Travelling (реферат)

Secondary Comprehensive School № 662

Report

“Travelling”

Made by Adamyan Ashot

A student of the 9th form

Consulted by

Agarkova Natalia Nikolayevna

Moscow

2006

Introduction

Traveling is one of the ways of discovering new countries.

Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling.
They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of
ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a
change of scene. Its always interesting to discover new things,
different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food,
to listen to different musical rhythms.

Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their
time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and
dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday
by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe
and laze in the sun.

Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take
pictures of everything that interests them — the sights of a city, old
churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains,
waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants,
animals and birds.

Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the
happy time they have had.

People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot.
People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have
business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by
plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if
people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on
horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where
you want.

All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people
choose one according to their plans and destinations.

If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we
can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books
and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study
geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand
people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study
geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand
people is to meet them in their own homes.

What attracts tourists to Russia?

Russia has always been a country of mystery attractive for foreigners.
There are lots of villages and towns in Russia famous for their specific
crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys
in Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit Russia to enjoy the typical
Russian log houses, decorated with wood carvings.

Tourists like to visit old Russian towns and cities famous for their
ancient architecture. They are especially attracted by Russian orthodox
cathedrals, churches and monasteries. One of the most interesting old
cities in Russia is Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great, as it was called in
the old times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied
art created over the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the
city on the Volkhov River date back to the year of 859. Now Novgorod has
expanded far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial and
cultural centre, located on the busy highway linking Moscow and St.
Petersburg.

The focal point of the city is the Detinets, or the Kremlin. The
present-day Kremlin stems largely from the 15th century. Several
alterations made in the 16th and 17th centuries were minor and did not
affect its appearance. Novgorod’s contribution to the development of
Russian culture is outstanding. No other city excels Novgorod in the
number of ancient monuments of architecture. The Novgorod Museum of
History, Architecture and Art shows visitors the history of the medieval
Novgorod. Its artistic value lies primarily in its collection of
medieval icon painting.

There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit
the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial
and cultural centre. They dream of visiting Red Square, which is called
the heart of Moscow. Perhaps, the most ancient monument of Red Square is
St. Basil’s Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is
a real masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.

On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell
Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin Palace, the Tsar Cannon and
the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallest
Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the
country.

If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate you will come to the
Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand
by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the
Alexandrovsky Gardens, behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, you will see
Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome.
Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and
cathedrals in and around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful
palaces, old mansions and monuments in Moscow.

There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are
the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art
of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov
Gallery, which houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian
icons. Other unique museums in Moscow are the State History Museum, the
All-Russia Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the Polytechnical
Museum and many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres, too. The
best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and
studios are also very popular.

Another interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia
Exhibition Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition
Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the
Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The “Friendship of the Nations” and
the “Stone Flower” fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition
Centre is a large cultural and commercial complex where different
international exhibitions and fairs are held.

One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and a
journey by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as
if you’re underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the
artistic design of the stations, which are more like palaces. No two
stations are alike; most of them have their own appearance.

Of course, every foreigner should visit St. Petersburg, the second
largest city in Russia and one of the most splendid cities in the world.
It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great at the mouth of the Neva
River. Now it is an important industrial, cultural and educational
centre.

St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is
something to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, St. Isaac’s Cathedral,
the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and the Admiralty Building attract
thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. Petersburg’s many
museums house some of the world’s most famous art collections. The
Hermitage and the Russian Museum, for example, contain the richest
collections of pictures in the world.

The city is called the Northern Venice, because there are 65 rivers,
branches and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It’s also
famous for its beautiful white nights.

There are a lot of Hero-cities in our country. And I would recommend
that my foreign friends visit one of them. Volgograd is a legendary
city, because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great and glorious
victory over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during the
war, but now it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the
great Russian river Volga. The symbol of Volgograd is the Mamaev Hill.
It was the centre of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad.
Now there is a great memorial there. Besides, you can visit the
Stalingrad Battle Panorama Museum, which is situated on the bank of the
Volga River. The centre of Volgograd is the Square of the Fallen Heroes.
In the middle of it there is a granite obelisk and the common graves of
the heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. At the foot of
the memorial you can see the Eternal Flame. Now Volgograd is a big
industrial and cultural centre.

There are a lot of other interesting towns and cities in Russia, which
are all worth visiting.

I have never travelling to other countries but would like to visit
London.

London is one of the largest cities in the world. More then 10mln people
live in London and its suburbs. London is a city of striking contrasts.
Here one can come across the past and the present, the old and the
modern, live side by side in mutual tolerance and respect.

In London, one can see architecture of different centuries and styles.
It is inseparably connected with the history of the city. The Romans,
the Saxons and the Danes settled here in turn, after them came the
Normans, and brought the French civilisation. London survived the Plague
and the Great Fire, which followed in 1666. During the Fire all wooden
houses were smashed to the ground and a New London, London of stone with
bigger houses and wider streets was built. During the World War II, many
buildings of great historic value lay in ruins and today the face of
London is changed.

Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City,
Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The city first started in the place, which is known as the City. It is
the Heart of London, it’s commercial and business centre. It occupies a
territory of a square mile. During a day, it is full of people, nearly
half a million people work there.

The West End is the richest part of the city with its beautiful avenues,
parks and gardens, grandhotels, theatres and fashionable shops. It is a
symbol of wealth and luxury.

While the City is the money of London and the West End is the good of
London, the East End is the hands of London, that built the banks of the
City and beautiful mansions and hotels of the West End. It is a
district, inhabited by the workers. There are many factories and the
Port of London there.

As for me, I cannot imagine London without Thames. In fact, painters and
writers regard the river as the source of inspiration. Turner, Monet,
Canatello painted it countless times and their impression of the river
in all seasons can be seen on the walls of museums, throughout the
world. Pope, Spensor and many other poets sang it in their poems. The
most famous books about the Thames are ‘Three men in a boat’ by
Jerome-k-Jerome and ‘The wind in the willows’ by K. Graham. If there had
been no Thames, there would be no London. It was born many centuries ago
in the place, which is known as the City. The City is not only the
centre of business. It’s the burth place of London. London was born in
the place not far from St. Paul’s cathedral hundreds of years before our
era. It was called Lynn-din (the lonely port) at that time. After the
Norman Conquest, it became Londinium.

If you want to get some glimpses of London, you’d better start
sightseeing with the Tower of London, that comes first among the
historic buildings of the city. It was built as the fortress after the
Norman invasion of England in 1066. It has been used as the Royal
Palace, as an observatory, an arsenal and a prison. For many visitors
the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones
of the nation.

A twenty minutes’ walk from the Tower will take you to another historic
building – St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It
was built by a famous English architect Sir Christopher Wren. St. Paul’s
Cathedral, with it’s famous Whispering Gallery, is considered to be a
masterpiece of Renaissance architecture. In one of its towers hangs one
of the largest bells in the world – Great Paul.

Not far from Cathedral is Westminster Abbey. It was founded by Edward
the Confessor in 1050. The best part of the Abbey is a wonderful chapel,
dating back to the 16th century. It is famous for its magnificent
architecture. There are many monuments and statues there. Many English
kings and queens are buried there. Since William the 1st, almost ever
monarch has been crowned in this great church. One of the greatest
treasures of the Abbey is oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300. On the
south side of Westminster Abbey is Poet’s Corner, where the greatest
English writers are buried. Here also are memorials to Shakespeare,
Burns, Byron, Scott and so on.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, which is
spread magnificently on the north bank of the Thames. It is a remarkable
example of Gothic architecture.

The Tower of London

The Tower of London has a very interesting story behind it. It was begun
by a man who was not even English, William of Normandy. At the time he
was the cousin of England’s Kind Edward. It all started because William
became outraged when Edward backed down on his promise to give the
throne to William and ended up giving the throne to his English
brother-in-law, Harold. William sailed his army across the English
Channel to conquer England. On October 14, 1066, he met Harold at
Hastings and conquered him. On Christmas Day later that year, William —
now called William the conqueror — was crowned King of England.
Immediately after William took over as king, he built forts everywhere.
One stood in the southeastern corner of London, near an old Roman wall
on the north bank of the Thames River. William ordered that this fort be
removed in 1078 to be replaced by a huge stone stronghold. This would be
the «symbol of his power, a fortress for his defense, and a prison for
his enemies». (Fisher, 1987) He named it the Tower of London.

The Tower was finished twenty years later, rising nearly one hundred
feet high, with its walls fifteen feet thick in certain places. Inside
was a chapel, apartments, guardrooms, and crypts. The Tower was
protected by a wide ditch, a new stone wall, the old Roman wall, and the
river. This was done to secure the fact that this tower was a prison
that no prisoner would escape from.

The Bishop of Durham was probably the Tower’s first distinguished
prisoner. He was very fat, greedy, and unpopular. He was dragged to the
prison by his brother with his servants and bags of money. But the
Bishop lived very well inside the Tower because he could bribe the
guards with gold. One night in February,1101, he gave a huge banquet
with a lot of food and liquor. When he had gotten the guards very drunk,
he pushed his bags through a window and slid down a rope to freedom.

Around the year 1240, King Henry III made this tower his home. He
whitewashed the tower, widened the grounds to include a church, a great
hall, and other buildings. He renamed the entire new area the Tower of
London, and renamed the Tower the White Tower. Although the tower was
still a prison, Henry had turned the White Tower into a breathtaking
palace. He entertained many important visitors, many of which came with
animals as gifts. Near the drawbridge of the tower, Henry built the Lion
Tower, a zoo where visitors would be greeted with roaring beasts. Here
is a map of the tower.

In 1377, when Richard II was king, the Tower continued to be a
stronghold. But four years later, on June 14, a group of overtaxed
farmers stormed the Tower. Richard and his brothers safely hid
themselves inside. But the farmers found the Archbishop of Canterbury,
the Royal Treasurer, a tax official, and a doctor. These men were taken
to Tower Hill where their heads where chopped off. Richard later made
peace with these farmers. The leader of the farmers, Wat Tyler, was
beheaded. Richard was eventually thrown into a Tower dungeon, where he
was forced to give up the throne to Henry IV.

Several monarchs died in the Tower of London. One was thirteen-year-old
King Edward V. When his father, King Edward IV died, his uncle Richard,
the Duke of Gloucester, plotted to take the throne for himself. Richard
had the thirteen-year-old king and his younger brother, the Duke of
York, taken to the tower. Lord Hastings, a royal officer, tried to
protect Edward, but was unsuccessful. Hastings’ head was chopped off on
the Tower Green, and Edward and his brother were murdered. These murders
most likely took place in the Garden Tower, which was later renamed the
Bloody Tower.

Since the Tower of London was so dangerous, King Henry VII formed a
personal bodyguard. Henry moved into the Tower in 1485 after killing
Richard III in a battle. His protectors were called the Yeoman Warders,
who to this day still guard the tower. King Henry was a very frugal man.
He seldom gave parties and tried very hard to avoid war, which both cost
a lot of money.

After the death of Henry VII, the Tower of London was never again used
to house an English queen or king. The dungeon was still used to hold
England’s enemies, and the Tower was still used for many celebrations.
The marriage of King Henry VIII to his second wife, Anne Boleyn, took
place at the Tower on May 19, 1533. A huge party was thrown for the next
11 days at the Tower, topped off with an enormous feast.

But the Tower of London was not always a place of celebration. On May
19, 1536, Anne Boleyn was executed under Henry’s orders at the Tower
Green. Anne had been accused of misconduct, but the plain truth was that
she had born a daughter rather than a son, who would become a future
king of England. This daughter was Elizabeth I, who would later become
the Queen of England. Elizabeth was held prisoner in the Tower for two
months by the order of her half sister, Queen Mary. Mary felt that her
throne was being threatened by Elizabeth, so she imprisoned her in the
Tower. If you look really carefully, you can see Anne Boleyn’s Ghost
about the tower. She will tell you about the royalty.

Elizabeth was innocent, and people knew it, leading to a public outcry.
Elizabeth was released on May 19, 1554 (ironically, May 19 was the day
on which Anne Boleyn was married and killed, and the same day that
Elizabeth was released from jail.) In 1558, Elizabeth became the queen
of England. She spent three days on her coronation in the Tower, to
symbolize that it was her duty to «take possession» of it as the royal
monarch of England. (Fisher, 1987) On January 15, 1559, she left in a
festive parade to be crowned at Westminster Abby. Elizabeth would never
return to the Tower.

In 1603, part of the Tower of London became a museum. King James I had
ordered that the royal jewels be kept in the Tower Jewel House and be
put on display for the Tower visitors. Though its roots trace back to a
non-Englishman, the Tower of London has had a very interesting place in
English history. It has been the sight of murders, marriages, uproars,
museums, and zoos. But the Tower of London will always be remembered as
a «symbol of royal power, a fortress for the monarch, and a prison for
the monarch’s enemies».

Conclusion

Many people like traveling and I am no exception to the rule. Some
people like to travel in winter, but most of them prefer to go
travelling in summer, when it is warm and the sun is shining brightly.
There are people who like to travel by train or by air. In this way they
cover large distances and see the far-off places. If a person likes the
sea he decides upon a sea-voyage. Nowadays young people travel on foot
and like to go to the woods or to the mountains. On a trip by air you
dont see much, but you save a lot of time. If you go by train, you get
acquainted with new regions. A sea-voyage is very pleasant if the sea is
calm. The passengers enjoy watching the sea, which is always ever so
beautiful. Many people travel all around our country by car. I believe
that travelling is one of the best pleasures in the world.

Literature

1. Encyclopedia Britanica 2006

2. The official site The Tower of London

3.

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