Washington Irving (реферат)

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Washington Irving

Виконалав: учениця 11 класу

Кіцелюк Юлія

Born: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_3» \o «April 3»
April 3 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1783» \o «1783»

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan» \o «Manhattan»
Manhattan , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York» \o «New
York» New York , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States» United

Died: HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_28» \o
«November 28» November 28 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1859» \o «1859» 1859

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employment» \o «Employment»
Occupation(s) : Short story writer, essayist, biographer

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnum_opus» \o «Magnum opus»
Magnum opus : HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Legend_of_Sleepy_Hollow» \o «The
Legend of Sleepy Hollow» The Legend of Sleepy Hollow


HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Biography» 1 Biography

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l
«Pen_Names_and_Associated_Writings» 2 Pen Names and Associated Writings

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «Bibliography» 3

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «In_other_works» 4 In
other works

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/» \l «External_links» 5
External links

Washington Irving ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_3» \o
«April 3» April 3 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1783» \o
«1783» 1783 – HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_28» \o
«November 28» November 28 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1859» \o «1859» 1859 ) was an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States»
American author of the early 19th century. He is perhaps best known for
his HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_stories» \o «Short
stories» short stories , his most famous being » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Legend_of_Sleepy_Hollow» \o «The
Legend of Sleepy Hollow» The Legend of Sleepy Hollow » and » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rip_van_Winkle» \o «Rip van Winkle» Rip
van Winkle » (both appearing in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sketch_Book_of_Geoffrey_Crayon» \o
«The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon» The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon
), but he was a prolific writer of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essays» \o «Essays» essays , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biography» \o «Biography» biographies ,
and other forms as well. He and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Fenimore_Cooper» \o «James Fenimore
Cooper» James Fenimore Cooper were the first American writers to earn
acclaim in Europe, and Irving is said to have mentored authors such as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Hawthorne» \o
«Nathaniel Hawthorne» Nathaniel Hawthorne , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Wadsworth_Longfellow» \o «Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow» Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Allan_Poe» \o «Edgar Allan Poe»
Edgar Allan Poe . Irving was born in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan» \o «Manhattan» Manhattan . A
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawyer» \o «Lawyer» lawyer , he
was a member of the American diplomatic staff in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom» \o «United Kingdom»
Britain and in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain» \o
«Spain» Spain . He spoke fluent HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_language» \o «Spanish language»
Spanish , which served him well in his writings on that country, and he
could read several other languages, including HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language» \o «German language»
German and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_language» \o
«Dutch language» Dutch . He was a prolific essayist who wrote widely
respected biographies of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington» \o «George Washington»
George Washington , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad»
\o «Muhammad» Muhammad , and others, and he wrote a number of books on
15th century HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain» \o «Spain»
Spain dealing with subjects such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus» \o «Christopher
Columbus» Columbus , the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moorish_Spain» \o «Moorish Spain» Moors ,
and the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alhambra» \o
«Alhambra» Alhambra . While in Europe as a young man, Irving dabbled in
the theatre and even served as manager of the famed Globe for a period
of time.

Irving traveled on the Western HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontier» \o «Frontier» frontier in the
1830s and recorded his glimpses of western tribes in A Tour on the
Prairies (1835). He was noted for speaking against the mishandling of
relations with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States» \o
«Native Americans in the United States» Native American tribes by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European» \o «European»
Europeans and Americans:

It has been the lot of the unfortunate aborigines of America, in the
early periods of colonization, to be doubly wronged by the white men.
They have been dispossessed of their hereditary possessions by mercenary
and frequently wanton warfare, and their characters have been traduced
by bigoted and interested writers.

Irving is also the author of The Adventures of Captain Bonneville and
Astoria and used firsthand accounts of these American west journeys,
although most readers continue to believe they are «embellished»

In the 1840s, he returned to Europe as American Ambassador to Spain.

Irving’s famous home HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunnyside_%28Tarrytown%2C_New_York%29» \o
«Sunnyside (Tarrytown, New York)» Sunnyside in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarrytown%2C_New_York» \o «Tarrytown, New
York» Tarrytown, New York .

He lived in his famous home of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunnyside_%28Tarrytown%2C_New_York%29» \o
«Sunnyside (Tarrytown, New York)» Sunnyside , which is still standing
just south of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tappan_Zee_Bridge» \o «Tappan Zee Bridge»
Tappan Zee Bridge in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarrytown%2C_New_York» \o «Tarrytown, New
York» Tarrytown, New York . The original house and the surrounding
property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfert_Acker» \o «Wolfert Acker» Wolfert
Acker , about whom Irving wrote his sketch «Wolfert’s Roost» (the name
of the house).

Irving’s name appears across the country. The village of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irvington%2C_New_York» \o «Irvington, New
York» Irvington, New York , and the town of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irvington%2C_New_Jersey» \o «Irvington,
New Jersey» Irvington, New Jersey , were named after the author, and
also, it is believed, the city of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irving%2C_Texas» \o «Irving, Texas»
Irving, Texas . Both Washington Street and Irving Street in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham%2C_Alabama» \o «Birmingham,
Alabama» Birmingham, Alabama , also bear the author’s name. His book
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracebridge_Hall» \o
«Bracebridge Hall» Bracebridge Hall was the inspiration for the naming
of the town of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracebridge%2C_Ontario» \o «Bracebridge,
Ontario» Bracebridge, Ontario . In addition, a library in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles» \o «Los Angeles» Los Angeles
, California, is named in his honor.


Irving’s parents were William Irving of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shapinsha&action=edit» \o
«Shapinsha» Shapinsha , in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkneys» \o «Orkneys» Orkneys , a petty
officer in the Royal Navy and Sarah nee Sanders.

His first book was A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World
to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Dietrich Knickerbocker ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1809_in_literature» \o «1809 in
literature» 1809 ), a sly satire on self-important local history that
brought » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knickerbocker» \o
«Knickerbocker» Knickerbocker » into the American lexicon, and then
wider English usage.

Irving left for Europe in 1815. In 1819-1820 he published HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sketch_Book_of_Geoffrey_Crayon» \o
«The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon» The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon
, which includes his best known stories, » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Legend_of_Sleepy_Hollow» \o «The
Legend of Sleepy Hollow» The Legend of Sleepy Hollow » and » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rip_van_Winkle» \o «Rip van Winkle» Rip
van Winkle «. During this stay in Europe he was a member of the American
Legation to England but in his spare time he traveled to the continent
and widely read Dutch and German folk tales. The pieces for The Sketch
Book were originally written by Irving in Europe and were sent to his
publishers in New York for publication in periodicals in the U.S. While
in England, his sketches were published in book form by British
publishers without his permission and from then on he published in
Europe and the U.S. concurrently to protect his copyright.

«Rip Van Winkle» was written overnight while Irving was staying with his
sister Sarah and her husband, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_van_Wart» \o «Henry van Wart» Henry
van Wart in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham» \o
«Birmingham» Birmingham , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o «England» England , a place
that also inspired some of his other works. Bracebridge Hall or The
Humorists, A Medley is based on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aston_Hall» \o «Aston Hall» Aston Hall

Irving wrote The Life and Voyages of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus» \o «Christopher
Columbus» Christopher Columbus in 1828, the Conquest of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granada» \o «Granada» Granada a year
later, and, the Voyages of the Companions of Columbus in 1831, during
his 4-year stay in Spain. Just prior to his return to the United States,
he wrote Tales of the Alhambra, which was to be published concurrently
in England and the United States. (The actual title is more lengthy, as
its contents amounted to a collection of sketches. In 1851 he wrote an
«Author’s Revised Edition» entitled Tales of the Alhambra.)

Irving returned to the United States in 1832 and published Legends of
the Conquest of Spain in 1835. But primary among his works of this
period were three «Western» books, designed to put to rest the notion
that Irving’s time in England and Spain had made him more European than
American. His first western book was A Tour on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prairie» \o «Prairie» Prairies ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1835_in_literature» \o «1835 in
literature» published in 1835 ; the beginning of Chapter 10 includes
the following, interpreted by some literary critics to be a comment on
concerns about his public persona:

We send our youth abroad to grow luxurious and effeminate in Europe; it
appears to me, that a previous tour on the prairies would be more likely
to produce that manliness, simplicity, and self-dependence, most in
unison with our political institutions.

His second Western book was Astoria; he wrote it during a six-month stay
with the then-retired HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jacob_Astor» \o «John Jacob Astor»
John Jacob Astor . It was a worshipful account of Astor’s attempt to
establish a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fur_trade» \o «Fur
trade» fur trading colony at present-day HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astoria%2C_Oregon» \o «Astoria, Oregon»
Astoria, Oregon .

During Irving’s stay with Astor, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Bonneville» \o «Benjamin
Bonneville» Benjamin Bonneville paid a visit. His tales of his three
years in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Country» \o
«Oregon Country» Oregon Country were said to have enthralled Irving. A
month or two later, when Irving encountered Bonneville in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_D.C.» \o «Washington, D.C.»
Washington, D.C. , Bonneville, struggling to write about his journey,
decided instead to sell his maps and notes to Irving for $1,000. Irving
used that material as the basis for his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1837_in_literature» \o «1837 in
literature» 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, which is
often considered the best of his three Western books.

Irving’s grave, marked by a flag, in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleepy_Hollow_Cemetery» \o «Sleepy Hollow
Cemetery» Sleepy Hollow Cemetery , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleepy_Hollow%2C_New_York» \o «Sleepy
Hollow, New York» Sleepy Hollow, New York .

Irving popularized the nickname » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotham» \o «Gotham» Gotham » for New York
City, later used in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batman» \o
«Batman» Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the
expression «the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almighty_dollar» \o «Almighty dollar»
Almighty dollar «. His name also appeared as an alias for forgers in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Heller» \o «Joseph
Heller» Joseph Heller ‘s classic novel HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catch_22» \o «Catch 22» Catch 22 along
with its inversion, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irving_Washington» \o «Irving Washington»
Irving Washington and that of the author HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Milton» \o «John Milton» John Milton

Retrieved from » HYPERLINK
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Irving »

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