Визволення України з-під влади Золотої Орди і боротьба за створення незалежної Української держави (XIV-XV ст.)

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

AECAIEAIIss OE?A?IE C-I?Ae AEAAeE CIEIOI? I?AeE ? AI?IOUeAA CA
NOAI?AIIss IACAEAAEII? OE?A?INUeEI? AeA?AEAAE (XIV-XV no.)

1 Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa e ii/aoie aecaieaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue o ia?o?e /aa?o? XIV no.

Ia ii/aoeo XIV no. i?aeoniaia ai?ioueaa oaoa?nueeeo oai?a ineaaeea
aeaaeo caaieiaiee?a iaae Oe?a?iith. Ni?eyoeeaeie ianoaaeiaie aeey
ci?oeiaiiy aeanieo iiceoe?e iaeoaeaeoa nei?enoaany
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeee eiycue TH??e (ae. 1301 — ae. 1315). O 1302 ?. a?i
iineaa ia aeiiiiiao a?aoo nai?? ae?oaeeie iieue nueeiio eiycth
Aeaaeeneaao Eieaoaeo a?enueeia? caaiie. Aea iio?ae aoa iaaaeaeei,
aiane?aeie /iai TH??e ao?aoea a?aeaiei aaio aaoueeii ? aeia?a inai?io
oe?a?ioeyie Ethae?inueeo caieth, Cia/ii oni?oi?oa ae?ya iieiaeee
i?aaeoaeue o ie?i?e ?ic aoaeia? aeanieo aieiae?iue. Ca eiai eiycthaaiiy
oaeaeei ?ic?i noaeeny i?noa e naea, ?icaeaaeeny oi?a?aey e eoeueoo?a. A
1303?. aoea noai?aia Aaeeoeueea ieo?iiie?y, ui cia/ii ci?oe ieei
i?aeia?iaeiee aaoi?eoao cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae e aiaeii/an
iineaaeei ?ae?a?ei? ca’ycee c ?ioeie oe?a?inueeeie caieyie. I?aae?iiy
TH??y — oea aeiaa cieioiai niieith, aa aaonoaa e neaae
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? aea?aeaae oa ?? i?aeia?iaeiiai aeciaiiy. Nai
eiycue ae?noaa oeooe «ei?iey ?on?». Oaeee oeooe iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaa
aea?aeaaioai?/ei i?ioeanai a Oe?a?i?, ine?eueee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiai?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia cao?aeieo caieyo a?aeaoaaeiny i?ae aeaaiueith
iacaith «?onue». ?iaeoa e ia iiaei aooe. A /ane ?icioee e eeoie?ooy
a?iiaaea caaaeaee ooea? iii?e nai?i ae?yi o neaaieo noi??ieao aeanii?
?noi???. A iath a aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo e aoea iiaooiy Ee?anueea
?onue. A?ae?iaeaeoth/enue i?ae oe??th iacaith, Oe?a?ia oei naiei
ia?aae?aea ia naaa aaee/ ? aaoi?eoao nai?? iiia?aaeieoe?.

Neie TH??y Aiae??e ? Eaa (1315 — 1323), oi/ ? ?icae?eeee i?ae niaith
oa?eoi??th eiyc?anoaa, aea a iie?oeoe? caaaeaee ae?yee ni?eueii. Eiyc?
i?aeo?eioaaee ae?oaei? noinoiee c i?aaeoaeyie cao?aeieo aea?aeaa ? oei
naiei caaacia/eee ie?i? oiiae aeeooy nai?i i?aeaeaiei. Aioo??oiy
noaa?euei?noue noeioethaaea iaoe?iiaeueia i?aeianaiiy na?aae i?noeaai?
oaiaeaeueii? aa?o?aee oa ?? i?aaiaiiy aei iacaeaaeiino? a?ae Cieioi?
I?aee. I?e oeueiio iao??ioe aeia?a aa/eee iani?iiiaei?noue aeanieie
neeaie aeinyaoe iaoe e oiio a nai?o ae?yo i???iooaaeeny ia o? e?a?ie,
ye? aoee aioia? aenooieoe i?ioe Iiiaieuenueei? aea?aeaae e ?acii c oei
aeciaoe i?aaii??i?noue aea?aeaaioai?/eo ono?aie?iue oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ciao?. Oaeith e?a?iith ? noaea iieiaea Eeoianueea
aea?aeaaa.

Ia ii/aoeo XIV no. Eeoaa iaa?aea aaeeei? neee, ?? oa?eoi??y ?icoe?eeany
aeaeaei ca iaae? aoi?/iiai ?aa?iio — aanaei?a A?nee, I?iaio e Aea?ie —
ca ?aooiie i?e?aeiaieo a?ei?onueeeo ? /anoeie ?onueeeo (?in?enueeeo)
caiaeue. I?ney i?eaeooaiiy naia?aoenonueeeo aenooi?a ieaiai yoaya?a ?
aeioae? aioo??oi? noaiiaeua e?a?ie ci?oei?ei. A oie aea /an iineeeeany
caa?ica ?? aea?aeaaiiio ?nioaaiith c aieo i?iaoeueeeo ?eoea??a, Iieueu?
e iniaeeai Cieioi? I?aee. Ni?eueia i?aaiaiiy aei aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? ooiaoaei a ia?eie ye Eeoao, oae ? Oe?a?io. Eiaeia c ieo
i?oei?ea neeith ?ioi?. Nii/aoeo ai?iae?, iio?i aeia?inon?aenuee?
a?aeiineie i?ae Eeoaith e Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueeith ?onnth ia?a?inee a
nithcieoeuee?. Aiie ni?yiiaoaaeeny i?ioe ciai?oiuei? aa?an?? e
iaeii/anii ia noai?aiiy ae?oaeiuei? Eeoa? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Iie?oe/ia caeeaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie e Eeoae aoei cae??ieaii
aeeianoe/iei oethaii iaeiieiaeoiai neia aaeeeiai eiycy eeoianueeiai
Aaae?i?ia (1316 —1341) Ethaa?oa, Aeieo?a a o?enoeyinoa?, c aei/eith
Aiae??y TH??eiae/a. Nithc aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeeo ? eeoianueeeo eiyc?a
aeeeeeaa i?ioeae?th iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Oai Ocaae (1314
— 1342) nii/aoeo i?aeei?ea nia? naia?aoenonueea iano?i?ieo oai?a ei/iaeo
ieaiai i?ae Aeiiii ? Aei?i?ii, a ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a — ? a iiiecc?
I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Iacaaa?ii ianoaea /a?aa Aaee/eie e Aieei?. A
aei?noie?e ai?i? c? Cieioith I?aeith Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa
caciaea ieu?aii? ii?acee. Eiyc? Aiae??e ? Eaa o 1323 ?. caaeioee a aith.
I?ney ?oiuei? nia?o? i?eieieeany aeeiano?y eiyc?a ?iiaiiae/?a, yea oae
aaaaoi c?iaeea aeey aeaaa Oe?a?ie. A?aeiiaeaiiy cieioii?aeeinueei?
aeaaee iaae on??th Oe?a?iith ia i?ae??aaei caiia?oii? i??? /anoeie
oe?a?inueei? ciao? i?i aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue.

C? nia?oth a?ao?a TH??eiae/?a iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue
ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieeiny. Eiycue Aaaeei?i aaaaeaa Aieeiue aieiae?iiyi
naiai neia Aeieo?a-Ethaa?oa e c ?i?oe?aoeae i?noeaai? ciao? ii/aa
?icoe?thaaoe eiai ia no?ae. Iaaani? — ae?oeo 1324 ?.
oe?a?inueei-eeoianuee? a?enueea cae?enieee aecaieueiee iio?ae ia
Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai. Iai?yiie oaea?o aoa ia?aiee ia aeiaaeeiai.
Iacaaaeath/e ia caiaiaae, Ee?a i?iaeiaaeoaaa caa??aaoe ca niaith
cia/aiiy iii?iaeueiiai oeaio?o an??? ?on?, ? oiio eiai caeiaoooy iaei a
aaee/aciee aieea ia ?icai?oaiiy aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. Cia/io
?ieue i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?aaaei e a?aeiia i?aaiaiiy /anoeie ee?anueei?
a?enoie?ao?? iicaooeny /oaeicaiiiai iaioaaiiy. Oe?a?inueei-eeoianuee?
a?enueea iaieiae?ee Ia?o/ai, AEeoiie?ii, iiaeeco A?eai?iaea caaaeaee
ii?acee ia/eneaiiei caaiiai i?ea?/iee?a oaia — ee?anueeiai eiycy
Nayoineaaa, a?yinueeiai — ?iiaia, ia?ayneaanueeiai — Ieaaa e eooeueeiai
— Eueaa. I?ney ieyaiai iii?o ee?anuee? aiy?e cayaeee i?i i?aeo?eieo
ia?aiiaeoe?a ? aeciaee aeaaeo Aaaeei?ia. Ca ieie oa ae naia c?iaeea
ciaoue Aeoai?iaea, *a?ean, Eaiaaa, Ne?ii?iaea oa ?ioeo i?no ? i?noa/ie
Iiaei?i?ia’y. Ca i?aeo?eieo eeoianueeee eiycue ciaia’ycaany iiaa?iooe
oe?a?inueeei eiycyi ? aiy?ai ?oi? niaaeeia? aieiae?iiy, aeaai? i?aaa ?
i?ea?ea?. Nai?i iai?nieeii ia Iiaei?i?ia’? Aaaeei?i caeeoea neia
Oaaei?a. Iaeiae ia?aiiaa aoea ia iiaiith. A Iiaei?i?ia’? a 1324 ?.
anoaiiaeeiny aeaiaeaaeaey. Ii?yae c aaei?i?no?aoe??th aaneaea ae?yea
aaei?i?no?aoe?y e eeoianueeiai eiycy. Oae ii/aeiny ianiaa aecaieaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue c-i?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?nueei? iaaaee.

2 Iiae?e oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?ae Eeoaith ? Iieueuath a 1325–1352 pp.

Oni?o nithciee?a ia Iiaei?i?ia’? aoa caoueia?aiee iiae?yie a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i?. I?iiieuenueee iano?i?i? i?noeaa? aiy?e ia?aee
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeei eiycai neia iaciaaoeueeiai eiycy O?ieaeaia
14-??/iiai Aieaneaaa (1324— 1340). Oea iae?aco ni?e/eieei ca?ieiee
eiioe?eo i?ae Eeoaith ? Iacia??th. O?eueee caa?ica aa?an?? Oaaoiinueeiai
i?aeaio cioneea noi?ioeaiee?a i?eieieoe /aa?e e oeeanoe a 1325 ?. ie?.
Ca eiai oiiaaie Aaaeei?i a?aeiiaeyany a?ae Aieei?, caoa caa??aaa ca
niaith canaeai? aaeeeith e?euee?noth oe?a?ioe?a Aa eueio e I?aeeyooy.
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa ao?aoeea nai? caie? a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? e ioneea aeciaoe caa?oi?noue Cieioi? I?aee. Eiycue
Aieaneaa ia?aeoia o i?aaineaa’y, ia /anoue naiai ae?aea ii iaoa?? acya
?i’y TH??y II e aa?aiooaaa aiy?noao caa?aaeaiiy an?o noaoe?a, aeaai?o
i?aa, cae/a?a oa i?ea?ea?a. Iaaiee /an Aieaneaa-TH??e II aithaaa c
Iieueuath oa Oai?ueiith ca Ethae?inueeo caieth, aea aaconi?oii. Eiai
iiceoe?? a e?a? aoee iano?eeeie. Iaiaaath/eny ci?oeieoe nai? noaiiaeua,
Aieaneaa-TH??e II ii/aa i?ioaaoaaoe ?iicaioeyi — aeaaaa aaeee? i?eueae
?iicaiiei eoioeyi ? ?ai?nieeai, ioi/oaaa naaa eaoieeeaie, ye? a?aenoaaee
iaoe?iiaeueio ciaoue a?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeaaee. I?e oeueiio eiycue
a?aenooieany a?ae i?aaineaa’y ? noaa caioi/oaaoe iaaa?iaiiy oe?a?ioe?a
aei eaoieeoeecio. Oea aeeeeeaei ianiaee i?ioano aaee/ai. Aiy?e ia /ie? c
Aeieo?ii Aeaaeueeii i?aai?coaaee ciiao ? a 1340 ?. io?o?ee eiycy ia
aaieao?, a ?iicaioe?a aeieueee.

Aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeei eiycai aoei i?iaieioaii E th-a a ? o a, o?nii
ca’ycaiiai ?iaeeiieie ocaie c ?iiaiiae/aie. Aea oaeoe/ii eiai aeaaea
iioe?thaaeany eeoa ia Aieeiue. O Aaee/ei? caiaioaaee i?noeaa? aiy?e ia
/ie? c «oi?aaeoaeai ? noa?inoith ?onueei? caie?» Aeaaeueeii. Oae
Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa ?iciaeany ia eiyc?anoai Aieeinueea e
ie?aa?o?/io aaoiiiiio ?anioae?eo Aaee/eio. Oai Cieioi? I?aee Ocaae
aeciaa Ethaa?oa aa?oiaiei i?aaeoaeai ? i?aeo?eioaaa eiai o a?aen?/?
aa?an?? Iieueu? oa Oai?ueie. Iieueua i?e Eaceie?? (1333— 1370) cia/ii
iineeeeany. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaaea/o o a?ei? c o?anoiiinoeyie e ao?aoith
a 1336 ?. Iiii?’y, aiia yaeyea niaith na?eicio a?enueeiao neeo, a?no?y
yei? ni?yiiaoaaeinue ia oe?a?inuee? caie?. Ua a?eueoa ci?oei?ea ia oie
/an Oai?ueia, ?e iaeaaeaee Neaaii?y, Oi?aao?y, Aieaa??y, Aaeao?y,
Iieaeaa?y c Aoeiaeiith, a oaeiae oe?a?inueea Caea?iaooy. Naia oe?
aea?aeaae e ii/aee aeoeaii cac?oaoe ia ?ic’?aeiai? cao?aeiioe?a?inuee?
caie?.

A 1340 ?. oai?nueei-iieuenuee? a?enueea aaea?eeny a Aaee/eio e oi/
iaieiae?ee Eueaiaii, iaeiae caoiieoe oaanue e?ae ia ciiaee. Cai?ioai?
Aeaaeueeii oaoa?e iaiaee ia Iieueuo e Oai?ueio oa nionoioeee ?o. Ethaa?o
iinooiiai iaiaaeoaaa aaoiiiii? i?aaa Aaee/eie ? a 1347 ?. inoaoi/ii
i?aeei?ea ?? nai?e aeaae?. Oae ia?oa ni?iaa anoaiiaeoe a Oe?a?i?
?anioae?eainueeo oi?io i?aae?iiy caciaea iaaaea/?. Ca oeo oiia ?iaeoa e
ia iiaei aooe.

Ca an??? iiaooiino? eeoianueeee eiycue ia ci?a /e ia caoio?a caoenoeoe
naiino?eia ?nioaaiiy Aaeeoeueei? ieo?iiie?? a?ae aaeeei?iia?nueeeo
cac?oaiue iineianueeiai eiycy Naiaia ?aaiiae/a (1340— 1353). Ca
aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo ?io?ea iineianueeiai ieo?iiieeoa Oaiaiinoa
iao??a?oee niai? 1347 ?. ooaaeea niaoe?aeueia ??oaiiy uiaei e?ea?aeaoe??
Aaeeoeueei? ieo?iiie?? oa i?eeo/aiiy ?? aei ieo?iiie?? Ee?anueei?, a
aeania Iineianueei?. Ae??oaeueiith i?aenoaaith aeey oeueiai noaei
iai?aaaeeaa iia?aeiieaiiy iineianueeiai eiycy i?i iaaaaeaiiy a??oth/eo
ie?eoeny c oaeei iiae?eii. Ae?noaaoe a?aeiia?aeio a?aiioo
a?caio?enueeiai ?iia?aoi?a ?iaiia Eaioaeo-ceia, eiycue oiiaea
aaeeoeueeiai a?o???ay a?aei?aaeoeny aei Eiinoaioeiiiiey ia oea?eiaiee
noae. O 1347 ?. i?ae i?eaiaeii a?aeiiaeaiiy oea?eiaii? ?aeiino? ?on?
Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia aoea iicaaaeaia aeanii? oea?eae, a ?acii c iath e
iiaooiueiai cia?yaeaey oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?a?eii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iaiaaaiiy Ethaa?oa ci?oeieoe Aieeiue ? Aaee/eio aeoeaii i?aeo?eioaaa
iiaee aaeeeee eiycue eeoianueeee I e ue a a ? ae (1345— 1377), yeee
iiae?eya i?aaiaiiy oe?a?inueei? ciao? aei iacaeaaeiino? a?ae
Iiiaieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Aea ia ia?aoeiae? oeueiio noiyee Iieueua e
Oai?ueia. Iieuenueeee ei?ieue Eaceie? aeiaeany iaeo?ae?oaoo Cieioi?
I?aee, oeeaa ie? c o?anoiiinoeyie e i?ioyaii na?iiy — aa?aniy 1349 ?.
caoiiea Aieeiue^ ? Aaee/eio. Ethaa?o oo?eiaa ca niaith eeoa Eooeueeo
caieth ^Ii/aeany iieuenueei-oe?a?inueei-eeoianueea a?eia ca oe?a?inuee?
caie?. O i?e iaeaeoeai?oo o/anoue acyei i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy, ?
Aaci?eeeaaeio oi?ia??noue ? a?enueeiao ai?aai?noue i?iaeaiiino?oaaee
caoenieee aieeinueeiai i?noa Aaeca i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi ai?aiaee
Ae?icaea. Aiie ia o?eueee a?aenoiyee i?noi, a e caaaeaee iaiaaeieeai
/eiaeeo ao?ao./A?eia cae?i/eeany ia?aie?’yi 1352 ?., ca oiiaaie yeiai
Aaee/eia a?ae?eoea aei Iieueu?, a Aieeiue c i?noaie Aieiaeeie?, Eooeuee,
Aaec, Oiei oa Aa?anoaeueiith caeeoaeany ca Eeoaith. Caoiieaio
oe?a?inueeo caieth iieuenueeee o?yae i?aaioa ia?aoai?eoe ia naith
i?ia?ioe?th — iioe?thaaa ia ia? iieuenueea i?aai e aaei?i?no?aoeaio
nenoaio, ia aeu? iinaaee i?ecia/aa iieuenueeeo oaiaeae?a, ci?oeithaaa
eaoieeoeueeo oea?eao e iaiaaaany noai?eoe ie?aio i?aaineaaio Aaeeoeueeo
ieo?iiie?th, uia oaeei /eiii ineaaeoe ca’ycee e?ath c ?ioeie
oe?a?inueeeie caieyie. *anoeia aaeeoeueeeo aiy? caaeiaieueieeany
iaea?aeaieie i?ea?eayie e ii/aea ni?a?ia?oie/aoe c caaa?aieeaie, ?ioa —
ia caoio?ea ie?eoeny c iaoa??aeueieie ? iie?oe/ieie ao?aoaie e
ai?a?oaaea aei^ Eeoae oa Aaeao??, ia caeeoath/e iaae?? iiaa?iooe
ao?a/aia ^Ai?ioueaa Eeoae e Iieueu? ca oe?a?inuee? caie? ia i?eieiyeany
i?ioyaii e?eueeio ianooiieo aeanyoee?oue, ?? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi a /iio
caeaaeaee a?ae ?aaeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ia ae?? ?iicaiieo
o?yae?a.

Aecaieaiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o 1361— 1362 pp. ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
oae?eueiiai ono?ith.(Ia?o? ?iee i?aae?iiy eeoianueeeo eiyc?a ia Aieei?
ia?aeiiaee iao??ioe/io oe?a?inueeo a?iiaaenuee?noue o ?aaeueiino?
a?aeiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae. Oeueiio ni?eyei aeciaiiy
eeoianueeeie aeanoyie iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith
Oe?a?ie-?on? oa i?aa oe?a?inueei? ciao? ia /?eueia i?noea a iiaiio
noni?euenoa?. Ia?aaoaath/e ia cia/ii ieae/iio ??ai? noni?eueiiai e
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, Eeoaa caiice/oaaea e?au? c?acee
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ono?ith Ee?anueei? ?on? e oei naiei i?eaa?oaea
ia na?e a?e ? a?ei?on?a, ? ?in?yi, ? oe?a?ioe?a^Ii/aeany a?aeaa?oa
oe?a?i?caoe?y eeoianueeeo eiyc?a. Aiie iae?oaeoaaeeny ia oe?a?inueeeo
aiy?eiyo ? eiyaeiyo, ia?aoiaeeee o i?aaineaaio a??o, aaiaeeee a
ae?eiaiaenoai ? iianyeaeaiio i?aeoeeo ?onueeo (oe?a?inueeo e
a?ei?onueeo) iiao, caiice/oaaee i?noeaa? cae/a? oa ia?yaee. *a?ac
o?e-/ioe?e iieie?iiy aaea ia iiaeia aoei ?ic?a?aoe, ooi c ieo eeoaei, a
ooi ?onei. Oae? ae?? eeoianueeeo eiyc?a aoee aei aiiaeiae e o?e
oe?a?inuee?e ciao?, yea ciaiaaaea i?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeei ?aii oa
i??yea caeiaooe iie?oe/i? i?ea?ea? e iaoa??aeuei? noaoee, nooo?ai
iaiaaeai? ac?aonueeeie oi?iaie caeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie a?ae Cieioi? I?aee,
?e i?ioenoiyea /anoeia i?noeaaeo eiyc?a ? aiy?. Caiiaeia oe?a?inueea
aa?o?aea o aecia/aii? nai?? aeie? iinooiiai ?iceiethaaeany ia aea?
ai?iaoth/? a?oie.

C na?aaeeie XIV no. aecaieaiith Oe?a?ie a?ae iiiaiei-oaoa?nueeiai y?ia
ni?eyea e ciai?oiy ianoaiiaea. Iicaaaeaia ?noi?e/iiai i?ae??oioy,
eiinie?aeoth/i? aoi?/ii? iniiae e i?ia?aneaii?
aeiiii?/ii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie, Cieioa I?aea o oeae /an ii/aea
iaaieiii ?iciaaeaoeny. I?ney aaeanoaa oaia A??aeeaaea a 1359 ?.
caaino?eeany ca?ieia ai?ioueaa i?ae i?aoaiaeaioaie ca aeaaeo. Iineeeeeny
a?aeoeaio?ia? ono?aie?iiy oai?a ? io?c ie?a?iieo oa?eoi??e Cieioi?
I?aee, ui aaaaoi a /iio coiiaeei oni?o aecaieueiiai ?ooo i?eaiiaeaieo
ia?iae?a. *anoeio a?enueeiai? neee Iiiaieuenueei? aea?aeaae a?ae-oyaei
ia naaa i?oei?th/a Iineianueea eiyc?anoai. C?inoath/a iaaaciaea c aieo
Oaaoiinueeiai i?aeaio e Iieueu? niiioeaea Ieueaa?aea ia o?ni?oee nithc c
oe?a?inueeeie iiaeiiaeaaeoeyie. Ia Eeoao oenee ?c caoiaeo, e aiia
?icoe?thaaeany ia no?ae oa i?aaeaiue.

Caeiyaoe a 1359 ?. A?yinuee, Ieueaa?ae aeeoia ia ei?aeiie
*a?i?aiai-N?aa?ueie e Ee?aueie. Aaeeeo aeiiiiiao o aecaieaii?
Iiaei?i?ia’y iiaeaee Ieueaa?aeo i?noeaa? aiy?e, ee?anueeee eiycue Oaae??
? ieo?iiieeo ?iiai, yeiai a?i iauiaeaaii i?ecia/ea nai?i noaaeaieeii o
Ee?a?. Iai?ee?ioe? 1361 — ia ii/aoeo 1362 ?. ee?anueeee eiycue ?
i?noeaaa aiy?noai aeia?ia?eueii aeciaee aeaaeo Ieueaa?aea. Iiiiaiai?
ee?anueeeie ai?iaie oe?a?inueei-eeoianuee? a?enueea ae?oeo 1362 ?.
ae?ooeee aecaieueiei iioiaeii ia no?ae. Ia?aeaeueii ?i noioea i?aea
e?einueeiai oaia Iaiay, yeee aenooiea i?ioe oeo i?aoaiaeaio?a ia
oainueeee i?anoie o Na?a?, /e? aieiae?iiy eaaeaee iii?ae Aei?i?ii ?
Aeiiii. O ai?iouea? ?c Cieioith I?aeith eeoianueeee eiycue, oe?a?inuee?
aiy?e e e?einueeee oai noaee nithcieeaie. C aeiiiiiaith i?noeaai? ciao?
oe?a?inueei-eeoianuee? a?enueea oaeaeei aecaieeee oa?eoi??th eieeoiueiai
*a?i?aiai-N?aa?nueeiai eiyc?anoaa aei Aeiio c i?noaie *a?i?a?a,
Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeee, Iooeaeue, Eo?nuee. Ia cai?ioiiio oeyoo
ia?aiiaeoe? ca?eueieee caie? Ia?ayneaaueie e ?ooeee ia I?aaiaa?aaeaey
i?ioe iaaaeeeeo oaoa?nueeeo i?ae Eooeoaaoa-noeoaia, Ea/eaay-ea?ay e
Aeieo?a-noeoaia, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee Iieueuo a ?? i?ioenoiyii? c Eeoaith.
O aeoa? i?e Nei?o Aiaeao (i?eoiea I?aaeaiiiai Aoao ?. Neithoa)
oe?a?inueei-eeoianuee? a?enueea ainaie 1362?. iaaieiao ?ica?iieee
oaoa?nuee? caaiie e ca?eueieee Iiae?eey a?ae caaa?aiee?a. Nithc
eeoianueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a aeaa Oe?a?i? aeiaaii/?eoaaio
naiaiaeo. Ca iaaeaie nithcieoeueei? aea?aeaae iieieeeny o?eueee ie?ai?
?aa?iie — Aaee/eia a neeaae? Iieueu?, I?ai?/ia Aoeiaeia — Iieaeaanueeiai
eiyc?anoaa, Caea?iaooy — Oai?ueie. E?einueeee i?aino??a ia?aoai?eany ia
ie?aiee oaoa?nueeee oeon, yeee uiaeae? a?eueoa a?aeae?eyany a?ae Cieioi?
I?aee.

Aecaieaia ni?eueieie neeaie Oe?a?ia ia’?aeiaeany c Eeoaith a iaei?e
aea?aeaa? ye ??aia c ??aiith. Nai? eeoiaoe? iaceaaee ?? Aaeeea
eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea, ?onueea ? AEaiaeo?enueea, ui iaeiiai?oa
a?aeiia?aeaei iaoe?iiaeueiiio e oa?eoi??aeueiiio neeaaeo iiai?
aea?aeaae. Oe?a?inuee?, a?ei?onuee? e /anoeiai ?in?enuee? caie?
noaiiaeee 9/10 caaaeueii? ieiu? eiyc?anoaa. O neeaae? ni?eueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy Oe?a?ia a?aeiiaeea
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee ono??e, oeiiaee aeey ?? iiia?aaeieoe?
Ee?anueei? ?on?. Aeaaiy i??y oe?a?inueei? ciao? cae?enieeany. Any
oa?eoi??y Oe?a?ie aoea iiae?eaia ia oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa, ui yaeyee
niaith aaoiiiii? aea?aeaai? ooai?aiiy. Ia /ie? eiyc?anoa aoee iinoaaeai?
i?aaenoaaieee ia?aaaaeii aaeeeieiyc?anueei? eeoianueei? ?iaeeie. Oea
aoea nai???aeia aeyea oe?a?inueei? a?enoie?ao?? eeoianueeiio eiycth ca
aeaeaoio ?ieue o aecaieaii? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai
?acii c Ia?ayneaaueiith i?eiaei neio Ieueaa?aea Aieiaeeie?o,
*a?i?a?anueea e Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueea — ae?oaiio neiia? Ei?eaooo (a
o?enoeyinoa? Aeieo?i), A?yinueea e O?oa/aanueea— noa?oiio neio Aeieo?o,
Noa?iaeoanueea — ieai?iieeia? Iao?ee?th Ia?eioiiae/o. A /ioe?ueio
oae?eao ia Iiae?ee? aieiyaeeeeny ieai?iieee Ieueaa?aea — TH??e,
Ieaenaiae?, Einoyioei ? Oaae?? Ei??aoiae/?. O iaaaeeeeo oae?eao aei
aeaaee i?eeoee oe?a?inuee? eiyc?, aeaeae? iauaaeee Aieiaeeie?a
Nayoineaae/a. Iaoe?iiaeueia ciaoue caeeoeeany a?aenoiooith a?ae aeaaee
o?eueee ia aeueo uaaeyo oi?aae?inueei? nenoaie.

Oae?euei? eiyc? ia?aaoaaee o aanaeuei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae aaeeeiai eiycy,
i?enyaaee eiio ia a??i?noue, aeaaaee ui??/io aeaieio, ae?oaeii aenooiaee
o iioiaee. ?acii c oei aiie neeaaeaee aaeeeieiyc?anueeo ?aaeo e a?aee
o/anoue o ae??oaii? iaeaaaeeea?oeo aea?aeaaieo ieoaiue. Oae?euei? eiyc?
iaee oaeoe/ii iaiaiaaeaio aeaaeo ia i?noeyo — ia aeaniee ?icnoae
?icii?yaeaeaeeny caieyie e aeioiaeaie, i?eaeanithaaee ieoi, ea?aee e
ieeoaaee. Eiaeai oae?eueiee eiycue iaa nai?o aanae?a c i?noeaaeo eiyc?a
? aiy?. Aeey iiiiaiaiiy aiyoeueeiai noaio eiyc? ia?aaiaeeee a aiy?
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo noai?a, o oiio /ene? e caiiaeieo i?uai oa naeyi.
I?e oeueiio aiie ca?eueiyeeny a?ae ??ciiiai?oieo iiaeiiinoae ? aoee
ciaia’ycai? a?aeaoaaoe a?enueeiao neoaeao. Ca oea aiy?e ae?noaaaee
caiaeuei? iaae?ee ye ia iii?niiio, oae ? ia aio/eiiiio i?aa?.

Ai?ioueaa ciao? ca ia?aoai?aiiy oae?eueieo eiyc?anoa ia iacaeaaeio
Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao a 70— 90-o ?ieao XTV no. C iaea?aeaiiyi aaoiiiiieo
i?aa oe?a?inuee? eiyc? e iaea?eueoa aiy?noai ii/aee a?aeaa?oi
i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iiaio iacaeaaei?noue a?ae eeoianueei? i?aaey/i?
aa?o?aee, ?o i?aeo?eioaaee e eeoianuee? oae?euei? eiyc?. Ia /?eueia
i?noea a aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioean? c ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a aenoioeiny
Ee?anueea eiyc?anoai, yea noaei oeaio?ii eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei?
ia?iaeiino?. Ca ei?ioeee /an aiii i?e?aeiaei aei naaa Ia?ayneaaueio,
cia/io /anoeio *a?i?aiai-N?aa?ueie e i?inoyaeiny a?ae aiaei-?icae?eo
I?aaeaiiiai Aoao, Oaoa?aaa e Neo/? ia caoiae? aei i?eoiee N?aa?nueeiai
Ae?ioey ?. Oeoi? Ninie ia noiae?. Ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie?
Ieueaa?aeiae/ iiae?eya i?aaiaiiy i?noeaai? ciao? aei naiino?eiino?,
/eiaeae? iano?eeea?oa aeaiaeea ?? c i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aaeeeiio eiycth
eeoianueeiio, ?aii?oaaa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy oeaio?aeueieo aeanoae, a oi e
i?ioeae?ya ?i. Eiycue i?aai?coaaa ea?aoaaiiy aeanii? iiiaoe, ui oaeoe/ii
c?iaeei eiyc?anoai o?iainiaa iacaeaaeiei a?ae Eeoae.

Ia?niaeoeaa aeoiaeo oe?a?inueeeo eiyc?anoa c-i?ae aeaaee eeoianueeiai
oeaio?o e noai?aiiy naiino?eii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae ia aeaooiaoaaea
i?aaey/? eiea Eeoae. I?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee, aaeeeee eiycue ss a a e e i
(1377— 1392) aeieeaa /eiaei coneeue aei iineaaeaiiy aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?. C oe??th iaoith a?i ii/aa oanoaaoe oae?eueieo eiyc?a, aeaaaoe
?i caie? a ??cieo i?noeyo. Noaiiaeua Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae
oneeaaeithaaeiny. Aiia ia ciiaea a?aenoiyoe oe?e?ni?noue nai?o
aieiae?iue ia caoiae?. A 1377 ?. oai?nueei-iieuenuee? a?enueea caoiieee
Oieiueio oa Aaecueio. Nii/aoeo aiie iaeaaeaee iieuenuee?e ei?ii?. Aea
ianooiiiai ?ieo oai?nueeee ei?ieue a?ae?a?aa o Iieueu? anth Aaee/eio
?acii c ieoiiaaieie oa?eoi??yie Cao?aeii? Aieei? oa i?e?aeiaa ?o aei
nai?o aieiae?iue. Ii/aeanue cai?ia i?noeaaeo o?yaeiaoe?a
/eiiaieeaie-oai?oeyie. Aeua aeaaea a ?aa?ii? ia?aeoea aei ei?ie?anueeiai
iai?nieea e aoea i?aee??ieaia aaaaeaiiyi o aaeeoeuee? i?noa oai?nueeeo
aa?i?cii?a. Iineeeeiny nioe?aeueia aiiaeaiiy. O 1382 ?. a Aaee/ei?
niaeaoioei ia?iaeia iianoaiiy i?ioe ieoiaio?a. Aea aeanieie neeaie
iianoaioe? ia iiaee iiaeieaoe oai?nueea a?enueei, ? ?oi? coneeey aoee
i?e?a/ai? ia ii?aceo. Aeaaeae? a?eueoo aeoeai?noue i?iyaeya Oaaoiinueeee
i?aeai. C? noiaeo Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea caciaaaei c?inoath/iai
oeneo c aieo Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa, yea iii?oii ci?oei?ei i?ney
ia?aiiae iaae oaoa?aie a 1380 ?.

3 E?ea?aeaoe?y oae?eueiiai ono?ith Oe?a?ie

Aioo??oi? e ciai?oi? ianoaaeie niiioeaee eeoianueeeo ? iieuenueeeo
oaiaeae?a aei ia’?aeiaiiy. A 1385 ?. oaiaeaee i?aeienaee E?aanueeo
oi?th, ca oiiaaie yei? Eeoaa e Iieueua ia’?aeioaaeeny a iaeio aea?aeaao.
Ei?ieai i?ney oethao c iieuenueeith ei?ieaaith ssaea?aith noaaaa ss a a
e e i (1386— 1434). Eeoaa iaea i?eeiyoe eaoieeoeoai, a?aeaeaoe eacio
Iieueu?, caieaoeoe 200 oen. oei?ei?a A?eueaaeueiia? aano??enueeiio ca
a?aeiiao a?ae ssaea?ae, iiaa?iooe caoiieai? oa?eoi??? e i?e?aeiaoe aei
Iieueu? ye eeoianuee?, oae ? oe?a?inuee? caie?.

E?aanueea oi?y cia/ii ci?oeieea Iieueoo. C aeiiiiiaith
eeoianueei-oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea aiia a 1387 ?. inoaoi/ii a?aeaithaaea
a Oai?ueie Aaee/eio e anoaiiaeea aeaaeo iaae Iieaeaanueeei eiyc?anoaii.
I?ae oeneii iieuenueeeo iai?a ssaaeei i?e?aeiaa Aaee/eio ia aei Eeoae, a
aei Iieueu?, ciaia’ycaaoeny iaa?/ii caa??aaoe ?? «nia?, ssaea?c?, ae?oyi
? ei?ii? iieuenuee?e». Cian?i ia iaeiicia/ii ni?eeiyee E?aanueeo oi?th
eeoianuee? oa oe?a?inuee? iiaeiiaeaaeoe?. Aaea ia?o? ae?? ssaaeea uiaei
aeeiiaiiy ?? oiia cono??ee ??oo/ee ca?ieiee ii?? eeoianueei?
oaiaeaeueii? aa?o?aee ia /ie? c A?oiaoii Eaen-oooiae/ai. Oa e oae?euei?
oe?a?inuee? eiyc?, ciooai? i?enyaiooe ia a??i?noue iieuenueeiio ei?ieth,
aeaaeae? a?eueoa aeyaeyee iaaaeiaieaiiy, ia aaaeath/e ao?a/aoe caeiaooo,
oi/ ? iaiaaeaio, naiino?ei?noue.

Ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie? Ieueaa?aeiae/ a?aeiiaeany i?eeiyoe
eaoieeoeueeo a??o, eiai i?eeeaae iane?aeoaaei e ee?anueea aiy?noai. Oi/
Aieiaeeie? Ieueaa?aeiae/ ? ionea acyoe o/anoue o ai?iouea? ssaaeea i?ioe
A?oiaoa, aea a ?ioeo ieoaiiyo i?iaiaeea naiino?eio iie?oeeo. Eiycue a?a
ia?aaiai?e c iineianueeei eiycai i?i aeiiiiiao o ai?iouea? c A?oiaoii,
a?aeiiaeyany aeeiioaaoe eiai iaeace. Aaaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? iie?oeee uiaei
Eeoae e Iieueu? ia ia aea?o noo?aoaaei iieuenueeiai ei?iey e
eeoianueeiai eiycy. Aiie i?eioooaaee Aieiaeeie?a Ieueaa?aeiae/a ua
aea?/? i?enyaaoe ssaaeeo, aea i?eai?eaoe eiai oae ? ia ciiaee. O nai?o
ae?yo ee?anueeee eiycue nie?aany ia i?noeaaa aiy?noai, aeeoo?ai
caoe?eaaeaia a aea?aeaai?e iacaeaaeiino?. I?ioenoiyiiy i?ae oeaio?ii ?
ia?eoa???th cae?i/eeiny eiii?ii?nii. O 1392 ?. ssaae-ei aeciaa A?oiaoa
aeia?/iei i?aaeoaeai Eeoae. Oae eeoianuee? e oe?a?inuee? oaiaeaee
aeiiiaeeny a?aeno?i/aiiy iiaii? ?iei?ii?aoe?? Eeoae e Oe?a?ie aei
Iieueu?. Oeaio?ae?caoe?y eiyc?anoaa ci?oeieea aaeeeieiyc?anueeo aeaaeo,
noai?eea ia?aaeoiiae aeey oni?oii? a?aen?/? ?iicaii?e aa?an?? e
aiaeii/an aeey iaiaaeaiiy aaoiiiiieo i?aa oae?eueieo eiyc?anoa. Aaea
ia?o? ae?? o?yaeo a oeueiio iai?yi? aeeeeeaee aaeaeaaoio ?aaeoe?th a
Oe?a?i?.

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a a?eueo?noue oe?a?inueeeo eiyc?anoa a?aeiiaeeeny
aeciaoe E?aanueeo oi?th, a ?acii c iath aeaaeo ye iieuenueeiai ei?iey,
oae ? aaeeeiai eiycy eeoianueeiai. Oiaoi aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeiaeoeny
aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? aaoiiiiieo eiyc?anoa. Ia /ie? iao??ioe/ieo nee
noaee ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie? Ieueaa?aeiae/, iiaai?iae-n?aa?nueeee
— Aeieo?i Ei?eaoo ? iiae?euenueeee — Oaae?? Ei??aoiae/. Aea ae?yee aiie
?ic??ciaii, iaocaiaeaeaii e oei naiei i?e?aeee aecaieueiee ?oo i?noeaai?
ethaeiino? ia iaaaea/o. Ianooi a?enuee Aeieo?a Ei?eaooa ia Eeoao a 1392
?. cae?i/eany ii?aceith. Ii/aany eiio?ianooi eeoianueeeo caaii?a ia
Oe?a?io. I?ioyaii 1392—1395 pp. A?oiao a?ae?a?aa o iianoaeeo eiyc?a
iaea?eueo? oae?euei? eiyc?anoaa e ia?aaeaa ?o nai?i i?ea?/ieeai.
Oe?a?inueea ciaoue iinoaaeeany aei ieo ai?iaea. Eiee ia i?noea onoiooiai
Aieiaeeie?a Ieueaa?aeiae/a aei Ee?aa a 1394 ?. i?eaoa Nee?aaeei, oi
aiy?noai a?aeiiaeeiny eiio ei?eoeny. Eiycue ionea a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae
iaiaaeaiiy i?aa i?noeaaeo iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a ? ii/aa i?aeo?eioaaoe ?oi?
i?aaiaiiy aei iacaeaaeiino? a?ae oeaio?o. Iaeiae oaea e?i?y iiaaae?iee
ee?anueeiai i?aaeoaey ia aeaooiaoaaea A?oiaoa, e Nee?aaeei aoa io?o?iee.
O 1399 ?. aei Ee?aa i?e?oaa iai?niee A?oiaoa, eiai ieai?iiee ?aai
Aieueoainueeee.

Oaeei /eiii oae?eueiee ono??e Oe?a?ie aoei e?ea?aeiaaii.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia: ?noi??y. — E.: Eea?aeue, 2004. — 736n.

2. Enoi?ey Oe?aeineie NN?. Iiae ?aae. TH.TH. Eiiaeooi?a, o.4, a 10-oe
o.e.: I. ae., 1983. — 694n.

3. Aoaa?aa A.E. Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu: eiiniaeo eaeoeee aeey nooaeaioia e
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Ae.: AAI, 2004. — 384n.

4. Ai?enaiei A. E.Eo?n oe?a?inueei? ?noi???: 3 iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei XX
noie?ooy. 2-aa aeae.: Iaa/. iin?aiee. — E Eea?aeue 1998.- 616 n.

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