Zhytomyr Region (реферат)

Zhytomyr Region is an ancient, drevlyan, rich land. It streches around
Zhytomyr well-known from the times of Kyiv Rus’, the city which has
celebrated its eleven century’s anniversary. The land is beautiful in
any season, but especially attractive in summer when the fields are
covered with luxuriant golden ears, and flax spreads like a blue carpet.
Everywhere, as far as one can see, is charming many-coloured attire of
picturesque Polissya Nature.

But fields and woods are not the only riches of the region. Its
treasures are hidden deep in bowels of the earth. They mine here
granites, ilmenites, quarzites, marble, coal… How lovely semi-precious
stones are! One can’t help admiring them.

Considerable capacities for manufacture of porcelain, linen cloth,
hoisery, flax fibre, metal-cutting machine tools, saw-timber, paper,
chemical fibre and yarns are concentrated in the region.

Under conditions of economic restructure it is not easy to set up a
business. The companies located in the region are gradually stabilizing
their work, and a half of them are increasing their production volumes.
Reforms are being successively carried through in the agricultural

The economic potential of Zhytomyr Region offers opportunities for
different kinds of business partnership.

In order to create a favourable climate for making investments the Law
of Ukraine «On Special Regime of Investment Activity in the Territories
of Preferential Development in the Zhytomyr Region» was passed on
December 3,1999. Favourable terms are provided both for a national and
foreign investor.

The publication which is suggested to your attention contains basic
information describing the region in general.


The territory occupied by the region has been inhabited since ancient
times which fact is witnessed by many archaeological relics of
paleolith. There were discovered rests of Zhytomyr settlement from the
period of early paleolith which is 100 hundred years old.

In the period of neolith (VI-III thousand B.C.) there were over 40
neolitic settlements known.

At the beginning of our era Slavic tribes inhabited already the whole
territory of the region. The group of Slavic tribes, which was the
direct ancestor of the famous from chronicles drevlyan tribe, lived to
the north from the Teteriv in the basin of the rivers Uzh and Sluch in
IV-VII centuries. Iskorosten (now Korosten) referred to in 946 was the
most ancient city and simultaneousely the sit of Princes in the drevlyan

With the formation of feudal state Kyiv Rus’ the drevlyan land was one
of the first to join it. In 907 the drevlyans participated in the
victorious campaign against Bysantie spearheaded by Kyiv Prince Oleg.

At the end of the Xlll-th and the beginning of the XlV-th century the
territories of the region were joined to Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
According to the Union of Liublin 1569 which made official the union of
Lithuanian Principality and Poland into a federative state, the
territory of Zhytomyr Region as a part of Right-Bank Ukraine fell under
the rule of Poland.

After Third division of Poland (1795) a greater part of the territory of
the region was included in structure of Volyn province, which centre
since 1804 became Zhytomyr.

The region was founded in September 22, 1937. It is located in the
central part of the East European plain, in the north of Right-Bank
Ukraine. The area of the region is 29,9 thousand square kilometers, that
makes 4,9 % of the territory of Ukraine. By its sizes the region is one
of the largest in Ukraine and yields only to four regions: Odessa,
Dnipropetrovsk, Chernihiv and Kharkiv. Its area is larger than that of
Armenia, Albania, Israel, Cyprus, Lebanon. Generally in Ukraine it
occupies the 5th place.

The length of the region from west to east is 170 km, from north to
south – 230 km. It is located in two natural zones. Its northern part is
in Polissya zone , southern one is within Forest-steppe zone.

In the north of the region there rises Slovechansko-Ovruchskyi
mountain-ridge, formed of pre-cembrian quartzites. Its highest peak
reaches 316 meters above the sea level.

The climate is moderate-continental with warm wet summer and mild cloudy
winter. The average temperature is: in summer +18,5°C, in winter –
-5,5°C. Average annual precipitation level is 753 mm. The territory of
the region is traversed with 221 rivers, their total length being 5366
km. All the rivers belong to the Dnieper basin. The longest rivers
within the boundaries of the region are: the Teteriv – 247 km, the Sluch
– 194 km, the Irpin’ – 174 km, the Irsha – 136 km. There are many large
lakes in Zhytomyr Region. The largest ones Chorne, Kupye, Ozeryanske,
Duzhe, Didove, Prybylovetske are located in the basin of the Ubort’

The region has a 280 km length border with Bielorus Republic, mainly
with Homel Region. There are 2 transition points situated on the border
– Maydan-Kopyshchanskyi in Olevsk District and Vystupovychi in Ovruch
District. Besides there are pass points at railway stations in Ovruch
and Korosten, and an air-traffic one in the settlement of urban type
Ozerne, Zhytomyr District. The region borders on Kyiv, Vinnytsya,
Khmelnytsk, Rivne Regions of Ukraine.

Due to favourable geografic situation and a developed network of
motorways and railways the region has convenient transport communication
with Kyiv, Lviv, Uzhhorod, Kharkiv, Odessa, Minsk, Moscow, St.
Petersburg as well as the countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The
distance between Zhytomyr and Kiev by railway is 165 km, by motorway is
131 km.

Zhytomyr land gave the world Academician Serhiy Korolyov, poetress Lesya
Ukrainka, world famous writers Volodymyr Korolenko, Joseph Konrad, poet
Academician Maksym Rylskyi, outstanding scientist, public figure Ivan
Ohienko, pianist Svyatoslav Rikhter, classic of Ukrainian music Borys

Writers Onore de Balsak, Mykhailo Kotsyubynskyi and Oleksandr Kuprin,
playwright Ivan Kocherha, and film director Oleksandr Dovzhenko,
composers Viktor Kosenko and Mykhailo Skorulskyi, outstanding Ukrainian
poet, translator, public figure Borys Ten lived and worked here.


The region is rich in natural resources. Mineral and raw material
potential is represented by ornamental stones, marble, semi precious
stones, raw materials available for the metallurgy and construction
industry, limestone, brown coal, peat. Prospected are deposits of acid
kaolines, their volume and amount give a possibility to produce up to
0,5 mln. ton of field spar concentrate annually.

There are deposits of construction sands, schist, ceramic clay, and
other kinds of mineral resources for construction industry. Significant
manufacturing capacities have been established on its basis. Deposits of
ornamental stones (labradorite, granite, gabbro) which are always in
demand in the country and abroad are practically unlimited. Prospected
deposits of labradorites and gabbro in the region stand for 86% of the
stock in Ukraine. This fact determines the necessity to speed up the
development of stone mining and stone working industry.

Prospective is the deposit of marble which has a marvelous pattern, and
takes a good polish. This is an excellent raw material for production of
facing tile, marble aggregate, brine magnium oxides for metallurgy,
various kinds of fluxes and fillers, and mineral fertilizers.

Semi-precious stones – beryl, topaz, quartz are mined and processed on
the territory of the region for further jewelry manufacturing.
Piezoelectric quartz crystal, which is indispensable in modern
electronics has wide application in industry. There are also deposits of
high quality pyrophyllites. Zhytomyr Region meets the requirements of
Ukraine in titanum concentrate, and ships it abroad as well.

In the ore mine apart from the titanium ilmenite there are rare-earth
elements: vanadium, scandium, hafnium, thorium which are in great demand
at the world market. Most of the ilmenite deposits have apatites. Stock
of apatites in the region makes up over 85% of all prospected deposits
of Ukraine.

Unique is the quartzite deposit. It contains about 89% of the country’s
quartzite reserves. These raw materials are used for lining blast
furnaces and preparation of ferroalloys.

The region takes the second place in Ukraine in respect of forest
resources. Woodland covers almost 1 /3 of the region territory.
Dominating are the coniferous sorts of trees 60%, hard-leaf (oak) and
soft-leaf trees (birch, alder, aspen) 20%. General stock of timber
stands for over 120 mln. m3. Total average increase is 2,6 mln. m3
annually. The most wooded territories are Ovruch and Olevsk Districts,
where woods cover over 60%.

Diverse is the animal kingdom of the region. Woods are inhabited by
elks, deer, wild swine, goats, foxes, hares, squirrels, martens,
beavers; from birds – wild ducks, partridges, blackcocks, hazel grouses,
pheasants and wood-grouses. In pools pikes, perches, catflshes, crucians
etc. are to be found.


The region has 23 districts; 4 cities of regional subordination:
Zhytomyr, Berdychiv, Korosten, Novohrad-Volynskyi; 5 cities of district
subordination: Andrushivka, Korosten, Malyn, Ovruch, Radomyshl; 45
settlements of urban type; 1631 villages.

The population of the region is 1374,2 thous. people, including city
inhabitants 769,3 thous, people (56%), and village inhabitants 604,9
thous. people (44%). The density of population (person per 1 km2) is
45,9. The most densely populated are the cities of regional
subordination: Zhytomyr – 282,3; Berdychiv – 86,2; Korosten – 66,5;
Novohrad-Volynskyi – 55,9 thous. people. The cities of district
subordination have: Andrushivka – 12,8; Korostyshiv – 25,9; Malyn –
31,9; Ovruch – 19,6; Radomyshl – 16,3 thous. people.

The most populated districts are: Zhytomyr – 68,2; Ovruch – 66,9;
Novohrad-Volynskyi – 51,8; Malyn – 51,7 thous. people. The least number
of people is in the following districts: Narodychi – 10,9; Brusyliv –
17,9; Luhyny – 20.4 thous. people.


Many-branch industry has been formed on the territory of the region.
Zhytomyr Region is Ukraine’s leader in manufacture of some kinds of
products. In particular the region produces 45% of porcelain and faience
utensils, 24% of linen cloth, 39% of hosiery, 13% of lumber, 23% of
footwear, 12% of natural stone facing products. Major branches are: food
industry, which makes up 39% of the total volume of industrial
production, machine-building and metal working – 11%, extractive
industry– 10%, manufacturing of non-metal mineral products –11%, light
industry – 6%, wood processing industry and wood-pulp and paper industry
– 5%.

The largest companies in the realm of machine-building and metal-working
are: JSC «PROGRES» in Berdychiv, Korosten plants «Khimmash», «Zavod
Shlyakhovykh Mashyn» (road–building machines works),
«Novohrad-Volynsksilmash», JSC «Prozhektor», Ovruch JSC
«Pryladobudivnyk». The staple items of machine-building and
metal-working are metal and wood processing lathes, equipment for
chemical industry, machines and equipment for livestock breeding and
fodder production, road-building machines and equipment, devices and
means of automation, cryogenic equipment, electrotechnical devices,
technological equipment for processing branches of agricultural complex.

Food industry is represented by 120 companies of baking, confectionery,
brewery and soft drinks, dairy and meat, sugar, flour, distillery
industry. There are 6 sugar-mills working in the region in Andrushivka,
Popilnya, and Chudniv Districts, 4 alcohol producing factories, and the
Zhytomyr distillery has already celebrated its 107th anniversary.

The leading companies in this realm are: JSC “Zhytomyrskyi Maslozavod”
(butter factory), JSC “Zhytomyrski Lasoshchi” (confectionery factory),
JSC “Berdychiv Pyvzavod” (beer factory), JSC “Berdychiv Kholod”, JSC
“Molochnyk”, JSC “Favoryt”, JSC “Ovruchskyi Molochno-Konservnyi
Kombinat” (integrated milk cannery), JSC “Novohrad-Volynskyi
Myasokombinat” (meat-packing plant).

The region produces near 9% of the total volume of butter and cheese,
and dairy products, more than 3% of confectionery items in Ukraine.

Light industry is represented in main by companies of clothes, footwear
and knitted-wear branches. The leading companies of the industry are:
JSC Korosten firm “Arsania”, JSC “Berdychiv Clothes Factory”,
Novohrad-Volynskyi VFK “Lesya”, which manufacture men’s, women’s
clothes; Zhytomyr JSC “Krok” and Berdychiv JV “Ryf-1”, which manufacture
men’s, women’s and children’s footwear; Znytomyr JSC “Ukraina” and
Berdychiv JSC “Knitted-wear Factory” engaged in production of socks,
stockings, mittens and knitwear.

Companies of forest, wood-pulp and paper, and wood processing industry
produce furniture, joinery products, paper, board, timber, etc. The
leading companies are: State Forestry Association “Zhytomyrlis”, which
includes 11 state forestries, JSC “Zhytomyrderev”, JSC “Berdychivmebli”,
collective company “Klasum”, JSC “Malynska Paperova Fabryka” (paper

Glass and porcelain-faience industry is represented by 10 companies.
They produce porcelain-faience utensils, mirrors, glass tare. The branch
engages over 10 thous. employees or 12% of the total number of the
employed in industry. The oldest company is the collective company
“Baranivskvi Porcelain Works”, which was founded by the French
businessman M. Mezer in 1802, and in 1815 the Russian Government granted
the owner with the right to stamp items produced at the works with the
state emblem. Porcelain works in Korosten and Dovbysh have been working
since 1823 and 1903 respectively. Large are such companies as collective
company “Horodnytskyi Farfor” (porcelain works), JSC “Biomedsklo”.

Construction industry numbers over 60 companies and associations. Among
them there is a preferential amount of crushed-stone opencasts, stone
crushing works, which are located basically in Korosten, Ovruch,
Novohrad-Volynskyi, Chernyakhiv, Malyn, Olevsk, Volodarsk-Volynskyi,
Popilnya, Zhytomyr Districts.

The main companies in production of reinforced concrete items are: JSC
“Zhytomyr Factory of Building Materials”, production association
“Ahrobudindustria”, branch company “Buddetal”, KF “Zhytomyrinvest-JSC”.

Chemical industry manufactures chemical fibers and yarns, ware of
plastic and lacquer-paint production. Significant volumes of production
in the branch are obtained at JSC “Korosten Works “Yantar” and
“Liktravy” (medicinal herbs), JV “Zhytomyr-Polisaks”.

Zhytomyr Region has well-developed many-branch agricultural production.
The share of the agricultural sector in gross additional cost of the
region is 29%. Alongside with cultivation of crops and leguminous
plants, sugar-beet, potatoes, vegetables and production of milk, meat
and eggs, the region occupies a leading place among other areas of
Ukraine in cultivation of hop (74% of country volumes) and flax-fabel

The significant share of mowing lands and pastures in structure lands of
the region (22,4%) allows to develop the branch of live-stock farming.
The region has 500 thous. heads of large horned cattle (52% of country

There are 721 agricultural enterprises, 7,2 thous. farms and 340 thous.
private part-time farms engaged in production of agricultural products.
Farm land occupies 1599,8 thous. hectares including 1076,3 thous.
hectares of arable land.

Plant and stock-breeders of Zhytomyr Region have been actively working
at creation of highly productive sorts of plants and breed of stock. The
effeciency of their work has been proved in the number of agricultural
enterprises, particularly in agricultural firm “Yerchyky”, JSC
“Kolodyanskyi Bekon” and others. They get about 70 centners of grain per
hectare, 700 centners of sugar-beet per hectare and 8 thous. kg of milk
per cow, 400 g of weight increase per swine.


In 2002 the positive tendency of increase of investments into the
regional economy was consolidated. The amount of investments increased
5,2% as for the year before and came to 345 million UHR. Basic funds in
the amount of 291,9 million UHR have been carried into effect. The basic
source of the investments was means of the economic subjects – 67,0% of
total amount. Gradually foreign investors have got more active. During
the year over 19 million USD of direct investments were attracted into
the economy, that is 2,8 times more than the year before. To January
1,2003 the total capital of non-residents came to 58,2 million USD – it
is 42 USD per person if calculated for every inhabitant of the region.
There are 130 foreign capital based enterprises in the region. The most
attractive realms for foreign investors are food industry, extractive
industry, wood processing industry, wood-pulp and paper industry and
chemical industry. Investments into agricultural production and
hotel-restaurant bussines have also increased.

Foreign trade activity was carried out in the region by economic units
with the partners from 88 world’s countries. The close relations were
maintained with countries of CIS and Baltic Region. Companies of the
region have quite good relations with the partners from Italy, Germany,
USA and Czechia. Volume of foreign trade makes more than 422,6 million
USD, including export 176,6 million USD and import – 246 million USD. In
export deliveries the major part is textile clothes, mineral products,
wood and articles from it, paper and board, agricultural products and
footwear. Mineral fuel, oil and the products of its refining, photo and
medical devices and instruments, machines, equipments make basis of
import income in the region.

Institutional reorganization. Since 1992 – the beginning of
denationalization and privatization, about 2107 units have changed the
form of ownership, from them being 939 units of state and 1168 – of
municipal form of ownership. The reforming was carried out almost by all
operating methods. The sale of units at an auction was the most common.
102 units, which were in the municipal property were reformed by
redeeming buyers’ associations. By the way of selling at an auction
there were reformed 156 units of unfinished construction.


About 4 thousand shops, more than 1 thousand public catering
establishments, 580 dressmaking and tailoring establishments and
workshops of everyday repairs and other services, 1278 clubs, 1038
public libraries, 2 theatres, a philharmonic society, 32 children’s
musical and 6 art schools, 2 schools of arts, 4 recreation parks, 4
state and 43 public museums are to people’s service.

By the beginning of 2000-2001 academic year 939 state and 4 private
schools providing general education, 2 grammar schools, 2 liceums have
worked in the region. About 205 thousand schoolchildren are trained

More than 5 thousand doctors take care of health of the population.
Prophylaxis, sanitation and treatment of the inhabitants is provided by
4 regional specialized centres of people’s protection from radiation, 30
local hospitals, 5 urban and 23 regional territorial medical
associations, 185 medical ambulatories, 844 midwifery stations.

The collectives of the Regional Ivan Kocherha dramatic theatre, songs
and dance ensemble «Lyonok», choir «Oreya», Polissya ensemble of
national rite «Rodoslav», children’s dancing ensemble «Solnyshko»,
pop-musik singer Iryna Shynkaruk and others are known abroad.

The regional organization of the Ukrainian Art Guild unites about 50
professionals in different genres of fine art, whose works were on
display not only in Ukraine, but also beyond its borders.

The unique branches of national crafts have been saved: manufacture of
female ornaments from a precious stone, carpet weaving, ceramics, glass
blowing, wood carving etc.

Physical training and sports are developing. There operate 32 stadiums,
502 sports halls, 5 swimming-pools, 558 different sports grounds, work
405 physical training collectives, 36 children’s sports schools, 2
sports schools of Olympic reserve, a school of higher sports skill, a
centre of invalid’s sports, in which more than 12 thousand children and
teenagers are engaged.

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