Viktor Yushchenko (реферат)

Viktor Yushchenko


HYPERLINK «» \l «Early_life» 1 Early

HYPERLINK «» \l «Central_banker» 2
Central banker

HYPERLINK «» \l «Prime_Minister» 3 Prime

«.22Our_Ukraine.22_leader_and_political_portrait» 4 «Our Ukraine»
leader and political portrait

«Presidential_election_of_2004» 5 Presidential election of 2004

HYPERLINK «» \l «Dioxin_poisoning» 5.1
Dioxin poisoning

«Unprecedented_three_rounds_of_voting» 5.2 Unprecedented three rounds
of voting

HYPERLINK «» \l «President» 6 President

HYPERLINK «» \l «Inauguration» 6.1

HYPERLINK «» \l «Presidency» 6.2

«Dismissal_of_other_Orange_Revolution_members» 6.3 Dismissal of other
Orange Revolution members

HYPERLINK «» \l «Family_and_private_life»
7 Family and private life

HYPERLINK «» \l «See_also» 8 See also

HYPERLINK «» \l «References» 9

HYPERLINK «» \l «External_links» 10
External links

Early life

Viktor A. Yushchenko was born on February 23, 1954 in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Khoruzhivka» Khoruzhivka
, HYPERLINK «» \o «Sumy
Oblast» Sumy Oblast , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ukrainian SSR»
Ukrainian SSR , into a family of teachers. His father, Andriy
Andriyovych Yushchenko (1919-1992), took part in the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Eastern Front (World War II)» Second World War , where he was captured
by Germans and placed in the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Auschwitz-Birkenau» Auschwitz-Birkenau HYPERLINK
«» \o «Nazi
concentration camps» concentration camp as a HYPERLINK
«» \o «POW» POW , but survived. After
returning home, Andriy Yushchenko taught HYPERLINK
«» \o «English language»
English at a local school. Viktor’s mother, Varvara Tymofiyovna
Yushchenko (1918-2005), was both a Physics and Maths teacher at the same

Later, Viktor Yushchenko graduated from the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ternopil» Ternopil Finance
and Economics Institute, beginning his profession as an accountant.
After completing his studies (1975), he worked as a deputy of the chief
accountant in a HYPERLINK «» \o
«Kolkhoz» kolkhoz , then served as a HYPERLINK
«» \o «Conscript» conscript in
the HYPERLINK «» \o
«USSR Border Troops» Border Guard unit of HYPERLINK
«» \o «KGB» KGB on the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Soviet Union» Soviet –
HYPERLINK «» \o «Turkey» Turkish
border (1975-1976).

Central banker

Yushchenko worked in the banking system from 1976. From 1983 he was the
Deputy Director for Agricultural Crediting at the Ukrainian Republican
Office of the USSR State Bank. Then (1990-1993) he worked as
vice-chairman and first vice-chairman of the joint-stock non-state-run
agroindustrial bank Ukraina. In 1993, he was invited by HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vadym Hetman» Vadym
Hetman to work in the newly-formed HYPERLINK
«» \o «National
Bank of Ukraine» National Bank of Ukraine (Ukraine’s HYPERLINK
«» \o «Central bank» central
bank ). After Hetman’s resignation in 1993, Yushchenko was appointed the
head of the supervisory board of the Bank. Later, in 1997, he was
reappointed as the head of the Bank by the parliament.

As a central banker, Yushchenko played an important part in the creation
of HYPERLINK «» \o «Ukraine»
Ukraine ‘s national HYPERLINK «»
\o «Currency» currency , the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Hryvnia» hryvnia , and the
establishment of a modern regulating system for commercial HYPERLINK
«» \o «Banking» banking . He also
successfully overcame a debilitating wave of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Hyper-inflation»
hyper-inflation that hit the country and managed to defend the value of
the currency following the HYPERLINK
«» \o «GKO» 1998 financial crisis in
Russia .

In 1998, he wrote a thesis on “The Development of supply and demand of
money in Ukraine” and defended it in the Ukrainian Academy of Banking,
getting Candidate of Economic Sciences (Doctor of Economics) degree.

Prime Minister

In December 1999, Yushchenko was unexpectedly nominated to be the
«Prime Minister of Ukraine» prime minister by President HYPERLINK
«» \o «Leonid Kuchma» Leonid
Kuchma after the previous candidate, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Valeriy
Pustovoitenko» Valeriy Pustovoytenko , fell short by one vote of
ratification by the parliament.

In 2001, Yushchenko refused to support and lead the HYPERLINK
«» \o «UBK» mass protests against
Kuchma’s regime which erupted following the murder of journalist
HYPERLINK «» \o «Georgiy
Gongadze» Georgiy Gongadze . Moreover, he co-signed a highly critical
public address with Kuchma calling the protesters » HYPERLINK
«» \o «Fascist» fascists » —
despite the fact that many of them were supporters of his cabinet.

Significant economic progress was made during Yushchenko’s cabinet
service, though critics argue that this was made possible by the general
situation of the economy, and was not the result of his actions. Soon,
his government (particularly, deputy prime minister HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yulia Tymoshenko»
Yulia Tymoshenko ) became embroiled in a confrontation with influential
HYPERLINK «» \o «Coal mining»
coal mining and HYPERLINK «»
\o «Natural gas» natural gas industry leaders. The conflict resulted
in a 2001 HYPERLINK «»
\o «No-confidence vote» no-confidence vote by the parliament, which
was mainly the work of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Communist
Party of Ukraine» Communists , who had opposed Yushchenko’s economic
policies, and centrist groups associated with the country’s powerful »
HYPERLINK «» \o «Business
oligarch» oligarchs «. The vote was carried by 263 to 69 and resulted
in Yushchenko’s removal from office.

The fall of his government was viewed with dismay by many Ukrainians;
four million votes were gathered in support of a petition supporting him
and opposing the parliamentary vote and a 10,000-strong demonstration
was held in HYPERLINK «» \o «Kiev»
Kiev .

«Our Ukraine» leader and political portrait

Official image of Yushchenko, also used in Yushchenko and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Our Ukraine» Our Ukraine
political campaigns.

In HYPERLINK «» \o «2002» 2002 ,
Yushchenko became the leader of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Our Ukraine» Our Ukraine
(Nasha Ukrayina) political HYPERLINK
«» \o «Coalition» coalition ,
which received a plurality of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Constituency» seats in
the year’s HYPERLINK
«» \o «Elections in
Ukraine» election to HYPERLINK
«» \o «Verkhovna Rada»
Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian parliament) . However, the number of seats
won wasn’t enough for a majority, and the efforts to form it together
with other HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Parliamentary opposition» opposition parties failed. Since then,
Yushchenko has remained the leader and public face of the «Our Ukraine»
(«Nasha Ukrayina») parliament HYPERLINK
«» \o «Faction» faction .

Yushchenko was widely regarded as the moderate political leader of
anti-Kuchma opposition, since other opposition parties were less
influential and had fewer seats in the parliament.

Since the end of his term as prime minister, Yushchenko has become a
HYPERLINK «» \o «Charisma»
charismatic political figure popular among Ukrainians in the western
and central regions of the country. As of 2001–2004, his rankings in
popularity polls were higher than those of the president at the time,
HYPERLINK «» \o «Leonid
Kuchma» Leonid Kuchma . HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [1]

As a politician, Viktor Yushchenko is widely perceived as a mixture of
West-oriented and moderate Ukrainian HYPERLINK
«» \o «Nationalist» nationalist
. He is also an advocate of massive privatization of the economy. His
opponents (and allies) sometimes criticize him for indecision and
failure to reveal his position, while advocates argue that these are the
signs of Yushchenko’s commitment to teamwork, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Consensus» consensus , and
negotiation. He is also often accused of being unable to form a united
and strong team that is free of inner quarrels. One of his former
political allies, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yulia Tymoshenko»
Yulia Tymoshenko who, during the Kuchma presidency, was arrested and
then cleared of fraud charges relating to gas privatization, is often
perceived by Ukrainians as a more decisive and charismatic political

Since becoming the President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushenko has been a
honorary leader of «Our Ukraine» party. In the latest parliament
election in March 2006 the party, led by the Prime-minister HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yekhanurov» Yekhanurov
received less then 14% of the national vote, taking the third place
behind HYPERLINK «» \o
«Party of Regions» Party of Regions , and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yulia
Tymoshenko Bloc» Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc .

Presidential election of 2004

Main article: HYPERLINK
\o «Ukrainian presidential election, 2004» Ukrainian presidential
election, 2004

In 2004, as President Kuchma’s term came to an end, Yushchenko announced
that he was an HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Independent (politician)» independent candidate for HYPERLINK
«» \o «President» president . His
major rival was HYPERLINK
«» \o «Prime Minister» Prime
Minister HYPERLINK «»
\o «Viktor Yanukovych» Viktor Yanukovych . Since his term as prime
minister, Yushchenko had slightly modernized his political platform,
adding social partnership and other HYPERLINK
«» \o «Liberal» liberal slogans to
older ideas of HYPERLINK
«» \o «European
integration» European integration , including Ukraine joining
fighting HYPERLINK «»
\o «Political corruption» corruption . Supporters of Yushchenko were
organized in the «Syla Narodu» («Power to the People») electoral
coalition, which was led by himself and his political ally HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yulia Tymoshenko»
Yulia Tymoshenko , with the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Our Ukraine» Our Ukraine
coalition being the main constituent force.

Yushchenko’s HYPERLINK
«» \o «Political
campaign» campaign was built on face-to-face communication with the
HYPERLINK «» \o «Voter» voters ,
since the government prevented most major HYPERLINK
«» \o «TV» TV channels from providing
equal coverage to the candidates. Meanwhile, his rival, Yanukovych,
frequently appeared in the news, even accusing Yushchenko, whose father
was a Red Army soldier imprisoned at HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Auschwitz concentration camp» Auschwitz , of being «a Nazi.»[
«Wikipedia:Citing sources» citation needed ]

Dioxin poisoning

Comparative Photos Showing Yuschenko Immediately Prior To And
Immediately Following Dioxin Poisoning

The campaign was often bitter, controversial, and violent. Yushchenko
became seriously ill in early September 2004. He was flown to
HYPERLINK «» \o «Vienna» Vienna ‘s
\o «Rudolfinerhaus» Rudolfinerhaus clinic for treatment and diagnosed
with » HYPERLINK «» \o
«Acute pancreatitis» acute pancreatitis , accompanied by interstitial
edematous changes», said to be due to «a serious viral infection and
chemical substances which are not normally found in food products»,
which Yushchenko claimed to be the work of agents of the government.
After the illness, his face became heavily disfigured; grossly
jaundiced, bloated and pockmarked.

After seeing Mr. Yushchenko’s deformed face on the evening news, the
HYPERLINK «» \o «Netherlands»
Dutch HYPERLINK «» \o
«Toxicologist» toxicologist Bram Brouwer contacted the Rudolfinerhaus
to test some of Yushchenko’s blood at the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Free
University of Amsterdam» Free University of Amsterdam for HYPERLINK
«» \o «Dioxin» dioxin . According to
Dr Michael Zimpfer, president of the Rudolfinerhaus, these tests
provided conclusive evidence that Yushchenko’s condition resulted from
«high concentrations of dioxin, most likely orally administered». This
hypothesis had already been suggested by British toxicologist John Henry
«» \o «St
Mary’s Hospital (London)» St. Mary’s Hospital in HYPERLINK
«» \o «London» London , as the marks
on Yushchenko’s face are HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chloracne» chloracne , a
characteristic symptom of dioxin poisoning. Other scientists suggested
that the illness might have been the result of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Rosacea» rosacea but this
theory failed to account for the severe internal medical problems
suffered by Yushchenko. On HYPERLINK
«» \o «December 11» December 11
, Austrian doctors confirmed Yushchenko was poisoned with TCDD dioxin,
and has more than 1,000 times (other sources say 6,000 times) the usual
concentration in his body HYPERLINK
l» \o
l» [2] . This is the second highest dioxin level ever measured in a
human. Yushchenko’s chief of staff Oleg Ribachuk has suggested that the
poison used was a HYPERLINK «»
\o «Mycotoxin» mycotoxin called HYPERLINK
«» \o «T-2 mycotoxin» T-2 ,
also known as «Yellow Rain», a Soviet-era substance which was reputedly
used in HYPERLINK «» \o
«Afghanistan» Afghanistan as a HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chemical weapon»
chemical weapon .

Yushchenko has linked the poisoning to a dinner with a group of senior
Ukrainian officials, including the head of the Security Service of
«» \o «Security
Service of Ukraine» SBU ), Ihor Smeshko, on the evening before
Yushchenko fell ill. In connection to that, theories of links to the
Russian HYPERLINK «» \o
«FSB (Russia)» FSB were mentioned. This hypothesis is disputed by some
toxicologists, who claim that symptoms of dioxin poisoning usually take
3-14 days to appear—John Henry, professor of accident and emergency
medicine at St Mary’s Hospital in London, said «a few months after
swallowing» or other contact HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [3] —and
experiencing them a few hours after ingesting the poison would be
unusual, though, given the extremely high concentration of dioxin found
in his system, not impossible.

Unprecedented three rounds of voting

Viktor Yushchenko. Orange Revolution

Main articles: HYPERLINK
«» \o «Orange Revolution»
Orange Revolution and HYPERLINK
004» \o «Post-election developments in Ukraine, 2004» Post-election
developments in Ukraine, 2004

The initial vote, held on HYPERLINK
«» \o «October 31» 31 October
HYPERLINK «» \o «2004» 2004 , saw
Yushchenko obtaining 39.87% in front of Yanukovych with 39.32%. As no
candidate reached the 50% HYPERLINK
«» \o «Margin» margin required for
outright victory, a second round of HYPERLINK
«» \o «Run-off voting»
run-off voting was held on November 21, 2004. Although a 75%
HYPERLINK «» \o «Voter
turnout» voter turnout was recorded, HYPERLINK
«» \o «Observer» observers
reported many irregularities and abuses across the country, such as
organized multiple voting and extra votes for Yanukovych after the polls
closed. HYPERLINK «» \o «Exit
poll» Exit poll results put Yushchenko ahead in the western and
central provinces of the country.

The alleged HYPERLINK «»
\o «Electoral fraud» electoral fraud , combined with the fact that the
exit polls recorded a result (an 11% margin of victory for Yushchenko in
one poll) so radically different from the final vote tally (a 3% margin
of victory for Yanukovych), prompted Yushchenko and his supporters to
refuse to recognize the results.

After thirteen days of massive popular protests in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Kiev» Kiev and other Ukrainian
cities, that became known as the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Orange Revolution»
Orange Revolution , the election results were overturned by the
«Supreme Court of Ukraine» Supreme Court and a re-run of the run-off
election was ordered for HYPERLINK
«» \o «December 26» December 26
. Yushchenko proclaimed a victory for the opposition and declared his
confidence that he would be elected with at least 60% of the vote. He
did win the third round, but with 51.99% of the vote.



On January 23, 2005, 12pm ( HYPERLINK
«» \o «Eastern
European Summer Time» Kiev time ), the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Inauguration»
inauguration of Viktor Yushchenko as the HYPERLINK
«» \o «President of
Ukraine» President of Ukraine took place. The event was attended by
various foreign dignitaries, including HYPERLINK
«» \o «Arnold
Rueuetel» Arnold Rueuetel , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Adrienne Clarkson»
Adrienne Clarkson , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vaira
V??e-Freiberga» Vaira V??e-Freiberga , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vladimir Voronin»
Vladimir Voronin , HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Aleksander Kwa?niewski» Aleksander Kwa?niewski , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Traian B?sescu»
Traian B?sescu , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ivan
Ga?parovi?» Ivan Ga?parovi? , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ferenc Madl» Ferenc
Madl , HYPERLINK «» \o
«Artur Rasizade» Artur Rasizade , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Jan Peter
Balkenende» Jan Peter Balkenende , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Jaap de Hoop
Scheffer» Jaap de Hoop Scheffer , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Nino Burjanadze»
Nino Burjanadze , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Art?ras
Paulauskas» Art?ras Paulauskas , HYPERLINK
«» \o «Colin Powell» Colin
Powell , special guest HYPERLINK
«» \o «Vaclav Havel»
Vaclav Havel , and numerous other guests.


Yushchenko meeting HYPERLINK «» \o
«Belarus» Belarusian President HYPERLINK
«» \o «Alexander
Lukashenko» Alexander Lukashenko at an August 2005 HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Commonwealth of Independent States» CIS meeting.

The first 100 days of Yushchenko’s term, January 23, 2005, through May
1, 2005, were marked by numerous dismissals and appointments at all
levels of the executive branch. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yulia Tymoshenko»
Yulia Tymoshenko was ratified by the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Verkhovna Rada»
Verkhovna Rada as the Prime Minister. HYPERLINK
«» \o «Oleksandr
Zinchenko» Oleksandr Zinchenko was appointed the head of the
presidential secretariat with a nominal title of the Secretary of State.
HYPERLINK «» \o «Petro
Poroshenko» Petro Poroshenko , a cutthroat competitor of Tymoshenko for
the post of the Prime Minister, was appointed the Secretary of the
_Council_of_Ukraine&action=edit» \o «National Security and Defence
Council of Ukraine» Security and Defense Council .

Yushchenko extensively traveled abroad, having spent the yearly travel
budget by mid-April. His most notable visits include HYPERLINK
«» \o «Moscow» Moscow (January 24),
the HYPERLINK «» \o
«European Parliament» European Parliament in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Strasbourg» Strasbourg (
HYPERLINK «» \o «February 23»
February 23 ), and the HYPERLINK
«» \o «United States» United
States (early April).

In August 2005, Yushchenko joined with Georgian President HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mikheil
Saakashvili» Mikheil Saakashvili in signing the Borjomi Declaration,
which called for the creation of an institution of international
cooperation, The HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Community of Democratic Choice» Community of Democratic Choice , to
bring together the democraticies and incipient democracies in the region
around the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas. The first meeting of
presidents and leaders to discuss the CDC took place on December 1-2,
2005 in Kiev.

Dismissal of other Orange Revolution members

On September 8, 2005, Yushchenko fired his government, led by
HYPERLINK «» \o «Yulia
Tymoshenko» Yulia Tymoshenko , after resignations and corruption

On September 9, acting HYPERLINK
«» \o «Prime
Minister of Ukraine» Prime Minister HYPERLINK
«» \o «Yuriy Yekhanurov»
Yuriy Yekhanurov tried to form a new government. HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [4] On September 22,
Mr. Yekhanurov was ratified by the parliament on second attempt (289
ayes). In the first attempt (September 20), Mr. Yekhanurov fell short of
3 votes (223 ayes, 226 needed).

Yushchenko maintains warm relations with Georgian President Mikheil

Also in September, former president of Ukraine HYPERLINK
«» \o «Leonid Kravchuk»
Leonid Kravchuk accused exiled Russian tycoon HYPERLINK
«» \o «Boris Berezovsky»
Boris Berezovsky of financing Yushchenko’s presidential election
campaign, and provided copies of documents showing money transfers from
companies he said are controlled by Berezovsky to companies controlled
by Yushchenko’s official backers. Berezovsky has confirmed that he met
Yushchenko’s representatives in London before the election, and that the
money was transferred from his companies, but he refused to confirm or
deny that the companies that received the money were used in
Yushchenko’s campaign. Financing of election campaigns by foreign
citizens is illegal in Ukraine.

In August 2006, he appointed his onetime opponent in the presidential
race, HYPERLINK «» \o
«Viktor Yanukovych» Viktor Yanukovych , to be the new Prime Minister.
This was generally regarded as simultaneous with a move by Ukraine back
into the Russian fold. HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [5]

Family and private life

Yushchenko is married to HYPERLINK
«» \o
«Kateryna Yushchenko-Chumachenko» Kateryna Yushchenko-Chumachenko (his
second wife). She is a HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ukrainians» Ukrainian —
HYPERLINK «» \o «United
States» American born in HYPERLINK
«» \o «Chicago,
Illinois» Chicago and a former official with the HYPERLINK
«» \o
«United States Department of State» U.S. State Department , where she
worked as a special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State for
Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. Much criticized for her US
citizenship by her husband’s opponents, Kateryna became a Ukrainian
citizen on March 31, 2005. During the recent election campaign, Kateryna
was accused of exerting the influence of the U.S. government on her
husband’s decisions, as an employee of the U.S. government or even a
HYPERLINK «» \o «CIA» CIA agent. A
HYPERLINK «» \o «Russia» Russian
state television journalist had earlier accused her of leading a U.S.
project to help Yushchenko seize power in Ukraine; in January 2002, she
won a libel case against that journalist. Ukraine’s then anti-Yushchenko
Inter TV channel repeated the allegations in 2001, but in January 2003
she won a libel case against that channel as well.

Yushchenko has five children and two grandchildren: sons Andriy and
Taras, daughters Vitalina, Sophia and Khrystyna, grandchildren Yaryna
and Viktor.

A practicing member of the HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ukrainian
Orthodox Church» Ukrainian Orthodox Church , Yushchenko often
emphasizes the deep role of his religious convictions in his life and

Yushchenko’s main hobbies are HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ukrainians» Ukrainian
traditional culture (including HYPERLINK
«» \o «Folk art» art HYPERLINK
«» \o «Ceramics (art)»
ceramics and HYPERLINK «» \o
«Archaeology» archaeology ), HYPERLINK
«» \o «Mountaineering»
mountaineering and HYPERLINK
«» \o «Beekeeping» beekeeping .
He is keen on painting, collects antiques, objects of folk-customs and
Ukrainian national clothes, and restores objects of Trypillya culture.

Each year he climbs HYPERLINK «»
\o «Hoverla» Hoverla , Ukraine’s highest mountain. After receiving a
checkup in which doctors determined he was healthy despite the previous
year’s dioxin poisoning, he successfully climbed the mountain again on
July 16, 2005.

During that climb Yushchenko and a group of his bodyguards were
reportedly struck by a HYPERLINK
«» \o «Lightning» lightning
bolt. The incident has never been officially described, although the
media cited witnesses stating that President and all but one guard fell
unconscious. However, the President’s office later admitted that other
climbers had been injured or killed by that lightning strike.
«» [6] , HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [7] , HYPERLINK
«» \o
«» [8]

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