Тексти про Україну (англійською мовою) (шпаргалки)

THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF UKRAINE

Ukraine is situated in the eastern part of Europe. It borders on Russia
in the east, Belorussia in the north, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania
and Moldova in the west. Ukraine is washed by the Sea of Azov and the
Black Sea in the south. The area of Ukraine is more than 603 thousand
square kilometers. The most part of its area is flat. There are the
Crimean Mountains in the south and the Carpathians in the west.

The territory of our country lies in three main zones: mixed forests,
forest-steppes and steppes. The flora and fauna of our country are
extremely rich. The nature of Ukraine is especially beautiful. There are
131 rivers in Ukraine. The longest rivers are the Dniester, the Donets,
the Bug. The rivers of Ukraine are navigable. There are more than three
hundred cities and towns in Ukraine. The biggest of them are Kharkiv,
Donetsk, Dniepropetrovsk, Lviv. Odessa, Mikolayiv, Kherson, Kerch are
the most important ports of Ukraine. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It
is an administrative, industrial, scientific and cultutal centre.
Ukraine is rich in mineral resources: coal, oil, gas. different ores.
Some of them are of industrial importance. Ukraine is a developed
industrial country. Ukraine produces up-to-date instruments, electronic
microscopes, synthetic diamonds. Ukraine is an agricultural country. Its
soil is fertile. The geographical position of Ukraine is favourable for
maintaining close economic relations with many European countries.

VTHE CLIMATE OF UKRAINE

The climate of Ukraine is temperate continental. The average temperature
in January is 7 degrees below zero, in July it is 17 degrees above zero.
The winters are frosty. Sometimes the temperature is 20-25 degrees below
zero. The weather varies greatly from year to year. Sometimes it often
rains throughout a year and sometimes it is very dry. On the main part
of the country rain falls enough to cultivate different agricultural
plants. The climate of the Crimea differs from that on the main
territory. The climate here is subtropical. The winter temperature is
about 4 degrees above zero and the average temperature in summer is
about 22 degrees above zero. There are a lot of evergreen plants in the
Crimea. Comparing the climate in Ukraine with the climate in other
European countries we may say that summers are hotter in Ukraine and
winters are colder.

KYIV — THE CAPITAL OF UKRAINE

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It’s one of the oldest cities of
Europe. Kyiv is situated on the picturesque banks of the Dnieper river.
The population of Kiev is about 3 million. Kyiv is a large political,
industrial and cultural centre. Kyiv is a seat of the higher body of
state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada. Kyiv is a scientific centre.
Kyiv’s cultural life is rich and varied. There are many theatres,
museums, exhibitions in Kyiv. The most important educational
institutions of Ukraine are in Kyiv. The Natiuonal Ukrainian University
named after Shevchenko is in the centre of the capital. Kyiv is the
Hero-City. In the park of Immortal Glory there is an obelisk in honour
of those who fell in the battles of the Second World War. A lot of
tourists come to Kyiv. The central street of the capital is Kreshchatic.
There are many fine buildings in Kreshchatic. Kyiv is especially
beautiful in spring when the famous Kyiv chestnut trees are in blossom.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF UKRAINE

Ukraine is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, higher and local
bodies of state power, government, national emblem, state flag and
anthem In July 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ukrainian
Parliament, adopted the document of great importance — the Declaration
of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. According to the Declaration only the
Verkhovna Rada can speak on behalf of the whole Ukrainian people.

In July 1996 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the new Constitution of Ukraine.
According to it Ukraine is a parliamentary republic with the
presidential governing. The higher body of state power isthe Verkhovna
Rada. The functions of the Verkhovna Rada are legislation and scrutiny
of government activities. The Ukrainian government is headed by the
Prime-Minister. The elections of the deputies to the parliament are held
every four years. The President is elected every five years. He is the
Head of State. He cannot be elected for more than two terms. The
Constitution of Ukraine is the main law in the country. It guarantees
certain rights and freedoms to the Ukrainian citizens and determines
their duties.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on
the British Isles. The British Isles are separated from Europe by the
English Channel. The British Isles are washed by the North Sea in the
East and the Atlantic Ocean in the West. The population of Great Britain
is over 56 million. The langest cities of the country are London,
Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. The territory of Great
Britain is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland. England is the richest, the most populated part in the
contry. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England, but
all the rest of the territory is a plain. Scotland is a land of
mountains. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis. The British Isles have many
rivers. The longest of them is the Severn. It flows into the Irish Sea.
The Thames is over 200 miles long. London, the capital of Great Britain,
stands on it. Geographical position of Great Britain is rather good as
the country lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other
parts of the world.

THE CLIMATE OF GREAT BRITAIN

In Great Britain it is never too hot or too cold for work or play in the
open air. The sea keeps the island warm in winter. The winds have also
very much to do with weather in Great Britain. Warm winds from the
Atlantic are wet and warm. They bring plenty of rain to the island. The
east and north-east winds are cold and dry. Thanks to the mild climate
there are a lot of eveiyeen plants in Great Britain. But the lack of
sunshine is the reason why the cultivation of grain crops is difficult.
Grass grows all the year round. The weather changes very often. In
spring sunshine and showers follow each other often during the day.

In spring the weather is generally mild. The summer is not so hot as on
the continent.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a
constitutional monarchy. Britain does not have a written constitution.
Parliament is the most important authority in Britain. The monarch
serves formally as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen
Elizabeth II (the second). The House of Commons consists of Members of
Partliament. General elections are held every five years. All citizens
aged 18 have the right to vote. There are few political parties in
Britain. The main ones are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party.
Each political party puts up one candidate for each constituency. The
one who wins the most votes is elected MP for that area. The party which
wins the most seats in Parliament forms the Government. Its leader
becomes the Prime Minister. The functions of the House of Commons are
legislation and scrutiny of government activities. The House of Commons
is presided over by the Speaker. The House of Lords is presided by the
Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power. It’s in the House
of Commons that new bills are introduced and debated. Parliament is
responsible for British national policy. Local governments are
responsible for organizing such services as education, police and many
others.

MY NATIVE CITY

Kyiv is my native city. It’s an ancient city. Ancient Kyiv was a large
commercial centre of the East Slavs. During the reign of Prince
Volodimir the city expanded greatly. Under the rule of Prince Yaroslav
the Wise many churches and cathedrals and monasteries appeared in the
city. There are a lot of places of historical importance in Kyiv. Among
them there are the Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra, the Golden Gate, the St.
Sophia’s Cathedral. For those who love Kyiv so dearly as I do, it’s very
difficult to choose some places of the particular interest. If the day
is fine and the sky is cloudless, I’d like to go to the Golden Gate. It
is situated in the centre of the city. From the top of the Gates we can
admire a splendid view of the city. I also like the St. Sophia’s
Cathedral. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried there.

HOLIDAYS IN UKRAINE

Almost every country has holidays honouring important events in its
history. Some holidays come on the same date, some are movable. We
celebrate the first day of Cristmas on the 7th of January. On the 6th of
January people cook much food because the day after we must not work. On
this day we have a sacred supper or Kolyada. It begins when the first
star lights up. As the legend says, this star announced the birth of the
God’s Son. We celebrate Christmas for three days. In the evening a group
of boys comes. They sing songs. By these songs they congratulate on
holiday. Another religious holiday is Easter. It is movable. In Ukraine
we have special attributes of Easter: Easter eggs, we call them
«krashenka» and Easter cakes «paska». It is a very nice spring holiday.
New Year’s Day is very popular all over the world. It is my favourite
holiday. Victory Day is on the 9th of May. It is a sacred holiday for
every Ukrainian citizen. We are thankful to our grandfathers for the
victory.

MY WORKING DAY

I’d like to describe you my working day. All the days looked very much
the same. On weekdays I usually get up at 7. I do my morning exercises.
Then I wash my face and hands and clean my teeth. At half past seven I
am ready to have my breakfast. I like to have a quick light breakfast.
After breakfast I leave for school. My school is not far from my house.
It takes me 10 minutes to get to school. My lessons begin at 8.30 a.m.
and finish at about 3 p.m. Six or seven lessons a day is the ordinary
timetable. Twice a week I stay at school after classes to play
basketball. When I come home I have dinner. Then I rest a little.
Sometimes I read a book or talk to my friends over telephone. After that
I start doing my home assignments. Twice a week I go to have private
lessons in Maths in order to improve my knowledge. As a rule, I finish
doing my homework at about 11 o’clock. But one ‘day a week is not so
busy. This is Thursday. On Thursday I usually help my mother. Sometimes
I do shopping or pick up clothes at the cleaner’s. I usually have supper
at 8 o’clock p.m.. Then I go on with my work. At 11 o’clock I go to bed.

LONDON

London is a very old town. It is about two thousand years old. Now
London is one of the biggest cities in the world. Its population is
about 8 million people. It’s not only a capital of Great Britain, it’s a
large business and commercial centre. London stands on the Thames. As an
ancient city London has a great number of places of historic interest.
They attract tourists from all the world. London is traditionally
divided into four main parts. They are Westminster, the City, the West
End and the East End. Westminster is the historical area in London.
Famous monuments and buildings are there. One of the most beautiful
places is Westminster Abbey. Many greatest poets and writers are buried
there. Chauser, Dickens, Kipling are among them. Newton and Darwin are
buried there too. Another place which is worth seeing in London is the
Tower. In different times this castle was a fortress, a royal palace, a
prison. Now it is a museum. London is rich in famous palaces. Buckingham
Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Westminster Palace is the
seat of the British Parliament. The greatist of English churches is
St.Paul’s Cathedral. It was built by a famous English architect. Sir
Christopher Wren. Trafalgar Square is considered to be the very centre
of London. In the middle of it stands the monument to admiral Nelson.
London is famous for its streets and squares as well. Fleet Street is
known for the newspaper offices situated there. Regent Street is famous
for the richest shops ans supermarkets. Speaking about London it is
impossible to say nothing about its museums. The British Museum shows
works of art from ancient Asia, Egypt, Rome and Greece side by side with
those of Great Britain and other countries.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF UKRAINE

Ukraine is situated in the eastern part of Europe. It borders on Russia
in the east, Belorussia in the north, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania
and Moldova in the west. Ukraine is washed by the Sea of Azov and the
Black Sea in the south. The area of Ukraine is more than 603 thousand
square kilometers. The most part of its area is flat. There are the
Crimean Mountains in the south and the Carpathians in the west.

The territory of our country lies in three main zones: mixed forests,
forest-steppes and steppes. The flora and fauna of our country are
extremely rich. The nature of Ukraine is especially beautiful. There are
131 rivers in Ukraine. The longest rivers are the Dniester, the Donets,
the Bug. The rivers of Ukraine are navigable. There are more than three
hundred cities and towns in Ukraine. The biggest of them are Kharkiv,
Donetsk, Dniepropetrovsk, Lviv. Odessa, Mikolayiv, Kherson, Kerch are
the most important ports of Ukraine. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. It
is an administrative, industrial, scientific and cultutal centre.
Ukraine is rich in mineral resources: coal, oil, gas. different ores.
Some of them are of industrial importance. Ukraine is a developed
industrial country. Ukraine produces up-to-date instruments, electronic
microscopes, synthetic diamonds. Ukraine is an agricultural country. Its
soil is fertile. The geographical position of Ukraine is favourable for
maintaining close economic relations with many European countries.

VTHE CLIMATE OF UKRAINE

The climate of Ukraine is temperate continental. The average temperature
in January is 7 degrees below zero, in July it is 17 degrees above zero.
The winters are frosty. Sometimes the temperature is 20-25 degrees below
zero. The weather varies greatly from year to year. Sometimes it often
rains throughout a year and sometimes it is very dry. On the main part
of the country rain falls enough to cultivate different agricultural
plants. The climate of the Crimea differs from that on the main
territory. The climate here is subtropical. The winter temperature is
about 4 degrees above zero and the average temperature in summer is
about 22 degrees above zero. There are a lot of evergreen plants in the
Crimea. Comparing the climate in Ukraine with the climate in other
European countries we may say that summers are hotter in Ukraine and
winters are colder.

KYIV — THE CAPITAL OF UKRAINE

Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It’s one of the oldest cities of
Europe. Kyiv is situated on the picturesque banks of the Dnieper river.
The population of Kiev is about 3 million. Kyiv is a large political,
industrial and cultural centre. Kyiv is a seat of the higher body of
state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada. Kyiv is a scientific centre.
Kyiv’s cultural life is rich and varied. There are many theatres,
museums, exhibitions in Kyiv. The most important educational
institutions of Ukraine are in Kyiv. The Natiuonal Ukrainian University
named after Shevchenko is in the centre of the capital. Kyiv is the
Hero-City. In the park of Immortal Glory there is an obelisk in honour
of those who fell in the battles of the Second World War. A lot of
tourists come to Kyiv. The central street of the capital is Kreshchatic.
There are many fine buildings in Kreshchatic. Kyiv is especially
beautiful in spring when the famous Kyiv chestnut trees are in blossom.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF UKRAINE

Ukraine is a sovereign state. It has its own territory, higher and local
bodies of state power, government, national emblem, state flag and
anthem In July 1990 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ukrainian
Parliament, adopted the document of great importance — the Declaration
of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. According to the Declaration only the
Verkhovna Rada can speak on behalf of the whole Ukrainian people.

In July 1996 the Verkhovna Rada adopted the new Constitution of Ukraine.
According to it Ukraine is a parliamentary republic with the
presidential governing. The higher body of state power isthe Verkhovna
Rada. The functions of the Verkhovna Rada are legislation and scrutiny
of government activities. The Ukrainian government is headed by the
Prime-Minister. The elections of the deputies to the parliament are held
every four years. The President is elected every five years. He is the
Head of State. He cannot be elected for more than two terms. The
Constitution of Ukraine is the main law in the country. It guarantees
certain rights and freedoms to the Ukrainian citizens and determines
their duties.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on
the British Isles. The British Isles are separated from Europe by the
English Channel. The British Isles are washed by the North Sea in the
East and the Atlantic Ocean in the West. The population of Great Britain
is over 56 million. The langest cities of the country are London,
Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh. The territory of Great
Britain is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland. England is the richest, the most populated part in the
contry. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England, but
all the rest of the territory is a plain. Scotland is a land of
mountains. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis. The British Isles have many
rivers. The longest of them is the Severn. It flows into the Irish Sea.
The Thames is over 200 miles long. London, the capital of Great Britain,
stands on it. Geographical position of Great Britain is rather good as
the country lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other
parts of the world.

THE CLIMATE OF GREAT BRITAIN

In Great Britain it is never too hot or too cold for work or play in the
open air. The sea keeps the island warm in winter. The winds have also
very much to do with weather in Great Britain. Warm winds from the
Atlantic are wet and warm. They bring plenty of rain to the island. The
east and north-east winds are cold and dry. Thanks to the mild climate
there are a lot of eveiyeen plants in Great Britain. But the lack of
sunshine is the reason why the cultivation of grain crops is difficult.
Grass grows all the year round. The weather changes very often. In
spring sunshine and showers follow each other often during the day.

In spring the weather is generally mild. The summer is not so hot as on
the continent.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a
constitutional monarchy. Britain does not have a written constitution.
Parliament is the most important authority in Britain. The monarch
serves formally as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen
Elizabeth II (the second). The House of Commons consists of Members of
Partliament. General elections are held every five years. All citizens
aged 18 have the right to vote. There are few political parties in
Britain. The main ones are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party.
Each political party puts up one candidate for each constituency. The
one who wins the most votes is elected MP for that area. The party which
wins the most seats in Parliament forms the Government. Its leader
becomes the Prime Minister. The functions of the House of Commons are
legislation and scrutiny of government activities. The House of Commons
is presided over by the Speaker. The House of Lords is presided by the
Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power. It’s in the House
of Commons that new bills are introduced and debated. Parliament is
responsible for British national policy. Local governments are
responsible for organizing such services as education, police and many
others.

MY NATIVE CITY

Kyiv is my native city. It’s an ancient city. Ancient Kyiv was a large
commercial centre of the East Slavs. During the reign of Prince
Volodimir the city expanded greatly. Under the rule of Prince Yaroslav
the Wise many churches and cathedrals and monasteries appeared in the
city. There are a lot of places of historical importance in Kyiv. Among
them there are the Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra, the Golden Gate, the St.
Sophia’s Cathedral. For those who love Kyiv so dearly as I do, it’s very
difficult to choose some places of the particular interest. If the day
is fine and the sky is cloudless, I’d like to go to the Golden Gate. It
is situated in the centre of the city. From the top of the Gates we can
admire a splendid view of the city. I also like the St. Sophia’s
Cathedral. Prince Yaroslav the Wise is buried there.

HOLIDAYS IN UKRAINE

Almost every country has holidays honouring important events in its
history. Some holidays come on the same date, some are movable. We
celebrate the first day of Cristmas on the 7th of January. On the 6th of
January people cook much food because the day after we must not work. On
this day we have a sacred supper or Kolyada. It begins when the first
star lights up. As the legend says, this star announced the birth of the
God’s Son. We celebrate Christmas for three days. In the evening a group
of boys comes. They sing songs. By these songs they congratulate on
holiday. Another religious holiday is Easter. It is movable. In Ukraine
we have special attributes of Easter: Easter eggs, we call them
«krashenka» and Easter cakes «paska». It is a very nice spring holiday.
New Year’s Day is very popular all over the world. It is my favourite
holiday. Victory Day is on the 9th of May. It is a sacred holiday for
every Ukrainian citizen. We are thankful to our grandfathers for the
victory.

MY WORKING DAY

I’d like to describe you my working day. All the days looked very much
the same. On weekdays I usually get up at 7. I do my morning exercises.
Then I wash my face and hands and clean my teeth. At half past seven I
am ready to have my breakfast. I like to have a quick light breakfast.
After breakfast I leave for school. My school is not far from my house.
It takes me 10 minutes to get to school. My lessons begin at 8.30 a.m.
and finish at about 3 p.m. Six or seven lessons a day is the ordinary
timetable. Twice a week I stay at school after classes to play
basketball. When I come home I have dinner. Then I rest a little.
Sometimes I read a book or talk to my friends over telephone. After that
I start doing my home assignments. Twice a week I go to have private
lessons in Maths in order to improve my knowledge. As a rule, I finish
doing my homework at about 11 o’clock. But one ‘day a week is not so
busy. This is Thursday. On Thursday I usually help my mother. Sometimes
I do shopping or pick up clothes at the cleaner’s. I usually have supper
at 8 o’clock p.m.. Then I go on with my work. At 11 o’clock I go to bed.

LONDON

London is a very old town. It is about two thousand years old. Now
London is one of the biggest cities in the world. Its population is
about 8 million people. It’s not only a capital of Great Britain, it’s a
large business and commercial centre. London stands on the Thames. As an
ancient city London has a great number of places of historic interest.
They attract tourists from all the world. London is traditionally
divided into four main parts. They are Westminster, the City, the West
End and the East End. Westminster is the historical area in London.
Famous monuments and buildings are there. One of the most beautiful
places is Westminster Abbey. Many greatest poets and writers are buried
there. Chauser, Dickens, Kipling are among them. Newton and Darwin are
buried there too. Another place which is worth seeing in London is the
Tower. In different times this castle was a fortress, a royal palace, a
prison. Now it is a museum. London is rich in famous palaces. Buckingham
Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Westminster Palace is the
seat of the British Parliament. The greatist of English churches is
St.Paul’s Cathedral. It was built by a famous English architect. Sir
Christopher Wren. Trafalgar Square is considered to be the very centre
of London. In the middle of it stands the monument to admiral Nelson.
London is famous for its streets and squares as well. Fleet Street is
known for the newspaper offices situated there. Regent Street is famous
for the richest shops ans supermarkets. Speaking about London it is
impossible to say nothing about its museums. The British Museum shows
works of art from ancient Asia, Egypt, Rome and Greece side by side with
those of Great Britain and other countries.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *