Poltava Region (реферат)

Poltava region is one of the leading regions of Ukraine according to
the majority of indexes.

Since the creation of Poltava guberniya (province) in 1802, our region
developed as a complex. Economically, in XVII-XIX centuries, this
territory was the centre of chumachestvo, which played a significant
role during initial accumulation of the capital.

 

In the second half of the ХІХ century Poltava region becomes one of the
significant centres of zemskoye movement, which and today can be an
example of self-governement.

 

In the beginning of the ХХ century the region was repeatedly shaken with
peasants rebellions and the ardent word of the defender of human rights
Vladimir Korolenko was united with revolutionary and national appeals of
many outstanding public figures.

The contribution of people, born in Poltava region, in the treasury of
national and world culture is invaluable. Poltava region is the native
land of the philosopher of world fame – Hrihoriy Skovoroda, of the
founder of the Ukrainian literature Ivan Kotlyarevskiy, and of many
other figures of science and culture.

 

Only in ХХ century Poltava region gave Ukraine the pioneer of the rocket
theory and rocket building Uriy Kondratuk, designers of rocket machinery
Uriy Pobedonostev and designer of tanks Mikola Dukhov, writers and poets
Оles Honchar, Uriy Dold-Mikhailik, Pavlo Zagrebelniy, Vasyl Simonenko,
Olexandre Коvinka, composers brothers Маiboroda, Isaac Dunaevskiy,
Olexandre Bilash and many other outstanding figures.

 

The size of its territory, 28,8 ths.sq.km. puts Poltava region in the
seventh place in Ukraine, it exceeds territories of more than 50 states
of the world, it shares borders with Chernihiv region and Sumy region in
the north , with Kharkiv region in the east , with Dnipropetrovsk region
and Kirovohrad region in the south, with Kyiv and Cherkassy regions in
the west.

 

The population of Poltava region is 1.609 thousand people, as of the
beginning of the year 2001. Caracteristically, 41 percent of the
population live in villages.

 

The administrative structure of the region comprises 25 districts, 5
cities of the regional submission, 10 cities of district submission, 21
settlements, 467 village councils, in total there are – 1848 cities,
towns, villages and settlements.

 

The region is situated in forest and steppe zone. Forests cover 7.4 % of
the territory; soils are – mainly chernozem (blackearth).

 

The regional centre – the city of Poltava, there live 315 thousand
people.

 

The biggest cities of the regional submission are: Kremenchuk – 232,3
thousand people, Lubny – 51,7, Коmsomolsk – 54,4, Мirhorоd – 42,4
thousand people.

 

Economic potential

Poltava region is known by the production of iron ore, the production
and processing of oil and gas, manufacture of lorries, diamond tools,
turbines, knitted wear, leather footwear, refined clothes, grains,
sugar, vegetable oil, confectionery products and the like. Mineral water
from Мirhorod district is loved in all country. Agricultural production
of the region is consumed in Ukraine, and is exported.

 

5 percent of industrial and agricultural production of Ukraine region.
The significant part of produced in Poltava goods is exported.

 

The region has potentialities for different branches of industry. Today
4,8% of all industrial products and 5% of all agricultural products come
from Poltava region. Some branches of industry of Poltava region have
leading positions in the state. About 41% of all made in Ukraine
lorries, are produced by Кremenchuk holding company «АvtoKraz»; besides,
18,6 % of all made in Ukraine electric motors, about 8% of machine tools
come from the region, and one third of ukrainian crude oil is processed
in region.

 

Further social and economic development of the region needs to further
the development of engineering industry, metal-working industry,
electrical engineering industry, instrument-making industry, light
industry, food industry, oil and gas refining industry.

 

Particular importance is attached to the introduction of environment
friendly production technologies.

 

Poltava region state administration worked out a number of programs and
already implemented some of them. Programs are: program for development
of private business undertakings, for the development of the fuel
sector, program of optimum use of available energy supply sources, for
the development of farm production, foreign investment program, etc.

 

Main industrial centers of the region

The city of Poltava and the city of Kremenchuk are industrial centers
where is concentrated over 70% of commodity production of the region.
Kremenchuk leads in engineering industry, especially in transport
machinery industry, in power engineering industry and fuel industry.

 

Engineering industry, food industry, light industry and production of
construction materials characterize the city of Poltava

 

The city of Komsomolsk scored marked successes in strategic planning, in
resolving problems in health protection and in municipal sphere. The
city of Mirhorod gradually becomes a health resort of european level.

 

 

INDUSTRY

 

397 industrial enterprises on independent balance operate today in the
region. 1211 enterprises and organizations are engaged in industrial
production in the region in total.

 

Food-processing industry and processing of agricultural products
industry

Food industry and agricultural products processing industry of the
region unite 133 enterprises. Meat, milk processing, sugar, backing,
fruits and vegetables canning, alcohol branches, distilleries,
breweries, production of soft drinks, confectioneries, represent them.
Food industry and agricultural products processing industry production
amounts to about 19 % of the regional industrial production. The volume
of production in the food industry puts the region in 8-9 place in
Ukraine, and the level of production per inhabitant in the industry is
higher than average national one.

 

Over 60% of food industry production comes from enterprises of meat,
sugar, dairy, baking and confectionery industries. Among leading
enterprises in the food industry are: 11 sugar-mills, 2 confectioneries,
7 dairy factories, 4 cheese-making factories, 3 milk canneries, 3
oil-mills, 3 alcohol factories, 2 distilleries, 2 breweries, and a
number of enterprises of baking, milling and cereal branches.

 

Machine-building

Machine building occupies a significant place in the regional industrial
complex. It is represented by 96 enterprises on independent balance;
there are more than one thousand enterprises and organizations that
operate in metal-working and machine-building industries. There are also
motor, electrotechnical, wagon-manufacturing industries, manufacture of
road-building machinery and manufacture of technological equipment for
chemical, food, and light industries in the region.

 

The leading enterprises of the machine building are:

Concern “Krukiv wagon-manufacturing plant” – one of the first
wagons-manufacturing plants in the country. Its main production –
all-metal large capacity open wagons, wagons for transportation of
fertilizers, wagons of bunker type for transportation of grains and
other food products, besides that, specialists of the plant put into
production graders and front-end loaders. Especially they last product
should be commended, the first ukrainian passenger car, which was built
in time for the 10th anniversary of the independence of Ukraine. It is
built in compliance with all international standards.

– one of the first wagons-manufacturing plants in the country. Its main
production – all-metal large capacity open wagons, wagons for
transportation of fertilizers, wagons of bunker type for transportation
of grains and other food products, besides that, specialists of the
plant put into production graders and front-end loaders. Especially they
last product should be commended, the first ukrainian passenger car,
which was built in time for the 10th anniversary of the independence of
Ukraine. It is built in compliance with all international standards.

 

The holding company «АvtoКrAZ» is the biggest machine-building
enterprise of the region. Its main commodities are: six-wheel lorries
with carrying capacity from 9 to 20 tons. The capacity of the enterprise
is nearly 30 thousand lorries per year. The factory mastered the
manufacture of more than 20 types of lorries of high carrying capacity,
which are used on mine workings, on industrial enterprises and power
stations under construction, on timber-felling sites and in other
branches. The serial production of lorries of middle and low carrying
capacity is in prospect.

is the biggest machine-building enterprise of the region. Its main
commodities are: six-wheel lorries with carrying capacity from 9 to 20
tons. The capacity of the enterprise is nearly 30 thousand lorries per
year. The factory mastered the manufacture of more than 20 types of
lorries of high carrying capacity, which are used on mine workings, on
industrial enterprises and power stations under construction, on
timber-felling sites and in other branches. The serial production of
lorries of middle and low carrying capacity is in prospect.

 

Open joint stock company «Poltava plant ”Electromotor» is an enterprise
of electrotechnical machine-building. Its main commodities are: electric
engines of different types, which are used at nearly two thousand
enterprises in Ukraine and are exported.

is an enterprise of electrotechnical machine-building. Its main
commodities are: electric engines of different types, which are used at
nearly two thousand enterprises in Ukraine and are exported.

 

Open joint stock company «Poltava diamond factory» is an unique
enterprise of the kind in Ukraine. Among its commodities are products
from superfirm materials, drawing dies for drawing the most thin wire,
tools for the diamond industry.

is an unique enterprise of the kind in Ukraine. Among its commodities
are products from superfirm materials, drawing dies for drawing the most
thin wire, tools for the diamond industry.

 

Among the numerous industrial enterprises of machine-building industry
the biggest are: open joint stock company «Kremenchuk wheel plant», open
joint stock company «Кremenchuk road-building machinery plant», open
joint stock company «Poltavamash», open joint stock company «Poltava
motor-aggregate plant”, open joint stock company »
Diesel-locomotiv-repair works «, open joint stock company » Каrlivka
machine-building plant «, open joint stock company » Каrlivka mechanical
plant «, open joint stock company » Galeshina machine-building plant »
and a number of others, widely known in our region, and beyond its
limits, enterprises.

 

Mining industry

Giant of Ukrainian ferrous metallurgy, the pride of Poltava region, –
open joint stock company «Poltava ore mining and processing enterprise»
is an enterprise of mining industry. Its main production is iron ore
concentrate with iron content up to 65% and iron ore pellets for blast
furnaces of metallurgical works. The capacity of the enterprise is:
crude iron ore production – 33 mn. tons per year, iron ore concentrate
production – 13,8 mn.tons, iron ore pellets production – 10,9 mn.tons
per year. It`s a town-building enterprise, there work nearly 10 thousand
people.

 

Oil and gas extracting industry

Poltava region is the leading oil and gas-extracting region in Ukraine.
About 40% of ukrainian gas and each fifth ton of oil and condensate come
from the Poltava region, which has unique deposits of fuel, energy and
mineral raw materials. Industrial workings on them began in 1950s at
Radchenko oil field in Мirhorod district.

 

The originality of oil and gas extracting industry of the region is that
the structure of the complex includes all stages – from prospecting for
mineral resources to processing of hydrocarbons.

 

The reached level of the output of hydrocarbons and further rising of
the output depend on annual increase of prospected deposits in volumes
that are not less than the output.

 

Regional specialists of geological prospecting were leaders in the field
of very deep drilling. By the volume of works in the field, Poltava
region is among international leaders. It made it possible to prospect
deposits of hydrocarbons at a depth of 5-6 thousand metres. By the way,
the deepest bore-hole (6750 metres) is situated at East-Poltava oil
field; on the outskirts of Poltava. There are 72 oil and gas fields
under exploitation in total in the region. Oil and gas are extracted in
20 districts of the region.

 

Oil and gas processing

Close joint stock company of the transnational financial and industrial
company «Ukrtatnafta» – Kremenchuk oil-processing plant – is one of the
biggest oil-processing plants of Ukraine.Its main commodities are

? car petrols and diesel fuels;

? engine, industrial, and transmission lubricants;

? road and construction bitumens, furnace mazuts;

? gas for communal needs;

? technical sulphur.

 

In total, the plant produces more than 80 types of oil-related products.

 

 

GREAT IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURE

 

The agriculture is the base of the industrial and agricultural complex.
It is characterized by developed production of grains, milk, and
industrial crops.

 

Farms have been reformed on the basis of reforming types of
ownership.640 enterprises of different ownerships operate in the
industrial complex today. Nearly 2 mn. hectares of land are used for
agricultural production, 1,5 mn. of it is arable land. Soil is mainly
chernozem; it covers 90% of land. Farmers of the region grow more than
20 types of cereals, rear 8 kinds of animals and poultry.

 

The number of private farms grows in last years. 87,3 ths. hectares of
agricultural holdings are assigned to them.84,7 ths. hectares of it are
arable land.57,4 hectares of arable land are assigned to a farm on an
average. Every year farmers gain experience in commodities production.
Stock-breeding is a traditional branch in Poltava region. There are
508,6 thousand cattle, 230,8 thousand cows included, nearly 411 thousand
pigs and 69 thousand goats and sheeps, about 6 mn. poultry in all types
of farms (private sector included). There is one of the biggest pedigree
bases of Ukraine in Poltava region.30 farms of pedigree cattle and 35
breeding farms for pigs of white and of Mirhorod breeds. Stud-horse
breeding is in ascent. Horses from Dybrova stud farm are known by its
records in foreign countries.

 

 

BUILDING

 

Every year in the region new industrial capacities are put into
operation, new installations of social sphere are built, new
installations of gas are laid, cities, towns and villages improvements
are carried out, as well as building and repairs of roads.

 

Building branch of the region is represented by 250 building companies
and 10 managing organisations, 22,8 thousand people work in the branch.

 

Among building companies there are 187 (72%) companies of collective
ownership, 40 companies (15,4%) of state ownership and 18 (6,9%) of
private ownership.

 

The following programmes have been worked out in the region: Chernobyl
building programme, regional programme for house-building, programme for
completion of school-building and for installation of gas in village
schools, if there are gas deposits, programme for reconstruction of
blocks of flats of first mass series, and programme for completion of
construction of unfinished installations. Programmes are implemented on
the basis of real financial resources.

 

Particular attention in the work of the regional building complex is
given to house building. The following state programmes are being
implemented in the region: “Development of house-building for the
youth”, “Your own house” on the basis of the state preferential
long-term credits, and “Dwelling for servicemen” on the basis of
investment and 1,5% deductions from profit tax.

 

The programme for preservation and use of architecture monuments and
historical cities of Poltava region envisage the rebirth of architecture
monuments which were lost in 1930s and the restoration of the remained
ones. The implementation of this programme needs much investment.

 

40 specialized industrial enterprises and about 250 small enterprises
produce building matertials in Poltava region.

 

At the enterprises of the region there are capacities for production of
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? wall materials – 521,8 mn. bricks;

? рre-fabricated ferro-concrete structures – 840,5 thousand cubic
metres;

? large-panel structures – 200,1 thousand square metres;

? joiner made goods – 304,3 thousand square metres;

? saw-timber – 111,4 thousand cubic metres;

? non-ore building materials – 8803,3 thousand cubic metres;

? porous fillers – 140,7 thousand cubic metres;

? heat-insulating materials (foam-plastics and mineral and wadding) – 20
thousand cubic metres.

PRIVATE BUSINESS UNDERTAKINGS

 

There are 6650 small businesses in the region. There work 56,6 thousand
people. Besides that, there are 48,1 thousand registered natural
persons-subjects of business activities.

 

42% of all small businesses are situated in Poltava, 26% are in
Kremenchuk.

 

Small business is developing mainly in the following sectors: commerce
and public catering (53%), industry (13%) and building (10%).

 

Small businesses have the highest profitability in the fields of
material, technical supply and sales, commerce and public catering.38
information and consulting institutions, 21 investment companies, 76
financial and credit institutions (22 credit unions included), 14
business centre, 2 business incubator, 4 foundations supporting private
business undertakings form the infrastructure that was created in order
to support small business and secure it further development.45 public
small business organisations and associations become more and more
active.

 

 

FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT

 

The analysis of dynamics of foreign trade turnover shows a steady
increase of export and of positive balance from 1999,it`s indicative of
positive processes in the foreign trade of the region. The processes are
caused by the growth of regional production and by the increase of
export potential of the region.

 

The region’s foreign economic turn-over of works, commodities, and
services of the year 2002 totals USD 1176,5 mn. Export of works,
commodities, and services totals USD 873,2 mn., import – USD 303,3 mn.

 

Top regional export articles are still mineral products, surface
vehicles, machinery, electrical engines, base metals and products made
of base metals.

 

Direct foreign investment in enterprises of Poltava region totals USD
155,9 mn., as of January 1, 2003.

 

Geographical structure of foreign investment is formed under influence
of two interdependent factors. The depth of foreign economic relations
determines one the one hand, its development with traditional partners
(CIS countries with a predominance of Russia, some West-European
countries), on the other hand – by the need of diversity, especially, of
international investment activity. The biggest investors are our
partners from Russian Federation (66,9% of total investment), Cyprus
(6,5%), Netherlands (6,2%), USA (6,1%), Canada (3,%). 151 enterprises of
the region received investment as of January1, 2002. The analysis of the
investment activity shows that Poltava region is still attractive for
foreign investors. There are grounds for the increase of investment,
taking into consideration the regional developed industry, its powerful
agro-industrial and oil-gas extracting complex, highly skilled
specialists, basic infrastructure and advantageous geographical
situation.

 

Priority fields for investment: processing industry, machine-building
and metal-working enterprises, construction materials industry, fuel
industry, housing and communal services, and protection of environment.

 

 

EDUCATION

 

Education branch of the region is under reform. In last years it did not
have losses, it kept it educational institutions. Educational
institutions of new type have been created: 5 gymnasiums, 8 Lyceums, 48
teaching and educational complexes. Regional program for development of
general secondary education for 1999 – 2012 is worked out. Great
importance is attached to the development of village schools.
Universities and academies have been created on the base of former
institutes. The potential of 30 state higher educational institutions
was increased in this way. The change of status contributed to the
increase of professions, which are taught (40 in total).

 

Higher educational institutions

Seven state educational institutions of III-IV level of accreditation
operate in the region. There are three universities among them: Poltava
state pedagogical university V.Korolenko, Kremenchuk state polytechnic
university, Poltava state technical university U.Kondratuk and Ukranian
medical stomatological academy. Poltava state technical university
U.Kondratuk a teaching and scientific center for training specialists in
following fields: construction, economics, architecture, ecology and
engineering. More than 4 thousand students acquire 27 professions and
specializations in 7 departments there. Ukrainian medical somatological
academy opened in 1931 as odontology department of Kharkiv medical
institute. In 1967 a stomatological institute was transferred to
Poltava, and a medical department was opened on its base in 1971. In
1994 Poltava medical stomatological institute received the highest IV
level of accreditation and the status of Ukrainian medical
stomatological academy.3200 students study in stomatological, medical,
hospital nurse and dental technician departments.426 lecturers work
there. There 5 departments in Poltava state agricultural institute.
About 4000 students study there.

 

16950 students study in 22 higher educational institutions of I-II level
of accreditation. About 3 000 lecturers train junior specialists for
medicine, education, culture, agriculture, trade, food and transport
industries.

 

International relations of Poltava higher educational institutions grow.
Today in Poltava there are students from Russia, Latvia, Poland, Czech
republic, Bulgaria, Hungary, Austria, France, Germany, Denmark, Canada,
USA and China.

 

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??????????????????????$??-?286 of the institutions belong to the system
of the Minister of Education and Science of Ukraine. The others 431
belong to different departments.

 

Pre-school institutions differ by form, content and type. In particular,
there are kindergardens with the following orietations: aesthetic and
artistic, the humanities, and health improvement.

 

941 state educational institutions operate in the region (741 in rural
area). 217 000 pupils study there (89 900 in rural area). There are 168
primary schools. 2 900 pupils study there. There are 455 schools
providing complete general secondary education of I-III level.186 300
pupils study there.

 

19 boarding schools operate in the region for children in need of social
assistance.

 

Great attention is attached to the educational institutions of new
type.5 gymnasiums, 5 lyceums of arts, 30 teaching and educational
complexes operate today in the region. There are 111 schools with deep
studies of certain subjects. Language regime in teaching and educational
institutions is, basically, in compliance with national structure of the
regional population. There are 896 secondary schools with Ukrainian
language of education, 39 with ukranian and russian languages and 6 with
russian language.3 private educational institutions operate in Poltava
and 4 in Kremenchuk.

 

Vocational training schools

120 professions are taught in regional vocational training schools for
all branches of national economy.8 vocational training school assure
training of specialists for machine-building industry, 8 – for
construction industry, 7 – for agriculture, 1 – for railway transport,
17 rural and 6 city schools – for motor transport, 7 – for consumer
services. There are vocational training schools of new type: a higher
vocational training school №7 in Kremenchuk, inter-regional center of
professional training for servicemen who have been transferred to the
reserve in Khorol and art vocational training school №28 in
Reshetylyvka.

 

 

TOURING AND RECREATION

 

Poltava region has considerable potential for development of touring and
recreation facilities.

 

The region has not suffered from Chernobyl disaster. There are all
favourable nature and climate grounds for the development of touring and
recreation facilities: forests, considerable number of rivers and lakes,
and picturesque landscapes.

 

There are many mineral springs, which contain biologically active
substances in Poltava region. Many operating health centers and holiday
homes are situated at such springs.

 

There are many hunting areas in the region. Controled wolf-hunting,
hare-hunting, wild duck hunting, elk-hunting, deer-hunting, wild boar
hunting, roe hunting and foxhunting are permited.

 

3 touring and excursion enterprises and their 7 agencies, 44 touring
firms operate in the region.

 

Measures have been worked out to promote historical and cultural values
of Poltava region. New itineraries of national system “Neclace of
Slavutich”, “By chumak routes of Poltava region”, “Chimes of Cathedral”
and teaching, health improving and cognitive itinerary “Ecological path”
have been worked out on the base of these measures.

 

Rural touring (green touring) becomes more and more popular in Poltava
region. 39 stadiums, 15 swimming pools, 700 gyms, 364 shooting galleries
are at disposal of the population.

 

There is a developed transport infrastructure for motor-tourist in the
region. It includes a system of shops and service/filling stations.

 

??????????????????????$??-?e development of the touring business. The
majority of them are situated in Poltava, Mirhorod and Kremenchuk.

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