Khmelnytsky Region (реферат)

Area: 20.600 sq. km.

Population: 1 million 431 thousand people.

With its area of 3.4% of the territory of Ukraine, Khmelnitsky oblast is
one of the small oblasts. The oblast stretches for 220 km from north to
south and for 120 km from west to east (calculations were made according
to parallel and meridian of the center of the oblast).

The oblast is located in the southwest of the East European plain in the
forest-steppe and mixed-forest zones (Polissya). The territory’s relief,
soil and climate are favorable for economy and agriculture.

The Khmelnytsky oblast borders on Ternopil, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Vinnytsya,
and Chernyvtsi oblasts. The most important railways and highways cross
the oblast.

According to its administrative-territorial system the oblast is divided
into 20 districts, 13 towns, including 5 regional subordination towns
(Khmelnytsky, Kamyanets-Podilsky, Shepetivka, Slavuta and Netishyn), 24
urban villages, and 1.417 villages. The largest towns of the oblast are
Khmelnytsky, which is the oblast’s center and Kamyanets-Podilsky. Other
towns are quantitatively small.

The Khmelnytsky oblast is on the 12th place among the oblasts of Ukraine
according to the quantity of population. On January 1, 2000 there were
730 thousand of urban population or 51%, 701 thousand of rural
population or 49% of the total population.

There are a lot of historical, cultural and architectural sights in the
oblast, which contributes a lot to the effective development of tourism.
It is possible to establish and develop tourist routes on the places of
historical interest.

The oblast is rich in mineral resources. 260 deposits of mineral
resources had been searched and explored. 100 of them have been
exploited. The majority of them are of local importance (brick clays,
sands, limestone for lime production, limestone and granites for the
production of crushed stone and rubble).

Limestone and clays for the manufacture of cement, limestone for the
sugar industry, kaolin for the porcelain-faience industry and production
of refractors, gypsum and flint represent state-importance mineral
resources. New mineral resource types – graphite, saponite, glauconite,
phosphorites, and facing granites – have also been prospected.

One of the most promising directions of the oblasts mineral recourse
base development is the commercial exploration of graphite from the
deposits found in the northeast of the oblast.

The Burtyn graphite deposit is located in Polonsky and Shepetivsky
districts. Ores of the deposit are easily concentrated. The yield of
graphite concentrate is 95% and the ash content is low (2.5 to 11%). All
kinds and grades of graphite can be produced from ore.

Reserves and inferred resources of graphite ores of the deposit are up
to 350.000.000 tons.

Twenty-one graphite deposits with resources of 230-250.000.000 cubic
meters have been explored in the oblast. They fully meet the oblast’s
demand for building raw materials for 100-120 years.

The geological exploration in the northern and central parts of the
oblast have revealed a number of promising deposits of red and dark-grey
granite, diorite, and labradorite with high decorative properties.

The Khmelnytsky oblast is the only one region in Ukraine and in the
former Soviet Union where the deposits of saponite clays have been
explored. These are the unique natural formations that constitute a
province of betonite raw materials with specific properties.

The supplies of saponite deposits in the oblast constitute over 100
million tons. The width of the productive bed is 10-40 meters, and of
the overlying rock – 5-20 meters. The most explored are Varvarivske and
Tashkivske saponite clay deposits with resources exceeding 60 million
tons.

Adamivske and Karachiyivske complex deposits of glauconite sands with
resources of about 30 million tons have been explored in the south of
the oblast in Vinkovetsky district. High agrotechnical efficiency of the
use of glauconite as a cheap chlorine-free potash-phosphate fertilizer
in agriculture ascertained.

The Khmelnytsky oblast has phosphoric deposits, raw material for
manufacture of mineral fertilizers. Nowadays, Dzhurdzhyiyvske,
Maydanske, and Haidamatske deposits and some beds of concretionary
phosphorites, phosphorous anhydride reserves, according to latest
calculations, exceed 190 thousand tons and have not been developed yet.

Some prospects are associated with the new explored ore type – granular
phosphorites. Their inferred resources amount to about 120 million tons.

The oblast possesses the large resources of medicinal and table water.
There have been explored and developed Zbruchanske, Zaychykivske, and
Makivske springs of “Naftusya” – type mineral water; Teofipolske of a
“Myrgorodska” – type mineral water, Polonske of a radon’s mineral water.
All of them have been certified.

The detailed prospecting and approval of resources have been carried out
in two springs: Zbruchanske – 258 cubic meters per day and Zaychykivske
– 288 cubic meters per day. Recent studies have shown that “Naftusya” –
type mineral water springs stretch for 1.100 km alongside the river
Zbruch and their total inferred reserves amount to 190 thousand cubic
meters per day.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Khmelnytsky oblast is situated at the frontier of large
historical-geographic territories: Right-Bank Ukraine to which it
belongs and Western Ukraine. In a narrow sense the oblast’s territory
belongs to Volyn (northern part, approximately to the river Slutch) and
Podillya (middle and southern parts). In the past Volyn and Podillya
belonged to the same or different states. Southern and western
boundaries of the present day oblast had been the state frontiers for
the long time.

In pre-war years Khmelnytsky oblast became the inland oblast of the
country. A narrow strip of the Chernivtsi oblast at the south separates
it from Moldova (10 km on a straight line) and Romania (24 km), the
border of Poland shifted much further (165-240 km).

The oblast exists in present boundaries since September 22, 1937, when
the Kamyanets-Podilsky oblast was formed by the resolution of the
All-Union Central Executive Committee of the USSR. In May 1941 the
regional center was transferred to the town of Proskurov, and in January
1954 the oblast with its center were given a new name of Khmelnytsky.

A particular place in the historical chronicle of Podillya is held by
the ancient Kamyanets-Podilsky, one of the oldest historic towns of
Ukraine. Owing to a unique combination of the historical, architectural
inheritance and the landscape of the river Smotrytch canyon the ancient
Rus and medieval parts the town has been declared the state
historical-architectural memorial. Architectural memorials of 15th-19th
centuries include about 200 buildings and constructions. Formidable
defense fortifications of the Old Town, the fortress and its bridge, a
combination of cult buildings of various religions produce an inimitable
impression.

Considering the rich historical-architectural inheritance of the Old
Town the National Commission of Ukraine for matters of UNESCO in May
1994 recommended to nominate it as a candidate for the register of the
world’s cultural inheritance.

In the village of Medzhybizh there is the grave of Baal-Shem Tova, the
founder of the one of the major trends of Judaic faith, the Khasidism,
which is a Mecca for religious pilgrims, khasids.

Also of great interest are other architectural and antique monuments of
the oblast, as well as natural exotics: fortresses in the towns of
Letychiv and Khotyn, karsts grotto “Atlantide”, health resort “Sataniv”,
located in the picturesque place of ancient Medobory hills, “Blue Lakes”
in the woods near the town of Slavuta, the “Holy Lake” associated with
the ancient legend, in the woods near the town of Izyaslav, canyons of
the Dnister river that flows in the south of the oblast, and “Podilsky
Tovtry” – the largest national natural park in Ukraine and Europe.

INDUSTRY

Mechanical engineering and metal processing hold an important place
among the brunches of industry. 44.2% of the total number of industrial
workers is occupied in this branch. The enterprises of this branch
produce workbenches, machine tools, forging and pressing machines,
transformers, farm machinery for plant growing, equipment for processing
sectors of the agro-industrial complex, cables, electrical engineering
products. The largest enterprises of the oblast include public
joint-stock companies (PJSC) “Ukrelectroaparat”, “Kation”, “Advis”,
“Prigma-pres”, “Termoplastavtomat”, State Enterprise “Novator”,
Kamyanets-Podilsky PJSC “Motor”, “Electroprylad” and cable works, PJSC
“Shepetivsky cultivator works”, Volochysky PJSC “Nominal”, machine-tool
building PJSC “Hover” in Horodok and others.

In the previous year oblast’s enterprises started commercial production
of new kinds of goods. Among them are forage combine harvester Maral-125
“Podillya”(“Advis”), container and packing manufacturing machinery
(“Termoplastavtomat”), space heating boilers (“Temp”), rifle butts and
fore stock (“Neva”), new types of hard-alloy disk saws
(Kamyanets-Podilsky wood-cutting tool works “Motor”), new series
electrolytic capacitors (“Kation”), combined cultivating unit “Podillya”
(“Shepetivsky cultivator works”), range of new transformers
(“Ukrelectroaparat”), radio stations for diesel and electric locomotives
(“Novator”), electric vacuum cleaners (Shepetivsky works “Pulsar”) as
well as gas, water, and heat flow meters and other products.

The leading place is held by the food industry, whose output makes 35.4%
of the total oblast’s production. It includes such sectors as sugar,
bakery, confectionary, macaroni, canned-vegetable, meat and dairy,
distillery, brewing, flour-grinding/cereal, tobacco, etc., which employs
22,4%of industrial workers of the oblast.

The Khmelnytsky oblast is one of the most important Ukrainian
sugar-making oblasts, 16 sugar factories function here. The largest of
them are in Khmelnytsky, Shepetivka, Kamyanets-Podilsky, Teofipol,
Horodok, and Derazhnya.

The light industry of the oblast develops on the base of processing of
local raw materials (leather) and the ones brought from the outside
(wool, cotton, textile). It includes such sectors as garment, textile,
footwear, knitwear, and haberdashery. The largest enterprises are PJSC
“Vzutex”, PJSC “Leather Haberdashery”, closed joint-stock company
“Khmelnytsklehprom”, Dunaivtsy cloth factory, and garment factory in
Volochysk.

The forest and woodwork industry produces furniture, containers,
building materials, paper and board. The largest factories are in
Khmelnytsky, Izyaslav, and Letychiv. Products of joint-stock companies
“Slavutsko-Polyanska Paper factory” and “Poninkivsky Board and Paper
works” have a great demand.

Power industry is of great importance for the development of the
oblast’s economy. The Khmelnytsky Power Nuclear Plant in Netishyn is
connected with the power grids of Ukraine and Central European
Countries. The share of the power industry in the total output
constitutes 34.2%.

Ther are also enterprises that manufacture domestic-chemistry goods
(“Lotos” in Slavuta), musical instruments (“Oktava” in Iziaslav),
tableware, medical instruments, and recreational and other consumer
goods.

AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

The Khmelnytsky oblast contains about 4% of all farmlands in Ukraine.
The 1st place among agricultural sectors is held by the plant growing,
which gives 56% of the total agricultural output.

Cereal crops occupy the largest sown areas among them is winter wheat.
Barley, peas, oats, buckwheat are also cultivated.

The Khmelnytsky oblast is one of the most important sugar-beat growing
producers.

An important sector of plant growing is potato growing.

Essential oil-bearing plants are cultivated in Letychivsky,
Derazhniansky, and Khmelnytsky districts, and chicory – in Slavutsky and
Starokostiantynivsky districts.

Natural conditions are favorable for development of vegetable growing,
but sown lands for vegetable growing are small so far. Over 40% of sown
lands are occupied by forage crops (perennial grasses, corn for silage,
peas, vetch, fodder beets, alfalfa, turnips).

Podillya is a land of gardening. Main fruit crops include apple, pear,
apricot, cherry, merry, and walnuts. The animal farming in the oblast is
based on a field fodder production, natural pastures, food industry
wastes, and manufacture of combined fodder. The most important sectors
are beef and dairy cattle farming and pig breeding. Poultry, sheep, and
rabbit breeding, apiculture and fish farming are developed as well.

The program of animal farming intensification was worked out in the
oblast. The base of it is the establishment of specialized arrays of
breeding stock, competitive dairy and beef cattle, increase in the share
of hybrid and crossbred young pigs. A network of breeding centers and
farms is functioning. It is planned to change the structure of the main
herd towards increase of the number of beef cows in the Polissya zone
and to compensate the reduction of dairy cattle by raising their
productivity.

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

The Khmelnytsky oblast has a well-developed transportation network. Its
location at transport routs that connect main industrial oblasts of
Ukraine (metropolitan, Kharkiv, Dniproside, Donbas), Russia and the
Black Sea ports with western Ukraine and countries of Central and East
Europe is very important.A railway and a number of motor roads leading
to Belorus, Baltic countries, Molodova and South-East Europe cross the
oblast from north to south.

The main means of freight and passenger transportation within the oblast
and to other oblasts is the railway. The oblast is situated in the
functioning zone of the southwest railway and has 40 railway stations.
The largest junctions are Shepetivka and Hrechany (near Khmelnitsky).

The oblast center has a convenient railway communication with European
capitals – Moscow, Prague, Bratislave, Warsaw, Budapest, and Belgrade.

In future the transport communication will improve – it is planned to
build a high-speed motorway “West Europe-Kiev” that will pass through
the oblast.

Khmelnitsky has an airport with concrete runway of 2,200 meters long,
wich meets the requirements of an international airport.

Gas pipelines crossing the oblast represent the pipeline transportation:
“Soyiuz” (Orenburg – western border of Ukraine), Urengoi-Uzhgorod, and
Dashava-Kyiv.

Telecommunications in the oblast are developing. The Kyiv-West
fiber-optical cable has been laid across the oblast, “Utel”
international communication system expands the zone of its functioning
and the mobile phone communication network is developing.

FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Forming of the market relations period in the oblast is marked by
intensification of foreign economic activity. During the last years the
amounts of export and import have grown. The oblast’s trade balance is
positive. The Khmelnytsky oblast has established partner relations with
84 countries and this list is expanding. Considerable turnovers have
former with the Russian Federation, Germany, and Belarus.

Over 1/3 of export is the alive animals and animal husbandry products.
Machinery and equipment, food industry products, paper products, and
building materials are also exported.

Main terms of import are transport facilities and spare parts,
electrical equipment, TV and radio devices, mineral products, plastics
and rubber.

The advantageous transport-geographical location together with
considerable manpower resources under market reformation conditions of
the Ukrainian economy create a potential for attraction of foreign
investments. The amount of foreign investments in the oblast is
constantly growing. Representatives of 27 countries became the partners
of the Khmelnytsky oblast. The largest amounts of foreign investments
come from Germany, Cyprus, Belarus, and the USA. Joint ventures with the
Great Britain, Hungary, Czech Republic and the Bahamas have been
started. 15 sectors of the oblast’s economy have attracted interest.
Machine building, metalworking, domestic trade, food industry and
agriculture have received the considerable share of investments.

The major part of foreign investments has been obtained by the
collective ownership enterprises, the rest – by the private and
state-owned ones. The goal of investment attraction is to create new
jobs, expansion of production, and saturation of the market with goods
and services.

The oblasts economy requires long-term relations with strategic
investor. Numerous enterprises of various forms of ownership are
interested in obtaining direct investments and look for cooperation in
order to obtain advanced technologies and management experience.

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