Спецпереселення до Сибіру 1930-го року: чи було воно вигідним?

NIAOeIA?ANAEAIIss AeI NEA??O 1930-AI ?IEO: *E AOEI AIII AEA?AeIEI ?

Ia ????o ??? ????-?????i oa ?????i ???? O??? ??? ? ???o ????? ??y???i
Nith? ???th c ????? ??????o ???. A? ? ??? ????? ?????e ???ae, ??? ???o
y?? ???? ??? ??? ? ??? ????? ??? ???e c ????th. N?????e ????
?????i-????? ???i o ???? ????? ????i ???? ????e, ???a, ?y?? ???????? o
?ioe?? ???? N?N? ? ???yi ?? ?????a y????? ???? ????? ????? ???, ? y?o
???? ? ????y N???.

I???e ????i-??????i ? ??????i ???? O??? ?a ??i ??? ?????i ???i-?????i
???iy. I?? ???? ??n ???? ? ??o ??y?a, y? ?i ? ??? ??i ?e??ny ? ??? O???,
???? ? ?o, ?i ???a ? ? ??? ??. N??? ???e ???o ??e, a ?? 30-o ??a OO
????y, y?o ????ny ?? ??oy, ?th? ???a ??aiiy o ?’????? ?????? ?????o
?????e oa ?th? ????? ?ae ???th?? ???e ????, a ??ae ?ae ?????? ????y ?
eth?e, y? ?????e ?ae ??a ?????o ????a.

???????y ????e ? O??? a c????o ??? c??a, ??e o ??a?? ??? ???????y ?????a
? N???o o 1930 ?? ???i ??????. *???i ????? c ??? ???y ??a ??? o ??yo
N?????i TH.1, N????a A.2, C???a A.I.3, ?????i I.A.4, o ???? ?????a
???????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a.” 5. Aeay? ?????th i?? ??? o
?????o ???yo ?? /?o, ?? ?i ? ????? ????i ??? ??ae ?y???.

I?a, ?i ae ?? ???????? ? ?? c’y??ny oey ??a. ??????? ?ey? y? ??ey?ny o
????? ??? ???e ? ??????y, ?i ??????y (?????a ???iy), o ???? IAeIO 1930 —
1934 ?. ????ny ???????y?, a o 1934 -1944 ?. – ??????y?.6 N??????? 30-o ?
??? ? ??????a ? ? ??y??eth???i ?ny???y, y? ?? ??? ???. Ua o 1928-29 ?.
?ey? ???th?? ????? ? ?????th ? N???, y? ?? ????o ?ae ???e (?????ue ?????
????? ? ??a ?????i ????y ?y ???iy ?ey?e ?y ??? ????? — ???a ???? ?i
????e ???), ?? eth?? ???th??ny, ?i ??? ????…7 N???????, ???e, ??? ????
? ???????? ????a, ?o ??e ???th??y ? ????? ???? ???i ??. Oea ?????y ?????
?? ??a?yi, ?????ith ??????th ? ?????yi ???o ????????. A?aea ????? ?????
???iy – ?????a?? ? ????y ??????, ?????? i???y ???i ???e, ????y ???a
??????? o ?????o ???o, ? ???ath/enue ????th ??th eth?e. A???ny, ? ? ??yo
?i ??? ???? ????? ??e ?y ??????? ?y????, y? ???? ???? ??o ????? ???o??iy
?????. I???? ????” ?????a ????ny ????ith ???y?ith ????? ii??oth?o ??????
?????a ? ???? ? ???? ? ?????th ?? ???????o. I???? c ??????iy?, ????a
????ny ?????e ? ???” ??yo ?y ?o ????y. I???? ????ue ????a ?y??ny
?????????e, ???ai ?? ??ny ?i ????? ?y ??y ???. Ua ???th ???ith ??e ?? ?,
? ???? ?????e ? ?o ????, ?? ????e ?? ?????? ????y ??? ??. O? ?i ???? ?i
????, ?i ???? ?? ????? c ???? ???.8

Ia 1930 ?e o N??? ?? 164 ???, ???? ?iy??i ????y?, y? ? ???th ??th ???e
???a ??a ??ae ?????? ??? ??i ???o. N?a ? ???o 30-o ??a ???? ????y ?????
? ???? ??? N?N? ??????y a ??y ???na??y, ? ??? ????????y ????i ?????a ???
??. A?????i c ??th ??th ?????y ?????, o ?? ??? ? ? O???.9

1 eth?? 1930 ?? OeAE ? ?IE N?N? c ??ith ?????iy ????o ??y??? ?? ?y
???????? ????ae ?e???i ??????” ??iy? ????o, y?th ?? ????i ?th ???, ?
???ya ??? ??? ? ?????iy ???? ??? o ?????? ?ey??? ??????o. Oe? ??i ??i
???? ????? ?? ??? ??i ???e ??o ????? ???a ?? ???? c ??????, ? ? ???
e?????? ??a ? ????y ? ?? ?ath. I? ??o ??????a ????ue ?? ????e ? ???a
????a, a y??? ??? ??y??, y? ?? ???e ? ???io. 10 A ??o ??o ? ??i (c?? oa
???) ?? ? ???oy c???y ? ???????? ????i ??, a ?, ? ???ny ?a ?? ? ?????y
????a ? ????, c ??? ? ?????th ???i ??a ??? ?e ??.11

Ua 5 ??y ?? ae ?? ???? ?eyi (????a) ?? ?????ii ? ?e ?????: 1-a –
?????th??? ??a – ?, ? ???i ????y? ?????? e????a, ??y?? ?????? ? ????????
???a, a ?o ??i ??y?? ???e ???????; 2-a ????y – ????? ?ey?, ????ue y?o
??????ue, ?a ?i ???y? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??????, ??n ???a ? ??? ? ??y ??????
(? ???ey?ny ? ????? ????? ??a, ???a ? N???); 3-oy – ??a, ye? ??ey? ? ???
???? ?ey?e, ?e???? o ?? ae ???.12

4 eth?? 1930 ?. ???? ??? ??e ???? ???o ?????th OeAE ? ?IE N?N?, y?
?c’y?th?? ? ???th?? ??c???? ????o, o ?e ???ny ????? ????e, ?? ????a c
????y ? ??????y ??o?a ? ??????? ?o ???, ????y?ny ????? ??e ??????
?????a: 3-5% ? ???o ??? (?y ??, ?a ??oe????e ???? ?? ? ?????? ??i????”,
? ???th? ??o ???). O??, o ??? ?????? ??e, y? ????ue ????? ? ? ??yo. O??
?i????y ?????a ??????th ???a ?????a, ???, ?????o ? ??o ????, ???eo ?
?????o ???a, ??? ? ????e ??. C ???o ??i ????????a ???? ?????i o ?? ae
????? ????ny ?? ????th ???ith – ??e ??i ?????a ??? ????ny o ?i?? ???…
? ??e ??e ???? ??i??o ????a – ?? ????ny ? ?a?e ???a ?i ???iy ?e.13 Ia
??? ???o ????? ?? ???? ??? ?e. O?o o ?????yo ????th??ny, ? a???ith
??y?th? ? ???, o y?o ? ??????? ????, ??? ??? ? ??i????ny ?eth?? ? ???a
(? ?iy?? ?o, y?o ???? ? ??? ??????i ??? ???). O ???o IAeIO ? IEAN ????ny
?i ??ae ?a ???? ?????e?? o ????? ??? ???.14

Aei ??, ?? 3-5 % ?????a, y? ?? ?????i ??????: ? ??? ?????-??????
?????ue, ????? o 1926-1929 ?., ? ?????? ?? ????y? 3,9 % ?ey??? ?????a o
1927 ?. ? 2,5-3 % o 1929?. ???a ????iy ????? ? ???? ?? ??????o ?????a
???eth??ny ??????e ???? ????????, ???iyi ????????i ???????o ? ???e
??????e ???? ?? ???? ? ???y”. 15 sse ???, ??i i??? ? ????y ?????ny
???????e ?????iy? ???? ????e ??, ??, ?? ??????y ?????a ye ??? ? ?? ???th
? ???ith ??th ?????a.

I??o ??y ??????y ????e ?ae 1 eth?? ???ny ???, ??e ?? ?? ?????y. C???i, ?
??yo ???ny ??? ??ae ???? ?eyi, ??ey?? ethaee ??? ??? c ?????e, ?ae ?n
???a ???? ??a (?y ?????iy ???a ????a ? ??? ??????a), ???a??y, y? ?? ?i
???y? ?y? c niaith, ?????? ???a ??i, y? ? ???? ? ??o, ????ny ??????y” –
?? ????e ??? ? ????a, ????e ???? ? ????, ??? a ? ??ey?.16 Aeay? ???a
n?yi ???a, ? ??e ??a ye ????y ? ???i ????i , ? ?? ????? ?????i. Aeey
????iy ??ith ????o ????y? ?????, a ????y ??ae?ey? ?i ????o ?? ? ?y?e ?n
(????ae ????? ?y).17

C O??? ?? ?????i ???e 20 000 ??i, ?i 100 000 ???e, ? I???/. I???th ??
?????i ???e? ? 15-? ???y ?? ae ??, ??i ?????” ? ?a ?ny?.18 I?? ???????a
????y c ?????? ??????i ?ey??a, ????? ???i ????e OeE AEI(a) ?ae 30 ??y
1930 ?. ???ny o eth?? ? ?e?? ? ???y. Ca ?e ?n ?? ??????? ??o ye 60 ?ny/
?????a, c y?o ? ??iy 1930?. c ????? O??ie ?? ???? 20 761 ?ey??o ??? a
??? 98 743 ??a, a ??ae 32 ??? ? 14 894 ??a-????a ?????i ?????y”
(?????ethoe??? ???? ? ????”), c ?o ? I???/ – 19 658 ??i, ? N??? – 1 103
??? (5 282 ??e) ? ??????? 14 894 ??a-?????.19 sse ???, ??? ????ue
????????? ???o ? ?????a, y? ??y?? ??????th, ???ith??ny ?????iyi ?y ????a
?????o ?? ? ???th??th ?????a ? ?????iyi ????? ????a ??? ? ??? ?????. Ia
?? ????a ???a – ? i??yo ? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ????”.

Oa’y??iy a ???, ????y, ????? ? ????y ??a ?????y o ?????? ??y?o. N??e ?o,
?i ??y?a ????eth??th ? ?????y ?o ? ??? ? ??? ?????, ???? ???? ??? ??e,
?? ??e ????ny ????? ???e ? ???????y ?????ia?. O ??? ?eth?? ? ???? eth?e.
U? ? ?????? ? ????????y ???a, ?y ????? a ?o ???e ??o, ?i ??ey?y, ?????
????e ???? ?e, y? ?????y ???o ?????eo ???e, ? ??? ?a ?i c’y???y ???oeo
????a.20

A ???o IEAN ?? c???y a ????? ??????, ????ae, o ??? ??? c ????a ?????o
??a ?i ?????y 3 ? 4 ????a OAeA IEAN, ????ny, ? 4-e ???e a ???a ?? ????a
a ???y?? c 3-i ????i ????ue ???a ? ?ny?, ??? ????a ? ????a ?????th???
?????e ? 13 ???e ???, ?ae 3-e ???e, ?a ????e ???a 20 ??a ? ??????th ??.
Ae?? ?a ??? ??? ??, y? ????th? c’y???, ?i ae ?????e. I??, ? ??ith ??ith
??? ?? eth?? c? ??th ????th ??th. O ????? ???? ?i ????y ???a ?? ????y
??? ???th??ny ?? ??? ??e – ?????? ???” ? ????i ????”, ?e ??o ????th??ny
?????y ?????? ?e???a. 21

N?a ???a ?????y o eth??, ?i? ??? ? ???o ???y 1930?. ?? n???a ???y ?i
?????th ???? ?????.22 Oi? ae, o ????, ???? ?? ??? ?e??? ???? ?? ???
?????y ????????a ????th? ?n?ae ????e ??? ??”. A ?o ????? ????ny ????e ??
??, ?? ???? (a ??o ??o ???????o ???a ???), ye ?th? ??th?? ????? ???,
???i-????? ???e, ?????y, ?????iy ??. I??i ?????y ?ci?? ????, y? ? ?? ??
???e 20 ???a ?i ?e??e ? 100, ?? ?????y ? ??? ???a ????? ????????, ?
????? y???? ?ae ?????o, ???? ?i ??? ?y?a, ? ??yo ??? y???.23

Oe???i ? ?e ??, ? ? 8 eth?? ?? ae ?? N????e??i ???? ???? ??????i ????o,
o y?e ???? ? ???? ?a ??i o ??y?o ????iy a ?o, ?i ??y?? ?????th ? I???/.
Iiy?thth? ? o?, ? ?????? ??a ???ny o ??ae?? ???o, ?y ?ai ?i ?????
??????e ????, ?????? ???, ??? ?? ??, a ???? ???e ey?th? ? ????
ath??…24 O??, ye ??? ???a ??a ?? ??a’y?ia ??? ???o ??o ????a ???? ?
?????iy ?????a ???????, o???, ????e ?y ???????y ? ??ue ?????y, ???ith. C
???a, ?? ????e ???e c ???????y?, ????e ?????iy ?i ?eth??? ?? o ???eo
???a ?????y, ??? ? ?, ? o ??yo ???e ??? ??e ? ?ae?o ??ith?? ? ?ey?, ?
????i ??e ? ???ae, ?, y? ???e?ny c ?????y?, ???i ?? ?????????. Ia ??a
????, ? ?????? ??? ???? ??e ?? ??y? o a??????, y? ?ae ?? ???e ??” , o?o
???i ?ae ?n ?????y ????a ? ???? ???? ?a ????a ??i, ? ????? ????i ??? ?
?????y eth?e, ???? ???e ? ?n ???? ?????e ?iyi ?? ??n ?? ? ???, ?????e ?y
???? ???? ??? ? ??? ????iiy, ??y ?? a ????yo ????ny ?? ???e ??ae.25

I??y ???oy ? ??a ?????y ???????e IEAN ????e ??e?? ????a. Aeay? c ?o
???iy?ny, ?y? ???ey?ny ? ???a AOEAAo, ? ?e???ue ????ny ? ???????. Ia
?????o ???ny ?iy??i ye ? ???ith ??? ?? o ???o ?????i ??????? ????y. C??e
????iy ??ey? ???ue ???????o ????a ?i ?, ?a ? ??ey? ?o ? ????? ???a, ?
aeay? ??????ue, y?i ???iy ???e? ?ae ?????o ? ??? ??a. O 1931 ?. A. A.
ss?? ?a ??c ???? ??e ????????a ? 10 ??a ? ???o ethae? ???o 65 ??a ???i
?i ????, ye? ?y?? ???y ?o ?????. I???th? ? ?, ? ? ??y 1931 ?? eth?
?????e ????e ? ??????? ????, ?????ue ?y?? ????????a ?? ??? ??a ?????
?????? ??. Oey ???y ???? ??c ??? ?????ue ?ae ?n ???????y ? a ??? ?? ??y
? ??? ???, a ??ae ??c ??? ???. *??? ???? ??ae???ny ??y ??? ? ??? ?????,
?i ????a ???o ye ????o ???iith, ?e ? ????o ?????o.26

?????th??y ?? ????a ????o ???ith – ????? ??? ????????. Oea ? ??????ny ?
a ????? ?????. O? o ????e ?????? AeIO ?ae 15 ???y 1931 ?. ?y? ???i, ?
??i ????a ????y ? ??ey?? «?????thoe???i ?ey??? ??? ???, ?, ??i ?? ?????
???y, ye ?????ny ??a? ??? ??????a ? ?e???a.27 N? ? ???? ?????? ???,
?a’y??o c ???????yi ?a ????? ????? ????e: ?????, ?????, ????. O?, ? ???
????? ???????? ?????y, ? ????? ?????iy ? ??????iy ????o ????a o
1930-1932 ?. ???a ????? ?ey 250 ?i. ?a., ??i ?ey 1 ?n ?a. ? ?? ??????, a
??e, ???? ? ?? ????? ??????, ???? o ????? 564,2 ?a. Oa, ? ???e ?
????????a ?????? ????ue ????? ??a ?aey??a ?????i ??????? ye ?iya ?????
?aey??? ???e.28

I?a, ye ? ??? ?/?e, ?????a ???? ?????? ???a ?????? ???e ? ?? ?????. I??e
??? ?????a ????i ????e: ?, ye ? ???? ??a ??????? ?????a ? ?? ?? ????.
Aeey ??, ?a ?????e ??? ????????a, ?y ?e????? ???e ????? ? ????? ?ae ?y?a
? ???? ?????, ? ???i??i ??????i ?’y?? ?o ???. Ia ??i, ? ?e????? ???
????, ye ??? ?????? ????? ??i ???o c ???a ???e.

AeAEA?AEA OA E?OA?AOO?A

1. N????e TH.E. E??ey ????o ????e. – I., 1997;

2. N???? A. O?????y ????. — E., 2000;

3.C??? A.I. ????y ???” a 30-a ?? // N??????? ??a???y. – 1991. — ?10. –
N.3-21;

4.E???e I.A. E??????ey e ??????? (??? 30-o ??a). – I., 1996 ;

5. N??????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a. – I?????, 1992;

6. C??? A.I. ????y ???” a 30-a ?? // N??????? ?????ey. – 1991. — ?10 . –
N. 3;

7.Ae???? ??a A????i? ???? (?? –AeAAI). – O.1301. – Ii.6. – N?.27. –
A?.3;

8. N????e TH.E. E??ey ????o ????e. – I., 1997. – O. 1. — N. 49;

9. N???? A. O?????y ????. — E., 2000. — N. 270;

10. I?????? OeEE e NIE NNN? ? ???ey?yo ????????i ???????a ????i ?cy??a a
???o ?e??e ???????e e ? ??? n ??/???” // E???y. – 1930. — 2 eth??;

11. A???a A., A?? E. E??????ey e ???y??a ??????a ? O??? (?y?ue 1929 – ??
1930 ?.) – A???, 1997. – N. 278;

12. E????. O??. *???. -Ae?????? ??? ? ?? «*??? ??e ?????». — E., 2001, —
N. 20;

13. AeAAI. – O. ?-595. – Ii.11. – N?.35. – A?.15-16;

14. E????. O??. *???.- Ae?????? ??? ? ?? «*??? ??e ?????». — E., 2001, —
N.22;

15. N??????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a. – I?????, 1992. – N. 8;

16. AeAAI. — O. I-33. — Ii.1. — N?.1013 – N.29;

17. O? ??. – N. 34;

18. Ae?? A.I., I??? A.ss. N????i, ????: ????ey ?e // A??i-?????? ???. –
1991. — ?17. – N. 72;

19. I????? ????? ? I???? (20-30-? ?? OO ?.). – A???y, 1999. — N. 14;

20. I?o??e I. ?ayo? ??”// O?ae, — 1989. – 7 ??iy;

21. N????e TH.E. E??ey ????o ????e. – I., 1997. – N. 65;

22. N??????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a. – I?????,1992. – N. 14;

23. E???e I.A. E?????a?y e ?????a?a (??? 30-o ??a). – I., 1996. – N.
153;

24. N??????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a. – I?????, 1992. – N. 35;

25. O? ??. – N. 13;

26. C??? A.I. ????y ???” a 30-a ?? // N??????? ?????ey. – 1991. — ?10. –
N. 7;

27. E???e I.A. E?????a?y e ??????? (??? 30-o ??a). – I., 1996. – N. 191;

28. N??????? a C???e N??e. 1930 – ??a1931a. – I?????, 1992. – N. 12.

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