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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

EOAAINUeEA IAAeE*IA A*EEEUA

?aoa?ao

C aeenoeeie?ie “ ?noi??y Oe?a?ie “

Ia oaio: “ Nayoineaa eiycue — aeoycue “

Aeeiiaea

Nooaeaioea 11 a?. n/n

Oeeue/aiei A.C.

Aeeeaaea/:

?a/aieiOaoyia Aieiaeeie??aia

Eoaainuee 2006

CI?NO

1 Ei?ioeee iien ia?aaeiiae?e

2 Nayoineaa eiycue-aeoycue

3 E?oa?aoo?a

Ei?ioeee iien ia?aaeiiae?e

?noi??th Ee?anueei? ?on? cae/aeii ii/eiathoue c 862-ai ?ieo, aea ?noi??y
?? ii/aeany cia/ii ?ai?oa. I?aaeee, neia’yie, c’yaeeeny a ?a?ii? ua o
aeeaie?e noa?iaei?. I?i oa, aea neia’yie aeeee a aei?noi?e/io aiioo,
?niothoue ??ci? aeoiee na?aae o/aieo. Ca inoaii?e /an a?eueo?noue c ieo
aaaaea?, ui o oo a?aeaeaeaio aiioo neia’yie aeeee a i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e
/anoei? ?a?iiaenueei? ?i-n?? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae ??/ee I?eiyoue. Ca?aeoe
aiie ii ??/eao ?ooeee a ??ci? aiee — ia cao?ae, i?aaeaiue ? no?ae.

A e?ioe? IV noie?ooy aei ?.X. no?aei? neia’yie, a?aeii? oiae? i?ae ?i’yi
aio?a, aaee ai?ioueao c aioaie i?ae aoooyi ia /ie? naiai aiaeaey Aiaea.

An? neia’yie o oie /an aoee yce/ieeaie ? aeeee a ie?aieo naeeuao.

Oaea naeeua, iaai?iaeaeaia caieyiei aaeii ? aea?aa’yieie no?iaie,
caaeiny i?noii. C i?no aeae?eeeeny: Ee?a, Iiaai?iae, Niieainuee ?
*a?i?a?a.

Neia’yie ae?eeeeny ia ieaiaia c ??cieie iacaaie. Ia /ie? ieaiai noiyee
eiyc?, ye? ae??ooaaee a?enueeia? ? aea?aeaai? ieoaiiy. Aea aeey ??oaiiy
iniaeeai aaaeeeaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, caeiiiaeaa/eo ? noaeiaeo ni?aa
cae?aeany ?aaea anueiai ia?iaeo (o.iac. «a?/a»).

Eiycue cae/aeii aeae?aany ia?iaeii, ? aaea a o? /ane ?nioaaee i?noa —
?anioae?ee c aeaiie?aoe/iith oi?iith i?aae?iiy (Iiaai?iae, Oeeiia,
Ineia). Naith iacaeaaei?noue oe? i?noa ao?aoeee a XV noie?oo?,
iio?aieaoe i?ae aeaaeo aaeeeeo eiyc?a iineianueeeo. Iio??aii
a?aecia/eoe, ui a oeae ia??iae a Na?aaei?e ? Cao?aei?e ?a?ii? aoee
aieuei? i?noa, aea aiie ia caeiaee oaei? iaoe?ii? oa?eoi???, ye
neia’yinuee? i?noa-?anioae?ee. Oae, iai?eeeaae, Iiaai?iaenueea caiey ca
ieiuath aoea a aeaa ?ace a?eueoa O?aioe??.

Aieiaiei caiyooyi neia’yi aoei n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. E??i oiai aiie
caeiaeenue ?eaaeuenoaii, iiethaaiiyi ? aaeae?eueieoeoaii. Iaaeeeoee
naiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeaaaee. Neia’yie aaee oi?a?aeth ia o?eueee i?ae
niaith, aea ? c ?ioeie ia?iaeaie. Iniiaieie i?aaeiaoaie oi?a?ae? aoei
ca?ii, ca??ei? oeo?e, a?ne oa iaae.

Nioaa noai?a, ui eaaeaee ocaeiaae i?ai?/ieo aa?aa?a *i?iiai ii?y, c
aeaai?o /an?a neoaeeea «ei?eaei?ii», ii yeiio eoee ia?iaee c Ac?? aei
?a?iie. C oeeie ia?iaeaie — aioaie, aoiaie, aaa?aie ? ?ioeie — no?aeiei
neia’yiai aeiaiaeeeiny aanoe ai?ioueao ca nai? naiino?eia ?nioaaiiy.
?iiae? ?i aaeaaaeiny caaacia/eoe naith iacaeaaei?noue, ?iiae? aiie
aeyaeyeeny i?ae aeaaeith ?ioeo ia?iae?a.

O VII noie?oo? a i?aaeaii?e /anoei? ?a?iiaenueei? ?in?? ooai?eeiny
aaeeea aea?aeaaa oaca? — ia?iaeo oth?eneiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oaca?e
i?aeii?yaeeoaaee nia? /anoeio neia’yinueeeo ieaiai. Aea ?io? ieaiaia
neia’yi ia i?aeei?yeeny oaca?ai ? i?oee ia i?ai?/ ii Aei?i?o, ia
aa?o?a’y Cao?aeii? Aea?ie, Aieae ? aei aa?aa?a Aaeo?enueeiai ii?y,
caniiaoth/e onthaee oi?aia? i?noa.

C e?ioey VII noie?ooy iiaeia ?ic??ciyoe aea? ?on? — I?ai?/io — e?niao ?
oi?-aiao, yea a VIII ? IX noie?ooyo iieieoueny o noa?? aieeao ii?iaii?a
? aeiaai ua caeeoaoeiaoueny yce/ieoeueeith, ? I?aaeaiio — noaiiao, eoaee
aieea A?caio?? ? o?enoeyinoaa i?iieea? aeineoue ?aii. Oaea ?icae?eaiiy
aoaea ?nioaaoe aei /ano Aieiaeeie?a Nayoiai.

Aeaa’yoa noie?ooy aoei /anii aaeeei? aeoeaiino? neaiae?iaa?a, ye?
cae?enithaaee iaiaaee ia ??ci? e?a?ie ?a?iie ? aeioiaeeee iaa?oue aei
Eiinoaio?iiiiey. Neaiae?iaae i?iieeaee ? ia ?onue /a?ac e?a?io Aaeeeeo
ica?. Ca?aeoe aiie ooeaee oi?aiaeo oeyo?a ia no?ae ? ia i?aaeaiue ii
??/eao Aiec? ? Aei?i?o.

Neia’yinuee? e?oiiene iia?aeiieythoue i?ae 862 ?ieii, ui neia’yie, ui
aeeee ia i?ai?/ iaaeiei Iiaai?iaea, iino?eii ai?iaoaaee i?ae niaith. Uia
iie?i/eoe c oe??th ai?iaeia/ath, aiie i?ae oi ae??oeee caa?iooeny aei
nai?o i?ai?/ieo non?ae?a neaiae?iaa?a, yeeo aiie iaceaaee «aa?yaaie».
sse oea aoei a ae?eniino?, anoaiiaeoe oaia? aaaeei. Ie cia?ii c ?noi???,
ui a?eeiae i?eaoaaee a ??ci? e?a?ie aac cai?ioaiiy. Aacia?a/iei oaeoii
cinoaaoueny, ui ?th??e, a?aeiiee aiaeaeue aa?ya?a, i?eeoia a oeth
iaeanoue c nai?i caaiiii («ae?oaeeiith»), iinaeeany a Iiaai?iae? ? noaa
eiyaeeoe iaae neia’yiaie.

862 ??e aaaaea?oueny ?ieii canioaaiiy Ee?anueei? ?on?.

Iiaai?iae ciaoiaeeany a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? aiaeiiai oeyoo (Aaeo?enueea
ii?a — ??/ea Iaaa — Eaaeicueea ica?i — ica?i ?eueiaiue — ??/ea Aei?i?i —
*i?ia ii?a), ii yeiio eoea oi?a?aey i?ae neaiae?iaaaie ? a?caio?enueeeie
a?aeaie. O oie /an oeae aoea aaaeeeaa oi?aiaa iaa?no?aeue. ?icoe?aiiy
aea?aeaae ia i?aaeaiue ocaeiaae oeueiai oeyoo ii/aeiny i?e iaeaeeae/eo
ianooiieeao ?th??ea.

Eiycue Ieaa, yeee oi?aaeya e?a?iith i?ae /an iaeie?ooy neia ?th??ea,
?ai?y, iaieiae?a Ee?aii ? ia?ai?n ooaee noieeoeth iiai? neia’yinueei?
aea?aeaae, aai ye oiae? aiai?eee,Ee?anueea ?onue.

Ioaea, ia ii/aoeo O-ai noie?ooy ie?ai? neia’yinuee? aea?aeaae —
Iiaai?iaeneia, Ee?anueea oa ?io? — ia’?aeiaeeny i?ae aeaaeith eiycy
Ieaaa. Oo?eiaiiy iaeii/anii Iiaai?iaeo ? Ee?aa ?iaeei Ieaaa iiaiei
ainiiaea?ai ??/ee Aei?i?i. Ae??ai?o? neia’yinuee? eiyc? aeii? aoee eiio
i?aeei?yoeny, ? oaeei /eiii a?aeaoeiny ia’?aeiaiiy neia’yinueeeo ieaiai.
Ia’?aeiaiiy oea i?ina?oeei iacao ?onue. Oeaio?ii ?on? noaei i?noi Ee?a,
yea a e?oiienao iaceaathoue «iao??’th i?no ?onueeeo».

I?e eiyc? Aieiaeeie?? Ee?anueea ?onue i?eeiyea a?ae a?ae?a i?aaineaa’y.
Oae iaceaa?oueny a?aoeueea o?enoeyinoai ia a?aei?io a?ae o?enoeyinoaa
cao?aeiiaa?iiaeneiai. O?auaiiy ?on? a?aeaoeiny a 988-io ?ioe?, ? c oiai
/ano ii/aany ?icea?o Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae. Iai’youe i?i eiycy
Aieiaeeie?a, yeiai Oea?eaa aaaaea? nayoei, caa?aaeany a ia?iaeieo i?niyo
aai aeeeiao. O oeeo aeeeiao, a eaceia?e oi?i?, iiaooi? aaaaoe?? c
ae?oaeeie eiycy Aieiaeeie?a oi?ia?i caoeuathoue caieth a?ae ai?ia?a —
aeeoae?a noai?a.

(Ia ea?oei? a?aeiiiai ?in?enueeiai ooaeiaeieea A. I. Aaniaoeiaa
cia?aaeai? o?e oaeeo aaaaoe?y: ?eey Io?iiaoeue, Aeia?eiy Iee?o?/ ? Aeaoa
Iiiiae/.) C?inoaiiy cia/aiiy Ee?anueei? ?on? a?aeia?aceeiny ia?o ca ana
aoe?ieeo nii??aeiaieo ca’yceao ee?anueeeo eiyc?a c aea?aeaaaie Iieueu?,
I?ia//eie O?aioe??, *ao??, A?caio?? ? neaiae?iaanueeeo e?a?i. Iio?i
anoaiiaeeeny a?eueo o?ni? oi?aia? ? eoeueoo?i? ca’ycee c aea?aeaaaie
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? a iniaeeaino? c A?caio??th, ui aoea o oie /an
iaea?eueo eoeueoo?iei ainoaea?noaii.

Ainiiaea?noai a Ee?anuee?e ?on? aoei iaoo?aeueia, oaea, a yeiio eiaeia
ie?aia ainiiaea?noai caaeiaieueiyei a iniiaiiio nai? iio?aae. I?ioa a
i?noao a XI noie?oo? aaea ?nioaaei ae?iaieoeoai ia i?noeaaee ?eiie.
Aeaeio?? i?aaeiaoe ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino?, ye ieaooy, acoooy, io?eioaaeeny
ia ?eieo. I?aaeiaoe ?iceio? ? thaae??i? ae?iae i?eaiceeeny c A?caio?? ?
c Noiaeo. A oie aea /an ee?anuee? ?ai?nieee noai?eee aeania aeniea
ienoaoeoai, c?acee yeiai caa?aaeeny aei iaoeo aei?a. I?ioea?oaei
eocia/iia ?aianei; ca?iy?? ae?iaeyee i?ae?ani? ia/? ? ?ioo ca?ith. O
i?noao ooai?eeany iniaeeaa a?oia ianaeaiiy — eoioe?, ye? caeiaeeny
neoieith i?noeaaeo oiaa??a ? ia?ai?iaeaaeai ?o a ?io? i?noa ? ca iaaeo,
a iaoii?noue i?eaiceee ia i?iaeaae ?iicaii? oiaa?e.

Ee?a noaa caaoaeiaoaaoeny eai’yieie o?aiaie ? aoae?aeyie, i?ee?aoaieie
aeeaiienaie ? iica?eith; aoa iiaoaeiaaiee Nioeeneee niai?. ?iicaioe?,
i?e?caeeao? aei Ee?aa, a?aaeaeeny eiai ieoiino? ? iaceaaee eiai
«noia?ieeii Eiinoaioeiiiiey».

Ooaaeaiiy neia’yiaie o?enoeyinoaa ni?eyei ?iciianthaeaeaiith i?ina?oe.
Ienaii?noue aeieeea o neia’yi ua aei ooaaeaiiy o?enoeyinoaa. Ca noi
?ie?a aei o?auaiiy ?on? neia’yinuee? i?n?iia?e Ee?eei ? Iaoiae?e neeaee
neia’yinueeo acaoeo (oey acaoea iaceaa?oueny «ee?eeeoey») ? ia?aaaee
a?aoeuee? oea?eiai? eieae ia neia’yinueeo iiao. A?ao?a Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y
iaceaathoue «aiinoieaie neia’yi». Iaeaea? oea?eae —
?einueei-eaoieeoeueea ? i?aaineaaia — aaaaea? ?o nayoeie.

O Ee?anueeo ?onue i?iieeea cia/ia e?euee?noue eiea c Aieaa???. E??i oiai
ia?aeeaaeaeeny neia’yinueeith iiaith c a?aoeueei? eieae, ye aeooiaiii,
oae ? na?onueeiai ci?noo. Aeieeee i?ea?iaeuei? oai?e. Aei oeueiai ae
/ano a?aeiinyoueny ia?o? ni?iae neeanoe ?noi??th ?on?.

Aieiaieie aeaea?aeaie ina?oe ia ?on? iienoaaiiai ia??iaeo aoee
iiianoe??. Na?aae ieo Ia/a?nueeee iiianoe? a Ee?a?, ye ii aaee/ei?, oae
? ii cia/aiith, caeia? ia?oa i?noea. O oeueiio iiianoe?? ??ci? ?noi?e/i?
caiene aoee ia?a?iaeai? a iaoe?iee oa?? — «ca?aeee i?oea ?onueea caiey».
O iiianoe?yo ?icaeaaany aeeaiien ?eii ? ieie i?ee?aoaeeny oea?eae ?
niai?e. E?au? c?acee ienoaoeoaa A?caio??, Caeaaeaccy ? ?ioeo e?a?i
ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith eoeueoo?e, yea caiaeii ? eyaea a iniiao
iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo? ?in?enueeiai, oe?a?inueeiai ? a?ei?onueeiai
ia?iae?a.

I?e nei? Aieiaeeie?a Nayoiai — ss?ineaa? Ioae?ii — aoei neeaaeaii ia?oa
caaaeaiiy caeii?a «?onueea I?aaaea». I?e iueiio ae Ee?anueea ?onue noaea
iaeiith c i?ia?aeieo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, a i?noi Ee?a — iaeiei c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo eoeueoo?ieo oeaio??a oiae?oiuei? ?a?iie. Aaaaoi
?a?iiaenueeeo iiia?o?a noa?aeenue ii??aeieoeny c iiaooi?i ee?anueeei
eiycai. Nai ss?ineaa aoa iae?oaeaiee ia aei/oe? oaaaenueeiai ei?iey. O?e
eiai neia iaee ae?oaeeiaie aei/ie aa?iiaeneeo iiia?o?a, a o?e aei/ee
ss?ineaaa noaee ei?ieaaaie Ii?aaa??, Oai?ueie ? O?aioe??.

Aioe ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai — Aieiaeeie? Iiiiiao — c?iaea aaaaoi aeey
oe??ieaiiy ee?anueeeo caiaeue ? ?icoe?aiiy ca’yce?a ?c Caoiaeii. sse
?noeiiee o?enoeyiei, a?i aoa aoiaiiei i?aaeoaeai, ui caai?iiea no?aoo.
A?i oni?oii caoeuaa caie? a?ae iaa?a?a aieiaie/eo ei/?aiee?a.

Iacaaa?ii i?ney nia?o? Aieiaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa ii/aeany ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo
i?ae eiai neiaie ? aioeaie. Ee?anueea ?onue ?icae?eeeany ia ie?ai?
ae??ai? eiyc?anoaa ? noaea i?eoiaeeoe a caiaiaae.

Ii/eiath/e c e?ioey XI noie?ooy, a noaiao, ui eaaeaee ocaeiaae aa?aa?a
*i?iiai ii?y, c’yaeany iiaee ei/iaee ia?iae — iieiaoe?. Ei?enooth/enue
?ica?aoaie i?ae neia’yinueeeie eiycyie, iieiaoe? ii/aee cae?enithaaoe
nionoioeea? iaa?ae ia ?oi? caie?. Ai?ioueaa c ieie c?iaeeany iaei??th c
aieiaieo oo?aio eiyc?a. *oaeiaee oa?? e?oa?aoo?e oiai /ano «Neiai i
iieeo ?ai?aaa» ?iciia?aea? i?i iaaaeaeee iio?ae eiycy ?ai?y ia iieiaoe?a
a 1185 ?ioe?.

I?ae aieeaii iani?eyoeeaeo oiia, ui neeaeeny a Ee?anuee?e ?on?, a XII
noie?oo? ii/eia?oueny ?oo ianaeaiiy ia i?ai?/iee no?ae, a e?nia? iaeanoe
na?aaeiuei? /anoeie ?a?iiaenueei? ?in??. Oai iineeth?oueny
Aeaae?i??i-Nocaeaeuenueea eiyc?anoai ? ooaee ae iinooiiai ia?aiineoueny
oeaio? oyae?iiy aea?aeaae. A XIII-ii noie?oo? ii/eia? i?aeiineoeny i?noi
Iineaa eiyc? yeiai aaea a OIV noie?oo? aenooiathoue a ?ie? «cae?a/?a»
caiaeue iaaeiei naiai eiyc?anoaa.

NAssOINEAA EIssCUe — AEOssCUe

Aeanyoa noi??//y a ?in?enuee?e ?noi??? aeaaeai?e A. A. ?eaaeia iacaaa
«aeeeiiei /anii». No?aeii — neia’yinuee? ieaiaia ia’?aeiaeeny a iiaooith
aea?aeaao (Ee?anueeo ?onue), yea o aia?o?e ai?iouea? c ciai?oi?ie
ai?iaaie a?aenoiyei naith iacaeaaei?noue ? caaacia/eei noa?i?onuee?e
ia?iaeiino? oiiae aeey naiino?eiiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo. A ai?ia?a o
iieiaei? Noa?i?onueei? aea?aeaae aoei aaaaoi, ? ai?iae aoee iaaacia/i?:
a?caio?enuee? ?iia?aoi?e, ui i?aaioee i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe ana
i?e/i?iiii?’y, aaa?e oaca?e, ia/ai?ae, iio?i iieiaoe?. Naiia?aeaeaiith ?
o?eaaeith aoea oey ai?ioueaa, a ia? aoee caeo/ai? oe?ie? ia?iaei? iane.
O aeeeiiiio aiin?, a «canoaaao aaaaoe?nueeeo» ia e?ath Aeeeiai Iiey,
iaaaaeei iiaa/eoe a?aeaiiiie oe??? oeoai?/ii? ai?ioueae: ia?iae caa??a
iai’youe ? i?ineaaea nai?o aa?i?/ieo caoeniee?a.

«Aeeeiiee /an» ?noi??? aenoioa e?oii? o?ao?e iieeiaiaeoe?a ? aea?aeaaieo
ae?y/?a, ye? i/ieeee caaaeueiiia?iaeio ai?ioueao ?c ciai?oi?ie ai?iaaie.
Oea ? Ieaa, ui caeoyaeii oiaeea ia oo?? /a?ac ?in?enueea ii?a aei
Oea?uea?aaeo (Eiinoaioeiiiieth), ? aaeeeee ee?anueeee eiycue Aieiaeeie?,
yeee, ii neiaai e?oiienoey, «ia/a noaaeoe ai?iaee» ii i?eei?aeiiieo
??/eao, c?a?aa a ieo ai?i?a c? an?o e?ioe?a caie? ? coieiea iaoene
ia/ai?a?a, ? Aieiaeeie? Iiiiiao, ui i?ineaaeany nai?ie iioiaeaie ia
iieiaoe?a.

Aea iniaeeaa i?noea caeia? eiycue-aeoycue Nayoineaa, c ?i’yi yeiai
ca’ycai? ? ?ica?ii Oaca?neiai eaaaiaoa, ? ia?aiiae iaae a?aeiieie
a?caio?enueeeie iieeiaiaeoeyie. Eiai a?enueeiaa ae?yeuei?noue caeeoeea
iii?oiee ne?ae a ?noi??th a?enueeiaiai ienoaoeoaa.

Aeey eiycy Nayoineaaa aoee oa?aeoa?i? iinoaiiaea e?oiieo iie?oe/ieo
oe?eae; iine?aeiai?noue a ??oaii? no?aoaa?/ieo caaea/; i?aaiaiiy
iino?eii ae?yoe ianooiaeueii, ui aeicaieyei eiio caoiiethaaoe oo?eioaaoe
a nai?o ?oeao no?aoaa?/io ?i?oe?aoeao. Nayoineaa caaaeaee i?aaioa
nii/aoeo ?ica?iieoe a?enueei noi?ioeaieea. Noai?aiee ?i nooe?eueiee
aeeaieee i?oioiee eaae aeyaeany iaia?aai?iei aeey aaaeei? a?caio?enueei?
e?iiioe. No??ie?noue iioiae?a eiycy Nayoineaaa a?aaeaea no/aniee?a;
e?oiienaoeue ii??aithaaa eiai c «ia?aeonii» — aaia?aeii.

942 e?oa, a uaae?ee ia niioea ? a?ice eeiaiue, ianyoe-naiici?iee,
i?nyoeue-no?aaeiee, ia?iaeeany eiyaee/ Nayoineaa. C oeueiai e?oa ii/aa
a?aee?/oaaoe aei? naiai ei?ioeiai, aea yne?aaiai aeeooy aaeeeee ai?i
caie? Ee?anueei?, eiycue-aeoycue. Nei Aaeeeiai Eiycy Ee?anueeiai ?ai?y ?
eiyaei? Ieueae.

?iee aeeoeinoaa Nayoineaaa i?ioiaeeee aeey eiycy ?ai?y ? Ieueae a
iaaieiieo i?aoeyo ? oo?aioao. I?ney iaaaeaeiai oea?uea?aaeneiai iioiaeo
?iceaaeiaeeny cae/i? a?aeiineie c A?caio??th. Eoioe? oa?i?ee oai on?eye?
ooenee ? ia?ace, a??ei nea?aeeeeny ia a?ae?a, ? iaei ciaoiaeeeiny ioi/eo
ciiao ?oaoe a Oea?uea?aae. Ia eiyaeiio aeai?? ? a naeao neiieeeny
ia?ici?iaeai? caiane iaaeo, aineo, ooo?a ? ?ioeo oiaa??a, ye? ?ai?oa aac
caie?eaiiy iiaeeiaa iaianeoiee oea?uea?aaeneee ?eiie.

Oa?niinueeee no?aoea i?ae’thaeaeoaaa i?ioe Ee?aa ia/ai?cueeeo eiyc?a, ?
o? /ano?oa noaee iaiaaeaoe ia i?eei?aeiii? caie?. E?ii? ae?oaeeie
a?aeaiieee ia/ai?a?a, aea o? c’yaeyeeny ciiao, ? iaa?aai ?o ia aeaeii
aoei e?ioey. Eiaeiiio aoei ynii ui a?aea eaea a?ae a?ae?a, ui
ia/ai?cuee? oaae? eoieai? ia a?caio?enueea cieioi. Aeo?ae aoa ?aeeiee:
ua ?ac aithaaoe Oea?uea?aae.

Aiaeoaaeueieeii ? ianoaaieeii aei Nayoineaaa aoa i?ecia/aiee aa?ya
Anioae, aei iae?oaeaiiy eiycy, ae?oaa ethaeeia a aea?aeaa?. Naia a?ae
iueiai thiee Nayoineaa ia?aeiya a?aeaaao ? oi?iiy aanoe a?e a?e?ia?a-
a?aeiieo a?eoe?a oiai /ano.

Eiyaeiy Ieueaa i?ney caaeaae? eiycy ?ai?y a?ae ?oe ae?aaeyi, ui coi?ea
ia o?eueee caa?aaoe ?aei?noue a aea?aeaa? aea ? iai?iiicaeaoi?noue, ui
caaacia/eea eiai, oae naii ia?aaeaea neio nai? ciaiiy ii oi?aae?iith ?
ci?oeiaiith aea?aeaae. A?ae ia? Nayoineaa ia?aeiya iiiyooy i?i oa, ui
caeeaoaaoe aai iaeyeaoe ai?iaa- icia/a? ia?aiiaoe.

Iio?ae eiycy Nayoineaaa i?/ei ia iaaaaeoaaa eieeoi? cooaae? ?aeaee
neia’yi ca caeiae//th ? iieiiaieie. Nayoineaa i?aeae?aany aei iaae
ai?ia?a iiaie?, cae??iethth/e eiaeai i?ieaeaiee e?ie, cae?ath/e
nithciee?a. Ia iieiaeaoeueeei aoaiaiii e?iii? ae?oaeeie, aea ioae?ei ?
aeaeaeiaeyaeiei iieeiaiaeoeai i?aaenoaa a?i ia?aae iauaaeeaie.

-“Nayoineaa iaio/oaaa a?ioey, yeee a?aei?aaeyany aei oaca?neiio oea?y:

— Caeaeo ne?a ia?aae oea?ai ia ?icneiae. Ca aaaaoueia neiaaie iaea neea,
ca iaaaaaoueia — aaeeea. Neeueiee iioaiee neaaea, a an? /othoue. E?eeo
ae neaaeiai o?aa ui ca?oeue ceyea?oueny, oa e oi oiio, ui c?iaeo
ioaaiee.

Anueiai o?e neiaa ia?aaeane: «?aeo ia ae!» Neacaaoe, caiiaeie. Nia?oth
caa?iaeoaaoe aoaeooue, ana iaeii iia/e. Iai’yoae: o oai?io iia/aii? —
neea!”

-“ Io?i/a! — caa?ioany eiycue aei aenieiai na?oeiaieiniai ae?oaeeiieea
?iaeii c ayoe/ae. — Iii?/aa y, ui oe oyiouee, aeiaaaeeeaee. Ciaoeeoe,
iaa?ui y oea?y i?i iio?ae iiia?aaeaeoth?

— Ia a?aeath, eiycth.

— Oa-oi, ui ia a?aea?o! — iini?oioany Nayoineaa. — Aa/o, oa ?io? o
iiaeea?. Aaeaea i?inoi caeiaaaeaoeny. Iiaeoiae nai: /e iaaaaaoi
aeia?aaeeoue aiiaoeue a?enueei? Iaea?eueoa — ia oeaeaeaiue-i?aoi?a, yeui
ie i?aeaii oaeaeei.

Coi?? oea? ca oeae /an iiaeo ai?i?a iaa?aoe ? iaa/eoe? Aeoiath, ia
coi??.

Ui ? i?ae ?oeith, oi ia aeoao ? aeaaaea, ia a?eueoa oiai. A o?aiao o
eiai a aeoo? a?ae iaoi? cooaaeino? aoaea aaeeeee. Iiaeoia? oea?, ui
aaci??ii neeuei? ie, yeui nai? i?i iio?ae iiia?aaeaea?ii. Oiai iai? ?
iio??aia…

— ? i?i oa y iiaeoiaa, uia ai?i?a oaca?nueeiai oea?y iaeiei ?acii oaeoe.
A ui aeeaea, yeui oea? ia anoeaia ?o ?acii c?a?aoe?

?ica?aaeooueny ai?ie, ui cai?cieeeny, ii noaiao, ?icooeoe ?o iio?i!
Oae-oi inue, io?ie…”

I?ney ?ica?iio oaca? /ooea i?i neeo ? ioae??noue Ee?anueeiai eiycy, a
cia/eoue ? eiai ia?iaeo, aeia?aaeaeaea eiai iio?ae.

-“A?oiio Nayoineaa aeeoia aei Ainoi?o E?iia??enueeiai,
aeaaiaeainoaoaaiiy oa?niinueei? oaie caeaaeeoue eeoa a?ae eiai aeia?i?
aie?!..

— Cae?ciiaiea e?iiioa ai??a i?ai?/ieo ia?iae?a Nayoineaaa a oeaei? oeyoo
a?ae eaaeacueeeo ia?aaae?a, ? i?eiio ia?aai?iaeeoe ?e aei?iao a iaae?
oae?oaoo!..

— Eiioia Nayoineaa cae?a? oo?o, ? nei?i ana ii?a noaia iaaacia/iei aeey
aa?yaenueeeo oi?aiaeo ea?aaai?a!..

Nayoineaa aeae?a?, ia eiai ia?ooeoe ia/!..

Nayoineaa, Nayoineaa, Nayoineaa…”

A??cia ?i’y eiycy cao/aei ainaie 965 ?iee ia aaaaoueio iiaao, eiai
aeiiaeyee oi c o?eaiaith ? iaiaaenoth, oi ?c caoiieaiiyi ? iaae??th, aea
i?eiee aaeaeoaea. Eiycue Nayoineaa caeaaaany aeeaei ao?eaiiyi iiaooiuei?
neee yea ?icianea auaio caiaiaeo aoae?aeth Oaca?neiai eaaaiaoa.

Aiaeae? ei/iaeo ieaiai ? iai?nieee caiea?ianueeeo iaeanoae, no?aoeae
a?caio?enueeeo oai ? ?iia?aoi?nuee? naiiaieee, ionoeueiainuee?a?ce???
i?ineaaeai? iieeiaiaeoe? a?aanueeiai oae?oaoo eiaeee /ooee i?i eiycy
Nayoineaaa i?aeneeaee niinoa??aa/?a, neeaaeaee i?i caian oeo?iioae??
iinieuenuee? iiae aiooaaee ea?aaaie c aaaaoeie aea?aie ia aeiaaeie ie?o
? a?enueei ia aeiaaeie a?eie.

Iaa?oue ca ciai?oiueith i?inoioith, yeith, c /ooie, a?ae??ciyany
i?aaeaiaeeoaeue neia’yi, i?aeic?thaaee yeeenue iniaeeaee, ui eyea?
nai?th iac?icoi?e?noth, i?eoiaaiee nain. Ai?iaeeee, aei yei? ?ae?a??
noeey?oueny eiycue, ai ia iiaea i?aaeoaeue aaee/acii? e?a?ie
caaeiaieueiyoeny i?eiio ia a?aeiieie yce/ieoeueeeie ?aeieaie.

?iaeee aaaaoicia/i? aeniiaee c ieeino? eiycy aeioiooa?aeainueeeo
o?enoeyi, a iio?i aeeaoaaeeny, /iio eoioe?-ionoeueiaieoaaeoaaeyoue
Nayoineaaa. Caeaaaeiny, ana ocyee ia cai?oeo ? ?iceeaee a c?o/iiio aeey
naaa ii?yaeeo aaeeeiaeina?ae/ai? aa?oeoae? aea?aeaaieo ni?aa, iaa?oue
oa, ui eiycue Nayoineaa iieiaeee, aeoaea iieiaeee — a e?oi oaca?neiai
iioiaeo eiio aeiiaieeiny anueiai aeaaaeoeyoue o?e ?iee. A oea a?e, eiee
a?ae/oooy ua aieiaea?ththoue iaae ?icoiii, eiee ia oi/aoueny oa?iey/a
?icieoooaaoe aeeoo?a? aocee ? ?oea naia oyaiaoueny aei ia/a, uia iaeiei
iiiaoii ?ic?oaaoe ?o, eiee aa?y/a aieiaa i?aeeaco? cooaae? ? iaiaa/i?
??oaiiy…

Cono??/ eiycy Nayoineaaa c ?iia?aoi?ii a?aeaoeany ia aa?ac? Aeoiath.
Iien oe??? cono??/? noi??//yie ei/oaaa ii noi??ieao ?noi?e/ieo oai??a,
oiio ui oeae iien, aeeth/aiee a «?noi??th Eaaa Ae?aeiia» c ne?a
i/aaeaeoey, aoei ?aeeiei o nai?io ?iae? — o?eueee c iueiai iauaaeee
ae?ciaeeny i?i ni?aaaeith ciai?oi?noue i?ineaaeaiiai eiycy. Inue aiii:
«?iia?aoi? Oeei?nueeee a iiciei/aiiio ica?i?ii?, ia eii?, i?e?oaa aei
aa?aaa Aeoiath, noi?iaiaeaeoaaiee aaeeeei caaiiii aa?oiee?a,
aeeneo/eoca?i?th.

Nayoineaa i?eieea ii ??/oe? ia ne?onuee?e oo?? ?, neaey/e ca aaneii,
a??a ia??ai? c ?ioeie aac aeiaeii? a?aei?iiino?. A?i aoa na?aaeiueiai
c?inoo, ia aeoaea aenieee, ia aeoaea iaeee; c aonoeie a?iaaie, c
aeaeeoieie i/eia, c ieaneei iinii, c aieaiith ai?iaeith ? c aeiaaeie
aeny/eie aonaie. Aieiaa o iueiai aoea cian?i aiea o?eueee ia iaei??? ??
noi?ii? aen?a eieii aiein, ui icia/a? ciaoi?noue ?iaeo; oey oianoa,
iea/? oe?ie? ? aanue noai aeineoue no?oieee. A?i caeaaaany iioio?ei ?
ethoei. O iaeiiio aon? o iueiai aen?ea cieioa na?aaeea, i?ee?aoaia
ea?aoieoeii a ii iaio noi?iiao a?ae iueiai aeaiia ia?eeiaie. Iaeya ia
iueiio aoa i?inoee i?/ei, ie??i /enoioe, a?ae ?ioeo ia a?aei?iiee.
Iiaiai?eaoe iaaaaaoi c ?iia?aoi?ii i?i caie?aiiy, neaey/e ia eaaoe? a
oo??, a?i a?aei?aaeany iacaae…»

I?iaiaeaeath/e i/eia oo?o eiycy Nayoineaaa, ?iia?aoi? Oeei?noee
caaeoieeai i?iiiaea: — A?i ia iiaeiai iiaa?iooeny ia Aeoiae!” Inoaii?e
iio?ae eiycy Nayoineaaa aoa iai?aaeaiee ia A?caio?enueeo ?iia??th, oeae
iio?ae iiaeiai aoa caaacia/eoe aaciaeo iaae Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae a?ae
eiai inoaiiueiai aaeeeiai noi?ioeaieea. Aea ine?eueee a?i?y ?iia??? a
oie ia??iae /ano neeaaeaeany c aeia?a iaa/aieo ? iiai?noth a?aeii/eeeo
ai?i?a, oi ia?aiiaoe ?? ia aoei iiaeeeaei aeniaaeaiei a iioiaeao eiyaeei
a?enueeai. Nayoineaa ona?aeiiethaaa oea ? a?aei?aaeany a a?e c ?aeeiith
iaoith iiai?noth c?oeioaaoe caeaoi?noue ?iia?nueei? a?i?? cae?enieoe
iio?ae ia Ee?anuee? caie?.

? oea eiio aaeaeiny, aea a?aenooiath/e eiai a?i?y aeiooaia aoea caeiyoe
ia ceio aei?i?ianuee? ino?iae. Iaeiyo? ?iia?aoi?ii ia/ai?cuee? eiyc?
caeeoeeeny /aeaoe eiycy, ui a ia aeaoe eiio i?i?aaoeny ?c caeeoeaie
ae?oaeeie a iaae? Ee?anueei? aea?aeaae.

Aaniith 972 ?iee oo?a eiycy Naaoineaaa iii?yioaaea aei aei?i?ianueeiai
ae?ea. Cian?i aeecueeith caeaaaeany aaouee?aueia — ?oeith iiaeaoe. Aea
iaeoa?iey/?oee ia/ai?cueeeo eiyc?a, i?aenooiiee ? inoeaee Eo??, ia i?oia
a?ae aei?i?ianueeeo ii?ia?a. Eiee ai?ie eiycy Nayoineaaa aeoyaee oo?o ia
aa?aa, uia ia?aianoe ?? ia ?ioo noi?iio ii?iao, ia ieo iaiaee ia/ai?ae.

Eiycue Nayoineaa ?oaaany ia/ai, ye i?inoee ai?i, ?, ye an? ?io? ai?ie,
caaeioa a aeoa?. Nia?oue, ui iaoiaeeea noi?iiith a iace?/aiieo aeoaao
ciaeoea ia?aoo? eiycy-aeoycy…

Ia caa?aaeiny eo?aaio iaae iiaeeith eiycy Nayoineaaa, o?eueee iai’youe
ia?iaeia, a?/ia o?aieoaeueea ?noeiii oe?iiiai, aeaaeeeai aeiianea aei
iauaaee?a neaao eiycy-aeoycy, ai?ia ca caieth Ee?anueeo. Iaa?ee
caeeoeany a?i a iai’yo? ethaeae iieiaeei ? a?aeaaaeiei — oaeei, yeei
i?aaenoaaea eiai e?oiienaoeue ia ci?? aeeooy:

«EIEE NAssOINEAA AE??N ? CIOAEI?A, NOAA A?I CAE?AOE AAAAOI AI?I?A
OI?IA?EO. ? EAAEI OIAeEA A IIOIAeAO, ssE IA?AeON, ? AAAAOI AITHAAA. O
IIOIAeAO AEA IA AICEA CA NIAITH I? AIC?A, I? EACAI?A, IA AA?EA I’ssNA,
AEA, OIIEI II??CAAOE EIIEIO, AAI CA??EIO, AAI ssEIAE*EIO ? CANIAAEEAOE
IA AOA?EE?, OAE ?A. IA IAA A?I ? OAO?A, AEA

NIAA, I?AeNOEEATH*E I?OIEE, C N?AeEII A AIEIAAO. OAEEIE AE AOEE AN? ?IO?
AI?IE EIAI. ? IINEEAA IINE?A A ?IO? CAIE? ?c NEIAAIE: «OI*O IA AAN EOE!»

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Ea?aaeia A. I. “ Nayoineaa “ E.;2002

2. “ Kiyev Hystory “ DEFENSE LANGUAGE INSTITUTE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CENTER
NY.;1971.

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