Генерал-фельдмаршал князь Григорій Потьомкін-Таврійський

I?ney c?oeioaaiiy Caii?icueei? N?/? (1775 ?.) aaaaoi eieeoi?o
caii?iaeoe?a ?icn?yeinue ii oa?eoi??? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie aai ai?a?oaaei
aei Iieueu?, Oo?a//eie. C ia?oeo aei?a ?in?enueeiai iaioaaiiy ia caieyo
eieeoi?o Caii?icueeeo Aieueiinoae io?oe?eiee Iaoa?ao?a oa i?noeaaa
?in?enueea aaei?i?no?aoe?y iinooiiai ii/aea ?icoi?oe aeanio
iani?iiiaei?noue oaeaeei anoaiiaeoe eiio?ieue iaae caii?icueeith
niaaeueiith ? ia?o ca ana — iaae ianaeaiiyi i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia c?iaeai? o?yaeii ni?iae i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie 1770 —
ii/aoeo 1780-o ?ie?a ae??oeoe oeth i?iaeaio /a?ac ?icaoaeiao i?aai?a
i?noeaai? aeaaee, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy e?oaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ?
ianii?o?a, iineeaiiy i?eei?aeiiii? aa?oe ca ?aooiie aeiinueeeo
eicaoeueeeo i?eao?a, aeniea iia?euei?noue i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy, yea aoea iaoiiaeaia niaoeeo?eith iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy, noaiiaeea, ia aeoieo ?in?enueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??, iniiaio
ia?aoeiaeo ia oeyoo ia?aoai?aiiy ?aa?iio ia cae/aeio i?ia?ioe?th
?in?enueei? aea?aeaae. A?eueo oiai, iiiceoe?ei?noue /anoeie ianaeaiiy
eieeoi?o Aieueiinoae ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?in?enueei? iie?oeee a ?aa?ii?
oa caa?ica ao?aoeoe iiceoe?? ia oe?a?inueeiio I?aaei? o aeiaaeeo iiai?
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie aeiaaaee a?ae io?oe?eiiai Iaoa?ao?ao
i?iaaaeaiiy iaaecae/aeii caaaeaii? iie?oeee ii a?aeiioaiith aei
eicaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy. ?nioaaiiy Caaeoiaenueeiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea
i?ae iao?iiaoii Iniainueei? ?iia??? oaeoe/ii aeaeea?oaaei iaaeciaiiy
Ii?oith oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaeaaiue ?in?? ? aaaaeaeiny ?in?enueeith
aaei?i?no?aoe??th ai?iaeei aeoii.

sse iane?aeie, ia ii/aoeo 1780-o ?ie?a a ioi/aii? eiycy A.I. Iioueiie?ia
iinooiiai aeieea? aeoiea uiaei noai?aiiy i?ae ea??aieoeoaii eieeoiuei?
caii?icueei? noa?oeie c eieeoi?o n?/iaee?a aieiioa?nueeeo eiai?o. Oea
oei a?eueoa noaaaei iaiao?aeiei, ui an? ni?iae caeo/eoe eicae?a aei
i?e?ia?nueeeo iiee?a i?ae /an ?aoi?ioaaiiy inoaii?o o 1776 — 1777 ?ieao
aeyaeeenue ae?ae iaaaeaeeie.

Ia?oa io?oe?eia cai?ioaiiy eicaeai anooiaoe aei ?in?enueei? a?enueeiai?
neoaeae ye aieiioa??a c aieo Iioueiie?ia iaae?eoei 1 eeiiy 1783 ?ioe? ?
aoei iaieioaii o aoaa?inueeeo, i?ia?ioe?eieo, iia?oiaeo onoaiiaao.
Ca?aeii c ieaiii eiycy Iioueiie?ia aeaa eieeoi? caii?icuee? noa?oeie —
Neae?? A?eee oa Caoa??e *ai?aa — iiaeii? aoee noi?ioaaoe c /enea eicae?a
e?iiee oa i?oee iieee caaaeueiith e?euee?noth o 500 /ieia?e eiaeai ia
A?iiieea? oa Cao??anueeiio aioe? iaiiaeae?e a?ae ?in?enueei? oi?oaoe?
E?iao?i oa oo?aoeueeiai I/aeiaa. Iai?ee?ioe? aeiaoiy 1783 ?ieo o
?icii?yaeaeaii? N.A?eiai aaea ia?aaoaaei 800 caii?iaeoe?a [8]. Ao?i,
iaaecia/ai?noue noaoono iiaiai oi?ioaaiiy, iaaaaeaiiy caii?iaeoe?a ianoe
neoaeao ye ?ae?oo?a aai «a?e?ioe?ea» oa iiaaia iinoa/aiiy i?ecaaee aei
??ceiai nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? aaaeath/eo (aeea.aeie. a?oio A).

Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ia oie /an ? a aaei?i?no?aoe?? Iioueiie?ia ua
iiai?noth ia aoei i?eeiyoi inoaoi/iiai ??oaiiy uiaei oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
oa iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy aeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y ?aea?, yea
ia?aaeaa/aea iinoaaeoe eicae?a i?ae eiio?ieue ?in?enueei? a?enueeiai? oa
oeea?eueii? ? eicaoeueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?e ? iineeaiiy ?in?enueei? a?i??
ca ?aooiie aeia?a ia?ciaieo ?c iaeaooi?i oaao?ii aieiaeo ae?e aiye?a,
aeiaaaei a?ae o?yaeo iaaieo iinooiie e?ea?aeiaaiiio ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie
ono?ith, a naia — noai?aiiy eicaoeueeiai a?enueea c /enea eieeoi?o
caii?iaeoe?a. Aeia?a ona?aeiiethth/e iaaaciaeo oeueiai e?ieo aeey
?in?enueei? aeaaee o ?aa?ii? Iaoa?ao?a caie?eaa ?c i?eeiyooyi ??oaiiy
i?i noai?aiiy iiaiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea. ? eeoa ia ii/aoeo
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie o 1787 ?ioe? ??oaiiy i?i noai?aiiy
eicaoeueeiai a?enueea aoei i?eeiyoi.

Iaeac i?i noai?aiiy «A?enueea a??ieo eicae?a», yea c ea?oiy 1788 ?ieo
io?eiaei io?oe?eio iacao «*i?iiii?nueea eicaoeueea a?enueei», aoei
i?aeienaii Eaoa?eiith II 14 n?/iy 1788 ?ieo (aeea.aeie. a?oio A). Ia?oa
aieiaa o?auaiiy eicaoeueeiai a?enueea a?aeaoeiny aaea aii/? c 25 ia 26
n?/iy, eiee eicaoeueeee caa?i o e?eueeino? 200 /ieia?e i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii A. Aieiaaoiai cae?eniea iaiaae ia oo?aoeueea naei
Aaeaeeaeie ? iiaa?ioany aac aeiaeieo ao?ao [9]. I?ney iaeaco a?ae 14
n?/iy cia/ii ca?eueoeany iaieea eieeoi?o caii?iaeoe?a oa ?ioeo
aaaeath/eo i?e?aeiaoenue aei iiaiai a?enueea oa io?eiaoe ia?oeyi?
o?yaeii i?eueae — ca?eueiaiiy a?ae iiaeaoe?a, iinoi?a oa ?ioeo
ciaia’ycaiue, eicaoeueea neoaeaa i?ae i?iaiaeii eieeoi?o caii?icueeeo
noa?oei, i?aai iie?ioeoe na?e nioe?aeueiee noai (iaa?oue i?aai
iaea?aeaoe aeai?yinoai), a?ioiaa oa oa?/iaa oo?eiaiiy c aieo
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo oiui. sseui ca noaiii ia 12 ethoiai 1788 ?ieo aei
neeaaeo a?enueea aoiaeeei 944 eicaee, oi ia 22 /a?aiy 1788 ?ieo — aaea 2
436 /ieia?e. Ia CI eenoiiaaea 1791 ?ieo o neeaae? *i?iiii?nueeiai
eicaoeueeiai a?enueea ia?aaoaaei 12 620 eicae?a, c ieo ia ae?eni?e
neoaea? -7 500 /i?iiii?oe?a (? 6.17, 6.29).

A?enueei neeaaeaeinue c aeaio iniiaieo /anoei — e?iieo caaii?a oa i?oeo
eicae?a ia /iaiao ? iiae?eyeinue ia 48 eo?ai?a, ye? o ?ac? iaiao?aeiino?
ia’?aeioaaeenue o iieee (a?ae 4 aei 6). Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue eicae?a
aoea ica?i?ia nienaie, oe?ieeie iiaeaie oa ?ooieoeyie. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui oaaeyie aoee ica?i?i?, ye i?aaeei, eieeoi? caii?iaeoe?,
ye? aaea iai?ee?ioe? 1790-o ?ie?a ia noaiiaeee a?eueoino? o
*i?iiii?nueeiio a?enueeo. Iaei a?enueei ? aeanio a?oeea??th. Uiaei
iaioiaee?oaaiiy, oi i?eiaeii? aei 1820-o ?ie?a ia iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i
aaaaeaiiy oi?o?eiaaii? oi?ie aeey /i?iiii?nueeeo eicae?a. Noiniaii
iaeyao iniiaia iana eicae?a i?iaeiaaeoaaea caa??aaoe caii?icuee?
o?aaeeoe??. Eeoa i?ney ia?oeo c?oeiaiue c caaeoiaenueeeie eicaeaie ca
iaeacii ?in?enueeiai a?enueeiaiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy E?o *i?iiii?nueeiai
a?enueea cai?iiiioaaa eicaeai iineoe ia ?oeaaao a?e? oonoeie, uia
a?ae??cieoe «a??ieo» /i?iiii?oe?a a?ae caaeoiaenueeeo eicae?a.

I?ae /an a?eie ?in?enueeee o?yae ? E?o i?iaiaeeee iie?oeeo, ni?yiiaaio
ia iiaa?iaiiy caaeoiaenueeeo eicae?a i?ae i?ioaeoi?ao ?in??. C
?in?enueeiai aieo iaaeoiaeeee o?iainoaaiiy, aa?aio?? iaai?iae oa i?euea,
a oie /an ye ai?na?e a?ae *i?iiii?nueeiai a?enueea, oae?, ye eai?oai A.
*a?iia, i?iaiaeeee ia?aaiai?e c caaeoiaeoeyie, cae?aee ?ioi?iaoe?th
?ica?aeoaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?i aeeneieaoe?th oa e?euee?noue
oo?aoeueei-oaoa?nueeeo a?enuee oiui. Ao?i, iacaaaeath/e ia an? ni?iae
o?yaeo ? Eioa aeaanoe iniiaio iano «oo?aoeueeeo» caii?iaeoe?a aei ?in??
i?ae /an a?eie 1787-1791 ?ie?a oea c?iaeoe ia aaeaeiny.

I?ae /an ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie /i?iiii?nuee? eicaee a?aee o/anoue
o ooo?iao Oaaeaee-aath, I/aeiaa, caeiaooo? Aa?acainueei? oi?oaoe?,
oi?oaoeue ?nae/?, Ooe/?, Aea?iaia, ?cia?ea, o aeoaao i?e n. Oa?iiaoe?
(i?ae Aaiaea?aie) oa Ia/ei? [10]. Iii?ae eicaoeueeeo a?enuee, ye? aoee
noai?ai? A.I. Iioueiie?iei ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie, naia a?enueei
/i?iiii?nueeeo eicae?a aoei iaea?eueo i?aai?ciaaiei oa ai?caeaoiei ?
caa?aaei aaaao? a?enueeia? o?aaeeoe?? caii?icueeiai a?enueea. Ia
aeiaaeeiai a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao ? i?eaaoieo eenoao aeuiai
eiiaiaeoaaiiy ?in?enueei? a?i?? aei iacae *i?iiii?nueeiai a?enueea
aeiaeaaaany ai?oao «aacoe?iia» (? 6.14).

Ii?yae c oei aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui aaea ia iiiaio noai?aiiy a?enueea
/i?iiii?nueeeo eicae?a o eiycy Iioueiie?ia aoa i?iaeo ia?anaeaiiy
oeueiai oi?ioaaiiy c oa?eoi???’ I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ? iinaeaiiy eicae?a
ia iiaiio ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeiio ei?aeii? a?ey Aeoiath aai ia Eoaai?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia iaiaeii?acia? ia?oeyiee eiycy inaeeoe eicae?a ia Oaiai?
oa ia?anaeaiiy ?o o 1790-1792 ??. aei I/ae?anueeiai noaio (aeea.aeie.
a?oio A, ? 6.30), aei iaeaco Eaoa?eie II a?ae CI /a?aiy 1792 ?ieo
*i?iiii?nueea a?enueei, iacaaaeath/e ia iaaeaiiy eiio aeey iinaeaiiy
ae?eyiee i?ae Aoaii oa Aei?no?ii, oaeoe/ii ia iaei aeanieo a?enueeiaeo
caiaeue. Aoa a?aenooi?e ? /?oei aecia/aiee noaoon a?enueea. Ana oea
ni?e/eiyei iacaaeia?eueiee aeiiii?/iee noai eicae?a oa /eai?a ?o ?iaeei,
i?ecaiaeeei aei nioe?aeueii? iai?oae, aeeeeeaii? ciouaiiyie iii?uee?a oa
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?in?enueei? a?enueeiai? ? oeea?eueii? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

I?ioyaii 1790-1792 ?ie?a 1 759 ?iaeei (5068 aeoo /ie. noao? ? 4 414 aeoo
ae?i. noao?) eicae?a *i?iiii?nueeiai a?enueea oa a?eueo ye 2 000 ?iaeei
iieaeaaai ? aieio?a inaeeeenue a I/ae?anueeiio noaio, aea canioaaee 25
naeeu ?c oeaio?ii o Neiaiaeca? [11]. Eicaee caeiaee oe? oa?eoi??? aei
1793-1794 ?ie?a, a aaaaoi iinaeaioe?a caeeoeeinue ia i?eaocueeeo caieyo
? i?ney iiaiiai ia?anaeaiiy /i?iiii?oe?a ia Eoaaiue. Iniiaith
ainiiaea?noaa caeeoaeinue o?aaeeoe?eia aeey Caii?iaeaey neioa?noai,
?eaaeuenoai oa nieyiee i?iienae, aaeae?eueieoeoai oiui. Aiaeii/an
ca?eueoeeanue ?ieue caiea?ianoaa, ?icaeaaeinue aeiia?aaea?noai,
ai?iaeieoeoai. Iaeiae, /a?ac iaiaai?noue noaoono a?enueea ainiiaea?noai
/i?iiii?nueeeo eicae?a o cacia/aiee /an ciaoiaeeeinue o ii/aoeiaiio
noai?. Eicaee oa /eaie ?o ?iaeei i?iaeiaaeoaaee aooe caeaaeieie a?ae
?in?enueeiai iinoa/aiiy, iniaeeai oaeeo i?iaeoeo?a oa ae?ia?a ye oe?a,
e?oie, iaeya, oiui.

Ia??iae a ?noi??? *i?iiii?nueeiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea i?ney nia?o?
eiycy Iioueiie?ia (05.10.1791 ?.) oa i?aeienaiiy ssnnueei? oaiaee (1791
?.) ? ia?anaeaiiyi a?enueea ia Eoaaiue oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ??ceei
iia??oaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio eicae?a. I?aeaeaaaeanue
noii?ao iaa?oue iiaeeea?noue iiaeaeueoiai ?nioaaiiy a?enueea.
Ianaiia?aae oea aoei iia’ycaii c? nia?oth Iioueiie?ia — Aaoueiaia
eicaoeueeeo a?enuee i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ? caaaeueiei iaaaoeaiei a?aeiioaiiyi
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo aei eicaoeoaa a ?aa?ii?.

A /a?ai? 1788 ?. ca iaeacii aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a Iiai?in?enueeiai e?ath
eiycy A?eai??y Iioueiie?ia – Oaa??enueeiai o i?noe? aiaae?iiy ??ee ?iaoe
o ??eo I?aaeaiiee Aoa aoei caeeaaeaii noaeiiaoae?aio aa?o, iaaeiei yei?
?oeaie c?aiaieo nthaee aaaaoueio oeny/ ?ae?oo?a oa e??iinieo naeyi ?acii
c aoae?aieoeoaii ia?oiai a?enueeiaiai ei?aaey aoei caoaeiaaia ? aaeeea
iinaeaiiy. C naiiai ii/aoeo aiii noaei ao?eaiiyi caaeoi?a a?aeiiiai
?in?enueeiai a?o?oaeoi?a ?. ?. Noa?iaa – i?yi?, ye no??ea, oe?ie?
aoeeoe?, /?oe? eaaae?aoe eaa?oae?a.

??aii /a?ac ??e, o na?ii? 1789 ?., eiycue Iioueiie?i–Oaa??enueeee
iiaae?aa? iiao aa?o ? iinaeaiiy iaaeiei ia? ?iaioaaoe i?noii Ieeiea?aii
– a iai’youe i?i acyooy I.A.Noai?iaei oi?oaoe? I/ae?a o a?oaei? 1788
?ieo a aeaiue nayoiai Ieeieay – iie?iaeoaey ii?ye?a. Iaeaea iaeii/anii c
oeei ae?ooea o nai? ieaaaiiy ii *i?iiio ii?th ia?a?noie Ieeiea?anueeeo
ei?aaae?a – 50-aa?iaoiee o?aaao «Nayoie Ieeieae».

Ii caaeoio eiycy i. Ieeiea?a iiaeiii aoei noaoe eieeneith ? i?noeai
aacoaaiiy iieiaeiai *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

Aaeaei aea?aia aeey iiai? aa?o? i?noea oa aaeeea oaaaa c aieo eiycy A.I.
Iioueiie?ia aei noaiiaeaiiy ? c?inoaiiy eiai oethaeaiiai /i?iiii?nueeiai
ae?oeua aeaee nai? ?acoeueoaoe. Ia aenieeo aa?aaao eieeoiueiai
ionoeiiiai, iieoiai c o?ueio noi??i aiaeaie I?aaeaiiiai Aoao ? ?iaoeo
i?aino?iaa ae?inei aaeeea, e?aneaa i?noi, yea ia aeiaa? /ane noaei
oeaio?ii noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy ? ii?aieaaaiiy i?aaeiy ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a
iio?i ? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

Ia i?ioyc? aaaaoueio ?ie?a o i. Ieeiea?a? ?ici?uaany ooaa
*i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo ?in??. C ?noi???th i?noa iia’ycaia aeiey aaaaoueio
oneaaeaieo ?in?enueeeo oeioiaiaeoe?a – aaei??ae?a: N.I. Iaea?iaa; O.O.
Ooaeiaa; O.O. Aae?inaaocaia; A.I. Ei?i?eiaa; I.I. Eaca??aa; A.?.
Aooaeiaa; I.N. Iao?iiaa.

Aaeeeee aeeaae ieeiea?anueeeo ei?aaae?a o ii?nueeo ?noi??th ?in?? iiaea
i?aeoaa?aeeoe eeoa iaeei c aaaaoueio i?eeeaae?a. 18 (30) eenoiiaaea 1853
?. a N?iiinuee?e aooo? ia i?ai?/iiio ocaa?aaeae? Oo?a//eie ?in?enueea
aneaae?a i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi a?oea-aaei??aea I. N. Iao?iiaa aoaeoaaea
oo?aoeueeo a?iaaeo Iniai-iao?. Caiaeea aeoaa caaa?oeeanue iiaiei
?ica?iiii oo?e?a.

On? ?in?enuee? ei?aae?, ui a?aee o/anoue o oeueiio aith, aoee
iiaoaeiaai? ia Ieeiea?anuee?e noaeiiaoae?ai?e aa?o?!

Nueiaiaei? aaea iaeaea iaiiaeeeai ia?ae?/eoe an? aieia? ei?aae? oa
noaeia ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a ? i?ecia/aiue, ye? c?eoee ?c noaiae?a
Ieeiea?anueeeo noaeiiaoae?aieo caaiae?a. Aea iacaaoe oi/a a aeaye? c
ieo, iaea?eueo a?aeii?, o?aaa. Oea ia?oee oeaaiainueeee 90-aa?iaoiee
o?aaao ia?oniiai ?in?enueeiai oeioo «Nayoie Iaaae»; eaaaiaea?iee
a?iiaiinaoeue «Eiycue Iio?ieei-Oaa?e/aneee»; e?aena?e *i?iiii?nueeiai
oeioo ia?oeo ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a «*a?aiia Oe?a?ia» ? «E?aniue Eaaeac»,
ye? iie?eee naaa neaaith o ?iee Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie; oea
iaea?eueo? o na?o? eeoia?ei? aace «Niaaoneay Oe?aeia», «Niaaoneay
?inney»; ieaainuee? ?oaeiaice ? iaooi ?oaeiaice «Ciy Einiiaeaiyineay»,
«Ieeiea Aaaeai», «Ai?en Aooiia»; noia?o?aoea?e oeio «Iineianeay
Ieeiieaaea», oi?eaeueia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia noaeii «Aeaaeaiee Na?aae
Ei?ie?a». Oe?ea na??y iaia?aaa?oaieo ii nai?e aieia?e iiaooiino? ?
oaoi?/iiio iniauaiith no/anieo aieiaeo ei?aae?a iaiaiaaeaiiai ?aeiio
ieaaaiiy, iiaoaeiaaieo o inoaii? ?aaeyinuee? /ane, oaeeo ye, e?aena?
«Neaaa», aa?oieueioiiini? ? aa?aiinoe? e?aena?e «Iineaa», «Ee?a»,
«Ieine», «Iiai?inneene» oa ?io?.

Iioueiie?inuee? naea

I?ae /an ia?oi? iiaei?iae? Eaoa?eie II a 1787 ?. aei E?eio eiycue A. I.
Iioueiie?i (1739—1791), aaaeath/e iieacaoe oea?eoe? «i?ioea?oaiiy»
iiaiai, iauiaeaaii i?e?aeiaiiai aei ?in?? e?ath, iaeacaa nii?oaeeoe ia
aei?i?ianueeeo aa?aaao aeaei?aoeai? naea, iaeaoee, oi?oaoe?, ye? iaee
oe?eeii «ni?aaaei?e» aeaeyae. Iioueiie?i ianaaeaeoaaa Ia?ee, ye? aeioee
/a?ac e?eueea Aei?a i?ney i?i?caeo Eaoa?eie, iaeyaaa naeyi, ui aoee
c?aiai? aeey cono??/? oea?eoe?, o nayoeiaa aa?aiiy ? o. i. On? oe? ae??
ni?eoiiai oea?aaeai?oey aoee aee?eo? a iaioa?ao aaaaoueio eiai
no/aniee?a.

O ia?aiiniiio cia/aii? — ieicaieethaaiiy.

sseui aeeooy oe??? ethaeeie aoei ?aioiaei ? iacaaaiaiiei ceaoii aei
neaae, oi nia?oue ? ia?aaeoth/a ?e iiaea caeaeeny no/anieeai oaeei aea
iacaaaiaiiei iaae?iiyi. «Aaeeeieaiiue eiycue Oaa?eaeu», eiycue A?eai??e
Iioueiie?i, ca neiaaie Aea?aeaa?ia, «iae n aunio e ii/anoae» iina?aae
noaio, i?ae ssnnaie oa Ieeiea?aii. I?inoi e?a ia caieth ? iiia?, ca
io?oe?eiith aa?n??th — a?ae «ia?aiaaeathuaeny eeoi?aaeee». Eaoa?eia II
aea?aeaaiith ? ae?ii/ith aieath i?aeooiaoioea aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a
Iiai?in??, oai?oey *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo, caniiaieea Ieeiea?aa oa
Oa?niia, aei i???ae. A i?e/eiith oeueiai a/eieo ?iia?ao?eoe? noaa
«a?aoeueeee i?iaeo» eiycy Oaa?eaee, ?noeiia nooue yeiai e iiiei? iie?eoa
iaae?eiith caa?nith oa?iieoe?.

Aaia?aeueia ?aeay

Ia nueiaiaei? i?i Iioueiie?ia aaaaoi ui a?aeiii, aea ia aieiaia.
Caeeoa?oueny oa?iieoeath ca n?iiia caieaie «aaia?aeueia ?aeay», ye?e a?i
i?aeii?yaeeoaaa nai? aeeooy. Aeanoiethanoaii ? ianieiaeaie oey
aaia?aeueia ?aeay aae i?ye ia ae/a?io?oueny. A?ae ethaeeie, eio?o neoia
ia eiiie?iaioe ?iia?ao?eoey Eaoa?eia aaaaeaea aaeeeith ? aai?aeueiith, o
niiaaaeao no/aniee?a ? iauaaee?a caeeoeeeny iaei? eeoa aeeaaoeoaa:
ae?aiaioia? aoaeceee ia eaicie?, eaiaetho, aei oiai iaoyaeaiee
aei?iaioe?iiinoyie, ui ca Iioueiie?iei eiai iinea aae’thoaio,
iac?icoi?e? iaiaaee iaeaioie??, iai?aaeeoy/a ethaia aei ?iceio?…

Iaeiae aoei e ?ioa: Oioei, Oieoaie, Ea?aa, Eaaoe ? Oeea?e, aea
Iioueiie?i aithaaa ?c oo?eaie ? a?aa o iieii oo?aoeuee? noaeia, iio?i —
ieai iaieiae?iiy E?eiii, eio?ee eiycue ia?aoai?ea ia ae?eni?noue,
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noai a Iiai?in??, nii?oaeaeaiiy i?no o aacethaeiiio
noaio ?, ca?nii ae, «a?aoeueeee i?iaeo».

I?iaeo oeae iieyaaa o oiio, uia, caaieiae?aoe E?eiii ? I?ai?/iei
I?e/i?iiii?’yi, cieueoe Oo?a//eio ? iieeanoe ei?iio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
A?caio?? ia aieiao iaeiiai c iioe?a Eaoa?eie — oeana?aae/a Einoyioeia.
?i’y aeey iioea Eaoa?eia aeae?aea, iai’yoath/e i?i a?caio?enuee? ieaie
Iioueiie?ia, a nai eiycue, aaoue ianiiae?aaii aeey ?iia?ao?eoe?, aea?aa
aeey iaeaooiuei? a?ae?iaeaeaii? A?caio?? noieeoeth. ? ia
Eiinoaioeiiiieue—Noaiaoe, a Ieeiea?a, caniiaaiee iei ia caie? ae?aaiuei?
Ieuea??.

Ethaia Iioueiie?ia aei caniiaaiiai iei Ieeiea?aa caeeoeeany aeey
no/aniee?a iaeiei ?c aeeaaoeoa eiycy. Oae, canioaaa iina?aae noaio
i?noi, oae, oio?a aooe a iueiio iioiaaiei, a caniiaaiee iei aea Oa?nii
oa?i?oe ia i?a ? iaceaaa «o?oiith». *iio ae Ieeiea?a? *iio a inoaii?e
nai?e iiaei?iae? «/oaeiaee eiycue Oaa?eaee» i?aaioa aeia?aoeny naia aei
oeueiai i?noa? Ui aoei iniaeeaiai e aei?iaiai aeey eiycy a oeueiio
cae/aeiiio aeey I?aaeiy ?in?enueei? ?iia??? i?no?-aa?o?? Ieaie
Iioueiie?ia uiaei Ieeiea?aa oae ? caeeoeeeny oa?iieoeath, aea aeayea
na?oei ia ieo i?ieeaa? ?noi??y ethaia? eiycy aei i?ae?anii? a?aeei?,
Nio?? A?oo-Iioioeueei?, iaeaooiuei? ainiiaeei? oiainueeiai ia?eo.

I?eioa Nio??

«Ciaaoa ee au enoi?eth Ieeieaaaa? — ienaa 1818 ?ieo Ieeiea Eaaeoeueeee.
— «Ii iino?iai ii iiaaeaieth Eiycy Iioaieeia», — neaaeaoa au, e au
ioeaeenue. Aeaaiie i?e/eiith oiio, /oi ?iaeeeny e aic?in, aic?in e
?anionoeeny nae oeaaoie n?aaee iaee/aeie i?e?iaeu, aeaiueia i?aeanoiay n
i?ae?aniaeoae aua aeooith, n /oanoaeoaeueiui na?aeoeai, n oiieei oiii,
neiaii, aeaiueia-Aaiee oiaea i?eaea/ue na?aeoea Aaiey-aa?iy. Iaeii ay
neiai, e ia aeeeeo aa?aaao Eiaoea yaeeny ai?iae, ia ianoa aaaeiuo
?uaa/ueeo oeaeei ia?iiiua iaeaou Nianne e Aiaiyaeaine; iaeii ay neiai, e
aieoaaiay ?oea eneonnoaa iaeaea iaaey neaeu e ian/aiua oieiu ne?iiiuie
?iueoeaie e aaeeeieaiiuie naaeaie…»

Ieeiea Eaaeoeueeee iaa ia oaac? Nio?th A?oo, a?aeeith ca iioiaeaeaiiyi,
/ieia?e yei? ca i?ioaeoe??th Iioueiie?ia noaa eiiaiaeaioii Oa?niia.
Iiae?oaeaey A?oo?a c’yaeeiny a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ia cai?ioaiiy eiycy.
Nio?y, eio?a aaaaeaea naaa niaaeei?ieoeath ca?aei?eiai, aea ciaoiiai
a?aoeueeiai ?iaeo, aoea iaei??th c iae/a??ai?oeo ae?iie XVIII noie?ooy.
Aiia iaiaaeae?ea Iniainueeo ?iia??th ? i??yea i?i a?ae?iaeaeaiiy nai??
aaouee?aueie — iiaa?aeaii? A?aoe??—A?caio??. Iioueiie?i oaae ia iaeaaeaa
aei /enea ae?oc?a Iooiiainueei? Ii?oe ? /a?ac nai?o aaaio?a ia
Aaeeainueeiio i?aino?ia? o?eiaa ?oeo ia ioeuen? oe??? ?iia???, ui
ia?aaeeaaea ia iaee?au? /ane.

Iioueiie?ia ? Nio?th caaee ni?euei? ?ioa?ane, aea oo?eioaaea iaeei a?ey
iaeiiai i?eno?anoue. Eiycue i?aaioa aeeiiaoe aoaeue-yeo caaaaaieo Nio??.
«Eiio ana aoei aaeaeoaea, aae caaeiaieueieoe aaaeaiiy aai i?eioo
iaiaeithaaii? iei ae?iee, — ienaea no/anieoey Iioueiie?ia, ciaiaieoa
o?aioeocueea ii?o?aoenoea Ae?caaao A?aea-Eaa?ai. — Caeioaiee o iai? aea
A?oo, a?i ineiaa ?? iaeaeooeai?oeie etha’yciinoyie. Oae, iaeiiai ?aco,
aaaeath/e iiaea?oaaoe ?e eaoai??iao oaeue oaeaii aeniei? oe?ie, a?i
oeaoooaaa nayoi, ia yeiio aoei aei aeaionio aeai, a i?ney ia?aeo
aeaoooaaa eioa?ath, aea oae, ui eiaei?e ae?noaeiny ii oae?, a iaee?aua
?c oaeae aeiaea iaei?ae?ani?o?e ?c aeai». *e aa?oi aiai?eoe i?i oa, ui
«iaei?ae?ani?oith c aeai» aeyaeeany Nio?y A?oo… Aea, ca?nii, ni?aaa ia
iaiaaeeeany eaoai??iaith oaeeth. Aei i?a a?aeei? Nio?? Iioueiie?i
cae?aany eeiooe a?ae?iaeaeaio A?caio?enueeo ?iia??th.

Ia oie /an oyao eiycy Oaa?eaee aeaaii aaea oaeethaaea eaaaiaea, ca yeith
aeaaiueia?aoeueea oeea?e?caoe?y ca?iaeeeany a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?,
? ca?aeoe iioe?eeany ia oa?eoi??th ?noi?e/ii? Aeeaaee. Oiio ? noieeoeth
a?ae?iaeaeaii? A?caio?? Iioueiie?i oio?a aa/eoe naia a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’?, iaiiaeae?e ae?aaiuei? Ieuea??. Ieaie eiycy ca?aeeny c
aaaeaiiyie Nio?? A?oo. I?ae?ania oaia??ioea iaiaaeae?ea
Eiinoaioeiiiieue—Noaiaoe, aea i?ciaea i?eieaeaiiy ? ceeaei?, a iio?i
aoea i?iaeaia aeaniith iao??’th ca?aeaeaeiio ooea/o i?eaiae. Aei oiai ae
caniiaaiee Iioueiie?iei Ieeiea?a no?aoaa?/ii ? iie?oe/ii a?eueoa
i?aeoiaeea ia ?ieue iiai? a?caio?enueei? noieeoe?.

Iacaaa?ii o «a?aoeueeiio i?iaeo?» eiycy Oaa?eaee ia caeeoeeiny i?noey
?in?enuee?e ?iia?ao?eoe? Eaoa?ei? oa ?? iioeo Einoyioeio. Nio?y oa
Iioueiie?i ae??oeee iaa?i/aoeny ? ei?iioaaoeny ia iiaa oea?noai.
Ona?aeiiethth/e naith aeaaeo iaae eiycai, iai? A?oo caaeaaeaea a?ae
iueiai iaaaeieo ae?e. O noaiao I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y c’yaeeeny naaee,
ia?ee, naea, aa?o? oa i?noa.

O iaeueiaie/iio i?noe? ceeooy ??e Aoao oa ?iaoeo Iioueiie?i canioaaa
i?noi, yea iaei noaoe noieeoeath a?ae?iaeaeaii? A?caio??. A?eai??e
Ieaenaiae?iae/ iacaaa i?noi Ieeiea?aii ia /anoue nayoiai Ieeiee
Ie?e?e?enueeiai. Ooo, o io?iaaiiio niai?? na. A?eai??y, eiycue cae?aany
iiaanoe i?ae a?iaoeue Nio?th, a a o?ai? nayoiai Ieeiee Oaiaeieea —
ei?iioaaoeny. Iaeaoe aeey Nio?? oa Iioueiie?ia aaea caeeaaeaany. A?ey
iueiai ?iicaiaoeue-naae?aiee ?icaea ia?e.

? naae?a, ? iaeaoe?a o iiaiio i?no? ae?enii aoei a aeinoaoeo. Uii?aaaea,
aei iei?oi?o /an?a aaaaoi c oeeo /oaean ia aeiaeeee. E?oi?e iaeaoe
yniiaaeueiiaeiiai eiycy aoei niaeaii iao?inaie iacaaa?ii i?ney
AEiaoiaai? ?aaiethoe??, «aaee/aci? iaeaoe Nianuee ? Aiaiyaeainuee»,
caaaeai? Eaaeoeueeei, ia?aoai?eeeny ia ?aeiie Ieeiea?aa, a ?i’y Nio??
A?oo noaee iia’ycoaaoe ia c Iioueiie?iei ? Ieeiea?aii, a c a?aoii
Iioioeueeei ? oiainueeei ia?eii. ? noaeiny oae oiio, ui a?caio?enueeei
ieaiai Iioueiie?ia oa Nio?? ia noaeeeiny cae?enieoeny. O a?o anooieea
?iia?ao?eoey Eaoa?eia.

O?ae ?iia?ao?eoe?

Ainoaea?eiy aeaaii aaea iiaithaaeany «/oaeiaiai eiycy Oaa?eaee», eio?ee
cina?aaeea o nai?o ?oeao iaiii??io aeaaeo. Iioueiie?i noaaaa
iaea?iaaiei, ? ?iia?ao?eoe? oaia? i?/iai aoei aa?aaoe eiycy — ??
oo?aioith e ii?eith ei?enooaaany iiaee oaai?eo, Ieaoii Coaia. Aei oiai
ae ieaie Nio?? oa Iioueiie?ia ?icai?aaee Eaoa?eio: aiia ii/aea aeoiaoe
i?i onoiaiiy A?eai??y Ieaenaiae?iae/a.

?nio? a?iioaca, ui Eaoa?eia iai?aaeea aei eiycy iieiaeiai e?ea?y,
niaoe?aeueii iaa/aiiai «ienoaoeoao» iiaiaeaeaiiy c io?ooaie, ?
Iioueiie?i aoa io?o?iee. Ao?i, iaa?oue yeui oae? aeac?aee ? ia aoee
aeai?, ?aioiaa ? iac?icoi?ea nia?oue A?eai??y Ieaenaiae?iae/a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aa?n?th i?i io?o?iiy. Uii?aaaea, iaynii, ooi a aeaiiio
?ac? aenooiaa caiiaieeii. «*oaeiaee eiycue Oaa?eaee» iiia? iina?aae
noaio, ii aei?ic? a i?noi, aea cae?aany ei?iioaaoeny, a «?iia?ao?eoeth»,
eio?a iath oae ? ia noaea — Nio?th A?oo, — i?iaeaee ao?ao? ? ainoaii? o
?? aeeoo?. Iieoioeai noaa a?ao Noai?neaa Iioioeueeee.

?c ei?iiiei aaoueiaiii, a?aoii Enaaa???i-Noai?neaaii Iioioeueeei, Nio?y
A?oo iiciaeiieeany ua 1788 ?ieo, ca o?e ?iee aei nia?o? Iioueiie?ia,
eiee ca oa?iiei aei?o/aiiyi yniiaaeueiiaeiiai ?caeeea ia Aa?oaanueeee
naei. Oiae? aiia ia?aeiiaea Iioioeueeiai i?eieiooe aei Oa?aiaeoeueei?
eiioaaea?aoe??, i?ney /iai aeaooioei iianoaiiy Einothoea, ? a?ao
ciooaiee aoa caeeoeoe aaouee?aueio. Ia iano?eio aeiiao ?in?enueei?
?iia?ao?eoe? A?oo caoa ?c ?oe naith /a??aio ae?ieo, ca eio?o iaeei
caeioaiee Iioioeueeee aeeeaa aeaa i?eueeiie iieuenueeeo ceioeo. Ao?i,
iaa?i/aoeny aiie ciiaee eeoa i?ney nia?o? ia?oi? ae?oaeeie a?aoa,
AEicao?ie-Aiae?? Ii?oae—Iioioeueei?, a?aeiii? ooaeiaeieoe?, eio?a
inii?thaaea eaa?e Ae?caaao A?aea-Eaa?ai. Iioioeueeee ? Nio?y inaeeeeny a
Oiai?, aea a?ao eeioa aei i?a nai?? aiaei? ?ice?oiee ia?e.

?iia?ao?eoey Eaoa?eia onueiai ia i’youe ?ie?a ia?aaeeea ethaeeio, eio?o
nii/aoeo i?eno?anii ethaeea, a iio?i ia iaio i?eno?anii iaiaaeae?ea.
Eaaeooue, aiia iieaeoaaea «eiycy Oaa?eaee», a neueice oe? aeoe?aa iiaee
oaai?eo ainoaea?ei?, e?anaiue Ieaoii Coaia. Nia?oue Iioueiie?ia
ia?aai?ioea iaee?au? noi??iee eaoa?eieinueeiai oea?thaaiiy, yea anooiaei
o nai? iaieio/? i?enia?ee. Aea?aeaa?i iaienaa ia nia?oue Iioueiie?ia
iaeo, a Nio?y — ieiia?eueia aeioaaoeoey caaeaae? yniiaaeueiiaeiiai — ona
aeeooy iieaeoaaea eiai, «ye ??aeiiai a?aoa».

Ai?eia

Iioueiie?i aaaeaa aooe iioiaaiei o Ieeiea?a?, aea ca ??ii??th aeie? oa
aie? ?iia?ao?eoe? Eaoa?eie eiai iioiaaee a Oa?nii?, i?no?, yea eiycue
iaceaaa «o?oiith». O Ieeiea?anueeiio iaeaniiio a?o?a?, o aeo?iae?
aeo?aeieo eacaiieo eeno?a ca 1791 ??e, i?noyoueny oe?ii? ?noi?e/i?
a?aeiiino? i?i oai?iao, nia?oue ? iioi?ii eiycy. Oe? a?aeiiino? i?enooi?
a eii?yo i?aea??a, eeno?a ? ?aii?o?a, iaienaieo o aa?ani?—eenoiiaae?
1791 ?ieo ia?oei aoae?aaeueieeii Ieeiea?aa, iieeiaieeii I.Oae??aei,
i?aeeaaeei eiio io?oea?ai, aeuei eiiaiaeiei iniaai ? iniaai aeooiaiiai
caaiiy. Aiie ?iciia?aeathoue inue i?i ui.

29 aa?aniy 1791 ?ieo I.Oae??a iaea?aeaa ?c ssnn a?ae aeia??aii? iniae
eiycy Iioueiie?ia ? ia/aeueieea eiai eaioeaey??? aaia?ae-iaei?a A.Iiiiaa
ca?noeo i?i oa, ui «…aai naaoeinoe aieaciue onoaoaeeanue, e ana a?a/e
niiiaaathony a aai aeecie». Oiai ae aeiy Oae??a ae?oaa iiooiaei o?aeoii
o ssnne. 3 aeiaoiy a?i iia?aeiiea ca?aeoe iaa?-?ioaiaeaioo
Ieeiea?anueeiai aaei??aeoaenoaa i?aeiieeiaieeo N.Aoaianue?ao, ui
«…iinea iianiiai oneeaiey aieacie ii/oanoaiaae aai naaoeinoue
iaeaa/aiea e ecaieee aeaoue iia ciaoue, /oi anei?a ioi?aaeony a Ieeieaaa
e aoaeao eiaoue oai i?aauaaiea aei niaa?oaiiiai aucaei?iaeaiey…»

4 aeiaoiy 1791 ?. oai?ee Iioueiie?i caeeoea ssnne ? ae?oaa o Ieeiea?a. O
eiai ii/o? ia?aaoaaa ? I.Oae??a, eio?ee o aei?ic? noaa ieiia?eueiei
na?aeeii ianiiae?aaii? nia?o? eiycy. O?ei Iioueiie?ia aeinoaaeee iacaae
o ssnne, aea e?ea?? eiai aaeuecaioaaee. A?aaeaiee oe??th iiae??th,
I.Oae??a ienaa o Ieeiea?a, ui «iu eeoeeenue aaeeeiai e ieeina?aeiiai
iaoaai ia/aeueieea naaoeaeoaai eiycy A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a, ii,
aoaaoe a Ieeieaaa, a 37 aa?noao io ssnn 5 ieoya?y ieii/ee aeeciue naith
a iiea, inoaay anai aa/iia niaeaeaiea, a iia iaooaoeoaeueioth ai?anoue,
/a?ac 4 aeiy auiin aoaeao aai oaeo…»

13 aeiaoiy a?aeaoeany aeaeiaia oea?aiii?y, i?ney yei? I.Oae??a ae?oaa o
Ieeiea?a, a o?ei Iioueiie?ia caeeoaeiny a ssnnao aei iniaeeaiai ia oa
?icii?yaeaeaiiy ?iia?ao?eoe?. 29 aeiaoiy I.Oae??a iaea?aeaa eii?th
iaeaeuiai ?ane?eioo c iiaae?iiyi ?iia?ao?eoe? i?i iioiaaiiy o?ea
Iioueiie?ia a Oa?nii?, aea a iioaio caneoa eiycy ia?aae aaouee?aueiith
aoei iaeacaii anoaiiaeoe eiio iai’yoiee.

2 eenoiiaaea I.Oae??a a?aei?aaea A.Iiiiao eeno, o yeiio i?inea iini?eyoe
o iioiaaii? o?ea Iioueiie?ia naia o Ieeiea?a?.. I?e oeueiio a?i ienaa,
ui «…eo/oa anee a iii iia?aaaii auei a ai?iaea Nayoiai Ieeieay,
eioi?ue ii (Iioaieei) aicaeaeaioe a iaiyoue I/aeianeie iiaaaeu e
noieueei ethaee aai, /oi aeaeae inoaoee aeiae naieo i?iaiaeeoue a
iiianou?a Niannei-Ieeieaaaneii, ia no?iaiea eioi?iai e ieai iia aeae
iiaeienaiiue naiath ?oeie. Aic?aaeiaaeanue au aeooa aai, ace?ay n iaaan
ia oaei, a eioi?ii iia auea, /oi iii iia?aaaii a ethaeiii aai a?aaea,
caeanue aea e oea?eiaue ai eiy aai aiaaea aicaeaeaiooa. Oa?nii ia iia ii
oa?iaoue, ii/eoae oi ianoi i/aiue iacaei?iaui, e aeey oiai oai ieeiaaea
ii/aaaoue ia oioae e eae au iicaeii ie auei, oacaeae a Aiaiyaeaine: ia
?annoaeeoa ee, ieeinoeaue ainoaea?ue, i nai aeieiaeeoue ainoaea?uia? A
iaaeaeo oai naeaeaoue a Oa?niia neeai, a eiai iieiaeeoue ia a?aiy oaei,
iiea a Ieeieaaaa inayoeony oea?eiaue».

Iaeiae i?ioaiiy I.Oae??aa oae ? ia caaeiaieueieee. Iaei oiai, iaa?oue
ia?o?oo ?ooo aeaeiaiiai ei?oaaeo c o?eii Iioueiie?ia aoei i?ieeaaeaii ?c
ssnn o Oa?nii ia iaeei?iooei oeyoii — iiooiaei oeyoii /a?ac Ieeiea?a, a
a ia’?cae eiai, noaiii. Eeoa caaaeyee ni?eyiith a?o??ieneiia
Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai Aia?in?y ia?o?oo ?ooo aeaeiaiiai ei?oaaeo aaeaeiny
ci?ieoe, oa e oi aaea ia oeyoo eiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy. O Aiaiyaeainueeo
aeaeiaia oea?aiii?y aoea i?iaaaeaia a aeiiaoi?e oea?ea? ieai?iieoe?
eiycy, a?aoei? A.A?aieoeueei?.

26 eenoiiaaea I.Oae??a o eeno? A.Iiiiao iia?aeiiea, ui «naai ianyoea 23
/enea oaei iieieiiai naaoeaeoaai eiycy a Oa?niineie niai?iie oea?eae
i?aaeaii caiea n iiaeiaathuae oea?aiiieae, ianoi aeey iia?aaaiey aua?aii
i?enoieiia… ia iiii eiath iiaeianoe i?e nai ieai ?aniieiaeaiey
icia/aiiie oea?eae. I?eee/ii au ooo auei iinoaaeoue athno, neacuaatho,
/oi anoue a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa naeaeaiiue e i/aiue iioiae, a iao, oae
iiaeii au naeaeaoue a Eoaeee: y i?eeaaath i?e nai eaeath iiiio e aaeaee
ney ia aiaeeony, ieeinoeaue ainoaea?ue, i?iaeaeoe?iaaoue eneoniaeoei
ooaeiaeieeai, a iiaeienue iii?ioo y Aaneeey Iao?iae/a naeaeaoue… Ia
auei /aeiaaea, eoi au ia i?ieee ai?/aeoeo neac i?e nai neo/aa, y ia
iaiueoa eiae iiaoaeaeaiey e oiio. Aniiieiae iocuau aai naaoeinoe i
Oa?niia, ii anaaaea iacuaae aai a?iaii e aoaeoi i?aae/oanoaiaae, /oi oai
iia?aaaio aio auoue. Ioaeaaoe iineaaeiee aeiea oniioaio, aica?aoeeny y a
Ieeieaaa…»

Na?oeee eiycue A?eai??e Iioueiie?i -Oaa??enueeee, I?aceaeaio Aea?aeaaii?
A?enueeiai? eieaa??, aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae, Aaeeeee Aaoueiai
Eicaoeueeeo, Aeaoa??iineaanueeeo ? *i?iiii?nueeeo a?enuee,
Aieiaiieiiaiaeoth/ee Aeaoa??iineaanueeith a?i??th, eaaeith ?aaoey?iith
e?iiioith, oeioii *i?iiii?nueeei ? ?ioeie nooiiooieie ? ii?nueeeie
a?enueeiaeie neeaie; Naiaoi?, Aeaoa??iineaanueeee, Oaa??enueeee ?
Oa?e?anueeee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?; ?? ?iia?aoi?nueei? Aaee/iino? a?enuee
aaia?ae-?iniaeoi?, aaia?ae-aae`thoaio, ae?eniee eaia?aa?, eaea-aaa?ae??
I?aia?aaeainueeiai iieeo i?aeiieeiaiee, ei?iono eaaaea?aa?ae?a oao;
I?aeai?a Aiae??y Ia?aicaaiiiai, Nayoiai Ieaenaiae?a Iaanueeiai, Nayoiai
Aai?a?y, ??aiiaiinoieueiiai eiycy Aieiaeeie?a, Nayoi? Aaiie, i?onnueeiai
*i?iiai i?ea, aeainueeiai Neiia, oaaaenueeiai Na?aoeia, iieuenueeiai
A?eiai I?ea, Nayoiai Noai?neaaa eaaaea?.

*oaeiai neacaa i?i iueiai i?eioe aea E?iue, ui ciaa an?o oeoai?a naiai
/ano, a?ae O??ae??oa Aaeeeiai aei Iaiieaiia: «Oea iaeaeeaiaeaei?oa
ethaeeia, yeiai iai? aeiaaeiny cono??oe […] ioaeueaoth/ee na?aae
caaeiaieaiue; iauaniee a?ae aeanii? oni?oiino?; iaiii??iee o anueiio,
o?einio, ui eaaei ?ic/a?iao?oueny, /anoi iioio?ee, iaiino?eiee,
aeeaieee, caeaoiee i?i?no?, iaenoa?iee iie?oee — ? ?aioii aeanyoe??/ia
aeeoeia […] A /iio iieyaaea nae?ao eiai /a??aieoeoaa? Aai?e, aai?e ?
ua ?ac aai?e; i?e?iaeia iaaea?iaai?noue, a?aei?iia iai’youe, i?aeianaiee
eaae aeoo?; aeoceea?noue aac i?aaiaiiy ia?aceoe, a?oenoe/i?noue aac
iaa?aii? […] caeaoi?noue caaieiaoaaoe a e?au? iiiaioe aoaeue-yea
na?oea, aaciaeiy uaae?ino? […] oiieee niae — ? yeiaeaeeaoa ciaiiy
ethaenueei? aeoo?».

(Naeiii Naaaa-Iiioao?i?a «Iioaieei»)

28-e aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/
Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee

Eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee, nui ionoaaiiai
iaei?a, neoaeeaoaai a aa?ieciiiii iieeo, ?iaeeeny Niieaineie aoaa?iee
Aeooiaueineiai oacaea a iaaieueoie aea?aaia iooea naiaai *eaeiaa a
naioya?a 1736 aiaea. Ii i?iecioae io ae?aaiae aeai?yineie oaieeee,
ia?anaeeaoaeny ec Iieueoe a ?inneth e a iaeieaonoai Iao?a Aaeeeiai
aeiaieueii ciaiaieoie [1]. Iacia/aaiue a aeooiaiia caaiea, Iioaieei
iao/aeny nia/aea a niieaineie naieia?ee, iioii ioi?aaeai a Iineianeee
oieaa?neoao. Caeanue iinauae ii n aieueoei i?eeaaeaieai eaeoeee
i?ioanni?ia, ieacae auno?ua oniaoe a iaoeao, aeaeay — eae oaa?aeee
oiaa?euai naiei — auoue iai?aiaiii a?oea?aai eee ieieno?ii; iieo/ee
cieiooth iaaeaeue (1756 a.) e anei?a nineo/eeny aaeeiiia?aciui o/aieai,
ia?anoae oiaeeoue a oieaa?neoao, aueeth/ai ec iiiai [2], ia?auaeny n
iaeieie iiiaoaie, aanaaeoy a Caeeiiinianneii e A?a/aneii iiianou?yo i
aeiaiaoao aa?u. Eacaeinue, thiioa, iaea?aiiue io i?e?iaeu eieinnaeueiui
?inoii, ioaeanoaaiiie e?anioie, oiii aaaeui, iaiyoueth iaiaueiiaaiiie,
aioiaee naay e iioaieth ieo?u: auoei i?ioeaiia. *anoiethaeaue i?aa aai
ia iia aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny naiii ianou?y oea?eae, aeaeae iiaaeaaaoue
iiiaeie, aiiyeny ca neaaith e aiooee aio n/anoeeaoth iuneue naeeceoueny
n Aeai?ii aiaiiith neoaeaie. A /enea aeooiaiuo, eioi?uo iinauae
Iioaieei, iaoiaeeeny Aia?inee Ca?oen-Eaiaineee, auaoee oiaaea
a?oeaieneiiii E?ooeoeeei e Iiaeaeneei: ii iaeia?ee aai iaia?aiea e aeae
aio ia aei?iao iyouenio ?oaeae [3]. Ec eaeuee iiianou?neie Iioaieei
ia?aianny e aa?aaai Iaau e anei?a i?eiyo a eiiioth aaa?aeeth; iao/aeny
o?aioeocneiio ycueo a naiaiaeiia a?aiy. Ii aue aaoieno?ii yoiai iieea,
eiaaea anooieea ia i?anoie Aeaoa?eia II (1762 a.), iaoiaeeeny a aa naeoa
e oneuoaa, /oi Eiia?ao?eoea aeaeaao eiaoue oaieye ia oiaaa, ni?aae naie
nianoaaiiue, iiaeuaoae e Ainoaea?uia e iniaeeeny iiaeianoe iiue. ?aoeaay
eioaaeue Iioaieeia, i?eaueoay e yneaae?iiiiio o/aieth, ii?aaiyeanue n
eioaaeueth Eiia?ao?eoeu e, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey aai, oii?noaiaaea
oaeaeeoueny. Aeaoa?eia oeuaioeanue, acaeyioea ia ioaaaeiiai anaaeieea,
ni?ineea i aai oaieeee, i?iecaaea ia ae?oaie aeaiue (29 ethiy) Iioaieeia
ioeoea?ii aaa?aeee, iioii iiaeii?o/eeii e eaia?-thiea?ii, i?eeacaa
auaeaoue aio aeaa ouny/e ?oaeae. Ii aue ioi?aaeai a Noieaieuei e
ieieno?o iaoaio i?e oaaaeneii aeai?a, a?aoo Inoa?iaio, n oaaaeiieaieai i
iineaaeiaaaoae ia?aiaia a i?aaeaiee.

Aica?aoynue a N. Iaoa?ao?a, Iioaieei noa?aeny naeeceoueny n I?eiauie,
eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue ai anae naiae neea, aue i?eiyo a iauanoai
Eiia?ao?eoeu, aaea ethaaciinoue e i?inoioa caiaiyee i?eioaeaeaiiua
iaueiiaaiey, i?eeiiaiaee?iaai, iioii, aoaeo/e ii?o/eeii, e
iaa?-i?ieo?i?o Na. Neiiaea Eaaio Eaaiiae/o Iaeeneii. A 1768 aiaeo ii
eiae oaea /ei aeaenoaeoaeueiiai eaia?aa?a e naeoiae-?ioieno?a eiiiie
aaa?aeee. Oiaaea ia/ae Iioaieei iaaeoiuaaoue ieai naiaai aicauoaiey e
iiaouanoaa, ia aeiaieuenoaoynue iieo/aiiuie iaa?aaeaie; aeaeae aieueoaai
e, /oanoaoy naie i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ae?oaeie, oaa?ai aue a oniaoa.

A 1769 aiaeo aicai?aeanue aieia n Oo?oeeath. Iioaieei ainiieueciaaeny
yoei neo/aai, /oiau oaeaeeoueny ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ec noieeoeu; neoaeee
nia/aea iiae ciaiaiaie aaia?ae-aioaoa eiycy Aieeoeuia, iioii a a?iee
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea a?aoa ?oiyioeaaa: o/anoaiaae 19 ethiy, a
ii?aaeaiee aaia?ae-iaei?ii eiycai I?ici?ianeei aeaaaeoeaoeouny/iiai
oo?aoeeiai aienea, ia?aoaaeoaai o Oioeia ia eaaue aa?aa Aeiano?a e
aeaeaaoaai i?ia?aoueny e Eaiaiaoe-Iiaeieueneiio; a iaeaaeaiee, 2 ethey,
oo?aoeeeie oe?aieaieyie iiae Oioeiui; iiaeaeiaai a aaia?ae-iaei?u ca
ieacaiioth o?aa?inoue e iiuoiinoue a aiaiiuo aeaeao;
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaoy io?yaeii eiiieoeu, ioee/ee naay a n?aaeaiee, 29
aaaonoa, ia eioi?ii aa?oiaiue aece?ue, Iieaeiaaiaee-iaoa e e?uineee oai
auee niaa?oaiii ?acaeou e ia?auaiu a aaanoai.

A?ao ?oiyioeaa, i?eiya aeaaiia ia/aeuenoai iaae a?ieae iinea eiycy
Aieeoeuia e oaaaeuaay, eaeay o/anoue iaeeaeaea Iioaieeia, aeinoaaeye aio
neo/ae iiaeeiaoue eaa?u; ii oaai/ae naay iiaith neaaie, a ia/aea yiaa?y
1770 aiaea, a ie?anoiinoyo Oieoai, ii?ieeioe (4 /enea) ca ?aeo Ieeeo,
aianoa n aaia?ae-iaei?ii a?aoii Iiaeai?e/aie, oo?aoeeee aeanyoeouny/iue
ei?ion, i?aaeaiaeeiue Noeeiai-iaoith e na?anee?ii ?oiaee-Aaeane;
iieiaeee ia ianoa ouny/o /aeiaae, ioiye iyoue i?oaeee, aeaa ciaiy e
iyoue oo? n ii?ioii; niaeaenoaiaae (4 oaa?aey) aaia?ae-ii?o/eeo
Ooioaeueio a iaeaaeaiee AEo?aeath; i?aneaaeiaae iai?eyoaey, ia?auaiiiai
a aaanoai ?oiyioeaaui, 17 ethiy, aeec ?yaie-Iiae-eu; o/anoaiaae a aeoaao
Ea?aneie (7 ethey) e Eaaoeueneie (21 ethey); io?acee ia iineaaeiae oaia
e?uineiai, iaia?aaaaoaainy oaea?eoue a oue ?onneie a?iee; iaa?aaeaeai
i?aeaiaie Na. Aiiu e Na. Aai?aey o?aoueaai eeanna; i?eiye aeayoaeueiia
o/anoea a caiyoee Eciaeea aaia?ae-ii?o/eeii eiycai ?aiieiui; ia?aue
anooiee a i?aaeianouea Eeeee, eiaaea iii auei iauyoi ieaiaiai; n oniaoii
io?acee (1771 a.) iaiaaeaiey oo?ie ia E?aiia; auoaniee eo ec Oeeia?u;
inaiaiaeee iaoiaeeaoeony a yoii ai?iaea o?enoeai; naeaa ianeieueei
iai?eyoaeueneeo noaeia ia Aeoiaa e /aou?a iaaaceia, iaiieiaiiua ioeith e
nooa?yie; ia?aoee a aaanoai /aou?aoouny/iue io?yae oo?aoeeee (17 iay) ia
iioiaea e ?aea Ieueoa; aea?aeae a inaaea e?aiinoue Oo?io, aianoa n
aaia?ae-iaei?ii Aoaeiae/ai; i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaoy iaaieueoith oeioeeeae
(a ieoya?a), aeaeae iienee ia i?aaii aa?aao Aeoiay, iiaeoiaeee e
Neeeno?ee. A 1772 aiaeo i?ienoiaeeee ia?aaiai?u i ie?a, e Iioaieei
i?iaae yoi a?aiy, aieueoath /anoueth, a oeao?iea eee eaaea ia nioa,
iia?oaeaiiue a ?aciuoeaiea. Iaaeaeo oai ii i?iecaaaeai a
aaia?ae-ii?o/eee ca i?ioaaeooth neoaeao.

N aiciaiiaeaieai aiaiiuo aeaenoaee (1773 a.) Iioaieei niiaa iaiaaeee ia/
naie: ia?ai?aaeeny /a?ac Aeoiae a aeaeo iiiai/eneaiiiai iai?eyoaey, 7
ethiy, o/anoaiaae a ?acaeoee Iniaia-iaoe iiae Neeeno?eae, a iaeaaeaiee
aai eaaa?ai. Yoe iiaeaeae Iioaieeia inoaeenue aac iaa?aaeaeaiey.
Inei?aeaiiue iieeiaiaeaoe, anaaaea i?aaei?eei/eaue, ioi?aaeeny a N.
Iaoa?ao?a e ?aoeeny iaienaoue neaaeothuaa ienueii e Eiia?ao?eoea [4]:
«Anaieeinoeaaeoay Ainoaea?uiy! Ii?aaeaeee y aeeciue iith aeey neoaeau
Aaoae, ia uaaeee aa ioithaeue, aaea oieueei aue neo/ae e i?ineaaeaieth
Auni/aeoaai Eiaie. Nea iinoaay naaa i?inoui aeieaii, ia iuneee ieeiaaea
i naiai ninoiyiee e anee aeaeae, /oi iia ona?aeea niioaaonoaiaaei Aaoaai
Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa aiea, ii/eoae oaea naay iaa?aaeaeaiiui.
Iaoiaeynue ii/oe n naiiai anooieaiey a a?ieth eiiaiaee?ii ioaeaeaiiuo e
e iai?eyoaeth anaaaea aeeceeo aiene, ia oionoee y iaiineoue iiiio
anaaiciiaeiiai a?aaea: a /ai nnueathnue ia eiiaiaeothuaai a?ieath e ia
naieo oo?ie. Ioithaeue ia iiaoaeaeaai y caaenoueth e oai, eie iieiaea
iaiy, ii iieo/eee eeoiea ciaee Auni/aeoae ieeinoe, a oai aaeeinoaaiii
inei?aeythnue, /oi ia caeeth/athnue ee y a iuneyo Aaoaai Aaee/anoaa
iaiueoa i?i/eo aeinoiei? Nei aoaeo/e oa?caai, i?eiye aea?ciiaaiea, iaa e
nayuaiiui noiiai Aaoaai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa, i?ineoue, aaeaee
neoaeaa iiy aeinoieia Aaoaai aeaaiaieaiey e eiaaea uaae?ioa e
Aunieiiiia?oay ieeinoue ei iia ia ineoaeaaatho, ?ac?aoeoue nea niiiaiea
iia iiaeaeiaaieai iaiy a aaia?ae-aaeuthoaiou Aaoaai Eiia?aoi?neiai
Aaee/anoaa. Nea ia aoaeao ieeiio a iaeaeo, a y i?eio ca aa?o iiaai
n/anoey, oai ia/a, /oi iaoiaeynue iiae iniaeeaui iie?iaeoaeuenoaii
Aaoaai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa, oaeinoithnue i?eieiaoue i?aioae?ua
Aaoe iiaaeaiey e, aieeay a iiua, naeaeathnue ayua niiniaiui e neoaeaa
Aaoaai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa e Ioa/anoaa». Ia ae?oaie aeaiue
Iioaieei oaeinoieeny iieo/eoue neaaeothuee nianoaaiii?o/iue ?ane?eio:
«Ainiiaeei aaia?ae-ii?o/ee! Ienueii aaoa a. No?aeaeia Iia naai oo?a
a?o/ee e ss i?inueao aaoo iaoea noieue oia?aiiith a ?annoaeaeaiee caneoa
aaoeo, Iia e Ioa/anoao o/eiaiiuo, /oi ss i?eeacaea ecaioiaeoue oeac i
iiaeaeiaaiee aan aaia?ae-aaeuthoaioii. I?eciathnue, /oi e nea Iia
aanueia i?eyoii, /oi aeiaa?aiiinoue aaoa ei Iia auea oaeiaa, /oi au
i?inueao aaoo aae?aniaaee i?yii ienueiii ei Iia, a ia eneaee iiai/iuie
aei?iaaie. Ai?i/ai i?aauaath e aai aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiay Aeaoa?eia [5]».

Aneaae ca oai, Iioaieei iieo/ee i?aeai Na. Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai (1774
a.); ia/ae iinauaoue ii i?aaeiaio iauanoaa Eiia?ao?eoeu; aue aanae,
caieiae niaith ae?oaeo; iioii naeaeaeny ianio?iui, caaeoi/eaui, inoaaee
nianai Aeai?, oaeaeeeny a Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneee iiianou?ue; iauyaee, /oi
aeaeaao iino?e/ueny, o/eeny oai oea?eiaiiio onoaao, io?anoee ai?iaeo,
iinee iiiaoaneia ieaouea. Oae iaiaueiiaaiiue /aeiaae yoio i?ieaaae
aei?iao e naiaio aicauoaieth! Aeooaaiay nei?aue aai e oiuiea ia
inoaeenue nie?uouie io Aeai?a, aicaoaeeee ethaiiuonoai e aeaeinoue
iiiai, e anei?a a?aiaiiue iooaeueiee na?inee /a?ioth iaeaaeaeo e yaeeny
n?aaee ecoieaiiuo oea?aaeai?oeaa ai anai aeanea ethaeioea n/anouey. A
oii aea aiaeo iiaeaeiaai ii aaia?ae-aioaoii, Aiaiiie Eieeaaee
aeoea-i?aceaeaioii, eaea-aaa?aeee I?aia?aaeaineiai iieea iiaeiieeiaieeii
e (25 aeaeaa?y) eaaaea?ii i?aeaia Na. Aiinoiea Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai. A
neaaeothuai aiaeo (1775) iieo/ee i?aeai Na. Aai?aey aoi?iai eeanna ca
?aoiua iiaeaeae i?ioea oo?ie a i?ioaaeooth eaiiaieth; iacia/ai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?inneeneie, Acianeie e Ano?aoaineie aoaa?iee, n
aeanoueth e i?aeiouanoaaie oea?neiai iaianoieea, a ii caeeth/aiee n
Ii?oith Iooiiaineie ie?a, iaa?aaeaeai (10 ethey): ca niiniaoanoaiaaiea e
iiiio aeia?uie niaaoaie a?aoneei aeinoieinoaii ?inneeneie eiia?ee; ca
o?aa?ua e iaooiieiua o?oaeu oiaaith, inuiaiiith aeiacaie, e a ciae
Iiia?oaai ca oi aeaaiaieaiey ii?o?aoii Eiia?ao?eoeu aeey iioaiey ia
a?oaee.

Nia/aea Iioaieei ia eiae aieueoiai aeeyiey ia aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiua,
oioue e iieueciaaeny niaa?oaiiith aeiaa?aiiinoueth Aeaoa?eiu, aeee ai
Aeai?oea, aaea aaeaaeiaaii iieeiiieee ?aaieainoaiaaee ia?aae iei, a oi
a?aiy eae ii, eaaea ia aeeaaia, ia ia?auae ia ieo aieiaiey. A 1776
aiaeo, Eiia?ao?eoea iiaeaeiaaea aai ii?o/eeii eaaaea?aa?aeneiai ei?iona
e enoiaeaoaenoaiaaea aio eiyaeaneia aeinoieinoai eiia?ee ?eineie n
oeooeii naaoeaeoaai. Iaaeaeo oai aic?anoaaoaa iiao/anoai Iioaieeia
canoaaeei e ae?oaeo ainoaea?ae eneaoue a iai: ei?ieue iieueneee
i?ai?iaiaeee e iaio i?aeaia Aaeiai I?ea e Na. Noaieneaaa; O?eae?eo
Aaeeeee ii?o/ee a?aoo naiaio, i?eioeo Aai?eoo, aiceiaeeoue ia iaai eaioo
*a?iiai I?ea; aeaoneee ei?ieue i?eneae i?aeai Neiia, oaaaeneee i?aeai
Na?aoeia.

Naeaeaaoenue iaiaoiaeeiui aeey Aeaoa?eiu Aaeeeie, ai?aeue aaeueiiaea,
oaa?aiiue a naiae neea, ioi?aaeeny (1777 a.) a iiae/eiaiiia aio
iaianoie/anoai aeey iii?aaeaiey ?anno?iaiiiai caei?iauey. Oea?aaeai?oeu,
a?aae Iioaieeia, ?aaeiaaeenue oaeaeaieth aai; ii iooaoanoaea yoi auei
iniiaaii ia ooii/aiiie iieeoeea: ii oeeiieeny ia a?aiy aeey oiai
oieueei, /oiau aeinoeaiooue iioii aa?iaa i?aiieiaeaiiie oeaee. Ia
aei?iaa aacaea no?ieee a /anoue aai o?eoioaeueiua ai?ioa, aiai?eee aio
i?eaaonoaaiiua ?a/e, aeaaaee i?acaeieee. Aeaoa?eia iiaea?eea aio
Aie/eianeee aeai?aoe e iiaeaeiaaea ainaiueaeanyo ouny/ ?oaeae ia
iii?aaeo iaaaee; ii Iioaieei, aica?aoynue a noieeoeo, inoaiiaeeny ii
i?aaeiaio a Ceiiai aeai?oea e iioii ia?aaoae a niaaeiue n iiui,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee Y?ieoaaeo (1777 a.). Caeanue i?enooiee ii e aeaaii
iaaeoiaiiiio ei ieaio ioiineoaeueii ecaiaiey oo?ie e oaoa? ec Aa?iiu,
ainnoaiiaeaiey A?a/aneie eiia?ee. Oaa?ytho, aoaeoi au Iioaieei
iaia?aaaeny iniiaaoue oai iacaaeneiia ainoaea?noai. Iieiaeaii auei,
i?aaeaea, iaeaaeaoue E?uiii: Aeaoa?eia aii?oaeaiiith ?oeith ooaa?aeeea
(1777 a.) oaiii Oaaei-Ae?ay, ianiio?y ia oa?icu Ii?ou. Iiiaea naiuee
a?aeia e a?iyi ia?anaeaiu ec Oaa?eaeu a ?inneth. I?e onouea Aeiai?a
iniiaai Iioaieeiui Oa?nii n ei?aaaeueiith aaaaiueth (1778 a.). Ouaoii
O?eae?eo Aaeeeee noa?aeny oaaaeeoue Eiia?ao?eoeo e iinoaiiaeaieth
iai?iieoaeueiiai nithca n Oo?oeeae, eaneay /anoiethaea Iioaieeia
Eo?eyiaeneei aa?oeianoaii; ii ia ia?aiaiee ia?aca iuneae e oiae
neeiieoue ia naith noi?iio eiia?aoi?a Eineoa II a auoiinoue aai a ?innee
(1780 a.). Noieue aea iaoaea/iu auee e oneeey aiaeeeneiai ieienoa?noaa
ioaea/ue ?inneeneee Aeai? iin?aaenoaii Iioaieeia io aii?oaeaiiiai
iaeo?aeeoaoa: aa?iue eniieieoaeue aaeeeeo iaia?aiee Aeaoa?eiu ia
iiaea?oaiaae auaiaeaie Ioa/anoaa aeey naieo nianoaaiiuo. A 1782 aiaeo,
ii aai i?aaenoaaeaieth, eae aeaoa?eiineaaneiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a,
iiiaea ionouie iiai?inneeneea canaeaiu ethaeueie, auoaaeoeie ec ?aciuo
ae?oaeo iaeanoae eiia?ee. Oiaaea Aeaoa?eia II o/?aaeeea i?aeai Na.
?aaiiaiinoieueiiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a e aiceiaeeea iiue ia Iioaieeia.
Anei?a e?uineea aeaea ioicaaee aai a Oa?nii. Iaaeaeo oai, eae
i?ienoiaeeee ia?aaiai?u n oaiii e aa?oiaiuie ia/aeueieeaie ia?iaeia
eoaaineeo, Iioaieei ianeieueei ?ac acaeee a N. Iaoa?ao?a; iaeiiaoe
eaneith, oaaaeaeaieyie, cieioii e a?iciui aii?oaeaieai oiae ii neeiieoue
Oaaei-Ae?ay e onooiea iieoino?iaa ?innee [6]. Aaaeiue iiaeaea yoio, e
aannia?oiie neaaa Iioaieeia, niaa?oai (1783 a.) aac anyeiai
e?iaii?ieeoey. Oaiaiue e any no?aia eoaaineay i?eniaaeeiaiu oaeaea e
eiia?ee iaoae. Oaa?aeinoue e aeayoaeueiinoue Aoeaaeiaa [7] oi?i/eee yoe
i?eia?aoaiey ca ?inneath ia aa/iua a?aiaia.

A ia/aea 1784 aiaea (2 oaa?aey) Aeaoa?eia, i?eciaoaeueiay e caneoaai,
iiaeaeiaaea Iioaieeia i?aceaeaioii Aiaiiie Eieeaaee n /eiii
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea, Aeaoa?eiineaaneei e Oaa?e/aneei
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii e oaoii eaaaea?aa?aeneiai iieea. Oiaaea ioe?ueinue
iiaia iiea aeey ecae?aoaeueiiai oia aai: ii auaeae (1786 a.) onoaa, a
eioi?ii n aaeeeith oi/iinoueth icia/aiu auee ecaea?aeee eaaeaeiai iieea;
ia?aiaiee iaauaiaeioth iaeaaeaeo aiene ?onneeo, aaeae io?acaoue einu,
a?ineoue ioae?o; iaeae nieaeaoa a eo?oeo, oaeiaiua oa?aaa?u,
iieonaiiaeee e oaeiaioth, e?aneaoth eaneo; ia?aaeaeaae aani?anoaiii
iieee n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia, /oiau iie a ie?iia a?aiy ia
i?eo/eeenue e iaaa. A Oaa?eaea, aaa?aiiie aai iiia/aieth, aeeeea noaie
i?aa?aoeeenue a ieiaeiiiniua iiey, aaea iianthaeo aeaeiu auee
iiiai/eneaiiua i?ae?aniua noaaea, aeaaineiaaiiua ieau, aiaaoua naeaiey,
aicauoaeenue iiiaiethaeiua ai?iaea. *oiau i?ee?uoue a?aieoeu io
iai?eyoaeueneeo iaiaaeaiee e niaea?aeaoue a no?aoa oaoa? e ae?oaea
oeuiua ia?iaeu ii i?ioyioe oeaiue aiene ia aa?aao Eoaaie; Naaanoiiieue e
Oa?nii iaiieieeenue oeioaie; ?onneee oeaa ?acaaaaeny naiaiaeii ia *a?iii
ii?a.

1787 aiae aeinoiiaiyoai a aeecie Iioaieeia: Aeaoa?eia in/anoeeaeea naiei
iinauaieai Oa?nii e Oaa?eaeo. Oiaaea aieueoea aei?iae e o?aaou ai?
inaauaiu auee ?aciioeaaoiuie iaiyie; Aeiai? iie?uo aaeeeieaiiuie
aaea?aie; aacaea nii?oaeaiu aeai?oeu; eana i?aa?auaiu a aiaeeeneea
naaeu. «Iooaoanoaea Eiia?ao?eoeu, — iienuaaao nii?iaiaeaeaaoee aa i?eioe
aea Eeiue, — iiaeii iacaaoue aieoaanoaii. Ia eaaeaeii ii/oe oaao
ano?a/aee iu ia/ayiiia, iaiaeeaeaiiia. Oai aeaeaee yneaae?u, oai eiiiua
io?yaeu, oai inaauaiea, ia ianeieueei aa?no i?inoe?aaoaany; caeanue
naaeu, a iaeio ii/ue nioai?aiiua! Iianthaeo oaai/aeanue Aeaoa?eia
oi?aeanoaaie, ecuyaeaieyie aeaaiaea?iinoe, aeaaiaiaaiey e ainoi?aia.» Ia
ai?ioao: a Ia?aeiia ecia?aaeaia auea neaaeothuay iaaeienue, ni/eiaiiay
Iioaieeiui: «I?aaeiineaea no?ao e i?eianea ie? (1787 a.)»; a E?aiai/oaa:
«Aic?iaeeoaeueieoea neo no?ai». A i?iacaea /a?ac Oaa?e/aneoth iaeanoue
niooieeii Eiia?ao?eoeu aue Eineo, i?eauaoee iiae eiaiai a?aoa
Oaeeaiooaeia. Aica?aoynue a N. Iaoa?ao?a, Aeaoa?eia iiaaeaea
i?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo ecaioiaeoue iioaaeueioth a?aiioo, n
icia/aieai iiaeaeaia aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea eiycy Iioaieeia: a
i?eniaaeeiaiee Oaa?eaeu e Eiia?ee ?inneeneie, a oniaoiii caaaaeaiee
oicyenoaaiiie /anoe e ianaeaiee aoaa?iee Aeaoa?eiineaaneie, a no?iaiee
ai?iaeia e a oiiiaeaiee ii?neeo nee ia *a?iii ii?a, n i?eaaaeaieai aio
eiaiiaaiey Oaa?e/aneiai. Aiaeey e I?onney aii?oaeeee a oii aiaeo Ii?oo
Iooiiaineoth i?ioea ?innee: a Eiinoaioeiiiieue o?aaiaaee io iaoaai
iineaiieea Aoeaaeiaa aica?auaiey E?uia, caeeth/eee aai a naieaaoaiiue
caiie, 9-ai naioya?y aue iaia?iaeiaai iaieoano i aieia n oo?eaie.
I?aaeaiaeeoaeyie aiene iacia/aiu ?oiyioeaa-Caaeoiaeneee e
Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee. Ia?aiio aaa?aia Oe?aeineay a?iey; aoi?iio
Aeaoa?eiineaaneay.

28 ethiy (1788a.) Iioaieei yaeeny iiae I/aeiaui e aaeaeo yoiai ai?iaea
caiye noai naie i?e Aeiai?ianeii onouea. 25 ethey ii iaic?aaae
ono?aeaaaiue ?aaeoo e aa?aao *a?iiai ii?y ia iooa/iue auno?ae io
iai?eyoaey. ssae?a nuiaeenue ec e?aiinoe ni anao noi?ii; iaoiaeeaoeany a
naeoa aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai aaia?ae-iaei? Neiaeueieeia e eacae auee
nia?oaeueii ?aiaiu; iineaaeiee enionoee aeaeinoiue aiieue. «*oi ou
e?e/eoue?» — neacae aio Iioaieei n oaa?aeinoeth aeooa e oeaaeiie?iaii
?anii?yaeaeny ?aaioaie. Aei?iaea e?iaueth naaa iiaeiaiuo, ii ia oioae ec
/anoiethaeauo aeaeia aea?oaiaaoue aeeciueth /aeiaa/aneith e ?aoeeny
oaniith inaaeie i?eioaeeoue oo?ie e naea/a. A iieiaeia aaaonoa eii/aiu
auee aaoa?ae iaoe. Aa?iecii I/aeianeee caueuaeny io/ayiii, iiaoi?ye naie
aueacee. 7 naioya?y Iioaieei ioe?ue neeueiue iaiiue ni anao naieo
aaoa?ae aeey aini?aiyonoaiaaiey inaaeaeaiiui iii?aaeyoue iia?aaeaeaiiua
oe?aieaiey. Iaaeaeo oai oo?aoeeee oeio iioa?iae neeueiia ii?aaeaiea ia
Eeiaia; ioaeaeueiua io?yaeu Iioaieeia iaiineee no?ao e iionoioaiea ca
Eoaaiueth e ia aa?aaao Aiaoieeeneeo; Aa?acaineee ino?ia n e?aiinoueth
caiyo o?aa?uie /a?iiii?neeie eacaeaie (7 iiya?y). A aaeeeieaiiie
caieyiea naiae, iiae a?iiii iooae, n?aaee aeaeaeaiee ?aoiuo, eiycue
Oaa?eaeu iaoiaeee a?aiy aanaaeiaaoue n iocaie, ienae noeoe, ia?aaiaeee
Oea?eiaioth enoi?eth aaaaoa Oea?e. Ianoaea neeueiay nooaea,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiay aieueoeie niaaaie. Iai?eyoaeue naeaeae ec I/aeiaa
aueaceo (11 iiya?y), ii aue ioaeo. Iieiaeaiea aienea noaiiaeeinue
aani?anoaiii oyainoiaa. Oneeeaoeany aieacie eaaeaeue aeaiue iioeuaee
iiiaeanoai ethaeae. Nieaeaou i?ineee naiaai iieeiaiaeoea aanoe eo i?ioea
ia/anoeaiai ai?iaea, eioi?ue oioaee i?aa?aoeoue a a?ia a?aaai
o?enoeainoaa. Eaae, iie?uaoee Eeiai, i?aaenoaaeye oaeianoai iaianoue ia
I/aeia n oie noi?iiu, oe?aieaiiie neaaaa i?i/eo. Iioaieei ?aoeeny acyoue
e?aiinoue i?enooiii, iacia/ee aeey naai aeaiue Na. Ieeieay e iaeaioia
ianeieueei ?ac iniao?eaae iai?eyoaeueneea ?ao?aioaiaiou, iiae naiuie
iooeaie; iaiae?ye nieaeao: iaauae ei ioaeaoue ai?iae a iieioth aieth,
anee oieueei iie aicueioo aai. Ana i?eaioiaeaiey e i?enooio auee
naeaeaiu. Iieiaeaii a iaeii a?aiy iaianoue ia ?ao?aioaiaio iaai?iue, ia
Aannai-iaoeineee caiie e ia naioth e?aiinoue, Iioaieei ?acaeaeee a?ieth
ia oanoue eieiii: /aou?a, iiae i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii eiycy ?aiieia,
aeieaeiu auee aeaenoaiaaoue ia i?aaii e?uea; aeaa, iiae ia/aeuenoaii
aaia?aea io a?oeeea?ee Iaeea?a [8] ia eaaii; ia?aoee inoaeueiua iieee a
aeaa ?aca?aa; aaeae auoue i?e ieo eiiieoea, a eaaeei aieneai
iaaethaeaoue ni noi?iiu Aeiano?a. Ianooiee ?ieiaie aeaiue (6 aeaeaa?y):
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee iiaoi?ee i?eeacaiea, /oiau aienea, iacia/aiiua ia
i?enooi, ia caieiaynue ia?ano?aeeith, aeaenoaiaaee ooueaie ni
anaaiciiaeiith auno?ioie; ioiao iieaaai e a naiue /ania oo?a ia/aeinue
iaiaaeaiea. Iai?eyoaeue io/ayiii caueuaeny; ii iaiiue aai i?oaeee,
aeoaeia ?aia, aunieea aaeu e iaeenaaeiee, aaeneee caa aci?aaiiuo
iiaeeiiia ia inoaiiaeee ?onneeo aieiia: iie oee aia?aae ii a?oaeai
iai?eyoaeueneeo oae e ii o?oiai naieo a?aoueaa, ii?ieeaeuaaee ana,
iiiaaeaaoaany ei iaano?a/o — e I/aeia caaiaaai!- Iioaieei inoaaaeny ai
a?aiy i?enooia ia iaeiie aaoa?aa e, iiaeia?oe ?oeith aieiao, iiaoi?ye
aani?anoaiii: «Ainiiaee iiieeoe! » Ii i?eioaeaeai aue naea?aeaoue naia
?ieiaia neiai: iicaieee iaeanoi/aiiiio aieneo o?e aeiy a?aaeoue acyoue
ai?iae… E?iia aiaaoie aeiau/e, o?enoa aeanyoue iooae e ii?oe?, noi
ainaiueaeanyo ciaiai e iiiaeanoai i?oaeee aeinoaeenue iiaaaeeoaeyi. A
/enea ieaiiuo iaoiaeeeenue: aeaaiue ia/aeueiee e?aiinoe, o?aoaoi/oaeiue
iaoa Athnnai e o?e /aeou?ue-aay, eiiaiaeiaaaoea ia aaea?ao e eiaaoea
aeinoieinoai aeaooaoi/oaeiuo iaoae. AEanoieay ceia ia iicaieeea ca?uoue
a caieth anao o?oiia: oaeueaeia?oae i?eeacae a?inaoue oaeouo iai?eyoaeae
ia eaae, /oiau iie i?eieuee e oo?aoeeei aa?aaai. Iiiaea ec ieo neoaeeee
ieuae aieiaeiui aieeai e oeuiui ioeoeai. Ii iieo/ee ca acyoea I/aeiaa
aeaaii aeaeaiiue ei i?aeai Na. Aai?aey ia?aie noaiaie e noi ouny/
?oaeae; a ca iiaaaeu ia Eeiaia inuiaiioth a?eeeeaioaie e oe?aoaiioth
eaa?aie oiaao a aeaaaeoeaoue ouny/, n iaaeienueth: «Eiiaiaeothuaio
Aeaoa?eiineaaneith nooiiooiith e ii?neith neeith, oniaoaie oaai/aiiiio».
Iia i?eneaia e iaio ia cieioii aethaea, ia eioi?ii auei au?acaii:
Eiiaiaeothuaio Aeaoa?eiineaaneith nooiiooiith e ii?neith neeith, yei
no?ieoaeth aiaiiuo noaeia».

Iniao?eaay a ia/aea 1789 aiaea I/aeianeoth noaiue, eiycue Oaa?e/aneee
ia?aoee iniaaiiia aieiaiea ia oaeianoai ianoa, aaea ?aea Eiaoe aiaaeaao
a Aoa, e i?enooiee e caeiaeaieth i?e iiii ei?aaaeueiie aa?oe. Ianoi yoi
Iioaieei iaeiaiiaae Ieeieaaaui, aeaeay aicaeaoue aeiea aeaaiaea?iinoe
iie?iaeoaeth ?onneiai i?oaeey, Na. *oaeioai?oeo Ieeieath. Anei?a iieo/ee
ii iicaieaiea yaeoueny a N. Iaoa?ao?a, aaea iaeeaeae aai aeenoaoaeueiue
i?eai. Ianeieueei aeiae aei i?eacaea iiei?eoaey I/aeiaa inaauaaia auea
eaaeaeoth ii/ue aei?iaa, aaaeouay a noieeoeo, ia ?annoiyiee aeaaaeoeaoe
aa?no. Eiia?ao?eoea i?aaeoi?aaeeea aai naiei iinauaieai e iioii iauyaeea
ia i?eaeai?iii aaeo, /oi i?eoea io eiycy Iioaieeia. Oae Aeaoa?eia oiaea
iaa?aaeaeaoue caneoae iiaeaeaiiuo! Oea?aaeai?oeu aeaaaee aio i?acaeieee,
noa?aynue ia ia?a?ua i?aacieoe ae?oa ae?oaa aaeeeieaieai e iuoiinoueth.
Ia?aae iouacaeii ec N. Iaoa?ao?aa Iioaieei iieo/ee io Ainoaea?uie noi
ouny/ ?oaeae, oaeueaeia?oaeueneee aeace, oe?aoaiiue a?eeeeaioaie e
iaaeoue aiaaoui eaa?iaui aaieii, i?aeai Na. Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai aeey
iioaiey ia a?oaee, oe?aieaiiue e ae?aaioeaiiiio nieeoa?o, noieaoaio noi
ouny/ ?oaeae [9] e oanoue ieeeeiiia ia i?iaeieaeaiea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee.

A Oo?oeee aeaaeu/anoaiaae oiaaea Naeei III , ieaiyiiee Aaaeoe-Aaiaaea,
ainoaea?ue thiue eaoaie, ii ioaaaeiue. ?anoi/ay cieioi, /oiau uaaeeoue
e?iaue /aeiaa/aneoth, Iioaieei oiae neeiieoue ia naith noi?iio noeoaioo
Aaeeaeo e eaieoaia-iaoo, eioi?ue niaeaenoaiaae iioii a oia?uaeaiee
aa?oiaiiai aece?y, yaiiai a?aaa ?innee. Iiaaaeu i?e Aaeaoea aaia?aea
Aea?oaeueaeaia; i?e Oieoaiao e iiae ?uiieeii Noai?iaa; ia ?aea Nae/a
?aiieia e naea/a Aaiaea? (5-ai iiya?y) eiycth Oaa?e/aneiio —
iciaiaiiaaee eaiiaieth 1789 aiaea. Ethaiiuoii, /oi ai a?aiy inaaeu yoie
e?aiinoe, Iioaieei iniao?eaae ?aaiou a oaeueaeia?oaeueneii ioiaee?a e a
i?aeaiao: yae?a naenoaee ieiei iaai; iaeii oiaei a ianeieueeeo oaaao e
caa?inaei aai caieath. «Oo?ee a iaiy oeaeyo, — neacae ni niieieiui
aeaeii aa?ie, — ii Aia caueoiee iie: ii io?acee yoio oaea?». Iioii ia
noiaey n ianoa, nae ia eioaaeue e i?iaeieaeae iaic?aaaoue i?iecaiaeeiua
?aaiou. A Aaiaea?ao iaeaeaii o?enoa i?oaeee, aeaaaeoeaoue iyoue ii?oe?,
ianeieueei ouny/ ioaeia ii?ioa, iiiaeanoai aiia, yaea?, a?aiao, ?oaeae,
naaaeue, aeaaaeoeaoue aeaa ouny/e ioaeia nooa?ae e aeaaaeoeaoue /aou?a
ouny/e /aoaa?oae ioee. Eiia?ao?eoea i?eneaea caaiaaaoaeth noi ouny/
?oaeae, eaa?iaue aaiie, inuiaiiue ecoi?oaeaie e a?eeeeaioaie a
iieoi?anoa ouny/ e cieiooth iaaeaeue, auaeooth a /anoue aai [10]. Acyoea
Aaiaea? aeiaa?oeei caaiaaaiea Iieaeaaee e aieueoie /anoe Aanna?aaee.
?aniieiaeea aienea naie ia ceiieo eaa?oe?ao, Iioaieei ioi?aaeeny a
ssnnu, aaea i?iecaiaeee ia?aaiai?u n Eiinoaioeiiiieai.

9 oaa?aey 1790 aiaea i?ae?aoeeanue aeeciue aa?iiai nithcieea Aeaoa?eiu
II eiia?aoi?a Eineoa. Iioaieei, aicaaaeaiiue ia noaiaiue aaeeeiai
aaoiaia eacaoeeeo aeaoa?eiineaaneeo e /a?iiii?neeo aiene, ioe?ue a iaa
aiaiiua aeaenoaey a i?aaeaeao Oo?oeee: eiio?-aaeie?ae Ooaeia ii?acee
iooiiaiia ia aiaeao *a?iiai ii?y; aaia?ae-iaei? Aa?iai ?acaee ia Eoaaie
neaaiiai na?anee?a Aaoae-iaoo e acye aai a ieai; aaia?ae Aoaeiae/
iaeaaeae Eeeeath; eiio?aaeie?ae ?eaano Ooeue/ath; a?ao aai Enae/ath;
Noai?ia Eciaeeii. Iioaieei i?iaiaeee yoi a?aiy a ssnnao n aaeeeieaieai e
iuoiinoueth, aio iaeiiio naienoaaiiuie, ii n?aaee ?acee/iuo oaanaeaiee
eiycue Oaa?e/aneee aue i?a/ai, caaeoi/ea, eneae ?annayiey, e aacaea
oiuiea, a?onoue i?aneaaeiaaee aai. Oanoiaaeoeaoue eao ii ia?aainoaiaae a
?innee, ia no?aoanue niaianoieeia: yaeeny Coaia [11] e iiaouanoaii naiei
i?iaoaeee neaaeinoioth ae?aiioo naiiiaaeayiiiai aaeueiiaee. «Iaoooea,
Anaieeinoeaaeoay Ainoaea?uiy! — ienae oiaaea e Eiia?ao?eoea Iioaieei. —
Iaoooea ?iaeiay! I?e ianoiyoaeuenoaao, Aan ioyaiuathueo, ia inoaaeyeoa
iaiy aac oaaaeiieaiey. Iaoaeaee Au ia ciaaoa ia?o iiae i?eaycaiiinoe,
eioi?ay iniaay io anao? Eaeiai neuoaoue iia ni anao noi?ii iaeaiua
iiainoe e ia ciaoue: aa?eoue ee, eee iao? Caaioa a oaeie iaecaanoiinoe
iia?oceea iaiy a ianeacaiioth neaainoue. Eeoanue nia e ieue y ooaea
ieaaeaioea. Ana aeaeyo iia ecio?aiea. Aoaoue a Oa?nii neieue ie ioaeii,
ia iiao aeaeiooueny. Aaeaee iiy aeeciue /aai-ieaoaeue noieo, oi a
iiaeiaiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao neaaeeoa oieueei, /oi Au caei?iau e i?i/.»
[12]. Ii ioi?aaeeny a N. Iaoa?ao?a a oaa?aea 1791 aiaea, aue i?eiyo n
ioee/iui oaaaeaieai Eiia?ao?eoeath, iieo/ee io iaa a iiaea?ie aeai?aoe,
ecaanoiue iiae eiaiai Oaa?e/aneiai; ieaouea, oe?aoaiiia aeiacaie e
aei?iaeie eaiaiueyie, a aeaanoe ouny/ ?oaeae.

Ana i?iaeieaeaee ?aaieainoaiaaoue ia?aae Iioaieeiui e ni anai oai
aeoaieay ia/aeue ia iieeaeaea aai: ii neo/ae ii/anoyie, eaneaie; aue
iaaeiaieai anaie, aeaaea naiei niaith; aeaeiaaeny i?eaeeaeaiiui ia aieue
coaa, aiai?ee, /oi auaaeao ec N. Iaoa?ao?aa oiaaea oieueei, eae
auaea?iao iiue e, i?aaeaaaynue ai?anoiui i?aae/oanoaeyi, ono?aeaae a
naiai Oaa?e/aneii aeai?oea aeenoaoaeueiue i?acaeiee aeey Aeaoa?eiu.
Iniaeeaia aieiaiea caneoaeeaaee aeaa ia?iiiua caeu, ioaeaeaiiua iaeia io
ae?oaie ainaiiaaeoeaoueth eieiiiaie. Ia?aay ec ieo iacia/aia auea aeey
oaioeaa: eieinnaeueiua noieau a aeaa ?yaea ie?oaeaee iioth; iaaeaeo ieie
iaoiaeeeenue eiaee, oa?aiiua ae?eyiaeaie e aioo?e aiaaouie ooioaie; ia
naiaea aenaee ia?iiiua oa?u, neoaeeaoea aianoi ethno?; aeane eo
io?aaeaeny a aan/eneaiiuo ca?eaeao; aacu ea??a?neiai i?aii?a
iaiaueiiaaiiie aaee/eiu, e ia/e ec eaco?aaiai eaiiy oe?aoaee yoo caeo. A
ae?oaie iaoiaeeeny ceiiee naae, iaiieiaiiue eaa?iauie, iiia?aioeaauie e
ie?oiauie aea?aaueyie; ian/aiua eceo/enoua aei?iaeee, caeaiua oieiu e
i?ic?a/iua aiaeiaiu, a eioi?uo ?acaeeenue cieioua e na?aa?enoua ?uau;
i?eyoiue caiao ?anoaiee; ainoeoeoaeueiia iaiea ioeoe; a?io, oa?aiiue
ca?eaeaie n i?aii?iith eoiaeueiae aioo?e; aicauoaaoeeny ia nooiaiyo
neaiciie aeoa?ue n ainaiueth eieiiiaie, iiaeaea?aeeaathueie naiae aai;
yoiiaua /aoe, eaiiaaeu, aaiee e oeaie ec oeaaoia, oe?aoaaoea iiue;
iinoaaeaiiay n?aaee eieiii ia ii?oe?iaii iiaeiiaeee n ceaoie
iaaeienueth: «Iaoa?e Ioa/anoaa e iia i?aieeina?aeie», noaooy
Eiia?ao?eoeu ec ia?ineiai i?aii?a; eaae?eio, ie?oaeaaoee aeoa?ue n
aea?oaaiieeaie aeaaiaea?iinoe e ona?aeey, enooeaiaie neaaiuo ioaeae a
ae?aaiinoe, ae?aaioeaiiuie ninoaeaie, e ia caeaiii eoao aunieay
ie?aieaea, iaaeaeaiiay a ceaoi, n a?aiaiiuie oeaii/eaie e aaioeaie, ec
?aciuo i?ic?a/iuo eaiaiueaa, n eo/aca?iui eiaiai Aeaoa?eiu: ana yoi
iaiiieiaei i aieoaaiuo caieao, ecoieyy aci?u i?aeanoiui niaaeeiaieai
?aciuo eeeiaoia e a?aiai aiaea.

Ia yoio i?acaeiee auee i?eaeaoaiu eiycai Oaa?e/aneei (28 ai?aey) o?e
ouny/e inia iaiaai iiea. Ana auee a ianea?aaeiuo ieaoueyo. Iioaieei
yaeeny a aeii eaooaia e aiaaoie aeeeiiie aiai/a ec /a?iuo e?oaeaa.
Iaeaaeaea aai aeenoaea ae?aaioeaiiuie eaiaiueyie, a ia oeyia auei eo
noieueei, /oi iaeei aaeuthoaio ian iioth. Iinea oanoe /ania i?eaue ooaea
Aeai?. Eiaaea ea?aoa Eiia?ao?eoeu iiaeuaoaea e e?ueueoeo, ?acaeaeinue a
aicaeooa: «O?a!», caa?aiaee o?oau ia aioeoaao?a, iino?iaiiii i?ioea
aeai?oea, e ia/aeny ia?iaeiue i?acaeiee [13]. Iioaieei e ana ainoe aai
ano?aoeee Ainoaea?uith ni ciaeaie aeoai/aeoaai ii/oaiey e i?aaeaiiinoe.
Anooiea a caeo, Aeaoa?eia acioea ia i?eaioiaeaiiia aeey iaa ianoi,
ie?oaeaiiia i?ic?a/iuie ea?oeiaie e iaaeienyie. Ana nia?aiea ?annayeinue
iiae eieiiiaie e a eiaeao. Oi?aeanoaaiiua caoee iocuee aieaeueiie e
eino?oiaioaeueiie [14] ?acianeenue iiae naiaeaie caeu. Aeaaaeoeaoue
/aou?a ia?u ciaoiaeoeo aeai e eaaaea?ia ia/aee oaioeaaaoue aaeao,
ecia?aoaiiue naiei oicyeiii. Aaeeeea eiycuey Aeaenaiae? e Eiinoaioei
Iaaeiae/e naiei o/anoeai i?eaeaee aieaa aeanea yoie i?aeanoiie o?oiia.
Oaioeaaaaoea auee a aaeuo ieaoueyo, oe?aoaiiuo a?eeeeaioaie ia aeanyoue
ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. A eiioea aaeaoa yaeeny neaaiue Ea-Iee. Eiia?ao?eoea
oaeaeeeanue iioii a ae?oaoth caeo, aaea aiaaoua eia?u e aiaaeaiu
ia?aoeee aieiaiea iinaoeoaeae. A aeeaeiae eiiiaoa noiye eneonnoaaiiue
cieioie neii, ia eioi?ii aenaee aeai/oaeiua aao?iiu e iiiaeanoai auei
aeiacia, ecoi?oaeia e ?oaeiia. Ii ai?i/ae oiaioii e neaeaaoee ia iai
ia?neyiei, aaeeeieaiii iaeaoue, oaea?ee a eieieie. Oiaaea Iioaieei iiaae
aunieeo naieo iinaoeoaeae e i?i/eo ainoae a oaao?. Caiaaan iiaeiyeny:
yaeeinue eo/aca?iia nieioea, a na?aaeeia eioi?iai a caeaiuo eaa?ao neyei
aaiceiaia eiy Aeaoa?eiu II-e. Iinaeyia e iinaeyiee, aicaeaaay ?oee e
aeaaioai?iiio naaoeeo, iieacuaaee aeaeaeaieyie ona?aeiaeoea naie
/oanoaiaaiey. Ca yoei neaaeiaaea eiiaaeey, a iinea iiie aaeao,
i?aaenoaaeyaoee nie?ineiai eoioea, oi?aothuaai iaaieueieeaie anao
ia?iaeia iaaeaeo eioi?uie ia auei, iaeiaei aea, ie iaeiiai ?onneiai. Ec
oaao?a nia?aiea aica?aoeeinue a aieueooth caeo e ceiiee naae: noi ouny/
iaiae inaauaee aioo?aiiinoue aeiia. Ea?iecu, ieia, i?inoaiee auee
onuiaiu e?enoaeueiuie oa?aie, iaiieiaiiuie aineii. Ia?iiiua ethno?u e
oiia?e oiiiaeaee aeane. Aacaea naa?eaee y?eea caacaeu eee i?ae?aniua
?aaeoae ec ?oaeiia, ecoi?oaeia, yoiioia e oiiacia. Aan/eneaiiua ca?eaea
e o?onoaeueiua ie?aieaeu io?aaeaee yoi aieoaaiia c?aeeua. «Oaeaee iu
oai, aaea e i?aaeaea auee?» — ni?ineea Eiia?ao?eoea Iioaieeia n
oaeeaeaieai. Iaaeaeo oai ia oi?ao, oe?aoaiiuo ae?aaioeaiiuie eeoaeneeie
ninoaeaie e aeaoiy iiciei/aiiuie i?aaiaie, caea?aee iieueneee n a?iiii
eeoaa?, iaieai e iooa/iuie auno?aeaie:

» A?ii iiaaaeu ?acaeaaaeny!

Aanaeeny, o?aa?ue ?inn!

Cao/iie neaaie oe?aoaeny:

Iaaiiaoa ou iio??n.

Neaaueny nei, Aeaoa?eia!

Neaaueny, iaaeiay e iai iaoue!

Aiaeu auno?ua Aeoiay

Oae a ?oeao oaia?ue o ian;

O?aa?inoue ?innia ii/eoay,

Oaa? iiae iaie e Eaaeac.

Neaaueny nei, Aeaoa?eia!

Neaaueny, iaaeiay e iai iaoue! e i?i/. [15] »

Ai a?aiy aaea Ainoaea?uiy ea?aea a ea?ou n aaeeeith eiyaeiath Ia?eae
Oaaei?iaiie. Iocuea, oaioeu, ieynee (a oii /enea ?onneea e
iaei?inneeneea), ea/aee, iaoiaeeaoeany aioo?e iieiaa, e ?aciua ae?oaea
oaanaeaiey caieiaee ainoae. A ia?oaeiii naaeo, iaiieiaiiii oieiaie
ethaiiuoiiai ia?iaea, caaeaeaiu oaanaeeoaeueiua iaie; i?oaeu auee
iie?uou oeioeeeath, i?ae?anii eeethieiiaaiiith; ?iue e aeeae eniau?aiu
oaeaea oiia?yie. Aieina ianaiieeia e caoee ?iaia ?acaeaaaeenue iaaeaeo
aea?aaueyie. Ii aeaiiiio io oicyeia ciaeo aae?oa en/ac oaao?, a ia ianoa
aai, e aua a ianeieueeeo eiiiaoao, yaeeenue aeey oanoenio inia iae?uoua
noieu. Iie ?aniieiaeaiu auee oaeei ia?acii, /oi aci?u anao ia?auaeenue e
eeoeo Ainoaea?uie. I?i/ea ainoe oaeeiaee noiy, aeey /aai ?annoaaeaii o
noai iiiaeanoai noieia. A eiioea caeu, ia naiie aunioa, neyee noaeeyiiua
?aciiiaiaiiua ninoaeu. Na?aec aue cieioie e na?aa?yiue. Eooaiuey e
iaieoee niioaaonoaiaaee aaeeeieaiiiio oa?ainoao aeai?oea, aiaaoie
iaeaaeaea neoaeeoaeae. Iioaieei nai neoaeee Eiia?ao?eoea; ii iia
i?eaeaneea aai nanoue. Iinea oaeeia aae i?iaeieaeaeny aei oo?a.
Ainoaea?uiy n aaaonoaeoath oaieeeae oaoaea a iaeeiiaaeoeaoue /ania.
Ieeoi ia iiiiee, /oiau iia i?iauea aaea-ieaoaeue ia aaea oae aeieai.
Eacaeinue, Aeaoa?eia oaeaeaieai naiei aiyeynue ia?ooeoue aeaaeainoai
oicyeia. Eiaaea iia auoiaeeea oaea ec caeu, aae?oa ?acaeaeinue iaaeiia
iaiea n oeoei caoeii i?aaiia, ienoaaeoaa n oi?ia, eioi?ua cae?uou auee
?aciioeaaoiuie noaeeyiiuie ninoaeaie, ica?aiiuie y?eei iaiai. Ana
aaciieanoaiaaee e aieiaee i?eyoiie aa?iiiee:

«Oea?noai caeanue oaeiaieuenoaee;

Aeaaeu/anoai uaae?io oaieo;

Caeanue aiaea, caiey e aicaeoo

Aeuoao ana oaiae aeooie;

Eeoue oaiei y aeaaii

E aeeao e n/anoeea.

*oi a aiaaonoaa e /anoyo?

*oi a aaeeeinoe iiae,

Anee iuneue, oaay ia c?aoue,

Aeoo aaa?aaao a oaean.

Noie e ia eaoe, ou, a?aiy!

E aeaa iaoeo ia eeoae.

AEeciue iaoa iooue anoue ia/aeae:

Ionoue a iae oeaaooo oeaaou» [16].

Eiia?ao?eoea ecuyaeea i?eciaoaeueiinoue naith Iioaieeio, eioi?ue n
aeaaiaiaaieai iae ia eieaia ia?aae iath, noaaoee aa ?oeo, i?inee iioth
neacaie, ianeieueei ieioo aea?aeae n iniaaiiui aeooaaiui oieeaieai…

Oae oaeeaeye Iioaieei naiei aaeeeieaieai aeeoaeae aa?aaia Iaau; iaaeaeo
oai aa?aaa Aeoiay iaaa?yeenue e?iaueth o?enoeai e iooiiaiia. Ii
ioeeaaeuaae iouacae a a?ieth, aea?oaiaae neaaie naiath e aac iieuecu
oa?ye oieueei a?aiy. Oaea ?aiiei ?acaee ia aieiao 28 ethiy i?e Ia/eia
aa?oiaiiai aece?y THnoo-iaoo, iiaeienae n oo?aoeeeie iieiiii/iuie 31
ethey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ie?iua noaouee, eae iaeiiaoe i?eaue a Aaeaoe
eiycue Oaa?e/aneee. A aeinaaea ia o?aa?iai iieeiaiaeoea, iioeoeaoaai o
iaai iiaaaeo, Iioaieei oie/oiaeee iinoaiiaeaiiue ei aeiaiai?, n/eoay
iiue ianiioaaonoaaiiui aeinoieinoao eiia?ee. I?aaeienuaay oyainoiua
oneiaey Oo?oeee, ii aioiaeeny e iiaie a?aie, a oi a?aiy eae nia?oue
iaaeaeeii iineeanue iaae aeaaith aai e i?aaeaanoieee aa, ecio?aiea nee,
oinea oaaee/eaaee aeooaaiua no?aaeaiey! A Aaeaoea neii/aeny i?eioe
Ae?oaiaa?aneee: auoiaey 12 aaaonoa ec oea?eae, ?anno?iaiiue, iai?/aiiue
Iioaieei nae aianoi naieo ae?iaeae ia ae?iae, i?eaioiaeaiiua aeey
ia?oaiai oaea… A ssnnao iinoeaea aai eeoi?aaeea: eneonnoai iaaeeeia
Oeiaia e Iannioa inoaeinue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui. Iioaieei, naiai?aaiue,
i?eaueoee e ?ineioiui iaaaeai, aeaaae ieuo naiae aieacie. Iaaeaeo oai
aeayoaeueiinoue aai ia ineaaaaaea: ii i?iaeieaeae aanoe iaoe?ioth
ia?aieneo; eo?uea?u eaoaee ai ana eiioeu Aa?iiu /aua iaueiiaaiiiai;
iieueneea aaeueiiaee, iaaeiaieueiua iiauie ia?aiaiaie, iineaaeiaaaoeie a
eo ioa/anoaa e aiy?a iieaeaaneea eneaee aai iie?iaeoaeuenoaa. Ii
aioo?aiiyy nei?aue ia aeaaaea aio iieiy; ii /oanoaiaae i?eaeeaeaiea
naiae eii/eiu; i?eiaueeny na. oaei 19 aaaonoa e 27 naioya?y [17];
i?inoeeny n ie?oaeaaoeie iae? aai e /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae, ecuyaee
aeaeaiea auaoaoue ec ssnn, aiai?y: «Ii e?aeiae ia?a oi?o a iiai
Ieeieaaaa».

4 ieoya?y 1791 a. a 8 /ano oo?a iieiaeeee Iioaieeia a eieyneo. Ii
iouaoae a oio aeaiue ia aieaa aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe aa?no; aue aeiaieueii
aanae; ooaoae naay iuneueth, /oi inoaaee a?ia naie [18]. Ianooieea
ii/ue: aieaciue oneeeeanue. Iioaieei aani?anoaiii ni?aoeaae: «Nei?i ee
?annaaoao?» A oanoue /ania (5 ieoya?y) aaeae auianoe naay a eieyneo;
iiaacee aeaeaa: nia?oaeueiay oinea i?iaeieaeaea aai aaniieieoue; ii
i?eeacuaae inoaiaaeeaaoueny, aii?ioae: «Iao ee aaeece aea?aaie?» — aaeae
aoaoue nei?aa e ia o?eaeoeaoue ainueiie aa?noa io ssnn a aeaaiaaeoeaoii
/ano ii iieoii/e i?e oneeeaoainy io/eoaeueiii aaniieienoaa e oiieaiee,
i?iecian neaaui aieinii: «Aoaeao. Oaia?ue iaeoaea aoaoue: y oie?ath.
Auiueoa iaiy ec eieynee, oi/o oia?aoue ia iiea». Eniieieee aieth aai:
iieiaeeee oie?aaoaai ia ?acinoeaiiue ieau aeec aei?iae. Caeanue eaaeae
ii o?e /aoaa?oe /ana, ia?auay oieeeoaeueiue acaeyae iiia?aiaiii ia iaai
e ia i?aaenoiyaoeo e a aeaaiaaeoeaoue /ania oeoi iii/ee ia ?oeao
ethaeiie naiae ieaiyiieoeu, a?aoeie A?aieoeeie, a neea ioaeanoaa, eiay
oieueei iyoueaeanyo iyoue eao io ?iaeo [19]. Ii/ueth iiaacee aai ia?aoii
a ssnnu a oii naiii yeeiaaea, ie?oaeaiiii oaeaeaie.

Aeaoa?eia iieaeaea eii/eio Iioaieeia, iiaaeaea a aeaiue ie?iiai
oi?aeanoaa n Ii?oith Iooiiaineie (1793 a.): «A iaiyoue aai caaioiaeoue
a?aiioo n i?iienaieai a iiie caaiaaaiiuo ei e?aiinoae a i?ioaaeooth
aieio e ?aciuo nooiiooiuo e ii?neeo iiaaae, aieneaie aai iaea?aeaiiuo;
a?aiioo neth o?aieoue a Niai?iie oea?eae a?aaea Oa?niia, aaea
nii?oaeeoue i?aii?iue iaiyoiee Oaa?e/aneiio, a a a?naiaea oiaiae a?aaea
iiianoeoue aai ecia?aaeaiea e a /anoue aio auaeoue iaaeaeue».

A?iaieoea Iioaieeia iinoaaeaia ia eaoaoaeea a neeaia, iaeoii /a?iui
aa?oaoii e iaoiaeyuainy iiae aeoa?ai Niai?iie oea?eae aicaeaeaiooiai ei
Oa?niia [20]. Iuia nii?oaeai aio a yoii ai?iaea eieinnaeueiue iaiyoiee,
ecaayiiue neaaiui ooaeiaeieeii iaoei Ia?oinii.

Eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee eiae i?ae?anioth,
ioaeanoaaiioth ia?oaeiinoue, e?aieia neiaeaiea oaea, ?ino
aaee/anoaaiiue. A iieiaeuo eaoao iia?aaeee ii naaa iaeei aeac, ii yoi ia
oiaiueoaei e?aniou eeoea aai. Ii auoiaeee ec e?oaa iaueiiaaiiuo ethaeae
naiaai aaea, ioee/aynue ?aceoaeueiuie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie: ethaee
i?inoioo e iuoiinoue; aue ai?ae e iaoiaeeoaeai; oeo? e aeiaa?/ea;
ne?uoai e ioe?iaaiai; ?anoi/eoaeai e /anoi neoi; n aeanoieinoueth
niaaeeiye nino?aaeaiea, ?iainoue n ioaaaeiinoueth. Ie/oi ia iiaei
?aaiyoueny n aeayoaeueiinoueth aai aiia?aaeaiey e aai oaeaniith
eaiinoueth. A aai aeaeao, oaeiaieuenoaeyo, i?aaa, iioiaeea — i?eiaoai
aue eaeie-oi aanii?yaeie. Eiiaaea ia/oae ii i aa?oeianoaa Eo?eyiaeneii,
ei?iia iieueneie; a ae?oaia a?aiy aeaeae auoue a?oea?aai, i?inoui
iiiaoii; no?iee aaeeeieaiiua aeai?oeu e, ia ieii/ea, i?iaeaaae iiua;
iinueae eo?uea?ia a ioaeaeaiiaeoea ianoa ca iaeioi?uie iio?aaiinoyie
aeey naiaai noiea e /anoi, i?aaeaea iaaeaee iineaiiua aica?auaeenue,
oa?ye ioioo ioaaaeaoue i?eaiceiia eie [21]. Oi caieiaeny ii iaeiith
aieiie, ie?oaeaiiue ioeoea?aie, eacaeaie e oaoa?aie, eee iieeoeeie:
oioae aeaeeoue Iooiiaineoth eiia?eth, caaiaaaoue Ia?neth, acaieiiaaoue
eaaeiaou aa?iiaeneea; a ae?oaia a?aiy i?iaiaeee oeaeue ianyoe aa/a?a a
ainoyo, caauaay, ii-aeaeeiiio, ana aeaea. Oi caoiaaae i?eaeai?iuo
aeanoyuath naiath iaeaaeaeie, i?aeaiaie ?aciuo aea?aeaa, aeiacaie
aaee/eiu iaiaueiiaaiiie; aeaaae aac anyeie i?e/eiu i/a?iaaoaeueiua
i?acaeieee — e iinea ianeieueei iaaeaeue n?yaeo inoaaaeny aeiia, a e?oao
?iaeiuo e i?eaeeaeaiiuo, eaaea ia nioa a oeao?iea, n ainuie iiaaie,
iaiaaeaiiie oaae, n iaoio?aiiui /aeii, iiaeneuie a?iayie e iie/a ea?ae a
oaoiaou eee ea?ou. Ii ethaee iaauaoue, ii ia anaaaea aea?aeae aeaiiia
neiai. Ieeoi ia /eoae iaiueoa aai; ii ia iiiaea iiaee ?aaiyoueny n iei a
caiyoeyo. Iie auee iiaa?oiinoiu, ii aanueia iaoe?iu. A ?acaiai?ao ii
ecoieye eeoa?aoi?a, a?oenoa, aiaineiaa. Neia aai aue io?uaenoue,
neeueiue. «I?ace?aeoa i?ienee o?aioeocia,- ienae ii (1783 a.) a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue e iineaiieeo iaoaio ss. E. Aoeaaeiao, — aa?ueoa, /oi
ana ia?aoeoueny e nouaeo eo e aeaaee. O?aioeocu o aan iooyo, caeanue
eeaiythony, a aeiia iiaeaatho». Ethay ieaiaiii Ioa/anoai, ii ioaeaaae
iieioth ni?aaaaeeeainoue aeinoieinoaai Noai?iaa, ienae e iaio: «Aa?ue
iia, ae?oa na?aea/iue!, /oi y iaoiaeo iith neaao a oaiae». Aei?iaeee
nieaeaoaie: «Iie ia oae aeaoaau, — oiiiyioe a iaeiii ienueia e oiio aea
iieeiaiaeoeo, — /oiau eo oa?youe ii ionoyeai». Eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II
oaeinoieaaea Iioaieeia iaia?aie/aiiie aeiaa?aiiinoueth, iiaeaeiaaea aio
e?iia cia/eoaeueiuo noii e iiaea?eia, iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue. Oaa?ytho,
aoaeoi a aeanyoue eao (n 1774 ii 1784 a.) iieo/aii ei iaee/iuie
aeaiueaaie e ae?aaioeaiiuie aauaie ia ainaiiaaeoeaoue ieeeeiiia ?oaeae.
Ii eiae aeaiee io Ainoaea?uie, e iia, naa?o oiai, ia?auaoueny a eacaiiua
iaeaou ni naieie o?aaiaaieyie. A ia/aea 1791 aiaea ii?aaeaeee ii ia
oiiiaeaiea eaieoaea Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, a eioi?ii iao/aeny,
aeioiaeu n A/oaaneie naiae aea/e [22].

«Iioaieei aue Iie ainieoaiiee, — aiai?eea Eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II. —
ss i?iecaaea aai ai ana /eiu: ec oioa?-ioeoea?a aei
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea. Ii eiae iaiaueiiaaiiue oi, i?aa ai?y/ee,
na?aeoea aeia?ia; aeyaeae aieeii e iioiio ia aue ethaei; ii, aeaaay
uae/ee, aeaaiaeaoaeuenoaiaae aeaaea a?aaai naiei. Aai iaeuecy auei
iiaeeoieoue; o?oaeii iaeoe ae?oaiai, iiaeiaiiai aio [23]».

Eiia?ao?eoea oaeaea iocuaaeanue i Iioaieeia, /oi ii no?anoii ethaee
aaeeeiai eiycy Aeaenaiae?a Iaaeiae/a e iacuaae aai Aiaaeii, aiieiuaiiui
aeey aeaaeainoaa Eiia?ee; le Prince de son coeur.

Noai?ia aiai?ee, /oi Iioaieei aue aaeeeee /aeiaae e /aeiaae aaeeeee;
aaeee oiii, aaeee e ?inoii; ia iioiaeee ia oiai aunieiai o?aioeocneiai
iinea a Eiiaeiia, i eioi?ii eaioeea? Aaeii neacae, /oi /a?aeae
iaueiiaaiii ooaei iaaee?otho [24].

E /eneo ciaiaieouo iiaeaeaia yoiai eniieeia XVIII noieaoey i?eiaaeeaaeeo
e i?aia?aciaaiea no?iaie Caii?iaeneie Na/e a iauaaeeoaeueiia nineiaea
/a?iiii?neeo eacaeia. Ii oeaaioe oieueei ianeieueei eiaeae ooe n eioaaui
aoaiaiii e aaoueei A?eoeei (oae iacuaaee eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai caii?iaeoeu)
naeaeaeny aeanoaeeiii iaiaocaeaiiie aieueieoeu, aaniieieaoae aei oiai
i?aaeaeu ?innee.

I?eia/aiey:

[1] A /enea i?aaeeia eiycy A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a iaoiaeeeny
ieieueie/ee Iao? Eaaiiae/ Iioaieei, ecaanoiue naieie iinieuenoaaie a
Eniaieth, O?aioeeth (1668 e 1680 a.). Aiaeeth (1681 a.) e a Aeaieth. Ni.
i iai a /aoaa?oie /anoe iiaai Neiaa?y aeinoiiaiyoiuo ethaeae ?onneie
caiee, no?. 186-192.

[2] ss aeaeae a ii?ooaeyo iieieiiai iiaai ?iaeeoaey (nai?aaoeo a
iineianeee iiaea? 1812 aiaea) ioi?aaiiue io Aaaeiiinoae eeno, a eioi?ii
auei iaia/aoaii, a /enea aueeth/aiiuo ec oieaa?neoaoa ca iaoiaeaeaiea,
eiy A?eai?ey Iioaieeia. «Iiiieoa ee,- neacae iioii eiycue Oaa?e/aneee
i?ioanni?o Aa?niao ai a?aiy neaau naiae e iiaouanoaa,- eae au aueeth/eee
iaiy ec oieaa?neoaoa?» «Aaoa naaoeinoue oiaaea naai caneoaeeaaee», —
ioaa/ae auaoee ianoaaiee aai.

[3] Yoi ia?aaeae iia iieieiue iie ?iaeeoaeue, ?iaeiie ieaiyiiee i?.
Aia?iney. Iioaieei ianeieueei ?ac aniiieiae iioii ia yoeo aeaiueaao,
aiai?y, /oi ii aio aeieaeai; iiiinoa?aaony caieaoeoue n i?ioeaioaie.
?iaeeoaeue iie ie i /ai ia i?inee aai: oai e eii/eeenue iaauaiey.

[4] 27 oaa?aey 1774 aiaea.

[5] Ec ii?ooaeae Ieeea?a, o?aiyueony a iine. a?oeaa Ieienoa?noaa eiino?.
aeae.

[6] Oaaei-Ae?ae oaeaeeeny a ?inneth, aaea iieo/ae iaineth io
Eiia?ao?eoeu; iioii, nineo/anue, ioi?aaeeny a Oo?oeeth e aue oaeaaeai,
ii i?eeacaieth noeoaia.

[7] sseia Eaaiiae/ Aoeaaeia, oiaa?eu Iioaieeia ii oieaa?neoaoo,
iaoiaeeeny oiaaea /?acau/aeiui iineaiieeii e iieiiii/iui ieieno?ii a
Eiinoaioeiiiiea. Ii caeeth/ee 28 aeaeaa?y n oo?aoeeeie iieiiii/iuie aeo:
ia onooiea ?innee Oo?oeeae E?uineiai iieoino?iaa. «Au i?eienuaaaoa yoi
iia, — ienae Iioaieei Aoeaaeiao, — e oai oaaee/eaathony aua aieaa
caneoae aaoe! Ana io Aiaa; ii aai iaycaia ?inney e naie oo?ee: aaoa
oaa?aeinoue, aeayoaeueiinoue e oi ioa?aoeee aieio. Oo?ee auee au
iiaaaeaeaiu; ii ?onneay e?iaue oaeaea au iioaeea!»

[8] Eaai Eaaiiae/ Iaeea?, aaia?ae io a?oeeea?ee, eaaaea? i?aeaiia Na.
Aiinoiea Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai, Na. Aai?aey aoi?iai eeanna e Na.
Aeaaeeie?a ia?aie noaiaie, aicaaaeai aue, ai oaaaeaiea ioee/iuo caneoa,
a aa?iineia aeinoieinoai ?inneeneie eiia?ee n iaeiaiiaaieai
Iaeea?ii-Caeiiaeueneei (1789 a.). Oia? io iieo/aiiie ei ?aiu iiae
Eeeeath 10 ieoya?y 1790 aiaea.

[9] I?aeai yoio aiceiaeai Eiia?ao?eoeath ia Iioaieeia a i?eaeai?iie
oea?eae iinea caoo?aie ia Na. O?. Aine?anaiea. Ii aue eaaaea?ii iiiai n
1774 aiaea.

[10] Oaeay aea iaaeaeue auea auaeoa a /anoue Iioaieeia ca iiei?aiea
I/aeiaa.

[11] Coaia Ieaoii Aeaenaiae?iae/, aoaeo/e ooaan-?ioieno?ii eaea-aaa?aeee
eiiiiai iieea, iiaeaeiaai iieeiaieeii e oeeaaeue-aaeuthoaioii (1789 a.)
e anei?a aaia?ae-iaei?ii, ei?iaoii eaaaea?aa?aeneiai ei?iona, eaaaea?ii
i?aeaiia: Na. Aiiu, iaieo Iieueneeo e Na. Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai, ia
aeaaaeoeaoue o?aoueai aiaeo io ?iaeaeaiey (1790 a.); iieo/ee /a?ac o?e
aiaea iioii i?aeai Na. Aiinoiea Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai (1793 a.); /ei
aaia?ae-oaeueaeoeaoiaenoa?a, ii?o?ao Ainoaea?uie, i?aeai Na. Aeaaeeie?a
ia?aie noaiaie (1795 a.) e ia?aae eii/eiith Aeaoa?eiu II aeinoieinoai
naaoeaeoaai eiycy ?eineie eiia?ee; neii/aeny a 1822 aiaeo.

[12] Iiaeienue ia yoii ienueia (nienaiiii iiith n iiaeeeiiiai): «Iiea
aeea, aa?iaeoee e aeaaiaea?iaeoee iiaeaeaiiue».

[13] E?iia ?aciuo aethae e iaieoeia, eioi?uie oaiuaee ia?iae, aea?eee
aua iiiio ieaouey.

[14] I?eano? ninoiye ec o?aonio /aeiaae iocueaioia e iaa/eo.

[15] Neiaa Aea?aeaaeia; iocuea Eiceianeiai.

[16] Yoio oi?, acyoue ec eoaeueyineie iia?u, eniieiai ia eoaeueyineii
ycuea.

[17] «A iaa ?aca eiaaea y i?eiauae Na. oaeia iieieiiai, — ienae
aeooiaiee eiycy Iioaieeia iiaio ?iaeeoaeth, — aei iuia aua ie a eii ia
aeaeae noieue aeeauo ciaeia aa?u».

[18] Oae iacuaae Iioaieei ssnnu.

[19] I?ae?anii iienae Aea?aeaaei a naiai «Aiaeiiaaea» Iioaieeia e aai
eii/eio:

«*ae iae? — caiey; e?iaue — aicaeoo neiue,

*a?oiae — ae?oa ionouiiu aeaeu?

Ia ou ee n/anouey, neaau nui,

Aaeeeieaiiue eiycue Oaa?eaeu?

Ia ou ee n auniou /anoae

Aiacaiii iae n?aaee noaiae?» e i?i/.

[20] Aoiae a yoio neeai aue naeaeai a ainoaea?noaiaaiea Eiia?aoi?a Iaaea
I. Oaa?ytho, aoaeoi e inoaiee Iioaieeia ioooaea ia?aianaiu auee a
ae?oaia ianoi.

[21] Ii iinueae eo?uea?ia aeaaea ca eeneuie uaie e eetheaith.

[22] Ii eii/eia oieueei Iioaieeia, oieaa?neoao ociae ia yoii
iiaea?oaiaaiee, iieo/ea, a 1796 aiaeo, naiue ouny/ /aou?anoa
oanoueaeanyo ainaiue ?oaeae io aoaiaia aienea Aeiineiai,
aaia?ae-ii?o/eea Aeaenay Eaaiiae/a Eeiaaeneiai, caaaaeiaaaoaai yoie
aea/ae.

Iioaieei aoaeao ioia/ai ?oeith enoi?ee»

Iaei eoi ec auaeathueony ?onneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae e
aiaia/aeueieeia naeaeae aieueoa aeey Oa?niia, /ai naaoeaeoee eiycue
A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee. Eiaiii iiae aai
?oeiaiaenoaii aicieeee ia?aua aaeieieno?aoeaiua caeaiey a iaoai ai?iaea,
aicaiaeeeny e niaaaeaeny iaiaoiaeeiui iai?oaeiaaieai iiiaoiue aeai?,
no?ieeenue aa?oe, aeaaoea *a?iiii?neiio oeioo iaiaei aiaauo ei?aaeae.
Aeaaiaea?y iieeiaiae/aneiio e aaeieieno?aoeaiiio oaeaioo eiycy,
iaeaiueeay ?onneay e?aiinoue «Aeaenaiae?-oaioe» noaea i?ae?anii
oe?aieaiiui oi?oii, aie?oa eioi?iai au?in ai?iae Oa?nii, a ana Naaa?iia
I?e/a?iiii?uea i?aa?aoeeinue a iiuioth oeeoaaeaeue, caueoeaooth
thai-caiaaeiua ?oaaaee ?inneeneie eiia?ee io aieinoaaiiie Iooiiaineie
Oo?oeee.

A ?iaeeeny naaoeaeoee eiycue Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee 13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea
a Niieaineie aoaa?iee. Ec aeai?yi. Iao/aeny a aeiiacee Iineianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa (1756-1760 aiaeu), ioeoaea aue eneeth/ai, aianoa ni
ciaiaieoui ecaeaoaeai I.E.Iiaeeiaui «ca eaiinoue e iaoiaeaeaiea a
eeannu». N 1755 aiaea — caienai a eaea-aaa?aeeth. A 1762 aiaeo
o/anoaiaae a aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa, aicaaaeoai ia ?onneee i?anoie
noi?oao oea?y Iao?a III Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoeoth i?eioeanno
Nioueth-O?aaea?eeo-Aaaonoo — Aeaoa?eio Aaeeeoth. N 1762 aiaea — aaa?aeee
iiaeii?o/ee. A 1767 aiaeo i?eieiae o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe «Oeiaeaiiie
eiiennee». N 1768-ai ii 1774-e aiae o/anoaiaae a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia,
aaea i?iyaee naay eae o?aa?ue ioeoea? e oaeaioeeaue aiaia/aeueiee. N
1768 aiaea — aaia?ae-iaei?, n 1771-ai — aaia?ae-ii?o/ee. Ioee/eeny a
?yaea e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee: iiae Oieoaiaie, Ea?aie, Eaaoeii.

N 1770 aiaea ia/aeinue naeeaeaiea Iioaieeia n eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie
Aaeeeie. A 1774 aiaeo ii aue ioicaai a Iaoa?ao?a. A oii aea aiaeo
i?iecaaaeai a aaia?ae-aioaou e aeoea-i?aceaeaiou Aiaiiie eieeaaee,
iiaeaeiaai a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai e iacia/ai oaoii e??aaoey?iuo aiene.
I?iyaea naay oaeaioeeaui aaeieieno?aoi?ii, A?eai?ee Iioaieei naeaeaeny
iacaiaieiui iiiiuieeii oea?eoeu ai iiiaeo noa?ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. A 1774 aiaeo ii o/anoaiaae a i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee i?ioea io?yaeia aoioa?y e ?acaieieea Aiaeueyia Ioaa/aaa. A
1775 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa A?eai?ey Iioaieeia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
Caii?iaeneay Na/ue, yaeyaoayny na?ueaciaeoei enoi/ieeii aiaiiie e
iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe a Iaei?inneeneii e?aa.

A 1776 aiaeo aue iacia/ai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?inneeneie, Acianeie
e Ano?aoaineie aoaa?iee. A 1783 aiaeo aeanoyua ?aaeeciaae naie i?iaeo,
caeeth/aaoeeny a oie/oiaeaiee E?uineiai oainoaa e i?eniaaeeiaiee E?uia e
?innee. Ca yoi aue iiaeaeiaai oeooeii «Naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai».
A?eai?ee Iioaieei naeaeae iaiaueiiaaiii iiiai aeey oicyenoaaiiiai
inaiaiey thai-caiaaeiie /anoe ?inneeneie eiia?ee. E?iia Oa?niia, ii
iniiaae caeanue Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue, Aeaoa?eiineaa, a oaeaea
iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue (iai?eia?, Eiycue-A?eai?ueaaeo).

Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A.A. Iioaieeia inouanoaeyeinue no?ieoaeuenoai
aiaiiiai e oi?aiaiai oeioia ia *a?iii ii?a. Ii aai eieoeeaoeaa auee
i?iecaaaeaiu iaeioi?ua i?aia?aciaaiey a no?iaaie neoaeaa e yeeie?iaea
?onneie a?iee. A 1784 aiaeo ii aue i?iecaaaeai a aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaeu
e iacia/ai i?aceaeaioii Aiaiiie eieeaaee. A 1787-1791 aiaeao eiiaiaeiaae
anaie ?onneeie aieneaie, o/anoaiaaaoeie a aieia i?ioea Oo?oeee. Aai
aeeaeaeoei niiaeaeaeieeii a yoie aieia aue i?ineaaeaiiue iieeiaiaeaoe
(oiaaea aua aaia?ae-aioao) Aeaenaiae? Aaneeueaae/ Noai?ia. Oniaoii
i?iaiaeeiua ie?iua ia?aaiai?u n Oo?oeeae a ssnnao auee i?a?aaiu oyaeaeie
aieaciueth e nia?oueth naaoeaeoaai eiycy.

AEeciue A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a Iioaieeia iaayia eaaaiaeaie e ieoaie.
Iaeei ec ieoia, aeoaiei a?acaaoeony a ia?iaeiia niciaiea, iiaanoaoao i
oaeueoeauo («iioaieeineeo») aea?aaiyo, yeiau auno?iaiiuo ii i?eeaco
«naaoeaeoaai» a Iiai?innee a 1787 aiaeo. Ia yoii eioeeaeaioa iiae?iaii
ieoao a noaouea «No?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea «iioaieeineeo aea?aaaiue»
(Iiaue Oaai?eo. 2004. Ieoya?ue.) oa?niineee enoi?ee-e?aaaaae Aeaenaiae?
Aa?ineiia: «Eiia?ao?eoeo nii?iaiaeaeaee eiino?aiiua ainoe, eioi?ua
aeacai naiei ia aa?eee, aeaey oaaaathuea ca ai?eciio aea?aaie e
no?iyueany ei?aaee.

Iiaen/eoaa, ai neieueei aea iiaei iaieoenue ainoaea?noao oaeia
no?ieoaeuenoai, — oniiieeenue a eie aea iacaaiiuo noiiao. Aaoi?ii e
eieoeeaoi?ii ceiaiuo noaoae iiae a?ineei iacaaieai «iioaieeineea
aea?aaie» noae nae?aoa?ue naeniineiai iinieuenoaa Aaeueaeo». Naeniiee e
ae?oaei caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei ainoaea?noaai auei yaii auaiaeii iii?i/eoue
Iioaieeia a aeacao ie?iaie iauanoaaiiinoe e oaeei ia?acii iiaeii/eoue
?aiooaoeeth ?innee, a caiaeii e aeinaaeeoue Aeaoa?eia Aaeeeie.

Nia?oue A?eai?ey Iioaieeia, o/eouaay aai aiaaou?neia caei?iauea e
ioithaeue ia i?aeeiiiue aic?ano, auaeyaeeo aeiaieueii no?aiii. O iaai
auei iiiai a?aaia, iai?eia? Ieaoii Coaia — iineaaeiee oaai?eo Aeaoa?eiu,
eiaaoee ?aiooaoeeth i?e eiia?aoi?neii aeai?a e a n?aaea aunoaai
naiiaie/anoaa /aeiaaea e?aeia aani?eioeeiiiai. Coaiao auea auaiaeia
nia?oue «naaoeaeoaai» eae ieeiio ae?oaiio.

Iioaieei ioia/ai ?oeith enoi?ee. Aai eiy iaaa/ii caienaii ia aa
ne?eaeaee, ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe
naaoeaeoaai eiycy a ai?iaea Oa?niia, a Iiai?inneeneie e Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?ieyo.

No?aiiue Iio?ieei

Aeaa aaea i?ioei n oao iop, eae ia?anoaei aeoueny na?aeoea iaeiiai ec
eioa?aniaeoeo ethaeae ?innee, i eioi?ii aei neo ii? ia oiieeatho nii?u.
*aeiaae yoio — eiycue Oaa?e/aneee, iaeei ec oaai?eoia Aeaoa?eiu II,
e?oiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue e iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue ?innee,
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae, eaaaea? naiuo aunieeo iaa?aae ?innee, naaoeaeoee
eiycue ?eineie eiia?ee e i?i/ay, e i?i/ay. Iaiau/ia noaeueaa Iioaieeia:
ec iaeeiiiianoiiai aeai?yieia ii noae naiiaieeii ?innee, aeinoea aunio,
eioi?uo ia iiiaea aeinoeaaee.

E iinea aai nia?oe noaeueaa iaeaneiai iaioeanue n aai inoaieaie: iuia
enoi?eee iuoathony ii?aaeaeeoue, aaea aea iioi?iiai nai eiycue? *aou?a
ianaeaiiuo ioieoa no?aiu i?aoaiaeotho ia oi, /oi eiaiii o ieo iaoiaeeony
iineaaeiaa i?enoaieua iaoaiiiai eiycy. Ia?aae aaie — no?aieoeu ec
iaiioaeeeiaaiiie eieae naiiai y?eiai oa?niineiai e?aaaaaea Aaaonoa
Ae?ee/a. Aaoi? aieaa /aou?ao aeanyoeeaoee niae?aao iaoa?eaeu i aeecie e
aeayoaeueiinoe A?eai?ey Iioaieeia, enneaaeiaae iiiai aeieoiaioaeueiuo
aeaiiuo aeaooaaeiaie aeaaiinoe, /oi iicaieeei aio eiaoue naia iiaiea i
aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe eiycy.

Aieaa /aou?ao aeanyoeia eao oiio iacaae iia — noa?oaio iao/iiio
nio?oaeieeo Oa?niineiai e?aaaaae/aneiai iocay e iaeiia?aiaiii einiaeoi?o
iaeanoiiai oi?aaeaiey eoeueoo?u ii io?aia iaiyoieeia enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u
— i?aaenoiyei a e?ao/aeoee n?ie eco/eoue ana enoi?e/aneea iaiyoieee
e?ay, acyoue eo ia o/ao e i?aaenoaaeoue a Ieienoa?noai eoeueoo?u ONN?
iaoa?eaeu i ieo. ?aaiou auei iiiai, a a?aiaie — eae anaaaea. Iaeiei ec
iauaeoia, iiaeeaaeaueo cae?uoeth, aue Aeaoa?eieineee niai? (aai aua
iacuaatho Nianneei), iino?iaiiue a Oa?niia a eiioea OVIII aaea. A ia?oa
1962 aiaea oiaaeaoiee aee?aeoi? e?aaaaae/aneiai iocay Aeeoi? Ieeieaaae/
E?aaoeia ii?o/ee iia i?eiyoue eeth/e io caeaiey niai?a o aai ianoiyoaey
— aeaai/eiiiai iooea Ethoiai, e ia?aaeaoue yoe eeth/e a iocae. Iia e
?aiueoa i?eoiaeeeinue auaaoue a naiii niai?a: aiaeee ooaea oeieueieeia,
oiaa?euae ii o/aaa a einoeoooa, nai caoiaeee ia ?ac, ?anniao?eaae eeiiu,
eeiiinoan, ethaiaaeny no?iaeie eeieyie nii?oaeaiey.

Ii aieaa anaai aeaeei ooaea eiia: a ia?aaea niai?a auee caoi?iiaiu
aiaia/aeueieee ia ieaea caaiey iieeiaieea, ni?aoieee Iioaieeia,
Noai?iaa, Eooociaa. A naiii aea caeaiee niai?a auea iaaea?iaiay ieeoa,
iieiaeaiiay ia iiaeea eiycy Iioaieeia-Oaa?e/aneiai, i eioi?ii a
oeieueiuo o/aaieeao neacaii ie/oiaeii iaei e aua ia oi, /oi iaaei. A io
naiae iaoa?e iia aeiaaeinue neuoaoue iaiaei eioa?aniiai ia yoii
iaiau/iii /aeiaaea. Naia aea iaia yoo eioi?iaoeeth oianeaaeiaaea io
naiae aaaooee — Onoeiuee Aiaeueyiiaiu Ooaaeiaie, a ?iaeo eioi?ie
niio?aee ia enoi?eth nianai eia/a, /ai aaoi?u o/aaieeia
iinea?aaiethoeeiiiuo eao.

Ii ieaio ?aaiou Ieienoa?noaa eoeueoo?u ONN? iaiaoiaeeii auei aeaoue
iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo anai enoi?e/aneei ianoai iaeanoe, a oii /enea,
iiaeeu eiycy Oaa?eaeu Iioaieeia. Iaeiia?aiaiii n eco/aieai enoi?e/aneeo
iauaeoia iaeanoe aeiaaeinue e?iiioeeai eco/aoue iaoa?eaeu i naiii
Iioaieeia, aai a?aiaie, a oii /enea e iiaeea, eioi?ay eioa?aniaaea ia
oieueei iaiy. Iu ciaee, /oi oaea iiaeea ethaiai aaia?aea aeieaeia noaoue
iaiyoieeii ?anioaeeeaineiai cia/aiey, Io a oaeueaeia?oaea? A A?eai?ee
Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei eiae aieineia caaiea eiaiii oaeueaeia?oaea! E
iaa?aaeaeai aue aunoeie i?aeaiaie ?innee.

Eiaaea a 1964 aiaeo ?acoeueoaou o?oaea auee aeieiaeaiu eniieeiio
iaeanoiiai Niaaoa, oai iio?aaiaaee oi/iuo aeaiiuo: a caeanue ee, o ian
ee iioi?iiai Iioaieei? Caianoeoaeue i?aaenaaeaoaey eniieeiia Eaiieae
Aeaaeeie?iae/ Aeaieeia, aaaeaaoee aii?inaie eoeueoo?u, o?aaiaae io iaiy
ee/ii ioaaoa: «A ii oai?» Niiauath aio e eniieeiio: «Ee/ii nai y
aeaaaeaeu nioneaeny a neeai Iioaieeia n nio?oaeieeaie. Iu iniio?aee a?ia
e einoiua inoaiee, eco/eee eiathueany a a?oeaa iaoa?eaeu e i?eoee e
auaiaeo, /oi Iioaieeia oai iao!» Ia aii?in, /oi iu i?aaeeaaaai,
ioaaoeee, /oi i?aaeeaaaai iiaeeo yoo n/eoaoue ianoii ia?ae/iiai
iia?aaaiey Iioaieeia. Oae e iinoaiiaeee. A iniiaaieai aeey yoiai auee
na?ueaciua iaoa?eaeu, i?aaeinoaaeaiiua iai Ci?ae Nieiiiiiaiie I?eiaie.
Aio iaeei ec ieo, eioi?ue, enoaoe neacaoue, ni a?aiaie aai iioaeeeiaaiey
eiaei eaii?e?oaony enneaaeiaaoaeyie.

«Oa?niineea aoaa?ineea aaaeiiinoe», ?33 io 17.08.1863 a.

Ec iaoa?eaeia aeey aeia?aoee eiycy Iioaieeia Oaa?e/aneiai. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ethaeoaeyie ecuneaiee i ae?aaiinoyo Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay
aeaeathony aeiciaiey i ianoa iia?aaaiey eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai e i
aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa inoaieia yoiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey,
ioee/aaoaainy a eiioea ieioaoaai noieaoey. Iiaeao auoue, e iie iaaiaaoua
naaaeaiey ia yoii i?aaeiaoa i?eianoo eaeoth-ieaoaeue iieueco a
?acuyniaiee oaiiiai aeaea. *oi oaei eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai ia?aiia/aeueii
auei iia?aaaii a Oa?niineii Aeaoa?eieineii niai?a, — a yoii ieeiaaea e
ieeaeeo niiiaiee ia auei. Ii a eaeii eiaiii ianoa iii iia?aaaii?

Aei 1859 aiaea yoi inoaeinue caaaaeeith; ?aaiui ia?acii, aaea iii
iaoiaeeony oaia?ue? — e ia yoio aii?in iaeuecy aua ioaaoeoue n
ianiiiaiiith aeinoiaa?iinoueth, aac aieaa oi/iuo aeieacaoaeuenoa. *oi y
aeaeae nai e neuoae io ae?oaeo, oi e ia?aaeath caeanue ia ianoaeaeaiea
eeoe, aieaa iaiy naaaeoueo ii /anoe enoi?e/aneeo ecuneaiee. A 1859 aiaeo
ia?aiaueaaeenue iieu a Oa?niineii Aeaoa?eieineii niai?a, n aeicaieaiey
aia?oeaeueiiai ia/aeuenoaa, iiae aeeaeaeoei iiei iaaeci?ii, i?e
niaeaenoaee oea?eiaiiai noa?inou, a?oeeea?ee iieeiaieea a. Iaaeiaa.

Eiaaea auee ane?uou iieiaua aeinee, ii i?aaoth noi?iio, i?e ia?auaiee
eeoeii e aeoa?th, aiaiia, iaaeaeo n?aaeiei i?aaui eee?inii e ianoii
neaeaiey EIIA?AO?EOeU AEAOA?EIU II-e, oi o iiaeiiaeey yoiai ianoa
iieacaeny i?iaae, eioi?ue naa?oo iae?uo aue aeineaie, ec eioi?uo
iaeioi?ua ia?ooeeenue io aieee e ia?aciaaeenue ?annaeeiu. Ana
i?enoonoaiaaaoea i?e yoii, a iaeei aiein, caaiai?eee, /oi yoi — ianoi
iia?aaaiey eiycy Iioaieeia.

Aaaono Ae?ee/

AEo?iae «Iiaue oaai?eo» ieoya?ue 2004 a.

No?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea «Iioaieeineeo aea?aaaiue»

A naiii oeaio?a Oa?niia noieo iaiyoiee iniiaaoaeth ai?iaea naaoeaeoaio
eiycth, aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaeo A?eai?eth Aeaenaiae?iae/o Iioaieeio.

N aeieae ai?aeinoe, o iiaeiiaeey iaiyoieea 24 naioya?y a aeaiue
?iaeaeaiey eiycy ei??aniiiaeaioea iaeiie ec aacao ia?auaeanue e
oa?niioeai n aii?inii: «Eae au au iicae?aaeee A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a?»

E aio i?icao/aei «iicae?aaeaiea» iaeiiai ec ai?iaeai: «A ainnoaiiaeaiea
iaiyoieea Iioaieeio auea aeiaeaia ia?iiiay noiia, aeinoieiay eiiai
i?eiaiaiey. Ana ciatho, /oi oaeia «iioaieeineea aea?aaie», eioi?uie,
nianoaaiii, yoio eiycue e i?ineaaeeny ia aanue ie?…»

I/aiue ei?ioei, auno?i, ii oae eae-oi ii-nieaeaonee… n aieueoie
e?iieae a aieina, iniiaaiiie ia… aieineiaiie eaaaiaea. E oei?aieaoeiny
ca iiiai aeanyoeia eao oieeiaaieyi ii/oe anao yioeeeeiiaaeee, neiaa?ae e
nai?ieeia «e?ueaouo neia» — «iioaieeineea aea?aaie», aeiaaaei
?acoeueoaou iiauo enneaaeiaaiee oieeaeueiiai yaeaiey e iieiai,
ianeieueei iii eiaao aaaeiia aiaoiaiieeoe/aneia cia/aiea. Eoae, eae ana
i?ienoiaeeei.

A 1787 aiaeo Aeaoa?eia II i?aaei?eiyea iiacaeeo ia tha, ai aiiaue
i?eia?aoaiiua caiee, aeeth/aiiua a ninoaa Iiai?innee — aeaaeaiey
oaeaioeeaiai aaeieieno?aoi?a aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, oaeueaeia?oaea
Iioaieeia. Ii iiiai naeaeae aeey oicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey, iniiaaa ?yae ai?iaeia, a oii /enea Oa?nii, Ieeieaaa,
Naaanoiiieue, Aeaoa?eiineaa, inouanoaeye no?ieoaeuenoai aiaiiiai
*a?iiii?neiai oeioa, i?aaieciaae ii?neoth oi?aiaeth eoia/aneeo ei?aaeae,
nicaeae a?ieth, oe?aiea oai naiui iaaeaeoia?iaeioth iiceoeeth ?innee.

Niune iooaoanoaey eiia?ao?eoeu o?aeooaony ii ?aciiio: iaeie
oa?aeoa?ecotho aai eae oaanaeeoaeueiia, aeey iciaeiieaiey, ae?oaea — eae
aeaiiino?aoeeth iiue ?innee, anooieaoae ia aa?aa *a?iiai ii?y, o?aouee —
n oeaeueth «einiaeoi?neie» i?iaa?ee ?acoeueoaoia eniieueciaaiey
a?iiaaeiuo noii, ioioneaaiuo aaeaaiaeii n 1776 aiaea, n iiiaioa
iacia/aiey Iioaieeia aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii e?ay, ia iaono?ienoai e aai
canaeaiea.

Eiaiii iineaaeiyy i?e/eia /aua ae?oaeo i?enoonoaiaaea ai anao neooao ca
ianeieueei eao aei ia/aea iooaoanoaey. Eo enoi/ieeii auei eae ?iaeiaeoia
aeai?oeiaia ie?oaeaiea eiia?ao?eoeu — Ua?aaoia, Aieeoeuiu, Eo?aeeiu,
aeaeaaoea a Iioaieeia aunei/eo, ethaeioea neo/ay, o?aiaee?o eacaiiuo
aeaiaa, oae e aeeieiiaou ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, eioi?uo Naaoeaeoee ia
iniaaiii aeaeiaae e /anaie aea?aeae a i?eaiiie eee i?eieiae a oaeaoa e
oeaiaioeao ia aino iiao.

Aeaoa?eia II, aoaeo/e oaa?aei oaa?aiiie a eniieieoaeueiinoe Iioaieeia,
aaniethoii ia niiniaiiai i?eaaaiooue e iaiaio, oai aieaa ?aaee iieaciiai
auiieiaiey caaeoiaiiuo ei aea ieaiia, niieieii, a nii?iaiaeaeaiee
aieueoie naeou — naiaoi?ia, aaia?aeeoaoa, aeeieiiaoe/aneiai ei?iona,
ioi?aaeeanue a iiacaeeo. Iicaea i?eniaaeeieeenue e aeaa iiia?oa —
aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? ianouanoaothuae ?eineie eiia?ee Eineo II e
iieueneee ei?ieue Noaieneaa Aaaono, aea?aeaaoeeny ia o?iia aeaaiaea?y
Aeaoa?eia II.

Iia oioaea aii/eth oaaaeeoueny a neea eiia?ee ia thaa, naieie aeacaie
acaeyiooue ia oniaoe a oeeaeeecaoeee e?ay, aai aiciiaeiinoe
i?ioeainoiyoue ia oieueei a?iciiio ninaaeo — Oo?oeee, ii e aa?iiaeneei
aea?aeaaai, eiathuei eioa?an ia *a?iii ii?a.

Enoaoe, ieai e ia?o?oo iooaoanoaey Aeaoa?eiu aue ninoaaeai
aeoea-eaioeea?ii a?aoii Aacai?iaeei e noae ecaanoai Iioaieeio a iaueo
/a?oao. Oi/ii auea oeacaia oieueei eiia/iay oeaeue — Naaanoiiieue.
Inoaeueiia caaenaei io i?eoioe eiia?ao?eoeu. Oea?neee iiacae, eae
ioia/aii a «Aeiaaieea iooaoanoaey», ninoiye ec 180 yeeiaaeae e eeaeoie e
aei Eeaaa aeaeaaeny ii nooa.

Io Eeaaa Aeaoa?eia II e any aa naeoa ieuea ii Aeiai?o ia aeaoo aaea?ao
«a ?eineii noeea» e ianeieueeeo noaeao iaiueoaai ?acia?a. Eo ie?oaeaee
iiiai/eneaiiua oethiee. Oeioeeey, auiieiyy i?inueau eiia?ao?eoeu,
i?iecaiaeeea iaiaa?u e naethoiaaea ec iooae. Ie?oaeaiea ana aieaa e
aieaa oaeeaeyeinue /aoeie i?aaiecaoeee e ?aciaoo iiaeaioiaee ia anae
oa??eoi?ee. Ii ianoiyuaa iio?ynaiea ana eniuoaee, ia/aa iooaoanoaea ii
aei?iaai iaiauyoiiai e?ay, eioi?ue aua /aou?a aiaea iacaae aue
ionouiiui, aacethaeiui, iie?uoui o?aaaie e eiaueai.

Oea?aaeai?oeu, ainoe, eiino?aiiua aaeueiiaee, i?i/ay naeoa ?aciuo
aunieeo /eiia e caaiee oaeaeaee no?iyueany naea, aea?aaie, aeaaea
ai?iaea, iiiaeanoai ?aaioathueo ia iieyo ethaeae, ianoueany noaaea. E?ae
aue yaii iaaeeo e i?iaeieaeae aeoeaii canaeyoueny. I?iaiaeeeenue
aei?iae, no?ieeinue iiaia aeeeuea e caeaiey oaa?ee.

Iiiaiiiuoiua aeeieiiaou, oeo?ioiiua e i?iiu?eeaua, ia aa?eee naiei
aeacai. I?eaueoea e ea?eeeiaui iieyi e aea?aaiyi ec iieooi?a aeanyoeia
aeiiia a naieo ea?iaiiuo eiyaeanoaao, ana i?aauaaee a niiiaieyo, aeaey,
eae ?aniieiaeaiiua aaeaee aea?aaie naie ie?aeiu i?iaeieaeaee ca
ai?eciio. Iiia?oe — e aano?eeneee Eineo II, aa/ii ioaeaeaaoeeny a
aeaiueaao, e iieueneee, — oaaaey aoaaie, iiaen/eouaaee, ai neieueei
iaioeinue ainoaea?noao oaeia no?ieoaeuenoai e… niiiaaaeenue, ia aa?y
eie aea iacaaiiui noiiai. Aeeieiiaou aiaee eo?uea?ia n aeaiaoaie a naie
noieeoeu, niiauay ia oaeaeaiiii, ne?eiaee ia?ueyie, aienuaay a iioiaeiua
aeiaaieee, ni/eiyy ienueia, neaioe/anee a?thcaea e ia neoiynue ia
yaeiaeoua caia/aiey: «aeaei?aoeee aianoi aeiiia», «a aiaa?ao iaoee n
ianeii, a ia n ioeie», «ethaeae e neio ia?aaiiytho ii/aie ia iiaua
ianoa».

Eineo II, aunieee, ooaeie e aeae/iue, ai anai iiaeic?aaae iaiai, i?yiia
iaaeoaaoaeuenoai, i?aiaa?aaeaiea aai iiia?oei aaee/anoaii. Ii ienae
naiaio ieieno?o Eaoieoeo: «Aeaeae ia aa?oe o?e ei?aaey. Eae iaiy
oaa?yee, nianai aioiauo e nioneo. Ia iia caia/aiea, /oi iie oio/an,
ec-ca nu?iai eana, iia?ocyony a io/eio, ianoa? neacae no?aiioth o?aco,
/oi aaeaee Aiao aoaeao oaiaeii, ii ia aoaeao nuaaeai naeiueae, e
aeiaaaee, aeaeeii ia iiaeic?aaay n eai ?acaiaa?eaaao: «Eiy aio aeaee
oea?neia «Eineo», a iiaeao, nayoiai…»

Aieueoeinoai, aoaeo/e i?aaeacyoi iano?iaiiuie neaioeeaie e caaenoieeaie,
«aeaeaee» oi, /oi ei oioaeinue aeaeaoue, ia aiai?y oaea i oao, eoi
cei?aaenoaiaae, i?eneooeaaynue e /oaeei neiaai. A a iaioa?ao, ni/eiyaiuo
nionoy iiiai eao, oaea e «i/aaeaeoeu» oaioace?otho, ia iiae/eiyynue
?annoaeeo e cae?aaiio niuneo, oaa?aei aa?y iaienaiiiio…

Oieueei aea Eeiue — aanaeue e oiiaeoee o?aioeoc, aiaiiue aooaoa Aano?ee,
aiai?ee ia oaeaeaiiii: «Ana no?ieony, i?eaiaeeiia a i?eee/iue aeae…»
Ii aaeeinoaaiiue, eoi aeae iaeaieaa i?aaaeeaue e iauaeoeaiue
iienaoaeueiue ii?o?ao e oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiycy, n i?enouae aio
yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth: «Aaiee, aaiee, aaiee!»

Aeiiuneu «i/aaeaeoeaa» ieacaeenue ia ?aaeeinoue aeeao/e, oioy ie iaeei
ec aaoi?ia ia oaeinoaeeeny i?aaenoaaeoue eaeea-eeai aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Iaeei ec o/anoieeia iiacaeee, naiiaiee Eeueei, nai aica?auaynue ec
Oaa?eaeu a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a oai aea iooai, ii oaea ii nooa, oi anoue
i?iacaeay iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?yaeii n ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie, iacaae
?anneacu i aeaei?aoeeyo «iaeaiie aaniae».

Aeaoa?eia, eioi?ie noaee ecaanoiu neooe i ieoe/aneeo aea?aaiyo e naeao,
a ?yaea ienai n aei?iae iaaeaoniuneaiii e, neaaeoao iaaeayoueny, ni
ciaieai i?aaeiaoa, eo ii?iaa?aaea e auniayea, eae eaeeaua.

Ieeieae Io?caeaae/ — /eai Iaeanneiai iauanoaa enoi?ee e ae?aaiinoae,
aaeeeieaiii ciathuee e?ae, ienae a noaouea, iinayuaiiie iooaoanoaeth:
«Ii nia?oe eiycy Iioaieeia i iooaoanoaee yoii yaeeenue ?aciua neooe,
yeiau ii aunoaaeye ii aei?iaa aeaei?aoeeiiiua aea?aaie e oea?eae. Eaeea
aeieaeiu auoue aeaei?aoeee, /oiau n na?aaeeiu ?aee iiaeii auei eo
aeaeaoue ca iyoue e ca aeanyoue aa?no, e eae eo auei ia?aaiceoue?»

A oeio ec 40 aiaauo ei?aaeae, naethoiaaaoeo Aeaoa?eia II ia
Naaanoiiieueneii ?aeaea — yoi o?eoio Iioaieeia! ?inney i?i/ii
ooaa?aeeeanue ia *a?iii ii?a, e yoi ia inia?eaae oaea ieeoi.

Eiycue a iaeiii ec naieo ioaaoiuo iineaiee Aeaoa?eia iaienae neiaa,
eioi?ua iiiaia iauyniytho: «Naiie aeaaiie iaa?aaeie aeey iaiy inoaaony
oio oaeo, /oi iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeuenoai e caaenoue ia niiaee i?eieceoue
iaiy a Aaoeo aeacao e ieeaeia eiaa?noai ia aicuiaei oniaoa».

Oae eoi aea ana oaee ieacaeny aaoi?ii, «eieoeeaoi?ii» oaeueoeauo,
ceiaiuo noaoae iiae a?ineei iacaaieai «iioaieeineea aea?aaie»?

Eae a ?onneie, oae e a eiino?aiiie eeoa?aoo?a ooaa?aeeeinue iiaiea, /oi
aaoi? aeiiunea — nae?aoa?ue naeniineiai iinieuenoaa Aaeueaea, aeeaoee a
?innee a 1787-1796 aiaeao e iaeiia?aiaiii n iniaui oaeiaieuenoaeai
iieaauaaaoee aanue ?inneeneee ia?iae, aai ?aeeaeth, aai o/aiuo,
ienaoaeae. I?iia?ac eaeaeiiai iaoeenoa. Aai eieeaae-aeeieiiaou
iocuaaeenue i iai eae i «aieinoaothuae cao?yaeiinoe, iniiaaiiie ia
iaaaaeanoaa, aii?oaeaiiie iiaeeinoueth», eioi?ay ia inoaiaaeeaaeanue
aeaaea ia?aae oai, /oiau aoiioaoue a a?ycue iaiyoue i /aeiaaea. Eiaiii
Aaeueaea a na?ee noaoae aiiieiii (!) iioaeeeiaai a 1797 aiaeo a
aaiao?aneii aeo?iaea «Ieiaa?a», aaea oiiiyioe «iioaieeineea aea?aaie»,
iiaoi?ea naia eeaaaoie/aneia ooaa?aeaeaiea a eieaa n aeia?aoeae
Iioaieeia. Ni/eiaiea Aaeueaeaa iiiaie?aoii ia?aecaeaaaeinue ia iaiaoeeii
ycuea, i?e/ai anaaaea aiiieiii.

E /anoe caa?aie/iuo enneaaeiaaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe eiycy Iioaieeia, oai
auoee eieae, iieiinoueth ii?iaa?aathuea Aaeueaeaa.

A 1938 aiaeo a Eiiaeiia auoea eieaa enoi?eea A. Nieiaae/eea «Iioaieei»,
ia?aecaeaiiay a 1951 aiaeo a Oaaeoea?ee. A iae aiai?eony i «a?oauo e
iai?aaaeeauo eciuoeaieyo Aaeueaeaa, ecia?aooaai ceiaiia neiaa/ei,
eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaao iiaoi?youeny inaaaeienoi?eeaie e eaeao/aiuie…»

Ii ia yoii — a neaaeothuai iiia?a aeo?iaea «Iiaue OAAI?EO».

Aeaenaiae? Aa?ineiia

AEo?iae «Iiaue oaai?eo» naioya?ue 2004

Aaoueiai A?eoeueei Ia/ana

Iaiaaii, a?eueo?noue iaoeo no/aniee?a eeoa noenia iea/eia, ii/oaoe i?i
oaeiai aaoueiaia. Ae?ciaaoenue, ui oea eicaoeueea i??caenueei
Na?oe?eoiai eiycy A?eai??y Ieaenaiae?iae/a Iioueiie?ia, aeaooi iao?eeai
aeaoeia ii/a?iiooee c ioae?eaoe?e iecueei? ?noi?e/ii? yeino?, ua e
aa?oaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, iinooeao: «Oa a?i aea ?oei?aiee N?/?!» ?
aeyaeoueny iai?aaei, aaeaea o inoaiith /aa?oue XVIII noie?ooy naia
Iioueiie?i noaa ni?aaaei?i aiieiaaoii oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa.

Ia?iaeeany A?eai??e Iioueiie?i 13 aa?aniy 1739 ?ieo o n?i’? a?aeiiai
aeai?yieia Niieainueei? aoaa?i??. Ia oie /an Niieaiueia aoea
nai???aeiith «ciiith eiioaeoo» oe?a?ioe?a, a?ei?on?a oa iieye?a.
?in?enueeee aieea o e?a? aoa i?i?iaeueiee, caoa niieainueea oeyooa ioi/a
?iaee/aeany c eicaoeueeith noa?oeiith, /a?ac ui aaaaoi ?ie?a ii oiio
?iia?ao?eoey Eaoa?eia II aaeeaaoeia caoiae?a aei ?oneo?eaoe?? ye
Oe?a?ie, oae ? Niieainueei? aoaa?i??. Oiae ia aeeaii, ui A?eoeue — a
naia oae iaceaaee iaeaooiueiai eiycy o aeeoeinoa? — ciaa oe?a?inueeo
iiao. Caiaeii, eiee oeiioey i?ney nia?o? aaoueea acya ia aeoiaaiiy e
ia?aa?c o Iineao eiai ?iaee/ A. I. Eeneianueeee, i’yoee?oiueiio
A?eai??th /anoi aei??eaee ca ia/enoo ?in?enueeo aeiiao.

Ae?eoiaoe iaeaaeiiai a?eo, Iioueiie?i iinooiea aei Iineianueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, aea ?aioiai iieeioa caiyooy, caoiieany oaoooaaiiyi oa
aa?oiaith ?caeith, ca ui e aoa a?ae?aoiaaiee. Oa thiae, ia oeiaeoth/e ca
iaa/aiiyi, caienaany o Eaea-aaa?ae?? e?iiee iiee. Ooi cia?, iiaeeeai,
eiio aeiaaeiny a ua aeiaai /aeaoe ia?oiai io?oea?nueeiai caaiiy, aea
aeiiii?a eiai aaee/i?noue aeiaaeie. O aeaiue aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo
1762 ?ieo Iioueiie?i aeyaeany na?aae aaa?ae?eoe?a, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaee
Eaoa?eio II o aa?oia?e ii?caeoe? c Iaoa?ao?aa aei I?ai??iaaoia, aea
ia?aaoaaa Iao?i III.

Iieiaeee aaoi?no? i?eaa?ioa oaaao ?iia?ao?eoe?, ui e a?aee?eei eiio oeyo
aei i?eaeai?ii? ea?’??e: /a?ac aeae?eueea aei?a a?i aaea ei?iao, caiaeii
— i?aeii?o/ee, a i?ney iiaa?iaiiy ?c Noieaieueio, eoaee eiai a?aei?aaeee
o iiaiiaaaeaii? eo?’??a — ii?o/ee ? eaia?-thiea?, e iaeii/anii — oaai?eo
?? Aaee/iino?. Caeaaaeiny a, oaea ea?eieiiia ea?’??a iaea aaeiaieueieoe
Iioueiie?ia, aea uieii ?icii/aeany ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueea a?eia 1768-1774
?ie?a, a?i iieeioa aoaeoa? Eaoa?eie II ? ae?ooea ia o?iio.

O aiyo iieiaeee aaia?ae-iaei? a?aecia/eany ye /oaeiaee eiiaiaee?
eaaaea???, — /iai aa?oa aoea eeoa aeeneaae/ia aoaea Iiaio?i?oeueeeo
e??ane??a (iiee a?a ii/aoie a?ae oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa), i/iethaaia
iei o aeoa? i?e ?ya?e Iiaee?. A oiae? ai?iieo ae?e, a naia — 1772 ?ieo,
Iioueiie?i iiciaeiieany c caii?iaeoeyie ? caienaany o Eou?anueeee
eo??iue i?ae i??caenueeii A?eoeueea Ia/ane, eio?a io?eiaa a?ae eicae?a,
ye? ni?eeiaee eiai ia?oeo ca eiieoeth ia/anaiiai aieinny.

Ui ae yaeyea niaith oiai/ania N?/? I?ney nia?o? o 1733 ?ioe? inoaiiueiai
eeoea?y Caii?iaeaey, a?aeiiai aiioaico Einoy Ai?ae??iea, Neaaia A?enueei
Caii?icueea Ieciaa inoaii?i c eicaoeueeeo a?enuee Oe?a?ie i?enyaioei ia
a??i?noue ?in??. A?aeoiae? iiaeeco N?/? c’yaeeiny oe??ieaiiy —
Iiain?/ainueeee ?ao?aioaiaio, aea iino?eii ia?aaoaaea ?in?enueea caeiaa.
Ia i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo ei?aeiiao Caii?icueeeo aieueiinoae aeieeea ua
iaeia i?iaeaia — Iiaina?a?y. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui ca /an?a ?iia?ao?eoe?
?eecaaaoe aei ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia?anaeeeiny /eiaei i?aaenoaaiee?a
i?aaeaiiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a: na?a?a, oi?aao?a, /i?iiai?oe?a,
iaeaaeiioe?a oa ?ioeo, ui aoaeee a?ae ia?ane?aeoaaiue c aieo oo?e?a.

A?eueo?noue c ieo iaee, aeneiaethth/enue no/aniith iiaith, e?ei?iaeueia
ieioea. I?ioa ?in?enueeee o?yae aoa aeoaea ?aaeee oeei a?aeaioeyi:
ii-ia?oa, c ieo noi?ioaaee iinaeai? aona?nuee? iieee, ioaea, ?in?y
io?eioaaea aeanio eaaeo e?iiioo (aaeaea eicaee iino?eii i?aee?anethaaee,
ui aiie ? nithcieeaie, a ia i?aeaeaioeyie ?iia???), a ii-ae?oaa —
noai?thaaany ?ino?oiaio oeneo ia iaiie??ieo caii?iaeoe?a, ine?eueee naia
?oi? caie? — i?ai?/io /anoeio Aoai-Aa?aeiai? oa i?ai?/ii-cao?aeio
Eiaeaoeueei? iaeaiie — o?yae aeae?eea i?ae a?enueeia? iinaeaiiy, aeaaoe
e?ath iacao — Iiaina?a?y.

Ine?eueee iia? non?aee, o a?eueoino? nai?e, a ieioeiio aoee
?ica?eieeaie, oi ia aeeaii, ui ?oi? aca?ieie c n?/iaeeaie aoee
iai?oaeaieie. A oaeeo neooaoe?yo io?oe?eiee Iaoa?ao?a caaaeaee noaaaa ia
a?e na?a?a. Aeania, ?in?y aoea caoe?eaaeaia o yeiaenei??o?e e?ea?aeaoe??
Caii?icueei? N?/? ? coieiyea ?? eeoa oo?aoeueea a?enueeiaa i?enooi?noue
o I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?, a o aieiaeo ae?yo i?ioe oo?e?a ? oaoa? eaaea
eicaoeueea e?iiioa oa ?ooiia oeioee?y aoee iacai?iieie.

Naia N?/ ye eeoea?nueeee o?enoeyinueeee i?aeai ia oie /an ia?aaoaaea o
e?eciaiio noai?. C eieeoiueiai a?enueeiaiai iiiie?oo aiia ia?aoai?eeany
ia aeaa oa?oioaaiiy: ?yaeiaa eicaoeoai, aai «aieioa», oa noa?oeia, aai
«aeoee». Oeiiaei i?aaenoaaieeii inoaii?o aoa eioiaee ioaiai Iao?i
Eaeieoaanueeee. Inue ye oa?aeoa?eco? eiai a?aeiiee iaoeiaee ae?y/
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e i?ioani? Ianoi? Ei?ieue: «Oiae?oi?e eioiaee
iaaecae/aeii aaaaoee 84-??/iee I. Eaeieoaanueeee, iie?ath/enue ia
caiiaei?o n?iaeieo caii?iaeoe?a, yeeo aaea ia oie /an ia Caii??aeae?
aoei iiaeinoaoeo, ui iia??aeeeai ? i?eieceeai iaceaaa i?inoeo
a?ao/ee?a… ia ?iaeoa, ye «aieeoueaith» — aoa iaaaaaoi a?eueoa i?ae
eiyeueiee ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?in??.

Iaaooue, eiio ia aeaaaee niieith oni?oe eicaoeueei? noa?oeie c
Aaoueiaiueie, ca?aeee a?i aoa ?iaeii, ui a oeae /an aaea iaaoea
?in?enueea aeai?yinoai, a aei oiai ua e a i?eaea/o ia?aaei?oa a?eueia
naeyinoai aa iaa?oue ca?aei?eeo eicae?a nia? a ?aa?a». Ioaea, ie aa/eii,
ui oiai/ania n?/iaa aa?o?aea, ia a?aei?io a?ae Ai?ae??iea oa eiai
ni?aoiee?a, a?aooaaaoe a??eee aeina?ae nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, i?oea oeyoii
iaeiaioiai ni?ioeao, caeiath/enue eeoa naiicaaaa/aiiyi ? i?e oeueiio
o?eiath/e o iiei?? aieiai? iane eicaoeoaa ca aeiiiiiaith ?in?enueeeo
caeia ia Caii?iaeae?. ?aeeiith ?inoeoooe??th, ia i?aeii?yaeeiaaiith
?in??, caeeoaeany o?eueee Caii?icueea oea?eaa, i?aeeaaea eeoa
Anaeainueeiio (Einoyioeiiaeiinueeiio) iao??a?oaoo.

Ao?i, iacaaaeath/e ia oae? iai?ioethaaiiy noa?oeie, eeoea?nueeee aeoo
N?/? ua ia caan. Naia oea e ?iiiioaaei Iioueiie?io, yeee aoa ca iaoo?ith
?iiaioeeii oa aaaioth?enoii. Aei oiai ae, caii?iaeoe? i?ae eiai
i?iaiaeii aeyaeee o aiyo c oo?eaie aeeaa oi?ia?ino?, ca ui ?yae noa?oei
io?eiaee ?iaii? cieio? iaaeae?, a eioiaee — icaeiaeaiee ae?aiaioaie
ii?o?ao Eaoa?eie II.

I?ioa, aeiiii?aoe ?in?? aea?aoe a?eio c Oo?a//eiith, caii?iaeoe?
i?aeienaee nia? nia?oiee ae?ie. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui ca
Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeenueeith oaiaeith, aei ?in?enueei? ?iia???, e??i
oi?oaoe? E?iao?i a?ae?eoee aeeeth/ii eicaoeuee? caie?, ye? aei a?eie
iaeaaeaee aei Ia?aa?cueei? (?iaoeuenueei?) oa I?iaii?anueei? iaeaiie.
*anoeia caii?icueei? noa?oeie ia /ie? c Aioiiii Aieiaaoei ?icoi?ee, ui
io?oe?eiee Iaoa?ao?a, aae ia caanoe iai?aaoeue ?acoeueoaoe a?eie,
c?iaeoue ana aeey cieuaiiy Caii?icueei? N?/?. Naia oiio Aieiaaoee
cai?iiiioaaa Iioueiie?io, yeee o 1774 ?ioe? io?eiaa oeooe a?aoa ? noaa
a?oea-i?aceaeaioii a?enueeiai? eieaa?? oa aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii
Iiai?in??, i?iaeo ?aoi?ie Neaaiiai A?enueea Caii?icueeiai Ieciaiai, ui
caiaeeany aei ianooiiiai:

— aeaanoe ?c A?enueea aeano?oeoeaiee aeaiaio;

— iaieineoe iiaee ono??e, iiae?aiee aei A?enueea Aeiinueeiai;

— aecia/eoe iino?eio e?euee?noue eicae?a o A?enueeo.

Iioueiie?ia oeae i?iaeo aeaooiaoaaa, aea i?e aeai?? acyea ai?o aeoiea
na?a?a, ye?, ia oie /an aoee o iiae?, ?, aei oiai ae, cac?oaee ia
caii?icuee? caie?. Aacneeee uinue c?iaeoe, Iioueiie?i, ia aaaeath/e
?eceeoaaoe ea?’??ith, «aiea ?oee» ? aoa ciooaiee ao?ethaaoe o aeeooy
?iia?aoi?nueeee oeac i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th Caii?icueei? N?/?. Iiia?oo aieth
aeeiioaaa ei?ion aaia?aea I. A. Oaeae?y, ui ia?aaaaeii neeaaeaany c
i?aaeaiieo neia’yi, oai?oe?a, iieaeaaai oa aieio?a. Caaaeyee
c?aaeieoeueeei ae?yi eioiaiai Iao?a Eaeieoaanueeiai oa a?o?iaiae?eoa
Aieiaeeie?a (Nieaeuenueeiai), ea?aoaeyi iiuanoeei caeiaooe N?/ aac
?aeeiiai iino??eo.

Ai/aaeaeue, Eaeieoaanueeee oa eiai ioi/aiiy ia aeoaea ia?aeiaeeny
aeieath oiaa?enoaa, aaeaea niiae?aaeeny io?eiaoe aeai?yinuee? i?aaa ?
caie?. I?ioa ?oi? iaae?? ia ni?aaaeeeeny. Eaoa?eia II, ia?aeyeaia
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiei aenooiii y?oeueeeo eicae?a oa iaeeo ia?iae?a
i?ae i?iaiaeii Iiaeyia Ioaa/iaa, ae??oeea aaeeoe i?ioe noa?oeie an?o
eicaoeueeeo a?enuee iaeaei?noie?oeo ?ai?aneaieo caoiae?a. Iao?a
Eaeieoaanueeiai, a oaeiae a?enueeiaiai noaeaeth Iaaea Aieiaaoiai oa
iena?y ?aaia Aeiao aoei canoaeaeaii ia nia?oue. Aea ooo ianiiae?aaii
ao?ooeany Iioueiie?i, iiaeaaoe 14 o?aaiy 1776 ?ieo ?iia?ao?eoe?
aeiiia?aeue i?i oa, ui «aa?ieiiiia aoenoai» iacaaieo noa?oei «noieue
aaeeeia, /oi ii anyeei caeiiai iie caneoaeeee nia?oioth eaciue», aea
cai?iiiioaaa Eaoa?ei? II cai?ieoe no?aoo caneaiiyi. Iao?a
Eaeieoaanueeiai aoei oa’yciaii o Nieiaaoeueeiio iiianoe??, ?aaia Aeiao —
o Oo?ooainueeiio, a Iaaea Aieiaaoiai — o Oiaieuenueeiio.

Inoaii?e eioiaee iiaoi?ea aeieth a?eueoino? iie?oe/ieo a’yci?a
oiai/anii? ?in??. Nii/aoeo eiai o?eiaee o i?aecaiaeeyo A?oaiaaeuenueei?
oa I?yaeeiaiii? aaae, aea a?i i?ineae?a 12 ?ie?a. Aea Iioueiie?i ia
caaoaaa i?i a’yciy e o 1788 ?ioe?, eiee caii?iaeoe? aaea i?ae iacaith
«a??ieo eicae?a» a?aecia/eeeny o /a?aia?e ?in?enueei-oo?aoeuee?e a?ei?,
a?i aeiaeany a ?iia?ao?eoe? aeicaieo ia ia?aaaaeaiiy Eaeieoaanueeiai o
a?aonueeo eae?th. Caeiath/e o iiianoe?? aeaeaei ia inoaii? i?ei?uaiiy,
eieeoi?e eioiaee o?eiaa neoaeiee?a, a aei oiai ae io?eioaaa iain?ii ii 1
cieioiio ?oaeth ia aeaiue.

Ioaea, eiai ??/iee i?eaooie ia?aoiaoaaa 365-366 ?oae?a, ? oea i?e oiio,
ui o N?/? aeaeoaaiiy eioiaiai noaiiaeei eeoa 70 ?oae?a. Oaea noaiiaeua
aeicaieyei Eaeieoaanueeiio ?iaeoe cia/i? iiaea?oaoaaiiy ia oea?eao. Ua
aei 1917 ?ieo a Oniainueeiio niai?? Nieiaaoeueeiai iiianoe?y caa??aaeeny
cai?anoieueiee o?ano oa ?aaiaae?? o aei?iaioe?ii?e ii?aa?, iiaea?iaai?
iei. O iiianoe?nueeeo no?iao Eaeieoaanueeee ? caaa?oea nai? aeeooy 31
aeiaoiy 1803 ?ieo o 112-??/iiio a?oe?.

I?ae oei Iioueiie?i ye iiai?in?enueeee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? c?oeioany c
aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith: caoenoeoe iiaii?e?aeiaiee e?ae aoei i?eei.
Caii?iaeoe? i?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? N?/? /anoeiai i?oee o oo?aoeuee?
aieiae?iiy, aea canioaaee Caaeoiaenueeo N?/, a /anoeiai ?ic?eoeeny ii
oooi?ao /e in?ee a I?eiiie?, Eaoa?eiineaa? oa Oa?nii?. ?aaoey?ii? eaaei?
e?iiioe, iaiao?aeii? aeey a?ei c oo?eaie, ?in?y ia iaea. A
i?aaeaiiineia’yinuee? aona?nuee? iieee, ia ye? oae iieeaaeaeany Eaoa?eia
II, aoee, ca aeneiaii no/anieea, «iiiai/eneaiiu oieueei e iieo/aieth
aeaeiaaiey».

Nii/aoeo Iioueiie?i ni?iaoaaa caeo/eoe caii?iaeoe?a aei ?aaoey?ii?
neoaeae. Naia ieie aoei oeiiieaeoiaaii ye ?nioth/? i?e?ia?i? iieee —
Aei?i?ianueeee, Aeiiaoeueeee, Eoaainueeee, ?e?naaaoa?aaenueeee, oae ?
iiainoai?ai? — Oa?niinueeee oa Iieoaanueeee. I?ioa neoaeaa o i?e?ia?ieo,
a caiaeii ? o eaaeie?iieo iieeao aoea ae?ae iaiiioey?iith na?aae
eieeoi?o n?/iaee?a: ii/anoeeeny aeiaaeee aeaca?oe?noaa. Oiae? Iioueiie?i
o 1787 ?ioe? noi?ioaaa «Ei?ion ia?aaeiai? noi?iae? Eaoa?eiineaanueeeo
?aaoey?ieo eicae?a» (i?ci?oa — Eaoa?eiineaanueea eicaoeueea a?enueei),
aei yeiai noaee ia?aaiaeeoe eaaeie?ii? iieee.

E??i oiai, 1 eeiiy 1783 ?ieo o ??ci? e?ioe? Iiai?in?? aoa ?ic?neaiee
oee?eoey? c i?iiiceoe??th eieeoi?i n?/iaeeai c?a?aoeny o Oa?nii? aeey
neoaeae o eicaoeueeiio caaii? i?ae i?iaiaeii Iioueiie?ia. Oae
ia?iaeeeiny «A?enueei a??ieo eicae?a caii?icueeeo». Eiai i?aai?caoe??th
aaciina?aaeiuei caeiaeeny eicaoeuee? noa?oeie Neae?? A?eee (ia?oee
aaoaaeie oa?niinueeiai aeai?yinoaa), Aioii Aieiaaoee oa Caoa??e *ai?aa.

Eaoa?eia II ae?ciaeany i?i oe? caoiaee Iioueiie?ia (ia oie /an aaea
Na?oe?eoiai eiycy Oaa??enueeiai) eeoa i?ae /an nai?? iiaei?iae? aei
E?eio, o ea?oi? 1787 ?ieo. O E?aiai/ooe? ?? cono??a a?aeae?e
caii?iaeoe?a ia /ie? c Neaei?ii A?eei, eio?ee iiaeaa ?iia?ao?eoe?
i?ioaiiy i?i a?aeiiaeaiiy A?enueea. Eicaee noi?iaiaeaeoaaee Eaoa?eio II
aei Oa?niio, ?, c?aooith, A?eee io?eiaa onio caiaeo.

Nei?i ii oiio ?icii/aeany ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueea a?eia, o ye?e
oe?a?inueeei eicaeai aeiaei acyoe iaeae?yeuei?oo o/anoue.
Iaaeia?aaenueeee oa Ia??oiieuenueeee eaaeie?ii? iieee, ui aoiaeeee aei
Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai a?enueea, aeeeny c oo?eaie aaea o ia?oiio aith i?ae
E?iao?iii 1 aeiaoiy 1787 ?ieo. O eenoiiaae? oiai ae ?ieo ia E?iao?inueeo
eino o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Ieaenaiae?a Noai?iaa i?eaoea eiiaiaea «a??ieo
caii?iaeoe?a» ia /ie? c Neaei?ii A?eei. E?o iiaiooai?aiiai a?enueea
?icoaooaaany a o?i/eu? Aaneeueeiaiio a?ey I?iaii?a (iei? naei Aa?ienueea
Aieii?enoainueeiai ?aeiio). Oa io?oe?eiee aeica?e ia oi?ioaaiiy A?enueea
a??ieo eicae?a caii?icueeeo c’yaeany eeoa 14 n?/iy 1788 ?ieo. Eioiaei,
ca noa?iaeiiei n?/iaei cae/a?i, ia?aee Neaei?a A?eiai.

Iaaani? «a??iei caii?iaeoeyi» aeiaei a?yooaaoe Oa?nii. 21 o?aaiy
oo?aoeueea aneaae?a, ui noiyea ia ?aeae? a?ey I/aeiaa, ciyeany c yei?y ?
?ooeea a a?e E?iao?io. ?in?enueeee oeio /a?ac a?aenooi?noue iiiooiiai
a?o?o ia i?a c?ooeoe c i?noey, oiae oaea? i?eeiyea ia naaa eicaoeueea
oeioee?y. Iaecaiaee?oa aeoaa noaeany 17 /a?aiy 1788 ?ieo. O i?e aoei
cieuaii aieiai? neee oo?e?a. O ?aii?o? Eaoa?ei? II Iioueiie?i ienaa: «6
ei?aaeae niaeaeaii, 2 ia iaee, 30 ?acaeoi!.. Caii?iaeoeu ieacaee
aaeeeoth oneoao: anee au ia iie, oi au ia iiaei ie iaeii iaoa noaeii
aeaeiooueny n ianoa». ?iia?ao?eoey a?aeiia?ea Na?oe?eoiio oae: «*oi
aa?iua caii?iaeoeu aa?ii neoaeao, nea iioaaeueii, ii eiy caii?iaeoeaa
noa?aeny caiaieoue, eai Na/ue, oie/oiaeaiiay iaieoanoii, ia inoaaeea ii
naaa oiai i?eyoiiai aia/aoeaiey». I?ney oeueiai iaoyeo Iioueiie?i aoa
ciooaiee ia?aeiaioaaoe A?enueei a??ieo eicae?a caii?icueeeo ia
*i?iiii?nueea eicaoeueea a?enueei.

Aea aeeneo/a ia?aiiaa ia Aei?i?ianueeiio eeiai? iaea e a??eee i?eniae. O
aith aoa nia?oaeueii ii?aiaiee eioiaee ioaiai Neae?? A?eee, yeee iiia?
ia ae?oaee aeaiue. «Ia ?aaeinoue ia/aeue! Neaei?o Eaiaoueaae/o ioaeaai
iineaaeiee aeiea», — iia?aeiiea Noai?ia Iioueiie?io 21 /a?aiy 1788 ?ieo.

Oa ana ae ao?aoe eicae?a ia aoee aea?aiieie. I?ney ii?acee ia
Aei?i?ianueeiio eeiai? oo?ee inoaoi/ii iieeoeee iai??e aoaeoaaoe Oa?nii.
Aieiaio aaco *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo aoei a?yoiaaii. Iai?ee?ioe? /a?aiy
1788 ?ieo «a??i? caii?iaeoe?», aaea i?ae iacaith *i?iiii?nueeiai
a?enueea, ia /ie? c iiaei ioaiaiii Caoa???i *ai?aith ae?ooeee i?ae
I/ae?a, eoaee ia?ai?noeany oaao? ai?iieo ae?e. Iiia?aaeo aoee ai? i?e
Aa?acai?, Oaaeaeeaa? oa ?cia?e?.

Ieaen?e Iaoaeao

AEo?iae “Iiaue oaai?eo” ethiue 2004 a.

(Cae?i/aiiy. Ii/aoie a ? 5 (/a?aaiue) 2004)

O oiae? ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueei? a?eie 1787-1791 ?ie?a Iioueiie?i, e??i
*i?iiii?nueeiai oa Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai a?enuee, noai?ea ua ?yae
oe?a?inueeeo eicaoeueeeo oi?ioaaiue: Aocueeee iiee, oeiiieaeoiaaiee
caii?iaeoeyie eieeoiuei? Aoai-Aa?aeiai? iaeaiee, oe?a?ioeyie
I?aaiaa?aaeaey oa «neia’yinueeeie aeo?aeoeyie c Iieaeaa??» (eiia??ii,
aoeiaeioeyie); «Eicaoeuee? a?eaaaee c caei?aeiiieo aeo?aeoe?a», ui
neeaaeaeeny c iaoeaioe?a oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, eio??,
noiniaii ?in??, ni?aaae? aoee «?iicaioeyie» (i?i oea na?ae/aoue iacae
e?iieo iiee?a — Ni?eyinueeee oa Oiieyinueeee). Oaeiae a?i ca?eueoea
e?euee?noue *oao?anueeeo eicaoeueeeo iiee?a c iaeiiai aei o?ueio,
aeioeiiieaeooaaaoe ?o eicaeaie c Aaoueiaiueie, oa noai?ea Ei?ion
iaei?in?enueeeo i?oeo no??eueoe?a.

Oiae? ae an?, aac aeiyoeo, oe?a?inuee? eicaoeuee? i?ae?icae?ee io?eiaee
iaeiino??e. Aa?oeiith ae?yeueiino? Iioueiie?ia o noa?? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa noaei i?iaieioaiiy eiai o 1790 ?ioe? «Aaeeeei
Aaoueiaiii Eaoa?eiineaanueeeo oa *i?iiii?nueeeo eicaoeueeeo a?enuee».
Iaiaaii, Eaoa?eia?II aac iniaeeaiai caaeiaieaiiy iaaeaea nai?io
eieeoiueiio oaai?eoia? oeae, ?ai?oa caai?iiaiee iath ae, oeooe. Ia
a?aeoaaei e «aeia?ice/eeaoe?a», na?aae yeeo, ia aeaeue, aoee e
oe?a?inuee? aeai?yie — aeo?aeoe? c eicaoeueei-noa?oeinueeeo ?iae?a. Oae,
a?ao Ieaenaiae? Aiae??eiae/ Aacai?iaeei iino?eii iaoyeaa ?iia?ao?eoe? ia
aeeaio, ye ia iueiai, i?eno?anoue Na?oe?eoiai aei eicae?a, «eioi?ay aei
oiai i?inoe?aeanue, /oi ii ana aeaeeiia i?aa?auae a nea iacaaiea».

I?ioa Iioueiie?i aoa aeua an?o aeiiin?a ?, io?eiaaoe oeooe aaoueiaia,
noi?ioaaa, aeeeth/ii c oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a, naith iniaenoo aaa?ae?th:
Eiiaieiee, Iaei?in?enueeee oa Aoeaae Aaeeeiai Aaoueiaia iieee. Ia
Aaeeeaeaiue aea 1791 ?ieo /i?iiii?oe? i?ea?oaee eiai i?ea?iaeueiei,
niiaiaiei caii?icueeiai aoii?o a??oai: Ce?? aeooe,

Aeanii iooe,

An? oaea iineecee.

Caaiaa ?non

A iaeei iieon,

Uia o?enoeyi ia a?ecee.

? nia?oue ethoa,

Ui iai oooa

Aaeueie aeieo/aea,

Ii aieioao, i/a?aoao,

A?aeo/e e?e/aea.

Oai nooe?aa

Oaia? a?aa,

sse oaeaia c eyeo,

Ai Aia o?anoii

*i?oa c oainoii

I?iaiaa ye niaaeo.

Aaeeeee Aaoueiai aoa o cai?o? neaae, aaeaea, oaeoe/ii, a?i aeyaeany
noaa?aiii I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y i?e iii?iaeuei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
Iaoa?ao?ao. Oea ana ia iiaei ia caiaiiei?oe oea?nueeee o?yae, aea
i?eno?ano? no?eioaaea a?eia c Oo?a//eiith.

A iaaaeiac? i?ney oeeaaeaiiy ssnueei? ie?ii? oaiaee Iioueiie?i oyaeei
caoai??a ? iaeacaa aacoe naaa o Ieeiea?a. Ea?aoo aaoueiaia e
oaeueaeia?oaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaee eicaee. A?ae/oaoe iaaeeaeaiiy nia?o?,
Iioueiie?i iaeacaa /i?iiii?oeyi aeianoe eiai c ea?aoe o noai ? iieeanoe
ia eeeei, ?icnoaeaiee ia o?aa?. Oae a?i cono??a nai? inoaii? oaeeeie.
Noaeiny oea 5 aeiaoiy 1791 ?ieo. Oiaaee eiycy Oaa??enueeiai o Oa?nii? ca
aaoueiainueeei ia?yaeii: ca o?oiith ianee aoeaao, oaaeth e i?aii?, aaee
eiiy. C? nia?oth Iioueiie?ia cae?i/eany e cieioee a?e a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. Ca?aeii oeac?a Eaoa?eie II, o 1792 ?ioe?
?icii/aeiny ia?anaeaiiy ia Eoaaiue *i?iiii?nueeiai eicaoeueeiai
a?enueea, a o 1796 ?ioe? Eaoa?eiineaanueea eicaoeueea a?enueei aoei
ia?aoi?iiaaii o ?aaoey?i? e?ii? /anoeie ?in?enueei? a?i??.

Aea iai’youe i?i Iioueiie?ia ye aaoueiaia aeeea. Ia?io?iao ieeoo iaae
eiai iioiaaiiyi o Eaoa?eieinueeiio niai?? Oa?niia i?ee?aoaei cia?aaeaiiy
ia?ao?auaieo ia?oaeuenueeiai aeaceo oa aaoueiainueei? aoeaae (iei?
ao?a/ai?). O 1835 ?ioe? Iioueiie?ia oa?/iea aeaeaoiee neoeueioi? ?aai
Iao?iae/ Ia?oin, o?iaeaeaiaoeue *a?i?a?aueie, iauaaeie eicaoeueeiai
noa?oeie Aaneey Ia?oina. Ni?eueii c ?oae?enueeei a?o?oae¬oi?ii Aiooi a?i
noai?ea o Oa?nii? aaee/iee iai’yoiee eiycth Oaa??enueeiio, yeiio
noaeeeiny i?inoiyoe aei 1922??ieo. A?ae?iaeaeaii oeae oi?eaeueiee aeoa??
ienoaoeoaa aoei eeoa 19?aa?aniy 2004 ?ieo. O oea?aiii?? a?aee?eooy
iai’yoieea Iioueiie?io a?aee o/anoue ? no/ani? eicaee, ye? iieeaee aei
i’?aeanoaeo a?iie c iaienii: «Aaeeeiio Aaoueiaio Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai oa
*i?iiii?nueeiai eicaoeueeeo a?enuee a?ae eicae?a Oa?niiueie».

Ieaen?e Iaoaeao

*i?iiii?oe? caa?aaee noa?iaeiiee caii?icueeee iaeya: oaieo c /a?aiiei
oeeeii, /a?eaneo, /aeiaiue oa oa?iaa?e. A e?iiioiee?a oa?iaa?e oa
/aeiaiue iaee /a?aiiee eie??, /a?eanea — nei?e, o i?oioeioe?a /a?eanea
aoea caeaiith, o oeioee?? — caeai? oa?iaa?e e /aeiaiue oa a?ea /a?eanea.
Aocuee? eicaee iineee nei? oa?iaa?e e ei?ioeee eaioai, oa a?eee
/aeiaiue, ui iaeii/anii neoaeea ieauai. O eicaoeueeeo a?eaaaeao e?ii?
iieee iaee oa?iaa?e, eo?oeo oa /a?eaneo nei?, a i?o? — caeai?.

A?ae??ciyeenue nai?i iaeiino?i?i, iaaeeaeaiei aei a?i?enueeiai,
Eaoa?eiineaanuee? oa *oao?anuee? iieee. Ia?o? iineee aeaeeoio eo?oeo aac
oaeae c /a?aiiei eaioii ii ai?oo oa iaoeaaao e aeaiia ?yaeaie ?oaecee?a,
oaiii-aeaeeoi? oa?iaa?e c aeai?yaeiei /a?aiiei eaiianii, aenieo ooo?yio
oaieo c /a?aiiei aa?oii oa a?eei noeoaiii, ae?oa? — /a?aiio eo?oeo c
nei?ie eaoeeaiii oa iaoeaaaie, nei? oa?iaa?e c aeai?yaeiei a?eei
eaiianii oa oaieo c a?eei /ioe?eeooiei aa?oii.

Oe?a?inueeee iiao ?aai Eioey?aanueeee i?enayoea Iioueiie?io e?eueea
?yaee?a o nai?e aacnia?oi?e «Aia?ae?»:

I?yiee, ye ninia, aaee/aaee,

Aoaaeee, caeaoiee, oa?oee, aeaaaee,

Oaeee, ye aoa Ia/ana-eiycue…

Ia ia?eoia oaaaith «eiycy Ia/ano» ? Oa?an Oaa/aiei, eio?ee noai?ea
iaethiie «Nia?oue Iioueiie?ia», aea Na?oe?eoee eiycue Oaa??enueeee
cia?aaeaiee a ioi/aii? /i?iiii?nueeeo eicae?a.

AEo?iae «Iiaue oaai?eo» etheue-aaaono 2004 a.

A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei ?iaeeeny 13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea a naea
*eaeaai aeec Niieainea. Iieo/ee oi?ioaa aeiiaoiaa ia/aeueiia
ia?aciaaiea. Iinooiee a Iineianeee oieaa?neoao e a /enea 12 eo/oeo
nooaeaioia a ethea 1757 aiaea aue i?aaenoaaeai eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa.
Iaeiaei a 1760 aiaeo aue eneeth/ai ca i?iaoeu. A 1761 aiaeo iinooiee
aaoieno?ii a eiiioth aaa?aeeth. Ca o/anoea a ia?aai?ioa 28 ethiy 1762
aiaea Iioaieei iieo/ee /ei iiaeii?o/eea, caaiea eaia?-thiea?a, 400 aeoo
e?anoueyi e na?aa?yiue na?aec. A 1763 aiaeo ii aue iacia/ai iiiiuieeii
iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Nayuaiiiai Neiiaea, iiaeoia aeaiooaoia eiiaa?oeaa
Eiiennee 1767 aiaea oeiaeaiey e /eaia aeooiaii-a?aaeaeaineie eiiennee. A
1768 aiaeo iiaeaeiaai a eaia?aa?u e io/eneai io eiiiie aaa?aeee eae
/eneyueeny i?e aeai?a. *a?ac aiae, ai a?aiy ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu
1768-1774 aiaeia, aeia?iaieueii ioi?aaeeny a aeaenoaothuoth a?ieth e a
ei?ioeia a?aiy ec ii?o/eeia aaa?aeee aeineoaeeeny aei /eia
aaia?ae-ii?o/eea. A 1774 aiaeo Iioaieei aue aucaai a Iaoa?ao?a, aaea
ia/aeanue aai aeenoaoaeueiay ea?uea?a. Ca ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
ii noae aaia?ae-aaeuthoaioii, aaia?ae-aioaoii, a a 1774 aiaeo —
aeoea-i?aceaeaioii Aiaiiie eieeaaee. A 1775 aiaeo, iinea caeeth/aiey
ie?a n Oo?oeeae, aicaaaeai a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai, a a ia?oa 1776
aiaea, ii ee/iie i?inueaa Aeaoa?eiu 11 e Aano?eeneiio eiia?aoi?o.
Iioaieei iieo/ee oeooe Naaoeaeoaai eiycy Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee. A
1774 aiaeo — iacia/ai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?inneeneei e
Ano?aoaineei. A 1784 aiaeo caiye iino i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie eieeaaee, a a
1785 — i?eiye ?oeiaiaenoai *a?iiii?neei aaeie?aeoaenoaii e oeioii. A
1790 aiaeo Aeaoa?eia a?o/eea Iioaieeio oaeueaeia?oaeueneee aeace, e a
oii aea aiaeo ii iieo/ee oeooe «Aaeeeiai Aaoiaia» anao eaca/ueeo aiene
?innee.

A oa/aiea 17 eao A.A.Iioaieei ieacuaae caiaoiia aeeyiea ia aioo?aiithth
e aiaoithth iieeoeeo ?innee. Aai aiaiii-iieeoe/aneee i?iaeo
inaiaiaeaeaiey Aa?iiaeneiai eiioeiaioa io oo?aoeeiai aeaaeu/anoaa,
acaoaei?aaeeaoee aa?iiaeneea no?aiu, eeoue naieie ia?auie oniaoaie
ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaiee iieiaeaiea a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea.
Inouanoaeaiiay i?ia?aiia inaiaiey noaiiiai e?ay, iniiaaiea aeanyoeia
iiauo ai?iaeia, nicaeaiea *a?iiii?neiai oeioa ii?aaeatho naiei ?aciaoii
e i?iaeoiaiiinoueth. O?eoioii Iioaieeia noaei inouanoaeaiea ieaia
ineaaeaiey aieinoaaiiiai E?uineiai oainoaa e aane?iaiiai i?eniaaeeiaiey
E?uia e ?innee a 1783 aiaeo. Iinea ciaiaieoiai iooaoanoaey Aeaoa?eiu II
ia THa eiycue Iioaieei iieo/ee oeooe «Oaa?e/aneee».

A.A.Iioaieei iniiaae ianeieueei ai?iaeia, ii Oa?nii caiye iniaia ianoi a
aai aeecie. 6 naioya?y 1775 aiaea aeoea-i?aceaeaio Aiaiiie eieeaaee e
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay A.A.Iioaieei i?aaenoaaee ?aii?o
Aeaoa?eia II i iino?iaiee e?aiinoe ia a?aieoea n Oo?oeeae e E?uineei
oainoaii iiae iacaaieai Oa?nii. A iineaaeothuea o?e aiaea eaeay i?inoie
e?aiinoe o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a eaeath noaeino?ieoaeueiiai oeaio?a e
ii?oa iiae caueoie e?aiinoe. 18 ethiy 1778 aiaea Aeaoa?eia II ecaeaea ia
eiy Iiai?inneeneiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a eiycy Iioaieeia oeac ia
iniiaaiee Oa?niia. Oiaaea aea ei ee/ii aue ooaa?aeaeai i?iaeo ai?iaea,
?ac?aaioaiiue iaoa?ao?aneei a?oeoaeoi?ii I.I. Aaoioieeiaui.

Aia?aua Iioaieei i?eaue a Oa?nii a iaa 1780 aiaea n noiiie a ianeieueei
ieeeeiiia ?oaeae ia no?ieoaeuenoai e aeaaiono?ienoai ai?iaea. Ii aucaae
ec ?innee 2000 ianoa?iauo, ieioieeia, eociaoeia e eaiaiueeia aeey
ei?aaaeueiiai e ai?iaeneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ia?aa?inee ec naiae
/aoaa?oie aeeaecee 10 iaoioiuo iieeia a Oa?nii aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa
e?aiinoe e iinaeaiey a ai?iaea. Iioaieei iinauae Oa?nii a 1782 e a 1783
aiaeao, a n 1786 aiaea e aei nia?oe auaae caeanue ?aaoey?ii. O iaai aue
nianoaaiiue aeii a Oa?niia, a oaeaea aeai?aoe aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a a
e?aiinoe. Ee/iia ionoonoaea a ai?iaea ia iaoaei aio aea?aeaoue iiae
eiio?ieai ana ai?iaeneea aeaea: ii iaycuaae anao naieo iiiiuieeia,
?aaoey?ii iiaeaaaoue ?aii?ou i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a Oa?niia.

E niaeaeaieth, yoiio ia/eiaieth, eae e iiiaei ae?oaei i?iaeoai, iiiaoaea
?ac?aceaoayny a Iiai?innee a 1783 aiaeo yieaeaiey /oiu. Iniaaiii
aeanoieie iia auea a Oa?niia, i?iaeeeaoenue aieaa aiaea. Aa iineaaenoaey
eaaee oyaeaeui a?aiaiai ia iea/e Iioaieeia. Iiiaia ioaeii auei ia/eiaoue
nia/aea e a i?aaeaeueii naeaoua n?iee. Yoiio auee aeaa i?e/eiu.
Aneaaenoaea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee Oo?oeey aioiaeeanue e aieia e
iiaea iauyaeoue aa a ethaie iiiaio. Aoi?ay – oa, /oi Aeaoa?eia ec-ca
iiiai/eneaiiuo nieaoai ioiineoaeueii Oa?niia au?aceea aeaeaiea iinaoeoue
ai?iae e naieie aeacaie oaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou a?iiaaeiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a «THa». Neaaeoao ioaeaoue aeieaeiia
aaeieieno?aoeaiiio oaeaioo Iioaieeia, eioi?ue a aeaa aiaea noiae
oaeoe/anee ia?ano?ieoue e?aiinoue e i?aa?aoeoue Oa?nii a iaeei ec
e?aneaaeoeo ai?iaeia no?aiu. A Oa?niia ?aaioaee oaeaioeeaua eiaeaia?u e
a?oeoaeoi?u ec Iaoa?ao?aa e Iineau, O?aioeee, Aieeaiaeee e Aa?iaiee.
Ethaay iaei/ue, aoaeue oi a a?oeoaeoo?iii aii?ina, ei?aaeano?iaiee,
aeeieiiaoee eee oi?aiaea, i?ioiaeeea /a?ac aai eaioeaey?eth. Iioaieei
ethaee a?oeoaeoo?o e iocueo. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiio neoaeeo
a?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue Oa?niineie e?aiinoe e iaoiaeeaoeeny a
aaeie?aeoaenoaa oaao?. I?aaeinoaaeaiiia Oa?niio i?aai naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee niinianoaiaaei ioe?uoeth a ai?iaea eiino?aiiuo oi?aiauo eiioi?.

Niaoea a no?ieoaeuenoaa e?aiinoe auea ii?aaaeaia: aaaeue oaea eaoii oiai
aea 1787 aiaea ia/aeanue aieia n Oo?oeeae, /ooue ia iaa?ioaoayny
o?aaaaeeae aeey Oa?niia. Caeanue oaea nua?ae naith ?ieue A.A.Noai?ia, n
eioi?ui, e yoi neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, o Iioaieeia auee ae?oaeaneea,
aeiaa?eoaeueiua ioiioaiey e acaeiiiiieiaiea. Naith ?ieue nua?aee e
caii?iaeneea eacaee, ia?aoaaeoea ia neoaeao e Iioaieeio, i?iyaeaoea
niaeinoue e ioaeanoai a Eeiao?ineii n?aaeaiee. Acyoea I/aeiaa 6 aeaeaa?y
1788 aiaea yaeeinue ?oaeeiiii a enoi?ee Iiai?innee. Ie?iue aeiaiai?,
caeeth/aiiue n Oo?oeeae a 1791 aiaeo, ioiaeaeioe a?aieoeo ?innee aeaeaei
ia caiaae, e Oa?nii ieacaeny a aeoaieii oueo. Iiiaea ieaiu Iioaieeia
ioiineoaeueii Oa?niia oae e inoaeenue ia?aaeeciaaiiuie — 5 ieoya?y 1791
aiaea Naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei oia?.

23 iiya?y A.A.Iioaieei ii oeaco Aeaoa?eiu II aue iia?aaai a
Aeaoa?eieineii niai?a ai?iaea Oa?niia. Oiaaea Aeaoa?eia II iiaaeaea
aicaeaeaiooue iaiyoiee Iioaieeio e iioi?iieoue aai a Oa?niia, ai?iaea
eioi?ue ii iino?iee. Ii aiiaue aii?in i iaiyoieea aue iiaeiyo oieueei
i?e aioea Aeaoa?eiu II Aeaenaiae?a I. A 1825 aiaeo E.I.Ia?oin auiieiee
ia?aue yneec neoeueioo?u Iioaieeia. A 1831 aiaeo eeoaeuee A.I.Aeeiia
ioeee noaooth. E /a?ac iyoue eao iaiyoiee a eaaaea?aa?aeneie oi?ia
Aeaoa?eieineiai a?aiaie aue onoaiiaeai ia naia ianoi. A 1838 aiaeo
aie?oa iaiyoieea aue ?acaeo Iioaieeineee neaa?. A 60-70 aiaeu a neaa?a
iaoiaeeeny oiioai, oe?aoaiiue oeao?ie a?iiciaiai iaeue/eea n ioeoeae a
?oeao.

Iueaaeanoae aeey Iioaieeia aue auiieiai eoaeueyineei a?oeoaeoi?ii
O?aioeai Ea?eiae/ai Aiooi, eioi?ue a 20-30-a aiaeu 19 aaea ?ac?aaaouaae
iinoaiaio aeey iaiyoieea ?eoaeuea a Iaeanna. A na?aaeeia 20 aaea
iaiyoiee Iioaieeio aioae a iyoa?eo eo/oeo enoi?e/aneeo iaiyoieeia NNN?.
Ia/aeueiay noaeueaa iaeeaeaea iaiyoiee iniiaaoaeth Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay.
A 1917 a. iaiyoiee «ethaei/eeo Aeaoa?eiu» iae?uoue a?acaioii aue
i?aa?auai a «oa?niineia i?eaeaeaiea». Ia/eiay n 1941 a. iaiyoiee noiye
ai aeai?a enoi?eei-a?oaieiae/aneiai iocay, a ai a?aiy II Ie?iaie Aieiu
aanneaaeii en/ac. A 1922 aiaeo iueaaeanoae Iioaieeia aue caiyo athnoii
Ea?ea Ia?ena, a iicaea e neoeueioo?ie aaoi?a «Eaieoaea». Eeoue a 2003
aiaeo iaiyoiee aue aic?iaeaeai. Iaiyoiee aaeeeiio iieeiaiaeoeo
iniiaaoaeth Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay ainnoaiaaeeaae oa?niineee neoeueioi?
TH?ee Noaiaiyi, /eai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nithca ooaeiaeieeia Oe?aeiu, a
oaeaea aeaaiue a?oeoaeoi? Oa?niia a oa/aiea 22 eao Ay/aneaa A?iiuoei.
Neoeueioo?a «iooea Oa?niia» Iioaieeia auea aini?iecaaaeaia Noaiaiyiii ca
iaeei aiae. A /anoue i?acaeiiaaiey 225-aiaeiaueiu iniiaaiey Oa?niia
aeaoooiiiay eiiey Iioaieeineiai iaiyoieea auea aicaaaeaia ia naie
iueaaeanoae 19 naioya?y 2003 aiaea.

Iioaieei A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ (1739-1791). Nui ioeoea?a, Iioaieei
iieo/aao i?aainoiaeiia ia?aciaaiea, eco/aao ae?aaiea ycuee, enoi?eth,
oeeinioeth, oaeaeaaony aiaineiaeai. A 1756 ii aianoa n ae?oaeie
aeanoyueie iieiaeuie ethaeueie iai?aaeai a?aoii Ooaaeiaui a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, aaea i?aaenoaaeai eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia.

Aoaeo/e io/eneai ec Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa ca ionoonoaea i?eeaaeaiey,
ii iinooiaao neoaeeoue a aaa?aeaeneee iiee e i?eieiaao o/anoea a
ia?aai?ioa 1762, ca /oi aio aeaeotho 10 oun. ?oa., 4 oun. e?aiinoiuo e
/ei ii?o/eea. Naeeceaoenue n a?aoueyie I?eiauie, ii o/anoaoao a 1767 a
?aaioa caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eiiennee, caieiaynue a iniiaiii ?aeeaeiciuie
aii?inaie e eii?iaeoeaie, aeeciue eioi?uo aoaeao eioa?aniaaoue aai
iaeciaiii. Ai a?aiy ia?aie ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu ii ioee/aaony i?e
Oieoaiao, A?aeeiaa e Neeeno?ee. Noaa a 1772 aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioii, ii
aoiaeeo a /enei i?eaeeaeaiiuo Aeaoa?eiu II, a iinea oiai eae A?eai?ee
I?eia aiae a iaieeinoue, oaeinoaeaaaony caaiey oaai?eoa, ia?anaeyaony a
Ceiiee aeai?aoe, iieo/aao oeooe a?aoa e aoiaeeo a Niaao. A 1776 ii
iacia/ai aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee, Aciaa e.Ano?aoaie. Yia?ae/ii
i?eiyaoenue ca canaeaiea yoeo oa??eoi?ee, ii i?eaeaoaao ooaea neaayi e
i?aaineaaiuo n Aaeeai e iniiauaaao ai?iae Aeaoa?eiineaa (1776).

Oaea n 1780 ii oieeaao Aeaoa?eio II ia caaiaaaiea E?uia, a iinea aai
i?eniaaeeiaiey a 1783 i?aaiecoao oai ianoiia oi?aaeaiea e iniiauaaao
Neioa?iiieue e Naaanoiiieue n ii?neie aacie aeey nicaeaiiiai ei aea
*a?iiii?neiai oeioa. Caiya iino i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie eieeaaee a 1784, ii
aaiaeeo iiaue aiaiiue onoaa. Iiacaeea Aeaoa?eiu II a E?ui a 1787
ciaiaioao niaie aiioaic Iioaieeia, «aeoea-ei?iey thaa» e naaoeaeoaai
eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai. Iioaieei oaeaeyao aieiaiea ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee
(aeaaiaea?y aio a 1786 caeeth/ai oi?aiaue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae) e,
aiiaue aa?ioaoenue e naiaio oaea/aieth ?aeeaeiciuie aii?inaie,
ninoaaeyao i?iaeo i?eniaaeeiaiey noa?iia?yaeoeaa e ?onneie oea?eae.
Oie?aao ii nei?iiinoeaeii 5 (16) ieoya?y 1791.

Iio?ieei A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ [13 (24).9.1739, n. *eaeiai, iuia
Aeooiaueineiai ?-ia Niieaineie iae.,-5(16).10.1791, aeec a. ssnnu, iuia
a ?oiuiee], ?onneee ain. e aiai. aeayoaeue, aeeieiiao,
aai.-oaeueaeia?oae (1784). Iao/aeny a aeiiacee Iine. oi-oa (1756-60).
Caienaiiue a ?aeoa?u eiiiie aaa?aeee a 1755, aaoieno? I. ca o/anoea a
aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa 1762, e-?ue aica?e ia i?anoie Aeaoa?eio II,
iieo/ee /ei iiaeii?o/eea aaa?aeee. A oiaea ?onnei-oo?. aieiu 1768-1774
ioee/eeny a aiyo iiae Oioeiii, oniaoii o/anoaiaae a n?aaeaieyo i?e
Oieoaiao, Ea?aa e Eaaoea, ca /oi iieo/ee /ei aaia?aea. A 1774 I. aue
ioicaai a Iaoa?ao?a, i?iecaaae?i a aai.-aoiaou, iacia/ai
aeoea-i?aceaeaioii Aiai. eieeaaee, aicaaae?i a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai e
ii?aaeae?i oaoii e??aaoey?iuo aiene. Aoaeo/e i?eaee- ae?iiui Aeaoa?eiu
II, caiye aunieia iieiaeaiea i?e aeai?a e a ain. aiia?aoa. I?iyaee naay
oaeaioeeaui aaeieieno?aoi?ii, i?aaiecaoi?ii no?ieoaeuenoaa a?iee e
oeioa, noae aeeaeaeoei iiiiuieeii Aeaoa?eiu II a i?iaaaeaiee iieeoeee
oe?aoeeaiey aaniethoenoneiai ain-aa, caieiaeny aii?inaie yeiiiie/.
aeecie ?innee, oe?aieaiey a? iaaeaeoia?. iiceoeee. A 1774 aicaeaaeye
i?aaiecaoeeth ea?ao, aeaenoaee i?ioea A. E. Ioaa/?aa. A 1775 ii
eieoeeaoeaa I. auea eeeaeaee?iaaia Na/u Caii?iaeneay eae aiciiaeiue i/aa
iiauo ianniauo aunooieaiee. A 1776 aue iacia/ai aai.-aoaa?iaoi?ii
Iiai?inneeneie, Acianeie e Ano?aoaineie aoa. A 1783 ?aaeeciaae naie
i?iaeo i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee, iieo/ea ca yoi oeooe «naaoeaeoaai
eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai». Iiiai naeaeae aeey oic. inaiaiey Naa.
I?e/a?iiii?uey e no?-aa a yoii e?aa aa. Oa?nii, Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue i
Aeaoa?eiineaa (Aeiai?iiao?iane). Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I. inouanoaeyeinue
no?-ai aiai. e oi?a, oeioia ia *??iii ii?a, e-?ua a aieia n Oo?oeeae
nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo. I?ia?e iaeioi?ua
i?aia?aciaaiey a no?iaaie neoaeaa e yeeie?iaea ?on. a?iee (i?ae?aoee
eniieueciaaiea ioae?u, oie/oiaeee eine/ee e aoeee, aa?e aeey nieaeao
e?aeea naiiae e o. ae.). A 1784 aue iacia/ai i?aceaeaioii Aiai.
eieeaaee. A ?aoaiee no?aoaa, aii?inia iie?aeny ia iieeiaiae/aneia ene-ai
I. A. ?oiyioeaaa, A. A. Noai?iaa, I. A. ?aiieia e ae?. ?on.
aiaia/aeueieeia. Ai a?aiy ?on.-oo?. aieiu 1787-91 eiiaiaeiaae a?ieae, ii
aeaenoaiaae ia?aoeoaeueii, caieiaeny ae. ia?. niaaaeaieai aeaenoaothuae
a?iee, a? oeiiieaeoiaaieai e iiaeaioiaeie ?aca?aia.

Eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu Niaaoneie aiaiiie yioeeeeiiaaeee a 8-ie oiiao,
oii 6.

Iioaieei A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ (13.9.1739-5.10.1791), ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue, naaoeaeoee eiycue Oaa?e/aneee. Nui iao?ianeiai ooaa-ioeoea?a,
o/anoieea Iieoaaneiai n?aaeaiey, aiineaaenoaee iieeiaieea, Aeaenaiae?a
Aaneeueaae/a Iioaieeia (oia? a 1746) e aai aoi?ie aeaiu Aea?uee
Aaneeueaaiu (oia?ea a 1780). Aacaeaoiue a ia?aii a?aea A.A. Iioaieei
aethaeeny a 20-eaoithth aaeiao Ae.A. Neo?aoiao (o?iaeaeaiiay Eiiaeu?aaa)
e iinaaoaeny, iauyaea naay aaeiaoeii (aio auei 50 eao). Oaea aoaeo/e ia
niinyo ia?aui ?aaaieii, iieiaeay aeaiueia oaiai?eea ia?aoth aeaio
Iioaieeia iino?e/ueny a iiianou?ue. Ec-ca oyaeaeiai oa?aeoa?a iooea
iaeaiueeiai A?eai?ey acye ia ainieoaiea aeaith?iaeiue a?ao iooea —
i?aceaeaio Eaia?-eieeaaee A?eai?ee Iaoaaaae/ Eeneianeee, aeeaoee a
Iineaa. A 1746 a Iineao ia?anaeeeanue e aai iaoue n iyoueth ae?oaeie
aeaoueie. Iioaieei o/eeny nia/aea a /anoiii o/eeeua Eeoeaia, caoai a
aeiiacee i?e Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa. Oaea a aiaeu o/aau i?iyaee
aeanoyuea niiniaiinoe e iaoeai e oaiiiaiaeueioth iaiyoue. A 16 eao
caienai a Eiiioth aaa?aeeth, ii i?ioiaeee /eiu n aeicaieaieai «ia
yaeyoueny a iiee aei ieii/aiey iaoe. A 1756 oaeinoiai cieioie iaaeaee. A
1757 a /enea 12 eo/oeo o/aieeia i?eneai a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a ii
i?eaeaoaieth E.E. Ooaaeiaa e i?aaenoaaeai eiia?ao?eoea Aeecaaaoa
Iao?iaia (eiaiii oiaaea Iioaieei aia?aua oaeaeae 28-eaoithth aaeeeoth
eiyaeith Aeaoa?eio Aeaenaaaio). Aa?ioaoenue a Iineao, Iioaieei i?ae?aoee
caiyoey e a 1760 aue io/eneai, iaeiia?aiaiii n I.E. Iiaeeiaui, «ca
eaiinoue e iaoiaeaeaiea a eeannu». Ia acyoua acaeiu aeaiueae Iioaieei
ioi?aaeeny a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a; ia?aai?io 1762, i?eaaaeoee e aeanoe
Aeaoa?eio, ii ano?aoee a /eia aaoieno?a e a aeieaeiinoe aaeuthoaioa
i?eioea Aai?aa Aieooeineiai, aeyaee eiia?aoi?a Iao?a III. Aeaoa?eia
ee/ii iaienaea ia i?aaenoaaeaiee iieea i i?iecaiaenoaa Iioaieeia a
ei?iaou — «auoue iiaeii?o/eeii», o. a. iiauneea aai /a?ac /ei. Anei?a ii
aue iiaeaeiaai a eaia?-thiea?u e aioae a oceee e?oa ee/iuo ae?ocae
eiia?ao?eoeu. Iioaieei auiieiye ?acee/iua neoaeaaiua iaycaiiinoe ii
Eiiiiaaa?aeaeneiio iieeo. A 1763 Aeaoa?eia II iiaeienaea oeac Neiiaeo, a
eioi?ii iiaaeaaaea «a Neiiaea aaci?a?uaii i?e oaeoueo aeaeao, iniaeeai
i?e nia?aieyo auoue iaoaio eaia?-thiea?o A?eai?eth Iioaieeio e ianoi
naia eiaoue ca iaa?i?ieo?i?neei noieii…». A 1767 eiiaiaee?iaai a
Iineao a Eiienneth ii ninoaaeaieth iiaiai Oeiaeaiey eae «iiaeoi io
eiiaa?oeaa e /eai eiiennee aeooiaii-a?aaeaeaineie». A 1768 ii aue
iiaeaeiaai a eaia?aa?u e ii iiaaeaieth eiia?ao?eoeu anei?a io/eneai ec
Eiiiie aaa?aeee «eae ninoiyuee i?e aeai?a». N ia/aeii ?onnei-oo?aoeeie
aieiu 1768 iinooiee «aieiioe?ii» a a?ieth. Oaea 19 ethiy ii ioee/eeny a
aaaiaa?aeiii aith, 2 ethey a n?aaeaiee iiae Oioeiii iiae iei auea oaeoa
eioaaeue. «Ca ieacaiioth o?aa?inoue e iiuoiinoue a aiaiiuo aeaeao»
iiaeaeiaai a aaia?ae-iaei?u. A eaiiaiee 1770 Iioaieei auiieiye
ioaaonoaaiiua caaea/e; iaa?aaeaeai i?aeaiaie Na. Aiiu e Na. Aai?aey 3-e
noaiaie. Nai aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee a?ao I.A. ?oiyioeaa niinianoaiaae
i?iaeaeaeaieth Iioaieeia ii neoaeaa. Inaiueth 1770 Iioaieei aue a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, aaea aue «ioiaiii i?eiyo i?e aeai?a», o/anoaiaae ia
ia?aii i?acaeieea aai?aeaaneeo eaaaea?ia, noaaoai n oao ii?
o?aaeeoeeiiiui. Aica?aoynue a a?ieth, ii a 1771 io?acee iaiaaeaiea oo?ie
ia E?aeia, auoaniee eo ec Oeeia?u, inaiaiaeea iaoiaeeaoeony a yoii
ai?iaea o?enoeai. A aeaeaa?a 1773 Iioaieei iieo/ee ienueii eiia?ao?eoeu,
eioi?ay aucuaaea aai a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. Ii i?eacaea a noieeoeo iacia/ai
iiaeiieeiaieeii a eaea-aaa?aeee I?aia?aaeaineee iiee. Naeeceeny n a?aoii
I.E. Iaieiui, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeaea?aeae Iioaieeia, aeaey
a aai aicauoaiee aaaeiue i?ioeaiaan aeeyieth naieo i?ioeaieeia — I?eiauo
e *a?iuoaaa. I?onneee iinie a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a?ao A.O. Nieuein
aeiiinee a yoi a?aiy O?eae?eoo II: «Ii-aeaeeiiio, Iioaieei noiaao
ecaea/ue iieueco ec ?aniieiaeaiey e iaio eiia?ao?eoeu e naeaeaaony naiui
aeeyoaeueiui eeoeii a ?innee». A ai?aea 1774 Iioaieei ia?aacaeaao a
niaoeeaeueii ioaeaeaiiua aeey iaai iieie. 30 iay iineaaeiaae oeac i
iacia/aiee aai aeoea-i?aceaeaioii Aiaiiie eieeaaee, e ii aue i?iecaaaeai
a aaia?ae-aioaou. Anei?a aio ii?o/aii oi?aaeaiea Iiai?inneeneie
aoaa?ieae. E?oa iaycaiiinoae Iioaieeia i/aiue oe?ie. Eae aeaaa Aiaiiie
eieeaaee ii aaaeae eaae?iauie ia?aiauaieyie e iacia/aieyie a a?iee,
iaa?aaeaeaieyie, i?iecaiaenoaii a /ei, iaineyie, ioioneaie,
ooaa?aeaeaieai aaaeiuo noaeaaiuo i?eaiai?ia. Eae aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?
Iiai?innee i?eieiae ia?u e oe?aieaieth a?aieoe, canaeaieth e?ay.
O/anoaiaae a i?aaiecaoeee ia?ii?eyoee aeey ai?ueau n ioaa/aaneei
ainnoaieai. 8.6.1774 a oea?eae Na. Naiiniiey ia Auai?aneie noi?iia, a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, ninoiyeinue oaeiia aai/aiea Aeaoa?eiu II e Iioaieeia
(naeaeaoaeyie auee aeiaa?aiiua eeoea eiia?ao?eoeu I.N. Ia?aeoneoeia e
A.A. *a?oeia). Iaa?aaeu neaaeiaaee iaeia ca ae?oaie: 10.7.1774 aicaaaeai
a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai ?inneeneie eiia?ee; 25 aeaeaa?y noae eaaaea?ii
i?aeaia Na. Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai. A ia?oa 1776 aicaaaeai a eiyaeaneia
aeinoieinoai Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee e iieo/ee oeooe naaoeaeoaai. A
1776 iacia/ai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?inneeneie, Acianeie e
Ano?aoaineie aoaa?iee. A 1781 o/anoaiaae a o/?aaeaeaiee Na?aoianeiai
iaianoie/anoaa e noae eiaiiaaoueny aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii oaea /aou?ao
iaianoie/anoa. A 1783 ?aaeeciaae naie i?iaeo i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e
?innee, iieo/ea ca yoi oeooe «naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai». Iioaieei
naeaeae i/aiue iiiai aeey oicyenoaaiiiai inaiaiey Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey. Ei iniiaaiu ai?iaea Oa?nii, Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue,
Aeaoa?eiineaa. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Iioaieeia inouanoaeyeinue
no?ieoaeuenoai aiaiiiai e oi?aiaiai oeioia ia *a?iii ii?a. A Oa?niia ii
iniiaae ii?neea o/eeeua, a Iiai?inneenea ieaie?iaae nicaeaiea
oieaa?neoaoa, eiina?aaoi?ee, 12 oaa?ee. A 1787, ai a?aiy naiaai
iooaoanoaey ii ?inney, Aeaoa?eia II nianoaaiii?o/ii caeiaeeea a
Naaanoiiiea I?aia?aaeaineee niai?. 2.2.1784 i?iecaaaeai a
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaeu e i?aceaeaiou Aiaiiie eieeaaee. Ai a?aiy
?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu 1787-1791 eiiaiaeiaae ?onneie a?ieae, ii
aeaenoaiaae /anoi ia?aoeoaeueii e neiauaae ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee
?onneeo aiene. A iineaaeiee naie i?eacae a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a a oaa?aea
1791 iieo/ee io eiia?ao?eoeu a iiaea?ie aeai?aoe, ecaanoiue eae
Oaa?e/aneee (?aiaa oaea i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee aio e i?eia?aoaiiue a eacio ca
460 oun. ?oa.), oaeueaeia?oaeueneee ioiaee? e 200 oun. ?oa. iaee/iuie. A
ethea Iioaieei auaoae ec Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a E?ui. Oniaoii i?iaiaeeiua
ie?iua ia?aaiai?u n Oo?oeeae a ssnnao auee i?a?aaiu oyaeaeie aieaciueth
e nia?oueth Iioaieeia. Aei/ue Iioaieeia e Aeaoa?eiu II Aeecaaaoa
A?eai?ueaaia Oaieeia (?iaeeeanue 12 eee 13 ethey 1775) ainieouaaeanue a
naiuea ieaiyiieea Iioaieeia A.I. Naiieeiaa, iaeiiai ec o?ao naeaeaoaeae
oaeiiai a?aea aa ?iaeeoaeae.

Eniieueciaaiu iaoa?eaeu eieae: Nooa?aaa I.A. Eoi aue eoi a ?innee io
Iao?a I aei Iaaea I, Iineaa, 2005

Naaoeaeoee eiycue iaiaaeaeae iieacooo, ii noae aea?oaie nianoaaiiiai
o?oaeiethaoey aanoe aeaaaeoeaoue eao iacaae — a ia?oa 1785 aiaea
Aeaoa?eia II i?eiyea ?aoaiea i iiacaeea a thaeiua iaeanoe ?innee.
Iaianoieeii Iiai?innee aue eiycue Iioaieei. Ii oi?inee «iaoooeo»
iiaeiaeaeaoue ia?o eao, /oiau aeino?ieoue «iioaieeineea aea?aaie».

E iai aaeao ?aaeci?!

Au?aaeaiea «iioaieeineea aea?aaie» noaei neiiieiii iaeno?aaeiie
iieacooe, aeaeaiey ia/aeueieea ?aiaii iiieaea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue
naiaio ainno, /oi «ana oi?ioi, i?ae?aniay ia?eeca»!

— E iai aaeao ?aaeci? (oea?ue, aainae, i?aceaeaio — iaioaeiia
ca/a?eiooue)! E nioie /eiiaie/eia, eiiay eaaeoee, aaaoo eniieiyoue
(iaeiiaoe-oi!) naie i?yia iaycaiiinoe. Niaoii, ia nei?oth ?oeo,
ia?ae?aoeaathony oanaaeu. I?yii ia caeaaeaiaeua yiu eeaeatho anoaeueo.
Niaa oeeaaeuaatho eoaeeaie. O?aao e?anyo a caeaiue oeaao. Oeeoeu
i/euatho io i?inoeoooie e ioni?a. Ia aeiiao auaaoeaatho oeaae, ea?atho
aeooiaua i?eano?u, oaioeotho ia?yaeiua aeaoe, a a iaaaceiu ia neo/ae
«aiacaiiuo iinauaiee» caaicyony naiua ?aciiia?aciua oiaa?u:

THaeiia iooaoanoaea Aeaoa?eiu II auei ia?aie oaeie iiacaeeie. Ia?aae
aci?aie ecoieaiiie eiia?ao?eoeu e aa ie?oaeaiey, a oaeaea
nii?iaiaeaeaaoeo eiino?aiiuo iiia?oia i?aaenoaee aeaaiiieo/iua aea?aaie
e ?aciaeaoua iinaeyia, aiaeeeneea ia?ee e aeanyoee ei?aaeae
*a?iiii?neiai oeioa. Ana yoi au?inei neiaii ec-iiae caiee, ia ianoa
a/a?aoiaai aeeeiai iiey aeaaiaea?y iaonoaiiui o?oaeai «ii/iiai
?iia?aoi?a ?innee» — A?eai?ey Iioaieeia.

Aeeeia iiea: Naaiaeiy ?inneth, aeaaea oiaiueoeaoothny, iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue aac ieeeeiiiiai ?inoiaa, noao?iie/aneiai Ni/e, nieia/iiai
E?aniiaea?a. Ii aeaa n iieiaeiie aaea iacaae thaeiay a?aieoea aaeeeie
eiia?ee eeoue neaaea «oea?aiaea» ieiaei?iaeiua /a?iicaiu. Ni a?aiai
Eeaaneie ?one aeeoue thaeiaa Ai?iiaaea e Oaiaiaa icia/aei ea?aoue ni
nia?oueth. Aieiia oaeaaee, aeaiuei e aeaoae oaiaeeee ia iaaieueie/uee
?uiee Aiaiu e Oaiaeinee. Aeaaea Iao? I ia noiae cae?aieoueny ia aa?aaao

Acianeiai ii?y. Oieueei iinea Eo/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a
1774 aiaea tha ieii/aoaeueii ioioae e ?innee, a e?uineee oai Naaea-ae?ae
noae ?o/iui e aaciaeaeiui. Aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee Aeaoa?eia II
iacia/eea naiaai ethaeioea Iioaieeia.

Oaeaioeeaue oeeeeii

Caaenoieeai e a?aaai Iioaieeia eacaeinue iaaa?iyoiui, /oi eaeie-oi
iaeiiaeacue aunei/ea ca aeanyoue eao naeaeae aeaei, eioi?ia aeaayoue
aaeia auei ia ii iea/o eiycueyi, oea?yi e eiia?aoi?ai! Aua i?e aeecie
aai ia/aee iaaeiyoue a iieacooa:

— Ieeaeeo e?anoueyi ooo iao! Iioaieei i?eaac ianeieueei ouny/ aeoo ec
oeaio?aeueieo aoaa?iee. A iioii a?inee, e ana ioaeeee iiia?ee io
aieiaea!

— A aeiia, /oi iaoooea ia Aeiai?a aeaeaea, — oaia?iua! Eo oaao?aeueiua
aeaei?aoi?u ia?eniaaee e oiaea ooaea-nthaea aiceee!

— Iaeueieoeu e na?ae — aooaoi?neea! Oe! Iaeiei neiaii, «iioaieeineea
aea?aaie»!

A /oi aea auei ia naiii aeaea?

Ia naiii aeaea A?eai?ee Iioaieei aue ee/iinoueth iaiaeiicia/iie. A iai
oaeeaaeenue aaee/ea e iaei/iinoue, eaiue e aeaeiaeoinoue, o?aa?inoue e
?iainoue, /anoiethaea e aaccaaioiinoue. E a oi aea a?aiy Iioaieei
aeaenoaeoaeueii aue naiui auaeathueiny e oaeaioeeaui ec anao
niiaeaeaeieeia eiia?ao?eoeu, naiui aeenoaoaeueiui aa oaai?eoii.

?iaeeeny Iioaieei a 1739 aiaeo a naiuea aaaeiiai niieaineiai iiiaueea,
ii n aeaonoaa ia/oae i neaaa.

— Eiaaea au?anoo — iai?aiaiii noaio a?oea?aai eee ieieno?ii, — aiai?ee
iooeo iaeaiueeee A?eoa. A 1757 aiaeo Iioaieei iinooiee a Iineianeee
oieaa?neoao. Oai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?iyaeeenue aai iai?aeeia?iua
aea?iaaiey, a n ae?oaie — no?aiiinoe a iiaaaeaiee: oi ii i?iyaeye
aeeaaeoee eioa?an e iaoeai, i?ineaeeaay ii/e iaae eieaaie, oi aae?oa
aiiaua ia?anoaaae iinauaoue caiyoey.

A aiae ainoanoaey Aeaoa?eiu II ia i?anoie aeaaaeoeaoeo?aoeaoiee niieyiei
eeoeeny aeaca. Ii iaeiie ec aa?nee, nae i?enei?aiue oaeo aue neaaenoaeai
aeoyee. Ii ae?oaie

— Iioaieei iioa?ye aai, iieo/ea neeueiue oaea? io Aeaenay I?eiaa. Naiay
aeinoiaa?iay aa?ney cao/eo oae.

Aia/aea Iioaieei caaieae eiiuthieoeaeoii, a eiaaea ciaoa?ue noae
enoeaeyoue iei n iiiiuueth i?eii/ae, ia aeaco iiyaeeny ia?ino. Aoaeouee
oaai?eo i?ioeioe aai eaieeie e: i?aa?aoeeny a o?iaeeeaiai oeeeeiia.

E?aneaue io i?e?iaeu A?eai?ee neeueii ia?aaeeaae. N ai?y caia?ny a
oaiiie niaeueia, io?anoee ai?iaeo e iieoi?a aiaea ia auoiaeee ec aeiio.
?aoee, /oi oaia?ue iiaeii caauoue ia oaea/iie aeaieoueaa. Iaeiaei iinea
«auoiaea a naao» iiiaeny ia aeaca oaea iaiieiaeie eiia?ao?eoea e /ai-oi
ieaiee aa na?aeoea. Onoaaoay io nieaeaoiia I?eiaa

Aeaoa?eia aeaaii eneaea aio caiaio — ia i?inoi i/a?aaeiiai e?anaaoea
a?aiaaea?nueeiai ?inoa, ii e oiiiai /aeiaaea, aaeeiiiuoeaiieea.
Iioaieei, ia n/anouea, ieacaeny oiii ia iaaeaeai. Oaea a 1763 aiaeo
Aeaoa?eia iacia/aao aai iiii?ieeii iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Neiiaea. A 1768 aiaeo
aeaeaao eaia?aa?ii e, iaeiiaoe, oaai?eoii.

Aano?eeneee aeeieiiao Aea Eeiue i Iioaieeia: «Iieacuaay aeae eaieaoea,
o?oaeeony aani?anoaiii. Ia eiaao noiea, e?iia naieo eieai, ae?oaiai
a?aaiy, e?iia nai?o iiaoae, /anoi eaaeeo, ii ia i?aaeaaony nio ie aeiai
ie ii/ueth, o?einio aeoaieiiuneaiiue, eneoniue ieieno?, oiieee iieeoee e
ecaaeiaaiiue aeaayoeeaoiee ?aaaiie, ethaeo Aiaa, aieony naoaiu».

Ieo n iaiaiii Iioaieeia iacia/eee aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee 31 ia?oa 1774
aiaea — aua aei caeeth/aiey Eo/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneiai ie?a. Eiia?ao?eoea
i?aaeinoaaeea aio ii/oe aeeeoaoi?neea iieiiii/ey. E eiycue, cano/ea
?oeaaa, n?aco acyeny ca aeaei, eniieuecoy i?aeiouanoaaiii i?yiee, a ia
eioo.

Ii iauyaee, /oi oaia?ue ethaie aeaeathuee iiaeao i?eaoaoue ia tha e
iieo/eoue aacieaoii caieth. Oi?iaeueii e?anoueyia ia iiaee yoiai
naeaeaoue, oaeoe/anee Iioaieei i?eieiae oaaaeaaoeo io iiiaueeia
e?aiinoiuo. I?inoi i?eoai?yeny iaciathuei, ioeoaea a ?innee acyeinue
noieueei aieueiuo caieaiaooeaa.

Aoaa?ieth ?acaeee ia o/anoee ii 60 aeanyoei. Ia?auo iinaeaioeaa
inaiaiaeeee io oieaou ethauo iaeiaia ia iiiai eao. A anee a e?ae
ia?aacaeae ni naieie e?anoueyiaie aiaaoue iiiauee — aio auaeaeyee oaea
12 000 aeanyoei caiee! Aa?aiaueee ia?anaeaioeaa iieo/aee aeaiaaeiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, a iaeaieaa aeoeaiua ec ieo – aeai?yineia caaiea!

Ianoiyuea, a ia «iioaieeineea» aea?aaie aicaiaeeee ?onneea, iieaeaaneea,
aieaa?neea, a?a/aneea, a?iyineea iinaeaioeu. E i?eia?o, ia oa??eoi?ee
aoaeouae Iaeannu iainiiaaeinue noieueei aa?aaa, /oi i?eoeinue
i?eniaaeeieoue yoo aoaa?ieth e /a?oa eo inaaeeinoe. Eiycue ia aue
iaoeeiiaeenoii, n/eoay, /oi a aai aeaaeaieyo iiaeao aeeoue eoi oaiaeii,
eeoue au i?eiinee iieueco e aue eiyeai.

A 1778 aiaeo eiycue Iioaieei caeiaeee iiaue ai?iae — Oa?nii, iino?iea
ii?neie ii?o, aa?oe, *a?iiii?neee oeio. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii a oeaio?aeueiuo
aoaa?ieyo ?innee auee caaa?aiaaiu ieioieee, eaiaiueee, eociaoeu. Oaea
/a?ac aiae a Oa?niia nionoeee ia aiaeo 60-iooa/iue ei?aaeue «Neaaa
Aeaoa?eiu».

Iicaea Iioaieei iniiaae Naaanoiiieue, iieiaeee ia?aua eaiie a iniiaaiea
Aeaoa?eiineaaa. Ca /aou?a aiaea a ai?iaea ia Aeiai?a iiyaeeenue aeaa
o/eeeua: aeey aeaoae aeai?yi e aeey i?inoiethaeeiia, eiaeaaaiiue e
naa/iie caaiaeeee, e oaa?eea, ecaioiaeyaoay oii/aeoea /oeee aeey naiie
Aeaoa?eiu.

Iioaieei ieaie?iaae i?aa?aoeoue yoio ai?iae aaeaa ee ia a o?aoueth
noieeoeo ?innee — nicaeaoue oai oieaa?neoao, iana?aaoi?eth, 12
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e iino?ieoue eieinnaeueiuo ?acia?ia o?ai
iaiiaeiaea niai?a Nayoiai Iao?a a ?eia, a oaeaea «noaeeeeua, iaiiaeiaea
ae?aaieo aaceeee», ia?iiiua neeaaeu e iaaaceiu. «THaeiay noieeoea»
anei?a aeaenoaeoaeueii aicieeea, ii /ooue caiaaeiaa. Yoi ai?iae Iaeanna.

8 ai?aey 1783 aiaea Iioaieei oaiai?ee e?uineiai oaia ioeacaoueny io
aeanoe a iieueco ?innee e, ?acoiaaony, a naith. Oaoa? ooo aea iiiio/aaae
i?yieeii: A?eai?ee

Aeaenaiae?iae/ ?anii?yaeeeny auaeaeeoue aeaiueae ia ?aiiio ia/aoae, oeie
e iauanoaaiiuo oiioaiia, a oaoa?neie ciaoe aeae ana i?aaa ?onneeo
aeai?yi. Ii/eiee oaineee aeai?aoe a Aao/ena?aa, i?eeacae no?ieoue iiaua
nieyiua neeaaeu a Ia?aeiia, naaeaoue eaooaiiaua aea?aauey aaeieue
aei?ia.

Cao/eo iaaa?iyoii, ii nuio aaaeiiai niieyieia ca aeanyoeeaoea
aeaenoaeoaeueii oaeaeinue naeaeaoue oi, /oi ia niiaee ie ?th?eeiae/e, ie
?iiaiiau!

I?inoi iieeoe/aneia oio

Eo/oa anao aeayoaeueiinoue Iioaieeia ioa?aeoa?eciaaea naia Aeaoa?eia
iinea aai aiacaiiie nia?oe: «Caiaieoue iaaiciiaeii, ioaeii ?iaeeoueny
oaeei /aeiaaeii, a eiiaoe iuiaoiaai noieaoey ia i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoa
aaieaa». Aeaaea Iannie, aeaaiee iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeue Iioaieeia, i?eciaaae:
«Aai eii/eia inoaaeea a?iiaaeiue i?iaae a eiia?ee»…

Naia Aeaoa?eia II e aa ie?oaeaiea ciaee, /oi e?anoueyineea aeiia ia
eaaeaeue aeaiue oe?aoatho ae?eyiaeaie ec aeeauo oeaaoia. *oi iinaeaioeu
ia eaaeaeue aeaiue iinyo /enoia ieaouea e eacaee a eeoi caeiieaiiuo
oaieao ia eaaeaeue aeaiue i?acaeii aa?oeotho aaeieue Aeiai?a. Oo/iua
noaaea nianai iaiaycaoaeueii ianoony aaeieue ?aee e aaeieue iaacaeaiiuo
aei?ia.

Iia iiiyea, /oi yoi anaai eeoue, aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii, iieeoe/aneia
oio.

Aiciiaeii, ia?aia a ?onneie enoi?ee. Ii eiia?ao?eoea oaeaeaea aeaaiia —
/oi e aeiia, e iinaeaioeu, e eacaee, e ei?iau — ana ianoiyuaa!
Iiaeaeaeaoue iiaeiaiia eciaeeea a oaeeo ianooaaao auei i?inoi
iaaiciiaeii!

A iieueco Iioaieeia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea e yeiiiieea — a oa?niineee ii?o
i?eoiaeeee eiino?aiiua ei?aaee, caii?neea eoioeu caeoiaee e auaiceee
oeaa. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi ianaeaiea Iiai?innee au?inei ai iiiai ?ac e
i?eaeeceeinue e ieeeeiio /aeiaae, e?ae ei?iee oaea ia oieueei naay, a
i?aa?aoeeny a aeeoieoeo ?innee.

— A?aaai naiei ou oaea?ee ii iaeueoeai, — oae ioa?aeoa?eciaaea
eiia?ao?eoea aeayoaeueiinoue naiaai oaai?eoa.

«Iioaieeineea aea?aaie» Caiaaea

Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iiiyoea «iioaieeineea aea?aaie» noaei
annioeee?iaaoueny n ?inneae.

A iaoae no?aia eae ?ac ia i?eiyoi oaanoaoueny naieie oniaoaie, a aio
eoeueoo?a Caiaaea any i?iieoaia iieacooie! Aeaaea ia i?inoie aii?in «eae
aeaea?» a NOA i?eeiyoi ioaa/aoue «i?ae?anii» e ecia?aaeaoue eaeeioneoth
oeuaeo, iioiio /oi naiia ?oaaoaeueiia neiai a Aia?eea — «iaoaea/iee».

Iiaeaioiaee Na?aae IAO?OIEI c EAe «I?iaeioeey», 1999 — 200318-06-2009

Oaeia iia?aaaiey Naaoeaeoaai eiycy A?eai?ey Iioaieeia

Enoi?ey ai?iaea Oa?niia o?aieo iiiai oaei e eioa?aniuo oaeoia.

Eaeia-oi a?aiy a ai?iaea a 1820 aiaeo ainoee Aeaenaiae? Iooeei, Oa?nii
aucaae o iaai aeeaie eioa?an, iineieueeo e aai no?ieoaeuenoao eiae
ioiioaiea i?aaeaae iiyoa – Aa?ai Iao?iae/ Aaiieaae. Aue a Oa?niia e
ciaiaieoie eiaaean, aona? Aeaien Aeaauaeia.

Iiauaaa a Oa?niia e aia/aoeaiiue oaeaeaiiui a ii/eaaeiii aeiia, Iaenei
Ai?ueeee iaienae naith ecaanoioth iueano «Ia aeia». Eiaiii oa?niineay
ii/eaaeea noaea i?ioioeiii ii/eaaeee a yoie iueana Ai?ueeiai.

Ia?a/eneyoue ecaanoiuo ethaeae, /uey noaeueaa auea naycaia n Oa?niiii
iiaeii aaneiia/ii aeieai. Ii iaeiie ec naiuo aieueoeo caaaaeie enoi?ee
ai?iaea, yaeyaony iia?aaaiea Naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai A?eai?ey
Iioaieeia.

Anee caaeyiooue a eeanne/aneoth enoi?eth Oa?niia, oi iiaeii ociaoue, /oi
Naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai?ee Iioaieei iia?aaai a Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii
Niai?a, eioi?ue aoiaeeo a ainaiaeue Oa?niineie e?aiinoe.

Ia naaiaeiy nio?aieeenue aeaia ai?io e?aiinoe – I/aeianeea e Iineianeea,
e?aiinoiie eieiaeaoe, caeaiea a?naiaea e Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineee niai? n
/aniaiae e ae?iiieai.

Niai? aue caeiaeai a 1781 aiaeo ia ianoa aea?aayiiie oea?eae Nayoiai
A?oeno?aoeaa Ieoaeea.

N Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineee niai? naycaia aua iaeia enoi?e/aneay caaaaeea
Oa?niia – enoi?eee oae e ia iiaoo ii nae aeaiue i?eeoe e iauaio iiaieth,
eoi yaeyaony aaoi?ii i?iaeoa oea?eae: iaeie n/eoatho, /oi yoi Eaai
Noa?ia, ae?oaea – Aaneeee Aaaeaiia. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii neacaoue
oi/ii – no?ieoaeuenoai Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineee niai? inouanoaeyeinue iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii ecaanoiiai a?oeoaeoi?a Eaaia Neoieeiaa. No?ieoaeueiua
?aaiou auee caaa?oaiu /a?ac 5 eao iinea eo ia/aea – a 1786 aiaeo. Ia
o?iioiia niai?a iaaeienue – «Nianeoaeth ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai Aeaoa?eia II
iinayuaaony». Ai aiaoieo ieoao Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineiai niai?a iaoiaeyony
noaooe ?aaiou ecaanoiiai neoeueioi?a Aaa?eeea Caia?aaaa – aiinoieu Iao?
e Iaaae, a oae aea nayoua io/aieoeu Aa?aa?a e Aeaoa?eia.

?yaeii n niai?ii iaoiaeeony /aniaiy. Yoi oaea /aoaa?oia nii?oaeaiea ii
n/aoo. Ia?aay auea aea?aayiiay, e iino?ieee aa e iiiaioo inayuaiey
oea?eae a 1786. A 1800 ia ianoa aea?aayiiie auea iino?iaia eaiaiiay, ii
i?inoiyea iia oieueei aeaa aiaea, iineieueeo iinea caieao?ynaiey a 1802
aiaeo iia neeueii iino?aaeaea, e ia aa ianoa aicaaee a?aiaiioth – niiaa
aea?aayiioth. Oieueei a 1815 aiaeo auea iino?iaia nouanoaothuay ii nae
aeaiue /aniaiy.

Iioi?iiai Iioaieei a Oa?niia eee iao?

ss i/aiue ethaeth naie ai?iae, e aa?ney i oii, /oi iniiaaoaeue ai?iaea e
iaeia ec eeth/aauo oeao? Aeaoa?eieineeo a?aiai A?eai?ee Iioaieei
iieieony a Oa?niia i/aiue oaoeo. Ii, eae neacae Na?aaioan «Amicus Plato,
sed magis amica veritas» — «Ieaoii iia ae?oa, ii enoeia aei?iaea».

Oi?iaeueii Iioaieei aei neo ii? iieieony a Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii niai?a,
ia yoii aiai?eo e iaaea?iaiay aeinea, eioi?ay oai iaoiaeeony.

Iaaeienue ia iae aeaneo: Oaeueaeia?oae Naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai?ee
Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee ?iaeeeny 30 naioya?y 1739 aiaea Oia?
5 ieoya?y 1791 aiaea Iioi?iiai a nai o?aia 23 iiya?y 1791 aiaea

Ooo aea ii e?ayi iaoiaeyony iaaeaeueiiu n iacaaieyie acyouo Iioaieeiui
ai?iaeia.

Ii oae ee yoi ia naiii aeaea?

Neii/aeny oaai?eo eiia?ao?eoeu Aeaoa?eiu II A?eai?ee Iioaieei a 1791
aiaeo ii aei?iaa ec ssnn a Ieeieaaa. Naaoeaeoee eiycue caaauae
iioi?iieoue aai ia ?iaeeia a *eaeaai, ii Eiia?ao?eoea ?aoeea ii-naiaio –
i?ao A?eai?ey Iioaieeia aeieaeai iieieony a iaeiii ec iino?iaiiuo iei
ai?iaeia.

A?ia n oaeii Iioaieeia 23 iiya?y 1791 aiaea ec ssnn aue i?eaacai a
Oa?nii e iinoaaeai a neeaia Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineiai niai?a. A yoii aea
neeaia iaoiaeeeanue e aiaaoi oe?aoaiiay eeiia Eenona O?enoa, eiaiii ath
eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II aeaaineiaeyea Eiycy Iioaieeia a 1774 aiaeo ia
Iiai?inneeneia aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noai. I?aaaea, yoo ?aeeeaeth a 1793
aiaeo o Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineiai niai?a auo?aaiaae ieaiyiiee A?eai?ey
Iioaieeia a?ao Aeaenaiae? Naiieeia, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a?aiy io a?aiaie
ia?aae ia?acii Nianeoaea i?ioiaeeee neoaeaiey.

Eiaaea ia i?anoie acioae nui Aeaoa?eiu II Iaaae I, eioi?ue ieoae ee/ioth
iai?eyciue e A?eai?eth Iioaieeio, ociaa, /oi oaei Naaoeaeoaai eiycy ia
i?aaeaii caiea, ooo aea iiaeienae i?eeac aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?o Aeaenaiae?o
Eo?aeeio «ana oaei, aac aeaeueiaeoae iaeanee, a naiii aea oii iia?aao
iia?aaaii auei a iniai au?uooth yio, a iia?aa canuiai caieath e
ecaeaaeai oae, eae au aai ieeiaaea ia auaaei». Ethaeneay iieaa aiai?eea,
/oi eiia?aoi? aue cie e i?eeacae Eo?aeeio ia i?inoi canuiaoue neeai, a
?aca?inaoue einoe eiycy iaaeaeaei io niai?a – a *a?oiaie aaeea. I?eeac
eiia?aoi?a aue eniieiai – neeai canuiaee caieae, a aoiae caeiaeeee
eaiaiiie eeaaeeie, i?aaaea i?ao inoaaeee ia ianoa.

«Iaeacae» Iaaae I e aeaeeioaeo A?eai?ey Iioaieeia – ii auneae aa a
Eacaiue. Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi ia oieueei
Iioaieeia oae ia ethaee iieiaeie oea?ue. Iaaae I ioiineeny i?ac?eoaeueii
ei anaio, /oi naeaeaea Aeaoa?eia II, iai?eia? Oaa?e/aneee aeai?aoe
i?aa?aoee a eaca?iu eiiiiaaa?aeaeneiai iieea, a a Ceiiai naaeo ono?iee
eiithoie.

Iinea oiai eae neeai aue canuiai, noaee oiaeeoue neooe, aoaeoi-au
Iioaieeia auei iia?aaaii aaea-oi ai ?ao Oa?niineie e?aiinoe.
Oaeinoiaa?eony a oii, /oi oaei A?eai?ey Iioaieeia ana aua iaoiaeeony a
Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii niai?a 4 ethey 1818 aiaea ?aoee a?oeaieneii Eia,
eioi?ue i?eoiaeeeny eiycth ieaiyiieeii. Ane?ua neeai ii oaeinoiaa?eeny a
oii, /oi a a?iao iaoiaeeony oaei aai aeyaethoee.

A 1859 aiaeo iiaeea eiycy auea ane?uoa aua ?ac – /a?ai e ianeieueei
einoae Iioaieeia auee ia?aeiaeaiu n ?acaaeeaoaainy a?iaa a niaoeeaeueiue
yuee n caaeaeaeeie e inoaaeaiu a neeaia.

*a?ac 15 eao a 1874 aiaeo neeai a Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii niai?a aue ane?uo
iiyoue, ia nae ?ac yoi auea Iniaay o/aiay eiienney Iaeanneiai iauanoaa
enoi?ee e ae?aaiinoae. 19 aaaonoa eiienney ai aeaaa n Ieeieae Io?caeaae/
aioee a onuiaeueieoeo eiycy A?eai?ey Iioaieeia. Aue iaeaeai yuee, a
eioi?ii iaoiaeeeny /a?ai n auieeaiiith n caaeiae noi?iiu o?aoaieueiith
/anoueth e iaiieiaiiue iannith aeey aaeuecaie?iaaiey, oae aea a
caouei/iie /anoe ia /a?aia auee aeaeiu eei/ee oaiii-?onuo aiein. E?iia
yoiai a yueea auee aua ianeieueei einoae. A neeaia iaia?oaeeee inoaoee
aea?aayiiiai e naeioeiaiai a?iaia, eonee cieioiai iicoiaioa, na?aa?yiua
a?iaiaua neiau e o?e oeoua eaieoaeueth i?aeaineea caacaeu ia?aie
noaiaie: Aiae?ay, Aeaaeeie?a e Aai?aey. Eiienney auianea aa?aeeeo — iao
niiiaiey, /oi ana yoi i?eiaaeeaaeaei iiaeea naaoeaeoaai eiycy
Iioaieeia-Oaa?e/aneiai.

Iinea oiaa eae Iaaae I aue oaeo, ia i?anoie acioae Aeaenaiae? I – eiycy
A?eai?ey Iioaieeia auei ?aaaeeeoe?iaaii. Oaea a 1837 aiaeo ii i?iaeoo
ecaanoiiai neoeueioi?a Eaaia Ia?oina a ai?iaeneii naaeo onoaiiaeee
ia?iiiue a?iiciaue iaiyoiee A?eai?eth Iioaieeio. Eiycue a ?eineeo
aeiniaoao e n ia/ai, a oeaia n iethiaaeai aue aiae?oaeai ia aunieii
iueaaeanoaea.

A ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu iaoeth?iaoeu oa?aee iaiyoiee ec
ai?iaeneiai naaea e ia?aianee aai ai aeai? iaeiiai ec iocaaa Oa?niia. A
ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu iaiyoiee aanneaaeii en/ac aiiaua.

Nae/an iaiyoiee A?eai?eth Iioaieeio ainnoaiiaeai, Iioaieeineee neaa?
noae ecethaeaiiui ianoii ioaeuoa oa?niioeaa, a iieiaeiaeaiu iaycaoaeueii
i?eacaeatho e a?aoo iioioia?aoe?iaaoueny e aiceiaeeoue oeaaou, a oae aea
caaaaeaoue naiia nie?iaaiiia aeaeaiea – nouanoaoao iiaa?uea, /oi,
iioa?aa aa?a, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony ia iueaaeanoaea iaiyoieea, ana
caaeoiaiiia iaycaoaeueiieniieieony.

Ii aa?iainy e enoi?ee. Iinea oiai eae a Oa?nii aioee aieueoaaeee
ae?iiieue a Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii niai?a aue ?aneiiai, ane?uee e iiaeeo
Iioaieeia. A niai?a ioe?uee iocae aoaecia, a einoe e /a?ai eiycy
aunoaaeee ia anaiauaa iaic?aiea.

A 1984 aiaeo ia/aeueieeii Oa?niineiai ioaeaeaiey neoaeau
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oecu Eaiieaeii Aiaoneaaneei neeai aue
ane?uo a i/a?aaeiie ?ac. Eiienney iaia?oaeeea 31 /aeiaa/aneoth einoue,
i?eiaaeeaaeauoth ioaeneiio neaeaoo ?inoii ieiei 185 ni e aic?anoii —
52-55 eao. Aic?ano neaeaoa ii?aaeaeeee i?eaeeceoaeueii aeaoiy
noieaoeyie.

Ia oaeeaeaiea a a?iao auee yiieaou aiaeeeneiai ioeoea?a a?aiai E?uineie
aieiu, a ia e?uoea a?iaa (eioi?ue aue ia iniai noa?ui), aue e?iia
i?aaineaaiiai aua e eaoiee/aneee e?ano.

O iiiaeo enoi?eeia i?iaaaeaiiay yenia?oeca aucaaea niiiaiey, ii Eaiieae
Aiaoneaaneee caaa?ee anao, /oi niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi yoi neaeao
Iioaieeia ia noieo, i?eaeiaeueiua a?iau auee oo?a/aiu a ia?eiae
?aaiethoeee, a aiaeeeneea yiieaou ec ae?oaiai caoi?iiaiey – aaaeue
aieueoaaeee iieiinoueth i?iaaee ane?uoey anao iiaee ia oa??eoi?ee
Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineiai niai?a.

Iioaieeia a Oa?niia iao.

Ecaanoiue oa?niineee e?aaaaae e enoi?ee Aaaono Ae?ee/ ooaa?aeaeaao a
naieo eieaao, /oi i?aeoe/anee iinea iia?aaaiey a Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineii
niai?a, oaei Naaoeaeoaai eiycy auei ia?acaoi?iiaii e aiai?eoue i oii,
/oi a Oa?niia iaoiaeeony iiaeea A?eai?ey Iioaieeia iao niunea.

Caiaio oaea i?iecaae ieaiyiiee Iioaieeia a?oeaieneii Eia, ane?ua neeai
ii aianoi eiycy iieiaeee a a?ia ae?oaiai oia?oaai, a Naaoeaeoaai eiycy
ioi?aaee a Aaeoth Oea?eiaue a eiaiea A?aieoeeeo – aai ieaiyiieoea
Aeaenaiae?a A?iieoeeie, eioi?ay a iineaaeiea aiaeu auea aai ethaiaieoeae
e nii?iaiaeaeaea a iioiaeao. Neooe ia en/aciiaaiee oaea ia/aee
?ani?ino?aiyoueny a eiia?ee, aneaaenoaea /aai a Oa?nii auea iai?aaeaia
niaoeeaeueiay eiienney, eioi?ay iaee/ea oaea a neeaia iiaeoaa?aeeea.
En/ac oieueei ninoae, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeeenue aioo?aiiinoe Iioaieeia
iinea aaeuecaie?iaaiey. Aiciiaeii, ii aue ioi?aaeai ia ?iaeeio Eiycy a
*eaeaai Niieaineie aoaa?iee.

A eiaiee A?aieoeeeo auea nii?oaeaia ?ioiiaea, a aie?oa iaa aue ?acaeo
ia?e eiaie A?eai?ey Iioaieeia. A ia?eiae a?aaeaeaineie aieiu aienea
Neiiia Iaoeth?u caoaaoea eiaiea A?iieoeeeo io i?eneoae ociaee i oii, eoi
iia?aaai a ?ioiiaea. Iaoeth?a i?eeacae ?aceiaeeoue einoa? e naea/ue i?ao
Iioaieeia a iaeacaiea ca oie/oiaeaiea Caii?iaeneie Na/e.

Eoi iieieony iiae iiaeeueiie ieeoie, ia eioi?ie iaienaii A?eai?ee
Iioaieei a Oa?niia aiai?eoue n oaa?aiiinoue ia i?eoiaeeony. Iinea
noieueeeo ane?uoee neeaia aei ?aaiethoeee e ?aca?aaeaiee
Nayoi-Aeaoa?eiaineiai niai?a aieueoaaeeaie, ioaaoeoue ia aii?in eiio
i?eiaaeeaaeeo neaeao, iiaeao oieueei aei?iainoiyuay yenia?oeca,
eioi?oth, oau, a iuiaoiaa a?aiy i?iaiaeeoue ieeoi ia aoaeao. Aea e
?ac?ooaoue ieo i oii, /oi Naaoeaeoee eiycue Oaa?e/aneee A?eai?ee
Iioaieei iieieony a Oa?niia ia auaiaeii ianoiui aeanoyi. Iiaeea
ecaanoiiai enoi?e/aneiai eeoea, eae iaaieo i?eoyaeaaao a ai?iae
iiiai/eneaiiuo oo?enoia. Aio e iieo/aaony, /aeiaae iaeei, a iiaee o iaai
ianeieueei.

Aeaoa?eia *a?iee

Iaoa?eae i?aaeinoaaeai: ?iiaioe/aneee ioaeuo www.sea-adventures.ru aeey
Aan e Aaoae naiuee

Ai?en EAA?AI?A

Aoi?e/iia iia?aaaiea iio?ieeia

A 1930 aiaeo y aue aucaai oaeaa?aiiie iaoa?e e caaieaaoaio iooeo e iiiae
a naie ?iaeiie ai?iae Oa?nii, a eioi?ii ia aue iyoue eao.

Ioaoe aieae aeieai e io/eoaeueii. Iano?iaiea o iaiy auei oyaeaeia. A oa
?aaeeea iiiaiou, eiaaea iooeo noaiiaeeinue eaa/a, y aanoeaeueii a?iaeee
ii oeeoeai, ia eioi?uo i?ioee ii? aeaonoai e thiinoue.

Oa?nii, eae ecaanoii, aue iniiaai Noai?iaui* , eae ai?iae, eioi?iio
i?aaeiacia/aeinue noaoue ianoii no?ieoaeuenoaa ei?aaeae iiai?iaeae?iiiai
*a?iiii?neiai oeioa. E aeeciue ai?iaea ia/aeanue n iino?ieee aeieia e
noaiaeae e iaaieueoie, ii iiuiie ii oai a?aiaiai e?aiinoe
Aeaenaiaea?oaioe** .

Aiineaaenoaee ei?aaeano?ieoaeueiay aa?oue e aeiee auee ia?aianaiu a
ninaaeiee ai?iae Ieeieaaa ia THaeiii Aoaa e Oa?nii oo?aoee nai?
aiaiii-ii?neia cia/aiea. E?aiinoue iionoaea, e e iiaio a?aiaie io ia?
inoaeenue eeoue iieo?acaaeeaoeany aaeu e iiao/ea e?aiinoiua ai?ioa ec
aeeeiai eaiiy, aea iiiaeanoai iiaecaiiuo oiaeia, i?ioiaeyueo /a?ac aanue
ai?iae e iaiiieiathueo iaeanneea eaoaeiiau. A ?onnei-yiiineoth aieio iu,
aoaeo/e aeiiacenoaie, ea?aee ia yoeo aaeao a aieio aei oao ii?, iiea
ac?uaii caeiaeaiiie “e?aiinoiie ieiu” ec o??o ooioia ioioie/ueaai ii?ioa
ia aue iaiaeae?i iaeei ec ooo?iothueo “yiiioeaa”. “Aieoeu ?onneie e
yiiineie a?iee” iieo/eee a /aoaa?oe ii o?ieea ca iiaaaeaiea, e “aie”
i?ae?aoeeenue naie niaie. AEaeue, /oi yoei aeaenoaaiiui niiniaii iaeuecy
i?ae?auaoue ianoiyuea aieiu.

Aioo?e e?aiinoe, ii i?iaeoo ciaiaieoiai ciae/aai Noa?iaa, aue iino?iai
aiaiiue aa?ieciiiue niai?. A aai ia?aaea iia?aaaiu iiiaea o/anoieee
inaaeu e ooo?ia I/aeiaa, a a naiii niai?a, iiae n?aaeiei eoiieii,
ie?oae?iiay a?iiciaie ?ao?oeie, eaaeaea i?aii?iay ieeoa n iaaeienueth:
“Oaeueaeia?oae, naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/
Iio?ieei-Oaa?e/aneee”. A neeaia iiae ieeoie iieieeny i?ao iaeiiai ec
“aeaoa?eieineeo i?eia”, /oaeaea e naiiaeo?a, ii oaeaioeeaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey e aeeieiiaoa. A ai?iaea, iaeiaei, oii?ii
aea?aeaeny neoo, /oi iinea nia?oe Aeaoa?eiu anooieaoee ia i?anoie Iaaae
I, iaiaaeaeaaoee Iio?ieeia, i?eeacae aua?ineoue aai inoaiee a *??oiao
aaeeo, ioaeaeyaooth ai?iae io aiaiiiai oi?ooaaeoa.

A naiii oeaio?a Oa?niia ia Iio?ieeineii aoeueaa?a noiye iaiyoiee
Iio?ieeio ?aaiou ecaanoiiai neoeueioi?a E.I.Ia?oina, noiaeiue n
iaiyoieeii Noai?iao ia Ia?niaii iiea a Eaieia?aaea. Iio?ieei aue
ecia?aae?i, eae e Noai?ia, a iaeayiee iieeiaiaeoea Ae?aaiaai ?eia, a
eaoao e ei?ioeie ooieea, n ieauii ia iea/ao, n oe?aoaiiui ia?ueyie
oeaiii, eaaeauei o iia noaooe.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee iaoeth?iaoeu na?ineee Iio?ieeia n iueaaeanoaea, eae
oaiaoaoaey Caii?iaeneie Na/e*** . Noaooy auea oaacaia ai aeai?
a?oaieiae/aneiai iocay e iiiai eao aaeyeanue oai aac i?eci?a, iiea a? ia
ooaueee oaea a Aaeeeoth Ioa/anoaaiioth aieio iaiaoeei-oaoenoneea
aaiaeeou.

Aeoaeaeay ii Oa?niio, y caa??e eae-oi a e?aiinoue. Au? ecaeaee oaeaeae
ia i?ae?aniii eeanne/aneii o?iioiia niai?a aueeiyaooth eoia/iaoth
o?yieo, ia eioi?ie e?eauie aoeaaie n iiaeo?eaie auei auaaaeaii:
“Oa?niiueneee aioe?aeeaeeiue iocae”. ss ?aoee caeoe iiniio?aoue yoi
o/?aaeaeaiea. Ia?aua aea oaae aioo?e niai?a iiaa?aee iaiy a iaaeioiaiea,
eioi?ia niaieeinue ia?anoathuei ?acae?aaeaieai. Ca iaeiaieai
neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ue?ciuo yeniiiaoia ii noaiai auee ?acaaoaiu
au?acaiiua ec noa?uo aeo?iaeia ?ai?iaeoeoeee ea?oei ianoa?ia
eoaeueyineie e aieeaiaeneie oeie, ecia?aaeathuea ?aeeaeiciua nthaeaou.
Ooo auee Neenoeineay Iaaeiiia, Aieaioa, Niyoea n e?anoa, Aine?anaiea,
O?enoin o Ia?ee e Ia?ou, Ia?ey Iaaaeaeeia, Aicianaiea, Nioanoaea nayoiai
aeooa ia aiinoieia ?aaiou Oeoeeaia, Aa?iiaca, ?oaaina, Aai-Aeaeea e
ae?oaeo ooaeiaeieeia. Iiae eaaeaeie ?ai?iaeoeoeeae ia ia?yoeeauo eei/eao
aoiaae auee i?eeeaaiu iaia/aoaiiua eeeiaui o?eooii ia iaoeiea iaaeiene
niaa?oaiii eaeeioe/aneiai niaea?aeaiey. ss oioae oaea ooiaeeoue, ii
aae?oa a aeaca iia a?ineeanue ie?aieaeaeueiie oi?iu canoaeeaiiay
aeo?eia, a eioi?ie eaaeae eaeie-oi e?oaeue ei?e/iaaue i?aaeiao.
Iiaeieaey, y oaeaeae, /oi yoi /aeiaa/aneee /a?ai. Aieco aeo?eiu auea
i?eeeaaia oaaee/ea: “*a?ai iiethaiaieea Eaoa?eiu II Iaoueiieeia”. ss
i?io?? aeaca, ii aeaeaiea ia en/acei.

*a?ai inoaaaeny ii-i?aaeiaio a aeo?eia e aeyaeae ia iaiy ionouie
aiaaeeiaie. ss iaeyioeny e oaeaeae aoi?oth oaeoth aea aeo?eio, ii oaea
i?iaeieaiaaoie oi?iu. A iae eaaeae neaeao n i?eeeioeie ianoaie eeieaie
nniooeony ioneoeia. Iaaeienue aeaneea: “Eenoee iiethaiaieea Eaoa?eiu II
Iaoueiieeia”. ?yaeii, a o?aoueae aeo?eia, eaaeaee inoaoee cae?iiai
aa?oaoiiai eaooaia n iiooneiaeuie iicoiaioaie, caoai /oi-oi
ia?acee/eiia, a iyoiao aieee, auaoaa eiaaea-oi aaeuie aoeaniuie
ei?ioeeie ooaiaie, oaeea aea naieaoea /oeee e oooee. “Oiaoee iaeyao
iiethaiaieea Eaoa?eiu II Iaoueiieeia”, — i?i/ae y, iaeeiiynue e
iaaeiene.

ss iiaeiyeny e iieiii aaoainoaa. Auoauaiiue ec neeaia e ?aceiaeaiiue ia
o?e yeniiiaoa Iio?ieei — yoi auei oaea ia/oi ianeuoaiiia ii aa?aa?noao e
eaeeioecio.

Ni iiie aue oioiaiia?ao. ss iaaae iauaeoea ia /a?ai e naeaeae nieiie. Ii
ooo ei iia iiaeaaaeae eaeie-oi aaoeae n aaa?iaui io iueyinoaa iinii e
cae?e/ae, /oi “nieiaoue noai?i caa?iiyaoueny”. Iineaa aai e /??oo, y
iio?e ?acuneeaaoue caaaaeothuaai iocaai, ii ii aei?iaa iaoeioeny au? ia
iaeio aeo?eio. A iae, a e?aieii e ia iino?aaeaaoai io a?aiaie aeoaiaii
a?iao, eaaeae oi?ioi nio?aieaoeeny, aeaeeii, iaaaeuecaie?iaaiiue o?oi
/aeiaaea n ieeaaeenoie ?uaeae a i?inaaee ai?iaeie, iaeaoue a aeeeiiue
ia?/iaue oaeao, iiaeiiynaiiue auoeoui iiynii. Ia aieiaa o?oia aue iaaeo
ec oiieiai o?eeiaiai othey aieiaiie oai?, iioiaeee ia /aeio, n
iaaieueoie i?yaeeie ec eaiiae, a eioi?oth auei aioeiooi i??uoei oeaiee.
Iiae aeo?eiie oiaea auea iaaeienue, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie ia?aaeath ia
iaiyoue ia ?onneii ycuea: “Caeanue iaxiaeeony o?oi iieaeaaneiai
ainiiaea?y eiycy Eineoa ?innaoa. I?iaeaaeiia ?onneia aeooiaainoai,
niaeaci?iiia acyoeie, ?ac?aoeei iioi?iieoue ionoeueiaieia a ia?aaea
i?aaineaaiiai niai?a”.

ss inoieaaiae. Iieaeaaneea ainiiaea?e eniieii aaeia auee i?aaineaaiuie.
Eaaeauee ia?aaei iiie o?oi, aue o?oiii iooea ecaanoiie i?eyoaeueieoeu
AEoeianeiai e Iooeeia Aeaenaiae?u Ineiiaiu Nie?iiaie-?innao**** .
Iaaaaeiiua aeeea?e, iniiaaaoea yoio iaaa?iyoiue “iocae”, iaia?oaeea ia
aieiaa iieieieea iioiaeee ia /aeio aieiaiie oai?, ?aoeee naeioeiauie
iicaaie, /oi yoi ionoeueiaiei, e aunoaaeee aai n oaeie aooanoaoeeae naaa
ia iiniaoeua.

ss ao?ae aeaoae a i?aaue i?eaeae niai?a, aaea, eae iia neacae iueyiue
aaoeae, iaoiaeeeny eaaeiao caaaaeothuaai. Oai ca noieii neaeae oiueue,
aeeeiiieeoeue /aeiaae, ooii onoaaynue acaeyaeii a ieii.

ss ia?ooeeny ia iaai, ni?aoeaay, eoi ?ac?aoee iiaeiaiia ecaeaaaoaeuenoai
iaae o?oiaie, eoi iia iicaieeoue, naeaeaoue ec Iio?ieeia o?e yeniiiaoa,
eoi i?aa?aoee i?aaineaaiiai ?innaoa a iieeiiieea Iaaiiaoa, eaeia,
iaeiiaoe, ioiioaiea e ai?ueaa n ?aeeaeae eiaao yoa /oaeiaeuiay
aeoiinoue? Ioa?aoaiiue /aeiaae n oai aea oiueui aeaeii neacae iia, /oi
ii iaaeaeth oiio iacaae iacia/ai caaaaeiaaoue e nai ia iiaeao iiiyoue,
/oi i?ienoiaeeo a iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiii aio “iocaa”.

ss aunei/ee ec niai?a e iii/aeny a aeeaeaeoaa ioaeaeaiea nayce. Oai y
ninoaaee ia?iiioth oaeaa?aiio a Ia?eiii?in n eiieae a Eiieoao ii io?aia
iaiyoieeia eneonnoaa e noa?eiu, eceiaeea an? iaia?oaeaiiia iiith a
iocaa.

Aeiae aeanyoue nionoy, eiaaea ioaoe ia/ae iii?aaeyoueny, y oaoae a
Eaieia?aae. A anei?a iieo/ee ienueii io iaeiiai ec noa?uo aeiiace/aneeo
oiaa?euae, eioi?ue ienae, /oi a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue “iocae” aue
cae?uo, Iio?ieei niiaa nia?ai aiaaeeii, iieiaeai a iiaue a?ia, iiouai a
neeai e caio?iaai n iaeiaeaieai ia ecaanoeo eac?iiie ia/aoe, a Eineo
?innao ia??e iieie a naiae noa?ie iiaeea.

E io anae yoie iaeaiie e aeeeie enoi?ee inoaeny oieueei eaaeauee o iaiy
a ei?iaea ni noa?uie iaaaoeaaie nieiie ie?aieaeaeueiie aeo?eiu n
aieueoei /a?aiii e oaaeeoeae aieco: “*a?ai iiethaiaieea Eaoa?eiu II
Iaoueiieeia”.

Oae a 1930 aiaeo a ai?iaea Oa?niia ninoiyeinue aoi?e/iia iia?aaaiea
auaoaai yeniiiaoa “Oa?niiueneiai aioe?aeeaeeiiai iocay” —
oaeueaeia?oaea, naaoeaeoaai eiycy A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a
Iio?ieeia-Oaa?e/aneiai.

Eaa?ai?a A.A. Aoi?e/iia iia?aaaiea Iio?ieeia. // Iaiyoieee Ioa/anoaa,
?2, 1991. -N.154-155.

I?eia/aiey io «oioaia»:

* Iniiaaoaeai Oa?niia, ia naiii aeaea, yaeyaony eiycue A. A. Iio?ieei,
ia?aui no?ieoaeai — E. A. Aaiieaae. A. A. Noai?ia aue iacia/ai
Iio?ieeiui 8 aaaonoa 1787 aiaea e ?oeiaiaenoao iai?iiie
Oa?nii-Eeiao?ineiai ?aeiia. Ii caieiaeny oe?aieaieai Oa?niia e
no?ieoaeuenoaii oe?aieaiee ia iiaenooiao e iaio.

** Oe?aieaiea Aeaenaiae?-Oaioe iiyaeeinue caaeieai aei iniiaaiey
Oa?niia, au? a 1737 aiaeo. Ii a 1778 a. a aai a?aieoeao aeaenoaeoaeueii
ia/aei ono?aeaaoueny Oa?niineia aaeie?aeoaenoai n aa?oueth.

*** Iaoeth?iaoeu ia na?anuaaee iaiyoiee, a oa aiaeu ii aue eeoue iae?uo
a?acaioii. Neoeueioo?o n iueaaeanoaea niyee i?e Niaaoneie aeanoe, 27
ai?aey 1921a.

**** Iia?aa?iiue o niai?a Yiiaioee ?innaoa ?iaenoaaiieeii A. I.
Nie?iiaie-?innao ia yaeyaony.

*oaeiai neacaa i?i iueiai aano??eneee aeeieiiao aea E?iue, ui ciaa an?o
oeoai?a naiai /ano, a?ae O??ae??oa Aaeeeiai aei Iaiieaiia: «Oea
iaeaeeaiaeaei?oa ethaeeia, yeiai iai? aeiaaeiny cono??oe […]
ioaeueaoth/ee na?aae caaeiaieaiue; iauaniee a?ae aeanii? oni?oiino?;
iaiii??iee o anueiio, o?einio, ui eaaei ?ic/a?iao?oueny, /anoi iioio?ee,
iaiino?eiee, aeeaieee, caeaoiee i?i?no?, iaenoa?iee iie?oee — ? ?aioii
aeanyoe??/ia aeeoeia […] A /iio iieyaaea nae?ao eiai /a??aieoeoaa?
Aai?e, aai?e ? ua ?ac aai?e; i?e?iaeia iaaea?iaai?noue, a?aei?iia
iai’youe, i?aeianaiee eaae aeoo?; aeoceea?noue aac i?aaiaiiy ia?aceoe,
a?oenoe/i?noue aac iaa?aii? […] caeaoi?noue caaieiaoaaoe a e?au?
iiiaioe aoaeue-yea na?oea, aaciaeiy uaae?ino? […] oiieee niae — ?
yeiaeaeeaoa ciaiiy ethaenueei? aeoo?».»Iieacuaay aeae eaieaoea,
o?oaeeony aani?anoaiii. Ia eiaao noiea, e?iia naieo eieai, ae?oaiai
a?aaiy, e?iia nai?o iiaoae, /anoi eaaeeo, ii ia i?aaeaaony nio ie aeiai
ie ii/ueth, o?einio aeoaieiiuneaiiue, eneoniue ieieno?, oiieee iieeoee e
ecaaeiaaiiue aeaayoeeaoiee ?aaaiie, ethaeo Aiaa, aieony naoaiu».

?iaeeeny naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai??e Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee
13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea a Niieaineie aoaa?iee. Ec aeai?yi. Iao/aeny a
aeiiacee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa (1756-1760 aiaeu), ioeoaea aue
eneeth/ai, aianoa ni ciaiaieoui ecaeaoaeai I.E.Iiaeeiaui «ca eaiinoue e
iaoiaeaeaiea a eeannu». N 1755 aiaea — caienai a eaea-aaa?aeeth. A 1762
aiaeo o/anoaiaae a aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa, aicaaaeoai ia ?onneee i?anoie
noi?oao oea?y Iao?a III Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoeoth i?eioeanno
Nioueth-O?aaea?eeo-Aaaonoo — Aeaoa?eio Aaeeeoth. N 1762 aiaea — aaa?aeee
iiaeii?o/ee. A 1767 aiaeo i?eieiae o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe «Oeiaeaiiie
eiiennee». N 1768-ai ii 1774-e aiae o/anoaiaae a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia,
aaea i?iyaee naay eae o?aa?ue ioeoea? e oaeaioeeaue aiaia/aeueiee. N
1768 aiaea — aaia?ae-iaei?, n 1771-ai — aaia?ae-ii?o/ee. Ioee/eeny a
?yaea e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee: iiae Oieoaiaie, Ea?aie, Eaaoeii. A aiyo
aaia?ae-iaei? ioee/eeny eae i?ae?aniue eiiaiaee? eaaaea?ee. A 1772 a
Iioaieei iiciaeiieeny ec caii?iaeoeaie e caienaeny a Eouaaneee eo?aiue
iiae i?icaeuai A?uoeueea Ia/anu (eicaee aini?eiyee aai ia?ee ca eiiio
ia/anaiuo aiein) N 1770 aiaea ia/aeinue naeeaeaiea Iioaieeia n
eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie Aaeeeie. A ainiiieiaieyo nia?aiaiieeia
aniiieiaaony i?i aai /oaea/anoaa: a?eeeeaioiaua ioaiaeoeu ia eaiciea,
oeyoa a oaeie ia?a iaaaoaiiay ae?aaioeaiiinoyie, /oi ca Iioaieeiui aa
iinee aaeuthoaio. Eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II oaeinoieaaea Iioaieeia
iaia?aie/aiiie aeiaa?aiiinoueth, iiaeaeiaaea aio e?iia cia/eoaeueiuo
noii e iiaea?eia, iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue. Oaa?ytho, aoaeoi a aeanyoue eao
(n 1774 ii 1784 a.) iieo/aii ei iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie e ae?aaioeaiiuie
aauaie ia ainaiiaaeoeaoue ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. Ii eiae aeaiee io
Ainoaea?uie, e iia, naa?o oiai, ia?auaoueny a eacaiiua iaeaou ni naieie
o?aaiaaieyie. A 1774 aiaeo ii aue ioicaai a Iaoa?ao?a. A oii aea aiaeo
i?iecaaaeai a aaia?ae-aioaou e aeoea-i?aceaeaiou Aiaiiie eieeaaee,
iiaeaeiaai a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai e iacia/ai oaoii e??aaoey?iuo aiene.
I?iyaea naay oaeaioeeaui aaeieieno?aoi?ii, A?eai?ee Iioaieei naeaeaeny
iacaiaieiui iiiiuieeii oea?eoeu ai iiiaeo noa?ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. A 1774 aiaeo ii o/anoaiaae a i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee i?ioea io?yaeia aoioa?y e ?acaieieea Aiaeueyia Ioaa/aaa. A
1775 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa A?eai?ey Iioaieeia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
Caii?iaeneay Na/ue. Ca aai eieoeeaoeau aue aicaaaeai Oa?nii a 1778 a.,
ii iniiaae caeanue Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue, Aeaoa?eiineaa, a oaeaea
iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue . Noaa a 1772 aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioii, ii aoiaeeo a
/enei i?eaeeaeaiiuo Aeaoa?eiu II, a iinea oiai eae A?eai?ee I?eia aiae a
iaieeinoue, oaeinoaeaaaony caaiey oaai?eoa, ia?anaeyaony a Ceiiee
aeai?aoe, iieo/aao oeooe a?aoa e aoiaeeo a Niaao. A 1776 ii iacia/ai
aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee, Aciaa e.Ano?aoaie. Oaea n 1780 ii oieeaao
Aeaoa?eio II ia caaiaaaiea E?uia, a iinea aai i?eniaaeeiaiey a 1783
i?aaiecoao oai ianoiia oi?aaeaiea e iniiauaaao Neioa?iiieue e
Naaanoiiieue n ii?neie aacie aeey nicaeaiiiai ei aea *a?iiii?neiai
oeioa. Caiya iino i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie eieeaaee a 1784, ii aaiaeeo iiaue
aiaiiue onoaa. Iiacaeea Aeaoa?eiu II a E?ui a 1787 ciaiaioao niaie
aiioaic Iioaieeia, «aeoea-ei?iey thaa» e naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai.
8 ai?aey 1783 aiaea Iioaieei oaiai?ee e?uineiai oaia ioeacaoueny io
aeanoe a iieueco ?innee e, ?acoiaaony, a naith. Oaoa? ooo aea iiiio/aaae
i?yieeii: A?eai?ee

Aeaenaiae?iae/ ?anii?yaeeeny auaeaeeoue aeaiueae ia ?aiiio ia/aoae, oeie
e iauanoaaiiuo oiioaiia, a oaoa?neie ciaoe aeae ana i?aaa ?onneeo
aeai?yi. Ii/eiee oaineee aeai?aoe a Aao/ena?aa, i?eeacae no?ieoue iiaua
nieyiua neeaaeu a Ia?aeiia, naaeaoue eaooaiiaua aea?aauey aaeieue
aei?ia. Iioaieei oaeaeyao aieiaiea ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee (aeaaiaea?y aio a
1786 caeeth/ai oi?aiaue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae) e, aiiaue aa?ioaoenue e
naiaio oaea/aieth ?aeeaeiciuie aii?inaie, ninoaaeyao i?iaeo
i?eniaaeeiaiey noa?iia?yaeoeaa e ?onneie oea?eae. A 1787-1791 aiaeao
eiiaiaeiaae anaie ?onneeie aieneaie, o/anoaiaaaoeie a aieia i?ioea
Oo?oeee. Aai aeeaeaeoei niiaeaeaeieeii a yoie aieia aue i?ineaaeaiiue
iieeiaiaeaoe (oiaaea aua aaia?ae-aioao) Aeaenaiae? Aaneeueaae/ Noai?ia.
A 1789 a. ii iniiaae ai?iae Ieeieaa, a iaiyoue i?i acyoea A.A. Noai?iaui
e?aiinoe I/aeia a aeaeaa?a 1788 a. a aeaiue nayoiai Ieeieay.

Eiycue aue eieoeeaoi?ii o.i. «A?a/aneiai i?iaeoa», nooue eioi?ai
caeeth/aeanue a neaaeothuai: inaiaiaeaeaiea Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey,
E?uia e aaeeaineeo neaayineeo ia?iaeia io aeanoe Iniainueeie eiia?ee. A
ei?iio aic?iaeaeaiiie Aecaioee iieiaeeoue ia aieiao oeana?aae/a
Eiinoaioeia. Iioaieei noieeoeo iiaiai ainoaea?noaa ieaie?iaae
iainiiaaoue a iino?iaiiii iin?aaee noaiae ai?iaea Ieeieaaaa, iniiaaiiii
aeec ae?aaiae Ieueaee. ?ieue Iioaieeia a ainoaea?naaiiuo aeaeao iai?yiee
caaenaea io ?aniieiaeaiey naiie eiia?ao?eoeu. A iii anei?a en/acei.
I?e/ei auei ianeieueei: oaea/aiea naiiai Iioaieeia Nioeae Aeoo (a?a/aiee
ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, ia/oathuae i aic?iaeaeaiee auaoae Aecaioee, aeaiu
eiiaiaeaioa Oa?niineie e?aiinoe). Aeaaea a Ieeieaaaa oaea ia/aee
no?ieoue aeai?aoe aeey ieo e ia?e. A oi aea a?aiy o Eaoa?eiu iiyaeeny
iiaue oaai?eo – Ieaoii Coaia. A oaa?aea 1791 aiaea Iioaieei ioi?aaeeny a
N. Iaoa?ao?a aue i?eiyo n ioee/iui oaaaeaieai Eiia?ao?eoeath, iieo/ee io
iaa a iiaea?ie aeai?aoe, ecaanoiue iiae eiaiai Oaa?e/aneiai; ieaouea,
oe?aoaiiia aeiacaie e aei?iaeie eaiaiueyie, a aeaanoe ouny/ ?oaeae, ii
i?aaeiaai ?aniieiaeaiey eiia?ao?eoea aio ia ieacuaaea.Nouanoaoao aa?ney,
/oi Iioaieei oia? aiacaiii ia io eeoi?aaeee, a io yaea, eioi?ue
iiaenuiae iai?aaeaiiue io Aeaoa?eiu eaea?ue. Nioey noaea aeaiie
Noaieneaaa Iioioeeiai (iino?iee aeey iaa Nioeaaneee ia?e). Oia? Iioaieei
ii aei?iaa ec ssnn a ieeieaaa iin?aaee noaie. Oaei aeinoaaeee iiyoue a
ssnnu, aaea iii auei caaaeuecaie?iaaii. Eiycue aeaeae, /oiau aai
iioi?iieee a Ieeieaaaa, ii eiia?ao?eoea ?anii?yaeeeanue, /oiau aai
iioi?iieee a Oa?niia.

«Iioaieei aue Iie ainieoaiiee, — aiai?eea Eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II. —
ss i?iecaaea aai ai ana /eiu: ec oioa?-ioeoea?a aei
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea. Ii eiae iaiaueiiaaiiue oi, i?aa ai?y/ee,
na?aeoea aeia?ia; aeyaeae aieeii e iioiio ia aue ethaei; ii, aeaaay
uae/ee, aeaaiaeaoaeuenoaiaae aeaaea a?aaai naiei. Aai iaeuecy auei
iiaeeoieoue; o?oaeii iaeoe ae?oaiai, iiaeiaiiai aio «.

?iaeeeny naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai??e Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee
13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea a Niieaineie aoaa?iee. Ec aeai?yi. Iao/aeny a
aeiiacee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa (1756-1760 aiaeu), ioeoaea aue
eneeth/ai, aianoa ni ciaiaieoui ecaeaoaeai I.E.Iiaeeiaui «ca eaiinoue e
iaoiaeaeaiea a eeannu». N 1755 aiaea — caienai a eaea-aaa?aeeth. A 1762
aiaeo o/anoaiaae a aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa, aicaaaeoai ia ?onneee i?anoie
noi?oao oea?y Iao?a III Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoeoth i?eioeanno
Nioueth-O?aaea?eeo-Aaaonoo — Aeaoa?eio Aaeeeoth. N 1762 aiaea — aaa?aeee
iiaeii?o/ee. A 1767 aiaeo i?eieiae o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe «Oeiaeaiiie
eiiennee». N 1768-ai ii 1774-e aiae o/anoaiaae a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia,
aaea i?iyaee naay eae o?aa?ue ioeoea? e oaeaioeeaue aiaia/aeueiee. N
1768 aiaea — aaia?ae-iaei?, n 1771-ai — aaia?ae-ii?o/ee. Ioee/eeny a
?yaea e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee: iiae Oieoaiaie, Ea?aie, Eaaoeii. A aiyo
aaia?ae-iaei? ioee/eeny eae i?ae?aniue eiiaiaee? eaaaea?ee. A 1772 a
Iioaieei iiciaeiieeny ec caii?iaeoeaie e caienaeny a Eouaaneee eo?aiue
iiae i?icaeuai A?uoeueea Ia/anu (eicaee aini?eiyee aai ia?ee ca eiiio
ia/anaiuo aiein). N 1770 aiaea ia/aeinue naeeaeaiea Iioaieeia n
eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie Aaeeeie. A ainiiieiaieyo nia?aiaiieeia
aniiieiaaony i?i aai /oaea/anoaa: a?eeeeaioiaua ioaiaeoeu ia eaiciea,
oeyoa a oaeie ia?a iaaaoaiiay ae?aaioeaiiinoyie, /oi ca Iioaieeiui aa
iinee aaeuthoaio. Eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II oaeinoieaaea Iioaieeia
iaia?aie/aiiie aeiaa?aiiinoueth, iiaeaeiaaea aio e?iia cia/eoaeueiuo
noii e iiaea?eia, iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue. Oaa?ytho, aoaeoi a aeanyoue eao
(n 1774 ii 1784 a.) iieo/aii ei iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie e ae?aaioeaiiuie
aauaie ia ainaiiaaeoeaoue ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. Ii eiae aeaiee io
Ainoaea?uie, e iia, naa?o oiai, ia?auaoueny a eacaiiua iaeaou ni naieie
o?aaiaaieyie. A 1774 aiaeo ii aue ioicaai a Iaoa?ao?a. A oii aea aiaeo
i?iecaaaeai a aaia?ae-aioaou e aeoea-i?aceaeaiou Aiaiiie eieeaaee,
iiaeaeiaai a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai e iacia/ai oaoii e??aaoey?iuo aiene.
I?iyaea naay oaeaioeeaui aaeieieno?aoi?ii, A?eai?ee Iioaieei naeaeaeny
iacaiaieiui iiiiuieeii oea?eoeu ai iiiaeo noa?ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. A 1774 aiaeo ii o/anoaiaae a i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee i?ioea io?yaeia aoioa?y e ?acaieieea Aiaeueyia Ioaa/aaa. A
1775 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa A?eai?ey Iioaieeia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia
Caii?iaeneay Na/ue. Ca aai eieoeeaoeau aue aicaaaeai Oa?nii a 1778 a.,
ii iniiaae caeanue Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue, Aeaoa?eiineaa, a oaeaea
iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue . Noaa a 1772 aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioii, ii aoiaeeo a
/enei i?eaeeaeaiiuo Aeaoa?eiu II, a iinea oiai eae A?eai?ee I?eia aiae a
iaieeinoue, oaeinoaeaaaony caaiey oaai?eoa, ia?anaeyaony a Ceiiee
aeai?aoe, iieo/aao oeooe a?aoa e aoiaeeo a Niaao. A 1776 ii iacia/ai
aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee, Aciaa e.Ano?aoaie. Oaea n 1780 ii oieeaao
Aeaoa?eio II ia caaiaaaiea E?uia, a iinea aai i?eniaaeeiaiey a 1783
i?aaiecoao oai ianoiia oi?aaeaiea e iniiauaaao Neioa?iiieue e
Naaanoiiieue n ii?neie aacie aeey nicaeaiiiai ei aea *a?iiii?neiai
oeioa. Caiya iino i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie eieeaaee a 1784, ii aaiaeeo iiaue
aiaiiue onoaa. Iiacaeea Aeaoa?eiu II a E?ui a 1787 ciaiaioao niaie
aiioaic Iioaieeia, «aeoea-ei?iey thaa» e naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai.
8 ai?aey 1783 aiaea Iioaieei oaiai?ee e?uineiai oaia ioeacaoueny io
aeanoe aiieueco ?innee e, ?acoiaaony, a naith. Oaoa? ooo aea iiiio/aaae
i?yieeii: A?eai??e Aeaenaiae?iae/ ?anii?yaeeeny auaeaeeoue aeaiueae ia
?aiiio ia/aoae, oeie e iauanoaaiiuo oiioaiia, a oaoa?neie ciaoe aeae ana
i?aaa ?onneeo aeai?yi. Ii/eiee oaineee aeai?aoe a Aao/ena?aa, i?eeacae
no?ieoue iiaua nieyiua neeaaeu a Ia?aeiia, naaeaoue eaooaiiaua aea?aauey
aaeieue aei?ia. Iioaieei oaeaeyao aieiaiea ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee
(aeaaiaea?y aio a 1786 caeeth/ai oi?aiaue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae) e,
aiiaue aa?ioaoenue e naiaio oaea/aieth ?aeeaeiciuie aii?inaie,
ninoaaeyao i?iaeo i?eniaaeeiaiey noa?iia?yaeoeaa e ?onneie oea?eae. A
1787-1791 aiaeao eiiaiaeiaae anaie ?onneeie aieneaie, o/anoaiaaaoeie a
aieia i?ioea Oo?oeee. Aai aeeaeaeoei niiaeaeaeieeii a yoie aieia aue
i?ineaaeaiiue iieeiaiaeaoe (oiaaea aua aaia?ae-aioao) Aeaenaiae?
Aaneeueaae/ Noai?ia. A 1789 a. ii iniiaae ai?iae Ieeieaa, a iaiyoue i?i
acyoea A.A. Noai?iaui e?aiinoe I/aeia a aeaeaa?a 1788 a. a aeaiue
nayoiai Ieeieay.

Eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee eiae i?ae?anioth,
ioaeanoaaiioth ia?oaeiinoue, e?aieia neiaeaiea oaea, ?ino
aaee/anoaaiiue. A iieiaeuo eaoao iia?aaeee ii naaa iaeei aeac, ii yoi ia
oiaiueoaei e?aniou eeoea aai. Ii auoiaeee ec e?oaa iaueiiaaiiuo ethaeae
naiaai aaea, ioee/aynue ?aceoaeueiuie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie: ethaee
i?inoioo e iuoiinoue; aue ai?ae e iaoiaeeoaeai; oeo? e aeiaa?/ea;
ne?uoai e ioe?iaaiai; ?anoi/eoaeai e /anoi neoi; n aeanoieinoueth
niaaeeiye nino?aaeaiea, ?iainoue n ioaaaeiinoueth. Ie/oi ia iiaei
?aaiyoueny n aeayoaeueiinoueth aai aiia?aaeaiey e aai oaeaniith
eaiinoueth. A aai aeaeao, oaeiaieuenoaeyo, i?aaa, iioiaeea — i?eiaoai
aue eaeie-oi aanii?yaeie. Eiiaaea ia/oae ii i aa?oeianoaa Eo?eyiaeneii,
ei?iia iieueneie; a ae?oaia a?aiy aeaeae auoue a?oea?aai, i?inoui
iiiaoii; no?iee aaeeeieaiiua aeai?oeu e, ia ieii/ea, i?iaeaaae iiua;
iinueae eo?uea?ia a ioaeaeaiiaeoea ianoa ca iaeioi?uie iio?aaiinoyie
aeey naiaai noiea e /anoi, i?aaeaea iaaeaee iineaiiua aica?auaeenue,
oa?ye ioioo ioaaaeaoue i?eaiceiia eie. Oi caieiaeny ii iaeiith aieiie,
ie?oaeaiiue ioeoea?aie, eacaeaie e oaoa?aie, eee iieeoeeie: oioae
aeaeeoue Iooiiaineoth eiia?eth, caaiaaaoue Ia?neth, acaieiiaaoue
eaaeiaou aa?iiaeneea; a ae?oaia a?aiy i?iaiaeee oeaeue ianyoe aa/a?a a
ainoyo, caauaay, ii-aeaeeiiio, ana aeaea. Oi caoiaaae i?eaeai?iuo
aeanoyuath naiath iaeaaeaeie, i?aeaiaie ?aciuo aea?aeaa, aeiacaie
aaee/eiu iaiaueiiaaiiie; aeaaae aac anyeie i?e/eiu i/a?iaaoaeueiua
i?acaeieee — e iinea ianeieueei iaaeaeue n?yaeo inoaaaeny aeiia, a e?oao
?iaeiuo e i?eaeeaeaiiuo, eaaea ia nioa a oeao?iea, n ainuie iiaaie,
iaiaaeaiiie oaae, n iaoio?aiiui /aeii, iiaeneuie a?iayie e iie/a ea?ae a
oaoiaou eee ea?ou. Ii ethaee iaauaoue, ii ia anaaaea aea?aeae aeaiiia
neiai.

?iaeeeny naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai??e Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee
13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea a Niieaineie aoaa?iee. Ec aeai?yi. Iao/aeny a
aeiiacee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa (1756-1760 aiaeu), ioeoaea aue
eneeth/ai, aianoa ni ciaiaieoui ecaeaoaeai I.E.Iiaeeiaui «ca eaiinoue e
iaoiaeaeaiea a eeannu». N 1755 aiaea — caienai a eaea-aaa?aeeth. A 1762
aiaeo o/anoaiaae a aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa, aicaaaeoai ia ?onneee i?anoie
noi?oao oea?y Iao?a III Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoeoth i?eioeanno
Nioueth-O?aaea?eeo-Aaaonoo — Aeaoa?eio Aaeeeoth. N 1762 aiaea — aaa?aeee
iiaeii?o/ee. A 1767 aiaeo i?eieiae o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe «Oeiaeaiiie
eiiennee». N 1768-ai ii 1774-e aiae o/anoaiaae a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia,
aaea i?iyaee naay eae o?aa?ue ioeoea? e oaeaioeeaue aiaia/aeueiee. N
1768 aiaea — aaia?ae-iaei?, n 1771-ai — aaia?ae-ii?o/ee. Ioee/eeny a
?yaea e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee: iiae Oieoaiaie, Ea?aie, Eaaoeii. A aiyo
aaia?ae-iaei? ioee/eeny eae i?ae?aniue eiiaiaee? eaaaea?ee. A 1772 a
Iioaieei iiciaeiieeny ec caii?iaeoeaie e caienaeny a Eouaaneee eo?aiue
iiae i?icaeuai A?uoeueea Ia/anu (eicaee aini?eiyee aai ia?ee ca eiiio
ia/anaiuo aiein)

?iaeeeny naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai??e Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei-Oaa?e/aneee
13 naioya?y 1739 aiaea a Niieaineie aoaa?iee. Ec aeai?yi. Iao/aeny a
aeiiacee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa (1756-1760 aiaeu), ioeoaea aue
eneeth/ai, aianoa ni ciaiaieoui ecaeaoaeai I.E.Iiaeeiaui «ca eaiinoue e
iaoiaeaeaiea a eeannu». N 1755 aiaea — caienai a eaea-aaa?aeeth. A 1762
aiaeo o/anoaiaae a aeai?oeiaii ia?aai?ioa, aicaaaeoai ia ?onneee i?anoie
noi?oao oea?y Iao?a III Aiaaeueo-Oea?anoeoth i?eioeanno
Nioueth-O?aaea?eeo-Aaaonoo — Aeaoa?eio Aaeeeoth. N 1762 aiaea — aaa?aeee
iiaeii?o/ee. A 1767 aiaeo i?eieiae o/anoea a aeayoaeueiinoe «Oeiaeaiiie
eiiennee». N 1768-ai ii 1774-e aiae o/anoaiaae a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia,
aaea i?iyaee naay eae o?aa?ue ioeoea? e oaeaioeeaue aiaia/aeueiee. N
1768 aiaea — aaia?ae-iaei?, n 1771-ai — aaia?ae-ii?o/ee. Ioee/eeny a
?yaea e?oiiuo n?aaeaiee: iiae Oieoaiaie, Ea?aie, Eaaoeii. A aiyo
aaia?ae-iaei? ioee/eeny eae i?ae?aniue eiiaiaee? eaaaea?ee. A 1772 a
Iioaieei iiciaeiieeny ec caii?iaeoeaie e caienaeny a Eouaaneee eo?aiue
iiae i?icaeuai A?uoeueea Ia/anu (eicaee aini?eiyee aai ia?ee ca eiiio
ia/anaiuo aiein). Eaca/anoai eiiiie?aaaei Iioaieeio, eioi?ue ii iaoo?a
aue ?iiaioeeii e aaaioth?enoii. Ca Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeneei ie?iui
aeiaiai?ii 1774 a. a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee aaioee caiee io Aeiai?a
aei THaeiiai Aoaa. A oii /enea e caiee Ia?aaiciie e I?iaiiiaaneie
eaca/ueeo iaeaiie. Iioaieeio caii?iaeneay noa?oeia i?aaeeiaeeea
?aoi?ie?iaaoue Na/ue, ii ii ia ?eneioe naiae ea?uea?ie e auiieiee i?eeac
Aeaoa?eiu ?? i eeeaeaeaoeee Caii?iaeneie Na/e. Iinea aicieeiiiaaiey
Caaeoiaeneie Na/e ia oa?eoi?ee Oo?oeee auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee
«Aienea aa?iuo eacaeia», eioi?ia ioeoeeaeueii aicieeei a 1788 a. a
ia/aea neaaeothuae ?inneenei-oo?aoeeie aieiu e noaei iacuaaoueny
*a?iiii?neee eaca/ueei aieneii. Iioaieei ienae: «6 ei?aaeae niaeaeaii, 2
ia iaee, 30 ?acaeoi!.. Caii?iaeoeu ieacaee aaeeeoth oneoao: anee au ia
iie, oi au ia iiaei ie iaeii iaoa noaeii aeaeiooueny n ianoa». Iinea
yoiai ii?aaeaiey ia Aeiai?ianeii eeiaia oo?ee inoaaeee caoath aoaeiaaoue
Oa?nii. Caii?iaeoeu nea?aee ia iineaaeithth ?ieue a inaaea I/aeiaa. A
1790 a. Iioaieeia auei i?iaicaeaoaii «Aaeeeei Aaoueiaiii
Eaoa?eiineaaneeo e *a?iiii?neeo eacaoeeeo aiene». I?eaeeaeaiiua
Aeaoa?eiu /anoi iaiaieaee eiia?ao?eoea i?i no?aiiia ainoeuaiea Iioaieeia
eacaeaie. Aeaaea oi?iieee Iioaieeia ca eacaoeeei iau/aai: ca a?iaii
ianee aoeaao, naaeth e oeaa, aaee eiiy. Aeaaea i?aii?ioth ieeoo a
Aeaoa?eiaineii niai?a oe?aoaee ia?oaeueneee aeace e aaoueiaineay aoeaaa.
Noaooth Iioaieeio naeaeae iioiiie eaca/ueaai ?iaea Eaai Ia?oin. Iia
i?inoiyea aei 1922 a. e auea aic?iaeaeaia a 2003 a.

N 1770 aiaea ia/aeinue naeeaeaiea Iioaieeia n eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie
Aaeeeie. A ainiiieiaieyo nia?aiaiieeia aniiieiaaony i?i aai /oaea/anoaa:
a?eeeeaioiaua ioaiaeoeu ia eaiciea, oeyoa a oaeie ia?a iaaaoaiiay
ae?aaioeaiiinoyie, /oi ca Iioaieeiui aa iinee aaeuthoaio. Eiia?ao?eoea
Aeaoa?eia II oaeinoieaaea Iioaieeia iaia?aie/aiiie aeiaa?aiiinoueth,
iiaeaeiaaea aio e?iia cia/eoaeueiuo noii e iiaea?eia, iiiaeanoai
aea?aaaiue. Oaa?ytho, aoaeoi a aeanyoue eao (n 1774 ii 1784 a.) iieo/aii
ei iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie e ae?aaioeaiiuie aauaie ia ainaiiaaeoeaoue
ieeeeiiia ?oaeae. Ii eiae aeaiee io Ainoaea?uie, e iia, naa?o oiai,
ia?auaoueny a eacaiiua iaeaou ni naieie o?aaiaaieyie. A 1774 aiaeo ii
aue ioicaai a Iaoa?ao?a. A oii aea aiaeo i?iecaaaeai a aaia?ae-aioaou e
aeoea-i?aceaeaiou Aiaiiie eieeaaee, iiaeaeiaai a a?aoneia aeinoieinoai e
iacia/ai oaoii e??aaoey?iuo aiene. I?iyaea naay oaeaioeeaui
aaeieieno?aoi?ii, A?eai?ee Iioaieei naeaeaeny iacaiaieiui iiiiuieeii
oea?eoeu ai iiiaeo noa?ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. A 1774 aiaeo
ii o/anoaiaae a i?aaiecaoeee aiaiiuo aeaenoaee i?ioea io?yaeia aoioa?y e
?acaieieea Aiaeueyia Ioaa/aaa. A 1775 aiaeo ii eieoeeaoeaa A?eai?ey
Iioaieeia auea eeeaeaee?iaaia Caii?iaeneay Na/ue. Ca aai eieoeeaoeau aue
aicaaaeai Oa?nii a 1778 a., ii iniiaae caeanue Ieeieaaa, Naaanoiiieue,
Aeaoa?eiineaa, a oaeaea iiiaeanoai aea?aaaiue . Noaa a 1772
aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioii, ii aoiaeeo a /enei i?eaeeaeaiiuo Aeaoa?eiu II, a
iinea oiai eae A?eai?ee I?eia aiae a iaieeinoue, oaeinoaeaaaony caaiey
oaai?eoa, ia?anaeyaony a Ceiiee aeai?aoe, iieo/aao oeooe a?aoa e aoiaeeo
a Niaao. A 1776 ii iacia/ai aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?innee, Aciaa e.Ano?aoaie.
Oaea n 1780 ii oieeaao Aeaoa?eio II ia caaiaaaiea E?uia, a iinea aai
i?eniaaeeiaiey a 1783 i?aaiecoao oai ianoiia oi?aaeaiea e iniiauaaao
Neioa?iiieue e Naaanoiiieue n ii?neie aacie aeey nicaeaiiiai ei aea
*a?iiii?neiai oeioa. Caiya iino i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie eieeaaee a 1784, ii
aaiaeeo iiaue aiaiiue onoaa. Iiacaeea Aeaoa?eiu II a E?ui a 1787
ciaiaioao niaie aiioaic Iioaieeia, «aeoea-ei?iey thaa» e naaoeaeoaai
eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai. 8 ai?aey 1783 aiaea Iioaieei oaiai?ee e?uineiai oaia
ioeacaoueny io aeanoe a iieueco ?innee e, ?acoiaaony, a naith. Oaoa? ooo
aea iiiio/aaae i?yieeii: A?eai?ee

Aeaenaiae?iae/ ?anii?yaeeeny auaeaeeoue aeaiueae ia ?aiiio ia/aoae, oeie
e iauanoaaiiuo oiioaiia, a oaoa?neie ciaoe aeae ana i?aaa ?onneeo
aeai?yi. Ii/eiee oaineee aeai?aoe a Aao/ena?aa, i?eeacae no?ieoue iiaua
nieyiua neeaaeu a Ia?aeiia, naaeaoue eaooaiiaua aea?aauey aaeieue
aei?ia. Iioaieei oaeaeyao aieiaiea ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee (aeaaiaea?y aio a
1786 caeeth/ai oi?aiaue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae) e, aiiaue aa?ioaoenue e
naiaio oaea/aieth ?aeeaeiciuie aii?inaie, ninoaaeyao i?iaeo
i?eniaaeeiaiey noa?iia?yaeoeaa e ?onneie oea?eae. A 1787-1791 aiaeao
eiiaiaeiaae anaie ?onneeie aieneaie, o/anoaiaaaoeie a aieia i?ioea
Oo?oeee. Aai aeeaeaeoei niiaeaeaeieeii a yoie aieia aue i?ineaaeaiiue
iieeiaiaeaoe (oiaaea aua aaia?ae-aioao) Aeaenaiae? Aaneeueaae/ Noai?ia.
A 1789 a. ii iniiaae ai?iae Ieeieaa, a iaiyoue i?i acyoea A.A. Noai?iaui
e?aiinoe I/aeia a aeaeaa?a 1788 a. a aeaiue nayoiai Ieeieay.

I i?aaiecaoi?neeo oaeaioao Iioaieeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oio oaeo, /oi a
1784 aiaeo ca caneoae a aiaiiii aeaea aio auei iiaeaeiaaia aeieaeiinoue
i?aceaeaioa Aiaiiie Eieeaaee n /eiii aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea. ,
Aeaoa?eiineaaneei e Oaa?e/aneei aaia?aeii-aoaa?iaoi?ii. Ii i?iaae
?aoi?io a a?iee: ia?aiaiee iaauaiaeioth iaeaaeaeo aiene ?onneeo, aaeae
io?acaoue einu, a?ineoue ioae?o; iaeae nieaeaoa a eo?oeo, oaeiaiua
oa?aaa?u, iieonaiiaeee e oaeiaioth, e?aneaoth eaneo; ia?aaeaeaae
aani?anoaiii iieee n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia, /oiau iie a ie?iia a?aiy
ia i?eo/eeenue e iaaa. A aiaiiii aeaea auae?ae iiaeeoi e inaaeo, iaaeaee
e?iaue naieo nieaeao, eioi?uie ii i/aiue aei?iaeee. Yoi aai naeeaeaei n
iieeiaiaeoeani A.A. Noai?iaui, n eioi?ui ii iaoiaeeeny a ae?oaeaneeo
ioiioaieyo». Ethay ieaiaiii Ioa/anoai, ii ioaeaaae iieioth
ni?aaaaeeeainoue aeinoieinoaai Noai?iaa, ienae e iaio: «Aa?ue iia, ae?oa
na?aea/iue!, /oi y iaoiaeo iith neaao a oaiae». Aei?iaeee nieaeaoaie:
«Iie ia oae aeaoaau, — oiiiyioe a iaeiii ienueia e oiio aea
iieeiaiaeoeo, — /oiau eo oa?youe ii ionoyeai». Aianoa n oai oaea/e ia
nooa nii?iaiaeaeaeenue iinoiyiiuie aiaiiui iiaaaeaie a ii?neeo
n?aaeaieyo iiae i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii O. Ooaeiaa. Ia iineaaeithth ?ieue a
ieo nua?aee ei?aaee, iino?iaiiuea ia Oa?niineie aa?oe. Acyoea I/aeiaa
inouanoaeeinue, eiaaea eaae neiaae Eeiai e e ai?iaeo ioe?ueny iooue ec
iaeiaiaa caueuaiiiai ianoa. AEanoieay ceia ia iicaieeea ca?uoue a caieth
anao o?oiia: oaeueaeia?oae i?eeacae a?inaoue oaeouo iai?eyoaeae ia eaae,
/oiau iie i?eieuee e oo?aoeeei aa?aaai. Ii iieo/ee ca acyoea I/aeiaa
aeaaii aeaeaiiue ei i?aeai Na. Aai?aey ia?aie noaiaie e noi ouny/
?oaeae; a ca iiaaaeu ia Eeiaia inuiaiioth a?eeeeaioaie e oe?aoaiioth
eaa?aie oiaao a aeaaaeoeaoue ouny/, n iaaeienueth: «Eiiaiaeothuaio
Aeaoa?eiineaaneith nooiiooiith e ii?neith neeith, oniaoaie oaai/aiiiio».
Iia i?eneaia e iaio ia cieioii aethaea, ia eioi?ii auei au?acaii:
Eiiaiaeothuaio Aeaoa?eiineaaneith nooiiooiith e ii?neith neeith, yei
no?ieoaeth aiaiiuo noaeia».

6 naioya?y 1775 aiaea aeoea-i?aceaeaio Aiaiiie eieeaaee e
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay A.A.Iioaieei i?aaenoaaee ?aii?o
Aeaoa?eia II i iino?iaiee e?aiinoe ia a?aieoea n Oo?oeeae e E?uineei
oainoaii iiae iacaaieai Oa?nii. A iineaaeothuea o?e aiaea eaeay i?inoie
e?aiinoe o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a eaeath noaeino?ieoaeueiiai oeaio?a e
ii?oa iiae caueoie e?aiinoe. 18 ethiy 1778 aiaea Aeaoa?eia II ecaeaea ia
eiy Iiai?inneeneiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a eiycy Iioaieeia oeac ia
iniiaaiee Oa?niia. Oiaaea aea ei ee/ii aue ooaa?aeaeai i?iaeo ai?iaea,
?ac?aaioaiiue iaoa?ao?aneei a?oeoaeoi?ii I.I. Aaoioieeiaui.

Aia?aua Iioaieei i?eaue a Oa?nii a iaa 1780 aiaea n noiiie a ianeieueei
ieeeeiiia ?oaeae ia no?ieoaeuenoai e aeaaiono?ienoai ai?iaea. Ii aucaae
ec ?innee 2000 ianoa?iauo, ieioieeia, eociaoeia e eaiaiueeia aeey
ei?aaaeueiiai e ai?iaeneiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ia?aa?inee ec naiae
/aoaa?oie aeeaecee 10 iaoioiuo iieeia a Oa?nii aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa
e?aiinoe e iinaeaiey a ai?iaea. Iioaieei iinauae Oa?nii a 1782 e a 1783
aiaeao, a n 1786 aiaea e aei nia?oe auaae caeanue ?aaoey?ii. O iaai aue
nianoaaiiue aeii a Oa?niia, a oaeaea aeai?aoe aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a a
e?aiinoe. Ee/iia ionoonoaea a ai?iaea ia iaoaei aio aea?aeaoue iiae
eiio?ieai ana ai?iaeneea aeaea: ii iaycuaae anao naieo iiiiuieeia,
?aaoey?ii iiaeaaaoue ?aii?ou i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a Oa?niia. E
niaeaeaieth, yoiio ia/eiaieth, eae e iiiaei ae?oaei i?iaeoai, iiiaoaea
?ac?aceaoayny a Iiai?innee a 1783 aiaeo yieaeaiey /oiu. Iniaaiii
aeanoieie iia auea a Oa?niia, i?iaeeeaoenue aieaa aiaea. Aa iineaaenoaey
eaaee oyaeaeui a?aiaiai ia iea/e Iioaieeia. Iiiaia ioaeii auei ia/eiaoue
nia/aea e a i?aaeaeueii naeaoua n?iee. Yoiio auee aeaa i?e/eiu.
Aneaaenoaea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee Oo?oeey aioiaeeanue e aieia e
iiaea iauyaeoue aa a ethaie iiiaio. Aoi?ay – oa, /oi Aeaoa?eia ec-ca
iiiai/eneaiiuo nieaoai ioiineoaeueii Oa?niia au?aceea aeaeaiea iinaoeoue
ai?iae e naieie aeacaie oaeaeaoue ?acoeueoaou a?iiaaeiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a «THa». Neaaeoao ioaeaoue aeieaeiia
aaeieieno?aoeaiiio oaeaioo Iioaieeia, eioi?ue a aeaa aiaea noiae
oaeoe/anee ia?ano?ieoue e?aiinoue e i?aa?aoeoue Oa?nii a iaeei ec
e?aneaaeoeo ai?iaeia no?aiu. A Oa?niia ?aaioaee oaeaioeeaua eiaeaia?u e
a?oeoaeoi?u ec Iaoa?ao?aa e Iineau, O?aioeee, Aieeaiaeee e Aa?iaiee.
Ethaay iaei/ue, aoaeue oi a a?oeoaeoo?iii aii?ina, ei?aaeano?iaiee,
aeeieiiaoee eee oi?aiaea, i?ioiaeeea /a?ac aai eaioeaey?eth. Iioaieei
ethaee a?oeoaeoo?o e iocueo. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiio neoaeeo
a?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue Oa?niineie e?aiinoe e iaoiaeeaoeeny a
aaeie?aeoaenoaa oaao?. I?aaeinoaaeaiiia Oa?niio i?aai naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee niinianoaiaaei ioe?uoeth a ai?iaea eiino?aiiuo oi?aiauo eiioi?.

Niaoea a no?ieoaeuenoaa e?aiinoe auea ii?aaaeaia: aaaeue oaea eaoii oiai
aea 1787 aiaea ia/aeanue aieia n Oo?oeeae, /ooue ia iaa?ioaoayny
o?aaaaeeae aeey Oa?niia. Caeanue oaea nua?ae naith ?ieue A.A.Noai?ia, n
eioi?ui, e yoi neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, o Iioaieeia auee ae?oaeaneea,
aeiaa?eoaeueiua ioiioaiey e acaeiiiiieiaiea. Naith ?ieue nua?aee e
caii?iaeneea eacaee, ia?aoaaeoea ia neoaeao e Iioaieeio, i?iyaeaoea
niaeinoue e ioaeanoai a Eeiao?ineii n?aaeaiee. Acyoea I/aeiaa 6 aeaeaa?y
1788 aiaea yaeeinue ?oaeeiiii a enoi?ee Iiai?innee. Ie?iue aeiaiai?,
caeeth/aiiue n Oo?oeeae a 1791 aiaeo, ioiaeaeioe a?aieoeo ?innee aeaeaei
ia caiaae, e Oa?nii ieacaeny a aeoaieii oueo. Iiiaea ieaiu Iioaieeia
ioiineoaeueii Oa?niia oae e inoaeenue ia?aaeeciaaiiuie — 5 ieoya?y 1791
aiaea Naaoeaeoee eiycue A?eai?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iioaieei oia?.

23 iiya?y A.A.Iioaieei ii oeaco Aeaoa?eiu II aue iia?aaai a
Aeaoa?eieineii niai?a ai?iaea Oa?niia. Oiaaea Aeaoa?eia II iiaaeaea
aicaeaeaiooue iaiyoiee Iioaieeio e iioi?iieoue aai a Oa?niia, ai?iaea
eioi?ue ii iino?iee. Ii aiiaue aii?in i iaiyoieea aue iiaeiyo oieueei
i?e aioea Aeaoa?eiu II Aeaenaiae?a I. A 1825 aiaeo E.I.Ia?oin auiieiee
ia?aue yneec neoeueioo?u Iioaieeia. E /a?ac iyoue eao iaiyoiee aue
onoaiiaeai ia naia ianoi. A 1838 aiaeo aie?oa iaiyoieea aue ?acaeo
Iioaieeineee neaa?. A 60-70 aiaeu a neaa?a iaoiaeeeny oiioai, oe?aoaiiue
oeao?ie a?iiciaiai iaeue/eea n ioeoeae a ?oeao. Iueaaeanoae aeey
Iioaieeia aue auiieiai eoaeueyineei a?oeoaeoi?ii O?aioeai Ea?eiae/ai
Aiooi, eioi?ue a 20-30-a aiaeu 19 aaea ?ac?aaaouaae iinoaiaio aeey
iaiyoieea ?eoaeuea a Iaeanna. A na?aaeeia 20 aaea iaiyoiee Iioaieeio
aioae a iyoa?eo eo/oeo enoi?e/aneeo iaiyoieeia NNN?. Ia/aeueiay noaeueaa
iaeeaeaea iaiyoiee iniiaaoaeth Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay. A 1917 a. iaiyoiee
«ethaei/eeo Aeaoa?eiu» iae?uoue a?acaioii aue i?aa?auai a «oa?niineia
i?eaeaeaiea». Ia/eiay n 1941 a. iaiyoiee noiye ai aeai?a
enoi?eei-a?oaieiae/aneiai iocay, a ai a?aiy II Ie?iaie Aieiu aanneaaeii
en/ac. A 1922 aiaeo iueaaeanoae Iioaieeia aue caiyo athnoii Ea?ea
Ia?ena, a iicaea e neoeueioo?ie aaoi?a «Eaieoaea». Eeoue a 2003 aiaeo
iaiyoiee aue aic?iaeaeai. Iaiyoiee aaeeeiio iieeiaiaeoeo iniiaaoaeth
Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay ainnoaiaaeeaae oa?niineee neoeueioi? TH?ee
Noaiaiyi, /eai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nithca ooaeiaeieeia Oe?aeiu, a oaeaea
aeaaiue a?oeoaeoi? Oa?niia a oa/aiea 22 eao Ay/aneaa A?iiuoei.
Neoeueioo?a «iooea Oa?niia» Iioaieeia auea aini?iecaaaeaia Noaiaiyiii ca
iaeei aiae. A /anoue i?acaeiiaaiey 225-aiaeiaueiu iniiaaiey Oa?niia
aeaoooiiiay eiiey Iioaieeineiai iaiyoieea auea aicaaaeaia ia naie
iueaaeanoae 19 naioya?y 2003 aiaea.

AEeciue A?eai?ey Aeaenaiae?iae/a Iioaieeia iaayia eaaaiaeaie e ieoaie.
Iaeei ec ieoia, aeoaiei a?acaaoeony a ia?iaeiia niciaiea, iiaanoaoao i
oaeueoeauo («iioaieeineeo») aea?aaiyo, yeiau auno?iaiiuo ii i?eeaco
«naaoeaeoaai» a Iiai?innee a 1787 aiaeo. Eiia?ao?eoeo nii?iaiaeaeaee
eiino?aiiua ainoe, eioi?ua aeacai naiei ia aa?eee, aeaey oaaaathuea ca
ai?eciio aea?aaie e no?iyueany ei?aaee. Iiaen/eoaa, ai neieueei aea
iiaei iaieoenue ainoaea?noao oaeia no?ieoaeuenoai, — oniiieeenue a eie
aea iacaaiiuo noiiao. Aaoi?ii e eieoeeaoi?ii ceiaiuo noaoae iiae a?ineei
iacaaieai «iioaieeineea aea?aaie» noae nae?aoa?ue naeniineiai
iinieuenoaa Aaeueaeo. AEeaoee a ?innee a 1787-1796 aiaeao e
iaeiia?aiaiii n iniaui oaeiaieuenoaeai iieaauaaaoee aanue ?inneeneee
ia?iae, aai ?aeeaeth, aai o/aiuo, ienaoaeae. Aai eieeaae-aeeieiiaou
iocuaaeenue i iai eae i «aieinoaothuae cao?yaeiinoe, iniiaaiiie ia
iaaaaeanoaa, aii?oaeaiiie iiaeeinoueth», eioi?ay ia inoaiaaeeaaeanue
aeaaea ia?aae oai, /oiau aoiioaoue a a?ycue iaiyoue i /aeiaaea. Eiaiii
Aaeueaea a na?ee noaoae aiiieiii (!) iioaeeeiaai a 1797 aiaeo a
aaiao?aneii aeo?iaea «Ieiaa?a», aaea oiiiyioe «iioaieeineea aea?aaie».
Naeniiee e ae?oaei caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei ainoaea?noaai auei yaii auaiaeii
iii?i/eoue Iioaieeia a aeacao ie?iaie iauanoaaiiinoe e oaeei ia?acii
iiaeii/eoue ?aiooaoeeth ?innee, a caiaeii e aeinaaeeoue Aeaoa?eia
Aaeeeie. Aeeieiiaou aiaee eo?uea?ia n aeaiaoaie a naie noieeoeu, niiauay
ia oaeaeaiiii, ne?eiaee ia?ueyie, aienuaay a iioiaeiua aeiaaieee,
ni/eiyy ienueia, neaioe/anee a?thcaea e ia neoiynue ia yaeiaeoua
caia/aiey: «aeaei?aoeee aianoi aeiiia», «a aiaa?ao iaoee n ianeii, a ia
n ioeie», «ethaeae e neio ia?aaiiytho ii/aie ia iiaua ianoa». Niune
iooaoanoaey eiia?ao?eoeu o?aeooaony ii ?aciiio: iaeie oa?aeoa?ecotho aai
eae oaanaeeoaeueiia, aeey iciaeiieaiey, ae?oaea — eae aeaiiino?aoeeth
iiue ?innee, anooieaoae ia aa?aa *a?iiai ii?y, o?aouee — n oeaeueth
«einiaeoi?neie» i?iaa?ee ?acoeueoaoia eniieueciaaiey a?iiaaeiuo noii,
ioioneaaiuo aaeaaiaeii n 1776 aiaea, n iiiaioa iacia/aiey Iioaieeia
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Iiai?inee, ia iaono?ienoai e aai canaeaiea.

Eiaiii iineaaeiyy i?e/eia /aua ae?oaeo i?enoonoaiaaea ai anao neooao ca
ianeieueei eao aei ia/aea iooaoanoaey. Eo enoi/ieeii auei eae ?iaeiaeoia
aeai?oeiaia ie?oaeaiea eiia?ao?eoeu — Ua?aaoia, Aieeoeuiu, Eo?aeeiu,
aeaeaaoea a Iioaieeia aunei/eo, ethaeioea neo/ay, o?aiaee?o eacaiiuo
aeaiaa, oae e aeeieiiaou ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, eioi?uo Naaoeaeoee ia
iniaaiii aeaeiaae e /anaie aea?aeae a i?eaiiie eee i?eieiae a oaeaoa e
oeaiaioeao ia aino iiao. Aeaoa?eia II, aoaeo/e oaa?aei oaa?aiiie a
eniieieoaeueiinoe Iioaieeia, aaniethoii ia niiniaiiai i?eaaaiooue e
iaiaio, oai aieaa ?aaee iieaciiai auiieiaiey caaeoiaiiuo ei aea ieaiia,
niieieii, a nii?iaiaeaeaiee aieueoie naeou — naiaoi?ia, aaia?aeeoaoa,
aeeieiiaoe/aneiai ei?iona, ioi?aaeeanue a iiacaeeo. Iicaea
i?eniaaeeieeenue e aeaa iiia?oa — aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? ianouanoaothuae
?eineie eiia?ee Eineo II e iieueneee ei?ieue Noaieneaa Aaaono,
aea?aeaaoeeny ia o?iia aeaaiaea?y Aeaoa?eia II. E?iia oiai, Iioaieeio ia
aue ecaanoai oi/iue ia?o?oo iiacaeee. Oi/ii auea oeacaia oieueei
eiia/iay oeaeue — Naaanoiiieue. Oieueei aea Eeiue — aanaeue e oiiaeoee
o?aioeoc, aiaiiue aooaoa Aano?ee, aiai?ee ia oaeaeaiiii: «Ana no?ieony,
i?eaiaeeiia a i?eee/iue aeae…» Ii aaeeinoaaiiue, eoi aeae iaeaieaa
i?aaaeeaue e iauaeoeaiue iienaoaeueiue ii?o?ao e oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiycy, n
i?enouae aio yiioeeiiaeueiinoueth: «Aaiee, aaiee, aaiee!» Aeiiuneu
ieacaeenue ia ?aaeeinoue aeeao/e, oioy ie iaeei ec aaoi?ia ia
oaeinoaeeeny i?aaenoaaeoue eaeea-eeai aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Iaeei ec
o/anoieeia iiacaeee, naiiaiee Eeueei, nai aica?auaynue ec Oaa?eaeu a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a oai aea iooai, ii oaea ii nooa, oi anoue i?iacaeay
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?yaeii n ianaeaiiuie ioieoaie, iacaae ?anneacu i
aeaei?aoeeyo «iaeaiie aaniae».

Ieeieae Io?caeaae/ — /eai Iaeanneiai iauanoaa enoi?ee e ae?aaiinoae
iinayuaiiie iooaoanoaeth: «Ii nia?oe eiycy Iioaieeia i iooaoanoaee yoii
yaeeenue ?aciua neooe, yeiau ii aunoaaeye ii aei?iaa aeaei?aoeeiiiua
aea?aaie e oea?eae. Eaeea aeieaeiu auoue aeaei?aoeee, /oiau n na?aaeeiu
?aee iiaeii auei eo aeaeaoue ca iyoue e ca aeanyoue aa?no, e eae eo auei
ia?aaiceoue?» A oeio ec 40 aiaauo ei?aaeae, naethoiaaaoeo Aeaoa?eia II
ia Naaanoiiieueneii ?aeaea — yoi o?eoio Iioaieeia!

A 1783 ?aaeeciaae naie i?iaeo i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee, iieo/ea ca
yoi oeooe «naaoeaeoaai eiycy Oaa?e/aneiai». Ii iauyaee, /oi oaia?ue
ethaie aeaeathuee iiaeao i?eaoaoue ia tha e iieo/eoue aacieaoii caieth.
Oi?iaeueii e?anoueyia ia iiaee yoiai naeaeaoue, oaeoe/anee Iioaieei
i?eieiae oaaaeaaoeo io iiiaueeia e?aiinoiuo. I?inoi i?eoai?yeny
iaciathuei, ioeoaea a ?innee acyeinue noieueei aieueiuo caieaiaooeaa.

Aoaa?ieth ?acaeee ia o/anoee ii 60 aeanyoei. Ia?auo iinaeaioeaa
inaiaiaeeee io oieaou ethauo iaeiaia ia iiiai eao. A anee a e?ae
ia?aacaeae ni naieie e?anoueyiaieaiaaoue iiiauee — aio auaeaeyee oaea 12
000 aeanyoei caiee! Aa?aiaueee ia?anaeaioeaaiieo/aee aeaiaaeiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, a iaeaieaa aeoeaiua ec ieo – aeai?yineia
caaiea!Ianoiyuea, a ia «iioaieeineea» aea?aaie aicaiaeeee ?onneea,
iieaeaaneea, aieaa?neea, a?a/aneea, a?iyineea iinaeaioeu. E i?eia?o, ia
oa??eoi?ee aoaeouae Iaeannu iainiiaaeinue noieueei aa?aaa, /oi i?eoeinue
i?eniaaeeieoue yoo aoaa?ieth e /a?oa eo inaaeeinoe. Eiycue ia aue
iaoeeiiaeenoii, n/eoay, /oi a aai aeaaeaieyo iiaeao aeeoue eoi oaiaeii,
eeoue au i?eiinee iieueco e aue eiyeai. A 1778 aiaeo eiycue Iioaieei
caeiaeee iiaue ai?iae — Oa?nii, iino?iea ii?neie ii?o, aa?oe,
*a?iiii?neee oeio. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii a oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?ieyo ?innee
auee caaa?aiaaiu ieioieee, eaiaiueee, eociaoeu. Oaea /a?ac aiae a
Oa?niia nionoeee ia aiaeo 60-iooa/iue ei?aaeue «Neaaa Aeaoa?eiu». Iicaea
Iioaieei iniiaae Naaanoiiieue, iieiaeee ia?aua eaiie a iniiaaiea
Aeaoa?eiineaaa. Ca /aou?a aiaea a ai?iaea ia Aeiai?a iiyaeeenue aeaa
o/eeeua: aeey aeaoae aeai?yi e aeey i?inoiethaeeiia, eiaeaaaiiue e
naa/iie caaiaeeee, e oaa?eea, ecaioiaeyaoay oii/aeoea /oeee aeey naiie
Aeaoa?eiu. Iioaieei ieaie?iaae i?aa?aoeoue yoio ai?iae aaeaa ee ia a
o?aoueth noieeoeo ?innee -nicaeaoue oai oieaa?neoao, iana?aaoi?eth, 12
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e iino?ieoue eieinnaeueiuo ?acia?ia o?ai
iaiiaeiaea niai?a Nayoiai Iao?a a ?eia.

Naia Aeaoa?eia II e aa ie?oaeaiea ciaee, /oi e?anoueyineea aeiia ia
eaaeaeue aeaiue oe?aoatho ae?eyiaeaie ec aeeauo oeaaoia. *oi iinaeaioeu
ia eaaeaeue aeaiue iinyo /enoia ieaouea e eacaee a eeoi caeiieaiiuo
oaieao ia eaaeaeue aeaiue i?acaeii aa?oeotho aaeieue Aeiai?a. Oo/iua
noaaea nianai iaiaycaoaeueii ianoony aaeieue ?aee e aaeieue iaacaeaiiuo
aei?ia. A iieueco Iioaieeia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea e yeiiiieea — a
oa?niineee ii?o i?eoiaeeee eiino?aiiua ei?aaee, caii?neea eoioeu
caeoiaee e auaiceee oeaa. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi ianaeaiea Iiai?innee
au?inei ai iiiai ?ac e i?eaeeceeinue e ieeeeiio /aeiaae, e?ae ei?iee
oaea ia oieueei naay, a i?aa?aoeeny a aeeoieoeo ?innee.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *