoe??. Aiia iiaea neoaeeoe
ye naiino?eiei i?eeiiii ?icieno, oae ? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a ii?aeiaii? c
?ioeie oaoi?eaie. Iniaeeai oe?eaaee aoaeo iiaeia io?eiaoe i?e
aeei?enoaii? aoeaniiai oiaeo. Aeey ?icieno «i?ae ia?io?» iaiao?aeiee
niaoe?aeueiee eiiiiiaio OI?NEAEAE o aeaeyae? ii?ioeo, yeei
ei?enoothoueny aeey noai?aiiy iniiae iaethieo. Neeaae ?ic/eiy?oueny o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1 /aeia eiaeea ia 1 e?o? aiaee. E?aua anueiai aeey
oeueiai i?aeoiaeeoue ieinea aaiii/ea aenioith 2-4 ni. ?iaioo c
iaea?aeaiith aaeaia?aciith ianith iiaeia ii/eiaoe o?eueee /a?ac aiaeeio.
Ia neeaae e?aieyie iaiineoueny oa?aa, oeaeii/eee c i?iaoeith
cae?eniththoue c?o/i?noue a ?iaio?. Iio?i ia iiaa?oi? iaee/eith aai
aieeith noai?th?oueny iaethiie. Oeaieio aai iai?? ne?ae iieeanoe ia
iaea?aeaiee iaethiie an??th ieine?noth. Caeeoeoe a oaeiio aeaeyae? ia 20
naeoiae, iio?i ciyoe ? oaeaeei aeieoe i?ioi/iith aiaeith. Aeaoe
aenioiooe, cae??ieoe. Iaeoe?eaa?oa, ui iaethiie iiaeia iino?eii
a?aeiiaeyoe oa iaiineoe oa?aie. Aeaioiaeaiee neeaae iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aaaaoi?aciai. A yeino? aeaei?aoeaii? a?aeae?eee iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yeee ?aca?aoth/ee neeaae, ia ae?eyieao, aea a?i
iaianaiee, ia oeaiei? caeeoathoueny ia i?ioa?aiaai? ieyie. Oaoi?ea
IAEAUeOI aeoaea oe?eaaa oa yne?aaa, aiia aeicaiey? ?i?ooaaoe ia?io?ia?
?icaiaee oa iaea?aeoaaoe i?ea?iaeuei? eieuei?ia? ??oaiiy.

Ia iaio oe?eaaa ? iiiioei?y. Oey oaoi?ea aeiaie? i?inoa o aeeiiaii? ?
aeinooiia iaa?oue aeey ae?oae. Aai ciaaeiaeoueny eeno ieanoeeo aai neea.
Ia eiai iiaa?oith a?eueieie iaceaie iaiineoueny oa?aa, aiia iiaeiia aooe
aonoith, ye ianoa c othaeea. Iio?i iaoyaiooa ia ?aio oeaieia u?eueii
i?eaeeia?oueny aei neea. Oeth iia?aoe?th iiaeia iiaoi?eoe aeae?eueea
?ac?a, aei iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa?ae ia nee?.

I?e oiaeethaaeuei?e oaoi?oe? aonoa oa?aa iaiineoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ia
oeaieio, noai?thth/e ?aeue?oio iiaa?oith.

E??i eeane/ieo niinia?a ?o/iiai ?icieno oeaiei, oa?ae oa noiooi?
iaoa??aee, ui c’yaeythoueny ia ?eieo, cia/ii caaaaoeee i?aeoeeo
ooaeiaeiueiai ?icieno aoaeo?a. Iaeiei c ieo ? ? oioiaoaeo, yeee
iniiaaiee ia aecia/aieo yeinoyo oa?ae. Ia ua ia i?aenioeo oa?ao iiaeia
iieeanoe ??ciiiai?oi? oaaeiie. Iio?i iii?noeoe ?iaioo i?ae yne?aaee
ina?oethaaeueiee i?eno??e. I?e aeneoaii? oa?aa i?ae oaaeiiaie na?oe?oa?,
iaaeath/e cia?aaeaiith aeayeo oa?iie/?noue ? ooiaii?noue.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iia? oa?ae oa iaoa??aee, iiaeia aeiaeoeny iiaii?
noiaeino? aeeiiaii? ?iaioe c aie?eaoe??th, aeoeaeith a?na?ii oa
no?acaie.

?icien ii oeaiei? — ienoaoeoai oe?eaaa. Niiae?aa?iinue, ui oeae iaoa??ae
aeiiiiiaea aai a inai?ii? oeueiai neeaaeiiai aeaeo oai?/ino?.

AAO?E

Ienoaoeoai aao?ea ca?iaeeeiny a ?iaeiiac??. Aeine?aiee ia?aeeaae c
yaainueeiai — «aao?e» — oea iaethaaiiy aa?y/ei aineii. Aeey iueiai
a?aeeny, ye i?aaeei, aaaiaiyi? oeaieie. Naia ia ssa? ienoaoeoai aao?ea
aeinyaei iaeaeuiai oaoiieia?/iiai ??aiy oa aeooeaiino?. Iaethiee aoee
aeoaea ??ciiiai?oi?: aaiiao?e/iee, ?ineeiiee i?iaiaio, i?oieia?/i?
nthaeaoe ia oaie Iaoaaoa?aoe, ?aiayie, ?iciia?aeae ?iaeiiac??, A??ie,
Noiao?e, cia?aaeaiiy oaioanoe/ieo ioao?a oa aia?a Noiaeo.
?iaeiiac?enueeee eeane/iee aao?e iaeieieuei?iaee, naia oaoi?ea
iaiaaeoaaea eiai iae?o?o, eie?? ia?ae?eaaany i?e iie?aoaii? ia a?eueo
aeanyoe ?ac?a. O eiei?eo? iaee i?noea eieuei?e neiiiai? e?noee, on?
a?aeo?iee ei?e/iaaiai oa iaea?eueo yne?aaa oa?aa — ?iaeeai. ?aoeaioe
aiooaaiiy neiuei? oa?ae, ye ? nai? iaethiee, aoee iaea?eueo aaeeeith
oa?iieoeath eiaeii? ?iaeeie iaeno??a. Iaethiee aecia/aee oaeiae ?
eanoiao i?eiaeaaei?noue: i?ooi ia iaa i?aaa iiaoi?thaaoe oea?nuee? oa
ei?ie?anuee? i?iaiaioe.

Aaaaoinooi?i/anoee oeyo i?aeaioiaee oeaieie aeey aao?ea -aeii/oaaiiy,
a?aea?ethaaiiy, eei’yo?iiy. Nai i?ioean, yeee neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo
iaeia ca ?ioith iia?aoe?e: iie?eooy aa?y/ei aineii -iie?aoaiiy —
noo?iiy, ui iiaoi?th?oueny aeey eiaeiiai eieuei?o, a?ae??ciyany
aaaee?noth oa aeiaaei /anii, iio?aaoaaa iaenoa?noaa oa oa?i?iiy. Ia oa,
uia c?iaeoe iaeei aeoa??, ooiaeeee aeiaa? i?nyoe?, a ?iiae? e ?iee.

A i?eaeaiiio eiaeii? ae?a/eie aoee iaia’yceia? ?a/?, c?iaeai? a oaoi?oe?
aao?ea — iaeaaea, yne?aaa iaoa??y aeey ia?yae?a oa oea?aiii?e, caa?ne oa
??ciiiai?oi? iano?ii? iaiii c iiaooiaeie oa i?oieia?/ieie nthaeaoaie,
cia?aaeaiiyie iie?iaeoae?a aoaeeieo.

Ia ii/aoeo 17 no. aei ?iaeiiac?? ne?aeii ca ii?ooaaeueoeyie
iio?aieythoue aieeaiaeoe?. Naia aiie a?aee?eee aao?e aeey ?a?iie.
Iinay/ai? oa iacaeaaei? aieeaiaeoe? ia iiaee ia iii?oeoe, ui iano?ii?
iaiiiaa?aeeie, iaiii? iaa?oue ethno?e o no?aeiiio noee? iaiiaiththoue
cae/aeia aeeooy ethaeae aeoai?aie ienoaoeoaa.

O iao? aei?, ye ? ?ai?oa, ia? oe?io ?o/iee ?icien. Aaaaoi ooaeiaeiee?a
noai?ththoue nai? aeoai?e, ii?aeioth/e o?aaeeoe?? yaainueeiai aao?eo oa
yiiinueei-eeoaenueeiai ?icieno ii oiaeo. Ia ci?io aineo i?eoiaeeoue
aoooa, ?aca?a ia iniia? eao/oeo oa aaiceio, a ni?iuaia oaoi?ea ? iiyaa
ae?eeiaeo oa?a ?iaeyoue ?icien ii oeaiei? aeinooiiei aeey an?o
aaaeath/eo noai?eoe uinue nai?, i?ea?iaeueia, oa, ui a?aeiia?aea?
aeaniei oyaai i?i e?ano.

A oeueiio iaeyae? ie aeieeaaeii coieieiinue ia oiio, ye? iaoa??aee oa
?ino?oiaioe aeey ?icieno ii oeaiei? ? a?o/eciyiiio ?eieo.

sse? oa?ae aea?aoe?

Oa?ae aeey oeaieie iiae?eythoueny ia aea? eaoaai???: i?ioan?ei? oa eeano
«oia?». I?ioan?ei? oa?ae iio?aaothoue niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee oa
iaaee?a o ?iaio?. Aei eeano «oia?» a?aeiinyoueny, a?eueo ca ona,
ae?eeia? oa?ae, a eio?eo ? ieanoe/ia neioaoe/ia niiea. *anoee i?aiaioo a
ieo iia’ycai? i?ae niaith aioeuen??th, yea i?ney aeneoaiiy noa?
i?ici?ith. Iaeia ?c ia?aaaa ae?eeiaeo oa?a — oaeaee?noue ?o aeneoaiiy.
Ae?ee aeneoa?, ye o?eueee aeia?o?oueny aieiaa, yea ciaoiaeeoueny a
iueiio; aieiae?? aa?iei iie?eaiei ai?iiyi, aeoaea aeia?ith yne?aa?noth
eieuei??a, ia aeai?a? i?ae niioeai, ia oonei?? c /anii. Ae?ee
?ic/eiy?oueny o aiae?, yeo iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a yeino?
?ic??aeaeoaa/a. I?e oeueiio a?eueo?noue ae?iaiee?a aeioneathoue nai?
?ic??aeaeoaaeuei? caniae, ye? ?icoe?ththoue oa aeiiiaiththoue
iiaeeeaino? ae?eeo. Ia a?ae??ciaiiy a?ae ?ioeo aiaeieo oa?a, ae?ee i?ney
aeneoaiiy ia ?ic/eiy?oueny aiaeith. Ie??i oeueiai a?i ia? aa?io
aaeaac?th (c/aieaiiy iiaa?oiiue ??cii??aeieo o?e), ui aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai aeey noai?aiiy ?aeue?o?a.

Aei oa?a eeano «oia?» o na?o? i?aae’yaeythoueny aeoaea aenie? aeiiae:
aiie iathoue aooe aeieia?/ii /enoeie, ia aeeeeeaoe aea?a??, ia iaoe
??ceiai caiaoo, i?ieoe eiio?ieue i?aeia?iaeieo aeieia?/ieo neoaea oa
?iaeiiac?eoe?a aeoaea neeueii noiae? ia o?anee o o?aiao oa aea?aa’yi?
?eiie neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a: o?ao?e cia?aaeai? neeoaoii, ia?ace
neiaie?/i? oa oiiai?, a iayai?noue oa?aeoa?ieo «o??ueiie» a?ae aineo ua
a?eueo i?aee?anethaaea oeth noiae?noue. Ciaeiinoai c aao?eii c?a?aei
iaiaeo ?ieue o ?icaeoeo oaenoeeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ?a?ii?. ?a?iiaeoe?,
ye? aoee ethaeueie iaio oa?iey/?oeie, iio?i iiaea?i?coaaee aao?e,
c?iaeee aeaeo?e/i? aao?e-o?eooe — i?eai?e, ui aeicaieythoue
i?aeaea?aeoaaoe a?ne o ?icieaaeaiiio aeae?.

O 1801 ?ioe? AEica-Ia?? AEaeea? i?eaeoiaa ia?oee aaoiiaoe/iee noaiie,
yeee aeicaieya cae?enithaaoe aecia/aio oeaoeueeo i?ia?aio ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi ia?oiea?o, yeee ae?iaeya oeaieio c iaethieii, i?eaeoiaiei
ooaeiaeieeii. C’yaeythoueny ??ciiiai?oi? o?i?/i? aa?aieee. Ni?aaaei?e
aao?e c eiai neeaaeiith oaoiieia??th iinooiiai caaoaa?oueny.

Iaeiae, ia ?oaaae? 19-20 no. anana?oiy caoe?eaaeai?noue ?icienii ii
oeaiei? iaea?aeaea iiaee ?icaeoie. Caaaeyee anana?oi?i aenoaaeai,
?a?iiaeoe? a?aee?eaathoue aeey naaa yiiinueea ienoaoeoai. Iaia, Aeaaa,
Ooeoc-Eio?ae, Aai Aia ii/a?aothoue o iueiio iia?, iacae/aei? ?aea?. O
oai?/ino? Iiey Aiaaia iiaeia ii/ooe aieea yaainueeiai, yiiinueeiai,
iie?iac?enueeiai ienoaoeoaa.

A i?ee?aoaii? yiiinueeiai ?ioa?’??o aeoaea oe?iei canoiniaoaaeeny oe?ie
c ?icienii ii oeaiei?. Aiie i?ee?aoaeenue aeeaiienii, eae?a?ao??th oa
a??oaie. AEeaiieni? i?eeiie, oaoi?ea, nai? iaoa??aee (ooo, oiae) aeoaea
aeecuee? aei eeoaenueei? eae?a?ao??. Oaoi?ea ?icieno iio?aaoaaea
aaeeeiai ai?iiy, oiae iiia?aaeiuei ia?iaeyany niaoe?aeueieie neeaaeaie,
?eniaei e?ioiaeai, eaanoeyie, ? ia iueiio ienaee, ye ia iaia??,
iai?anooei iaiceeeii. Aioiaee aeoa?? noai?thaaa a?ae/oooy ?iceioo o
o?aaeeoe?eii eaeii?/iiio yiiinueeiio ?ioa?’???.

Ia ?oaaae? 19-20 no. ?a?iiaeoe?a ioiieea aeaaa aei aecioeee. I?ea?ci?
anoaiie, eaee, ea?ai?ea, ??ci? ae??aie/ee ii?iaeaeothoue «yiii?ci», yeee
aeiiiiaaa? ia?iaeaeaiith iiaiai noeeth — iiaea?i. Oe?ie, aaaaeo?e,
neoaea ioi?iie caei?ia’y, oiio /anoi aiie iathoue a?eueo aenieo oe?io.
Nueiaiaei? ia a?o/eciyiiio ?eieo ? aaeeea ??ciiiai?ooy oa?a aeey ?icieno
oeaiei ??cieo o??i — ae?iaiee?a. Ie coieieiinue eeoa ia aeayeeo c ieo,
oeo, a yeeo ? iaea?eueo oe?ieee aea?? oa?a, aeiiii?aeieo iaoa??ae?a,
?ino?oiaio?a oa aenanoa??a.

O??ia ?AAAI (O?aioe?y) aia?oa aenoaaeea ia i?iaeaae oa?ae eeano «oia?»
ia a?o/eciyiiio ?eieo a 1994 ?ioe?. Iaeei ?c iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?
o??ie — oa?ae aeey oaenoeeth. Aiie aeaioiaeai? ca o?aaeeoe?eieie
oaoiieia?yie, eaae? o canoinoaaii?. I?aeoe/ii an? aiie cae??ieththoueny
i?aneith c? cai?ioiiai aieo oeaieie /a?ac eeno iaia?o, oaiia?aoo?a
aeae?a?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei neeaaeo oeaieie. Aioiaee ae??a iiaeia
i?aoe. Oa?ae i?iaeathoueny ye ie?aii, oae ? a iaai?ao. *oaeiai
ii?aeiothoueny n a?aeiieie caniaaie aeey io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aoaeo?a.

Ie??i oa?a, o??ia ae?iaey? niaoe?aeuei? neeaaee:

• ?ini?ia (4,56 o. i.) — aeiiiiaaa? c?iaeoe eieuei?e oa?a iaio
yne?aaeie;

• OUe?neaiai (3,0 o. i.) — neoaeeoue aeey caaouaiiy oa?ae, ui iaiao?aeii
aeey aeayeeo oaoi?e ?icieno;

• Niaoe?aeueiee ?ic??aeaeoaa/ (3,5 o. i.) — caiia?aa? cieaeaiith
yne?aaino?;

• IaaY?i§ Ioi — iaethaaeueia ??aeea ?aceia, aeiaeaoeiaee ?aca?aiee
neeaae, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia caeeoaoe iaiioa?aiaaieie aaeee?
/anoeie oeaiei. Oaeiae o??ia i?iiiio? i?eeaaee, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue o
?iaio? c ?icienii oeaieie, aie?eaoo?e, iaiceeee oa aaaaoi ?ioiai.

Ua iaeia eiiiai?y, yea iinoaaey? ia a?o/eciyiee ?eiie oa?ae aeey ?icieno
oeaiei IOAEA, o??ia N.EEAOeUeE?AE8OUeAE ?AEAAE?AAE?E (Aa?iai?y). Oe?eaai
e oa, ui ?AOAEA — oea ia o?eueee oa?ae, aea e oe?ea i?ia?aia, ui
iai?aaeaia ia ?icaeoie oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ethaeeie. A?aeaio?eueie,
iaiee c iioeaaie ia?aeeaaeieo iaethie?a, oiae, ?aie aeey oe?i (98,4 oa
124,8 II), iaai?e aeey ii/aoe?aoe?a, ye? neeaaeathoueny c on?o
iaiao?aeieo iaoa??ae?a aeey ?icieno. A oaeiae ??ciiiai?ooy ?ino?oiaio?a
oa cania?a, iaiceeee c? an?ia aeaeaie aieinny, on?o ?ici???a oa ia
aoaeue-yeee niae (1,1 — 23,2 II), ?aie ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e (a?ae 12,6
aei 137,6 II), eiioo?iee iaethaaeueiee (90 II), ?ai?aeia?ao n
?aaoeth?iith oiaueiith e?i?? (105 II), i?iaoee, aie?eaoi?e (2,2 II) oa
aaaaoi ?ioiai, ui iiaea ciaaeiaeoeny aeey ?iaioe. Oa?ae ?AOAEA aeoaea
i?ino? o aeei?enoaii?, iaeaaeaoue aei eeano «oia?», cae??ieththoueny
oothaii, iathoue aaaaoo eieuei?iao iae?o?o. E??i oa?a i?iiiiothoueny
aeiaeaoeia? aenanoa?e aeey ?iaioe ii oeaieiai. N?eue, aeaa?aeueiee
??oio, ina?oethaa/, caouoaa/, a?e?ea (2,1 II) oa aaaaoi ?ioiai.

Aia?eeainueea o??ia ss???AEO, I?AANAE & 8?THAss — iaeei c iaea?eueoeo
ae?iaiee?a oaenoeeueieo oa?a ?an§eaa, i?eiaeaaeiinoae oa aeiaaaie aeey
?icieno aoaeue-yeeo oeaiei. Oa?ae aieiaiei /eiii i???ioiaai? ia
i?ioan?iiae?a, aeey ?o canooaaiiy iio??aai aeayeee iieo oa ciaiiy
oaoiieia?? ?icieno. Oa?ae cae??ieththoueny o caia?ieeo (aaoieeaa?) aai
ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo cae??iethaa/?a (o?enaoea?a), ye? aoiaeyoue
aei neeaaeo aeayeeo iaai??a aai i?iiiiothoueny ie?aii. Aeey ethaeoae?a
oa ii/aoe?aoe?a aeioneathoueny iao/ath/e oa iiaea?oieia? iaai?e, aei
yeeo aoiaeeoue aeieeaaeia, yne?aaa ?ino?oeoe?y, caniae oa aeiaaaee,
iaiao?aei? aeey aeiiaiaiiy ?ia?o.

O??ia ae?iaey? aaeeeo e?euee?noue cania?a, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey ?iaioe n
oa?aaie, oa ??cieo aeiaaaie: oi?aa?naeuei? eiioo?e ia aiaei?e iniia? (67
ie) — 3,10 o. i., ia iniia? aoooe — a?ae 5,43 aei 8,45 o. i. (ae??a
iiaeia i?aeaeaaaoe o?i?/i?e /enooe?), eiioo? N0 ??ieo (i?ney aeneoaiiy
i?ici?ee), a?ne aeey aao?ea, n?eue — 1,97 o. i., eiioeaio?ao —
cae??iethaa/ (250 ie) — 2 o. i., o?enaoea — eaoae?caoi? i?ioeano
cae??ieaiiy oa?ae ia oeaiei? (60 ie) — 8,98 o. i., aae?ath/a eie?? ianoa
(250 ie) — 2 o. i., caniae aeey aeaeaeaiiy oa?ae, can?a aeey oaoi?ee
«ia?ae?ia», eaanoe?, ii/aaeia.

Oaeiae ae?iaeythoueny ??ciiiai?oi? caniae oa i?eno?i?, iaiao?aei? aeey
ooaeiaeiee?a ii oeaiei?: aie?eaoi?e n ??cieie iaeiia/ieeaie — 3 o. i.,
eiiiee oa e?th/ee — 2 o. i., ?aie oa i?ae?aiieee, aa?ia?aoe — 50 o. i.,
iaiceeee, ?ai?aeia?aoe, aao?e-o?eooe.

O??ia EI?AEO, I?AAIE & 8?AIAE. ia ?ice?eaa? neeaae nai?o oa?a, oiio ie
ia ?aeiiaiaeo?ii ci?ooaaoe ?o c oa?aaie ?ioeo ae?iaiee?a ? aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aoaeo?a ei?enooaaoeny caniaaie naia oe???
o??ie.

Iniaeeai i?e?iii, ui a oe?e iaeano? ii/aee i?aoethaaoe ? a?o/eciyi?
ae?iaieee. Eiiiai?y «AAIIA» (caaiae «*a?aiiee ooaeiaeiee») ii/aea aeione
oa?a aeey ?o/iiai ?icieno oeaiei, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey i?ioan?iiae?a oa
ethaeoae?a. Iiaeia i?aee?aneeoe aeia?o ye?noue oa?a, a ?o ae?iaieoeoa?
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye?ni? ?iii?oi? i?aiaioe. Oa?ae aeioneathoueny ye o
iaai??, oae ? ie?aieie eieuei?aie, i?ecia/aieie aeey oeaiei c
iaoo?aeueieo aieieii. Iaa?? neeaaea?oueny c 5 oeaeii?a iniiaieo
eieuei??a (ii 70 ie), ?aca?ao oa ?ino?oeoe??. ?aca?a, yeee ae?iaey?
eiiiai?y, aaceieuei?iaee, aa?ii aea?aeeoue oa?ao, iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny
aeey ?iaioe c oa?aaie ?ioeo ae?iaiee?a. O iiaeaeueoiio eiiiai?y ieaio?
aeione eieuei?iaeo ?aca?a?a. Oaeiae ?ic?iaeythoueny oa?ae aeey oeaieie
eeano «oia?». Aei aacoiiaieo ia?aaaa iiaeia a?aeianoe ?o oe?io — iaa??
eiooo? 43 ?oaey. ?aca?a eiooo? 6 ?oae?a 20 eii?eie. Ii?yae c aeanieie
oa?aaie, eiiiai?y «AAIIA» i?iiiio? oa?ae ii oeaieiai aeaonueei? o??ie
8NOAEEOI oa aiae?enueei? IAUeAE.-EIYEAY, a oaeiae ??ci? ?ino?oiaioe aeey
?iaioe c oa?aaie: aa?ia?aoe (75 ?oa.), iaiceeee (a?ae 6 aei CI ?oa.),
neeyi? o?oai/ee aeey ?aca?ao (2 ?oa.), e?oa?aoo?o, yea aeiiiiaaa? a
inai?ii? oaoi?e ?icieno.

Iaoa??aee

?aca?ae (eiioo?e) — neeaaee, iaiao?aei? aeey oiai, uia caiia?aoe
?ico?eaiith oa?ae. I?iieeath/e o oeaieio, ?aca?a i?iieoo? ?? iane??cue
oa noai?th? i?ae ia?aai?iaeeo, yea ia i?iionea? i? oa?ao, i? aoaeue-yeo
?ioo ??aeeio. ?aca?ae ae?iaeythoueny ??cieo eieuei??a, ui aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o a yeino? aeiaeaoeiai? aeaei?aoeaii? a?aeae?eee.

AAAEEEAI! Aaaaoi ae?iaiee?a ei?enoothoueny iacaith «aoooa», aea a yeino?
?aca?ao iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o?eueee aoooa ia ?aceiia?e iniia?. O
a?o/eciyieo iaoo?aeueieo oeaieiao aeei?enoiaothoueny neioaoe/i?
aeiaeaoee, oiio aei ?iii?oieo ?aca?a?a e?aua aeiaeaaaoe o?ioe aaiceio,
oea iie?aueoue ?o i?iieeath/o ae?th oa aeiiiiiaea caiia?aoe iiaeeeaeo
iai?e?iieo ianiiae?aaiinoae.

N?eue, ii/aaeia, eaanoe?, caouoaa/?, ?ic??aeaeoaa/?, ??oioe, i/enieee,
cae??iethaa/?, niaoe?aeuei? caniae oa aeiaeaoee neoaeaoue aeey ?iaioe o
??cieo oaoi?eao oa noai?thaaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aoaeo?a.

?aie

?aia — iaeei ?c iniiaieo oa iaiao?aeieo aai ?ino?oiaio?a. Iaoyaiooa ia
?aio oeaieia aeiiiiiaea caiia?aoe aee?eaeaiiy ?ici???a iaethieo,
iaca?aeiino? eiioo?ieo e?i?e, aeanoue ??aiii??ia ?ico?eaiiy oa?ae. sseui
oeaieia iaoyaiooa i?aaeeueii, oi eeiooa ia na?aaeeio aoeaaea
a?aenei/eoue a?ae ia? aeiaa?oo.

?aie nooi?i/aoeo eiino?oeoe?e aeicaieythoue iaoyaoaaoe iaoa??ae,
ne??iethth/e ?aeee o niaoe?aeueieo iacao (nooiaiyo). Aiie aeoaea i?ino?
o caa?oaii?, aea iio?aaothoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeaieio aecia/aiiai
?ici??o, yeee o?aaa i?aeae?aoe i?ae a?aenoaiue nooiai?a ?aie, ui
iac?o/ii i?e ?iaioe c oeaieiith c ia?iaeaieie e?ayie. Oeueiai iaaeie?eo
iaia? a ?aiao, ye? cae??ieththoueny aaeeaie oa aiaoaie, ui a?eueii
ia?anoaathoueny a iacao. A yeino? ?aie aeey aaeeeeo ?ia?o i?ae?eaea
i?ae?aiiee. Aeey iaaaeeeeo iaethie?a iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe i’yeueoe?.

AAAEEEAI! Aea?aa’yi? ?aie, ia?o i?ae iaoyaoaaoe ?o oeaieiith, o?aaa
iaeea?oe neio/ai aai aoaeue-yeith eeaeeith no??/eith, ui caoenoeoue
aea?aai a?ae iiiaaeaiiy ia iueiai aiaee oa oa?ae. I?ney aeaeaeaiiy
eeaeei? no??/ee ?aia caeeoeoueny nooith oa /enoith ? ia caa?oaeieoue
aaoo ianooiio ?iaioo.

Iaiceeee

Aeey ii/aoeo aeia?a a iaoe ye i?i?ioi o?e — /ioe?e iaiceeee. Iaiceee
aeey ?icieno oeaieie iiaeiai aooe i?oaeiei, c aeiaaei ai?nii, aeia?a
a?aoe oa a?aeaeaaaoe aieiao. ?c iaoo?aeueieo i?ae?eaea eieiiie, ai?noe,
/a?aiia eoieoey, oo?. Ae iiaeii? i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oei, uia cii/aiee
aiaeith iaiceee iaa aino?ee e?iaoeue. Oiie? iaiceeee (?? 3-5) iio??ai?
aeey i?e?ia?oee ae??aieo aeaoaeae, ?? 10-12 aeey ?icieno iaaaeeeeo oa
na?aaei?o ae?eueieoeue. E?oii?- ae?eueieoe? ?icienothoueny i’yeeie oa
oe?ieeie iaiceeeaie, aai niaoe?aeueiei a?yeueiei iaiceeeii. O??ie
i?iiiiothoue iaiceeee ?c neioaoe/ieo aieieii, aaiaoeia?, niaoe?aeuei?
iaiceeee aeey ?iaioe o oaoi?oe? o?aoa?aoo, ia?io?ia?e oaoi?oe?.

AAAEEEAI! Iaiceee ia iiaeia eeanoe o aiaeo e?i/eeii aiec. I?ney ?iaioe
i?iieeoa eiai a /eno?e aiae?, aeiaeaa e?aieth caniao aeey ieooy iinoaeo,
oea iniaeeai aaaeii i?e aeei?enoaii? ae?eeiaeo oa?a. Aieiaee iaiceee ia
noaaoa o noaeai, ia?o i?ae a?i iiaeiai aeia?a aenioiooe.

?io? i?eeaaee

O?ueiocoa/ano? e?th/ee oa eiiiee aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iaoyaoaaiiy oa
cae??ieaiiy ia ?ai? oeaieie c iaia?iaeaieie e?ayie. Aoeaaee, aieee oa
«e?ao?» iaiao?aei? aeey cae??ieaiiy oeaieie, yea ia? ia?iaeai? e?a?.

Ieanoiania? oeaeiie — aie?eaoi?e oa iaoaeaa? iaeiia/ieee — eaithe?
aeiiiiiaeooue aeeiiaoe oiie? e?i?? oa eiioo?e i?e iaianaii? ?aca?ao oa
oa?ae. C oe??th ae iaoith aeei?enoiao?oueny ? niaoe?aeueia neeyia
o?oai/ea.

O i?iaeaaeo ? niaoe?aeueiee eiioo?iee iaethaaeueiee, yeee aeicaiey?
i?aeaea?aeoaaoe ??aio e?i?th eiioo?o ye ii/aoe?aoeyi, oae ?
i?ioan?iiaeai.

Ni?ae — ioeueaa?ecaoi? ciaaeiaeoueny aeey ?iaioe o iacaeaaei?e,
o?aoa?aoi?e oa aa?ia?ao?/i?e oaoi?eao ?icieno. C /anii ae iiaeaoa eoieoe
? aa?ia?ao, a?i aa?aioo? /oaeiaee ?acoeueoao, aea e eiooo? iaaeaoaai.
A?o/eciyi? aa?ia?aoe aeaoaao?, aea i?i ?iaio? c ieie iiaeeea?
iai?e?iiino? o aeaeyae? eyiie.

?ai?aeia?ao iiaea noaoe o i?eaiae?, yeui ae ae??oeoa i?ee?aneoe oeaieio
ae?acaie aaeeeeo ioae?aoe?a, no?ieaie ethaeieo a??o?a aai caoi/aoa
caeiyoeny eae?a?ao??th ia oeaiei?.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oaioiiiiai oeiianoa?o ae ciiaeaoa ia?aeeanoeiaethiie ia
oeaieio, ia aiy/enue iiieeie i?e ia?aeeaae? iaethiea, a?icieea?, yeui ia
iueiai iio?aieoue aiaea. C oe??th .iaoith i?ae?eaea ? aeoaeai’yeee
ie?aaoeue.

I?iaoee iio??ai? aeey cai?o oa?a ?c neeyiie i?e ci?ooaaii?.

Iae?o?e neoaeaoue aeey ci?ooaaiiy oa?a.

Eai?ioe?, oa?iino?ee? ?oaeceee, neeyi? oa?eee, i?oei? ieoee oa no??/ee
noaiooue o i?eaiae? aeey noai?aiiy aoaeo?a a aoceeeia?e oaoi?oe?.

O?aoa?aoe oa niaoe?aeuei? oi?ii/ee aeey iaa?eee aeiiiiiaeooue aai o
aeai?? iaethieo.

Aea?aa’yi? ?aie aeey oe?i, ea?eane aeey aaaaeo??a, ??ciiiai?oi? ?aiee oa
iania?oo neoaeaoue aeey inoaoi/iiai ioi?ieaiiy aeeiiaii? ?iaioe.

Oai, ie??i i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano aeneoaiiy oa?ae, iiaea aeiiiiiaoe
aeiaeoeny i?ea?iaeueieo eiei?enoe/ieo ci?i a aeaa?aeuei?e oaoi?oe?.

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e:

1. Aenoaaea no/aniiai yiiinueeiai i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa, Eaoaeia,
anooiia noaooy Ieaaea Aeen?i. — Oie?i: «Aeoii/ai? ienoaoeoaa», 1957;
,’.’. ‘»?:.; «.

2. A?nna — Aa?oe A. ssiii?y oa yiiioe?.-NIa.: 1994;

3. ?oi Iiaoa, Iaaaea Oaeaec?. ?noi??y yiiinueeiai ienoaoeoaa. — I.:
«I?ia?an», 1965;

4. Eii?aae I.E. I/a?e ?noi??? eoeueoo?e na?aaeiueia?eiai? ssiii??. –?
I.: «Ienoaoeoai», 1980;•

5. I?eiea?aa I.N. Aeaei?aoeai? ?iciene ssiii?? 16-18 noie?oue. -I.:
«Ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai», 1989;

6. I?eiea?aa I.N. No/ania ienoaoeoai ssiii?? e?ioey 19 — ii/aoeo 20
noie?oue. -I.: «?aaeyinueeee ooaeiaeiee», 1968;

7. Ioa. ?aaeaeoi? Ee?iia ?.A. Ca??iee noaoae «ssiiinueea ienoaoeoai». —
I: Aeaeaaieoeoai no?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e, 1959;

8. Na?aethe A.A. ssiiinueea oaao?aeueia a?aath?a 17-19 noie?oue. — I:
«Ienoaoeoai», 1980.

OA?AE AeEss OEAIEIE

Iaeyae ?eieo

Iiaiaeueoany, ui oeaieia — oea inoaii?, ui i? aeae?a?ii ia?aae
cae?i/aiiyi ?aiiioo. Ooi?e ia a?eiao, eiaae?e, /ioee ia iaae?,
neaoa?oeie oa iino?eueia a?eecia iaiaaeothoue iaoa oyaeaiiy i oeaiei? a
?ioa?’???.

Oeaieia — iaeei c iaeae?aai?oeo iaoa??ae?a, yeeie ei?enoothoueny aeey
i?ee?ane aeeoea. Naia oaeoo?a iaoa??aeo aeicaiey? c?iaeoe a?aaeaiiy
oaiea oa caoeoeo, aeiaeoeny i?ea?iaeueiino?, aeeaino? eiio?ano?a oa
aiaeii/an neioacoaaoe ?aeeiee ?ioa?’?? c ?aooieii iio?aa oa niae?a
eiaeiiai /eaia ?iaeeie.

?ineeii? aieieia — ni?aaaei? ?aaoeyoi?e aieiaino?, aa?i? caoei- oa
oaiei-?cieyoi?e. On? oe? /oaeia? yeino? ?iaeyoue oeaieio iaeiei c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoa??ae?a a ioi?ieaii? aeeoea.

I?e?iaei?, ia?aiai? eieuei?e i?e?iaeieo aieieii ia iiaeooue
caaeiaieueieoe c?inoath/? iio?aae ethaeeie, eiai aaaeaiiy i?iyaeoe naith
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, a?aeia?aceoe ioi/oth/o eiai i?e?iaeo. Oiio
ethaeeia c aeaai?o /an?a ooeaea iiaeeeaino? i?ee?aneoe oeaieio.
Iaeae?aai?o? niiniae — iie?aoaiiy oa iaa?eea — a?aeii? o aaaaoueio
ia?iaeiinoae na?oo, aea iaeaeuiai ?icaeoeo ienoaoeoai aeaei?oaaiiy
oeaieie aeinyaei ia Noiae?: a ?iae??, ?iaeiiac??, Eeoa? oa ssiii??.

Iiaoo ethaeei, i?e?iaei? ?ano?ne, ee?iao oa ?ae?a?y — ana
a?aeia?aaeaeiny o ni?aaaei?o aeoai?ao ienoaoeoaa ia oeaiei?.

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