Kharkiv Region (реферат)

The Kharkiv Oblast, one of the territorial social and economic oblast
rank systems of Ukraine – lies in the northeastern part of Ukraine. In
area (31.400 square kilometres or 5.2 per cent of the territory of
Ukraine) it is comparable to such European countries as Belgium and
Albania. There are 27 administrative rayons (districts), 381 rural
councils, 17 towns, 60 urban settlements, 1,718 rural settlements in the
Oblast. The capital is the Kharkiv.

After a proclamation of independence of Ukraine the economical and
geographical position of the Oblast has changed – it has become an
adjacent-to-a-border territory. Despite the remoteness of the Oblast
from the centre of the country, its location directly adjacent to the
fuel and power base of Ukraine, industrial Donbas and Naddniprianshchyna
(the region along Dnipro River), increases its economic potential and
makes up for such ‘marginality’ of its location.

The Kharkiv Oblast retains a convenient transport and geographical
position at the crossing of international ways «North-South» and
«West-East».

HISTORY

The Kharkiv Oblast constitutes the main part of a historical, cultural,
and geographical region Slobidska Ukraine that consisted also of the
territories of a number of the today’s regions of Ukraine and Russia.

Mass settling of the territory by Ukrainian Cossaks (cavalrymen),
peasants, and migrants from Russia began in the seventeenth century. The
name of their settlements – sloboda – gave the name to all the territory
– Slobozhanshchyna.

In 1765, Slobozhanshchyna was formed up as an administrative-territorial
unit – Slobodsko-Ukrainian Province with Kharkiv being its capital.

The geographical position of the territory promoted a rapid growth of
its intermediary activities in the trade between regions of East and
Central Europe, Prychornomoria (regions near Black Sea), Caucasus, and
the centre of Russia. Kharkiv fairs with their worth millions turnovers
provided priority position of the territory in this region.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, under conditions of
democratic transformations in the Russian Empire, the Kharkiv region
became one of the largest economic and cultural centres of Ukraine, a
major transport junction, centre of mechanical engineering, iron
industry, banking, higher education, and science.

In 1919-34, Kharkiv was the capital of the Ukraine. During this period
of time it established itself as the largest industrial, cultural, and
scientific centre.

Under new conditions of updating economic, social, and cultural life the
Kharkiv Oblast tries to conserve its unique potential, to acquire a new
merit of its regional identity while taking account of both historical
traditions and global trends in the world.

NATURE, MINERALS, ENVIRONMENT

The Kharkiv Oblast is situated at the border of steppe lands and a
forest-steppe zone. Topography: hilly plain. The climate is a temperate
continental one. Chernozems (black earths) prevail. There are mostly oak
and pine forests in the region.The region’s fauna consists of up to 340
species animals.

In order to conserve the national natural property and fauna and flora,
there have been established 132 hunting areas, 42 nature sanctuaries, 5
parks-monuments of garden and park art. Of national importance are
Chervonokutskyy Dendropark (area, 13.6 hectares), Sharovskyy Park (area,
39.3 hectares), Natalivskyy Park (area, 48 hectares), Botanical Park
with the Kharkiv University (area, 41.9 hectares) and other. The nature
reserves of 189 reserve objects cover 37,000 hectares.

One of the largest river of Ukraine – the Siverskyy Donets River – flows
across the territory of the Oblast (373 kilometres long within the
region), Dnieper-Donbas Canal and Siverskyy Donets-Donbas Canal have
been built.

The Siverskyy Donets River revives three the largest reservoirs:
Pechenizke Reservoir (383,000,000 cubic metres), Krasnopavlivske
Reservoir (410,000,000 cubic metres), Chervonooskolske Reservoir
(445,000,000 cubic metres).

Minerals

Natural gas (reserves: 31.1 billion cubic metres), oil (estimated
reserves: 8 million MT), lignite and hard coal deposits, cement raw
materials. Fuel and power resources are represented by 41 combustible
gas reservoirs among which the most notable are Shebelinkske,
Krestyshchenske, and Kegychivske gas pools (the half of gas recovery in
Ukraine).

Deposit origin building materials (sand, clay, chalk, limestone)
predominate in the region. Of a large importance are Novoselivske
high-purity glass-melting sand deposit, Yefremivske salt deposit.
Brick-tile-loam and clay, including ceramics ones, chalk occur
throughout the territory.

Structure of Natural Resources of the Kharkiv Oblast

— land resources – 54.7%;

— recreational – 15.0%;

— mineral – 15.0%;

— water – 11.0%;

— forest and fauna – 4.3%.

The natural-resource potential of the Kharkiv oblast makes up 4.2% of
the gross Ukrainian natural-resource potential.

PEOPLE AND SOCIETY

Population: 2,910,000. The largest city, the capital of the oblast –
Kharkiv (1,470,000) – is the second-largest city in Ukraine, the
seventeenth-largest city in Europe. Other major cities include Lozova
(63 000), Kupyansk, Izyum (56 000).

Ethnic divisions

Ukrainians account for 62.8 per cent (1,880,000), Russians account for
33.2 per cent (990,000), other ethnic groups make up 4 per cent
(120,000).

Education

Pre-school education: 758 children pre-school establishments.

Secondary and special secondary education: 989 secondary schools, 53
professional-technical educational establishments.

Higher education: 69 state higher educational establishments (HEE), 12
non-state HEEs.

The education system of the region completely satisfies the latter’s
needs for engineering-technical, teaching, and medical specialists,
lawyers and cultural workers; moreover, it trains a significant number
of specialists for other regions of Ukraine.

Culture

The Kharkiv region is the hub of culture of Slobozhanshchyna. There are
6 state theatres (including 3 academic ones), the Regional Philharmonic
Society, the Organ and Chamber Music House, Circus, 33 museums, 800
clubs and palaces of culture, about 1000 libraries (the Korolenko State
Scientific Library is of world importance and keeps about 6,500,000
books), recreation parks, the oldest Zoo in Ukraine that has celebrated
its centenary. 2,250 monuments of history and culture are under
protection of the state.

The cultural traditions of the region have deep historical roots. Such
worldwide known figures as Skovoroda, a philosopher, Repin, an artist,
Les Kurbas, a producer, Beketov, an architect, Kvitka-Osnovianenko, a
writer, lived and worked here.

The Kharkiv region is the place of launching and holding of many
national and inter-national competitions including Krainev Competition,
Competition in honour of Gorovits, organ and chamber music festivals;
‘Pokut’ International Folklore Festival.

The main objectives of culture development in the region are to
preserve, master, and enrich the Ukrainian national culture as a unique
part of the world culture, to overcome the estrangement of an individual
from culture, to give the public access to common to all mankind
intellectual values and ideals.

Religion

Religion and church constitute important components of the
democratisation of a society, the growth of its supersubstantiality.

A dynamic development of the network of religious organisations and
their confession diversion in accordance with ethnoconfessional and
cultural needs of the population are observed in the Kharkiv region.

There are 435 religious organisations of 27 confessions in the Kharkiv
Oblast. These include 6 theological administrations, 5 monasteries, 4
missions, 2 fraternities, 2 theolo-gical seminaries, and 418 religious
communities. There are 184 Sunday schools with religious organisations.
There are 502 clergymen.

Ukrainian Orthodox Church that celebrated the bicentenary of the
foundation of the Kharkiv Diocesan Administration in 1999 is the most
numerous and predominant church in the region.

After the proclamation of Ukraine as an independent state, 23 churches
have been built, the construction of 30 are now under way, 20 churches
and temples are being restoring with the support of local authorities.

Health

The public health system consists of 423 medical.

Medicinal Preparation Centre and 12 research institutes (researches in
the fields of cryomedicine, nuclear medicine, neurosurgery,
microbiology, orthopaedics, traumatology, neurology and psychiatry,
pharmacotherapy and general therapy) carry out researches in the field
of medicine.

Medical workers are trained at the Kharkiv State Medical University, the
Ukrainian Pharmaceutical Academy, the Kharkiv Institute for Advanced
Training Physicians, and 8 special secondary educational establishments.

Sports

There are developed sporting facilities in the region. These include 57
stadia, 952 gymnasiums, 28 swimming pools.

Football, volleyball, basketball, track and field athletics, swimming,
gymnastics are the most popular kinds of sport. Recently,
non-traditional and extreme sports – rock-climbing, gliding, automobile
and motorcycle sport – have been becoming more and more popular.

Kharkiv sportsmen made their debut at the Helsinki Olympics in 1952.
Then a woman gymnast M. Gorokhovska won 1 golden and 5 silver medals.
Yu. Poiarkov (volleyball), R. Sharipov (gymnastics), L.Dzhigalova,
(track & field athletics), Ya. Klochkova (swimming) were twice Olympic
champions; V. Matushevas and Yu.Vengerovskiy (volleyball), A. Barkalov
(water polo), I. Tselovalnikov and V. Movchan (cycle track racing), Ye.
Kuryshko (canoeing), were Olympic champions. Also, many Kharkiv
sportsmen were world and European champions.

Housing

The total area of available housing in Oblast accounts for 59,030.5
thou. Square metres. The average provision of an inhabitant with living
accomodation is 19.8 square metres of total area.

At the average, the region constructs 300,000 square metres of living
accommodation a year (150,000 square metres – individual, construction).

Political sphere

In the Kharkiv Oblast the participation of all subjects of the political
process in securing the stability of the political system, civil
concord, protection of human rights continues to liven up. There have
been registered and function 51 regional organisations of political
parties of 105 parties acting in Ukraine.

Trades unions

The Kharkiv Oblast trades union organisation consists of 35 interbranch
organisations with 1,12 million members in total number.

Mass media

All known mass media have been developing in the region: TV and radio
broadcasting, newspapers, journals, INTERNET.

A teletransmission infrastructure notable for its influence and dynamism
has been formed within the region’s information field. The inhabitants
of the Kharkiv Oblast enjoy the possibility to receive four national
TV-programs, two programs of the Regional State Broadcasting Company,
and seven Russian language programs of commercial broadcasting
companies. Satellite television is actively developing.

Regional printed mass media form public opinion and are capable to play
an important role in any national measure system. In the region are
published 211 prints (25 journals and 186 newspapers) of the total
circulation of 1.7 million copies.

ECONOMY

Industrial potential

In industrial production the Kharkiv Oblast is the fifth-largest oblast
in the country. 604 industrial enterprises are concentrated in the
region.

The Kharkiv Oblast leads the way in the mechanical engineering industry
of Ukraine. There, a powerful tractor-building complex has been formed.
The production of power equipment, aircraft construction, machinetool
construction, fuel, electronic, chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and
light industries are of great importance.

Mechanical engineering and metalwork

The share of the region in the national production account for: tractor
and combine engines – 100 per cent; tractors – 40 per cent; steam
turbines – 100 per cent, antifriction bearings – 55 per cent, CNC
machine tools and large electric machines – 50 per cent.

Fuel and power industry

The fuel and power complex of the Kharkiv Oblast is a unique one in
Ukraine as regards the production of power carriers (gas and gas
condensate) and self-sufficiency in electricity thanks to own
generating.

Food industry

The region is self-sufficient in bakery foods and paste, meat products,
and full-cream milk products. There is a significant export potential as
regards confectionery, canned milk, strong drinks, oil and fat products,
sugar sand.

Construction materials

The Ukraine’s largest enterprises producing cement, slates, tiles,
cellular concrete blocks, wall materials, plastic joineries, bricks,
constructional steelwork operate in the region.

Pharmaceutical industry

This sector has unique research and production facilities, which allow
manufacturing products competitive in the world markets. Over fifty per
cent of the medicinal preparation production in Ukraine is accounted for
the Kharkiv Oblast.

Chemical industry

The region is specialised in the production of consumer goods (plastic
articles, household chemistry goods, enamels, and paints) and raw
materials for heavy industry needs (coke, spare parts to oil drilling
equipment, liquefied and gaseous nitrogen, oxygen and argon).

Light industry

Light industry enterprises of the region produce garments, textiles, fur
and leather goods, carpets, leather haberdashery, footwear. As a whole,
this sector produces some 9,000 kinds of consumer goods (the
first-largest oblast in Ukraine in the volume of production).

Small business

There are 11,700 small businesses in the. 9 business centres, 3 business
incubators, 3 business support foundations provide their assistance to
beginners.

The main lines of activities are as follows: production activities,
trading activity and agency business, construction, scientific support
and maintenance, service business.

Agriculture

Usable area, 2,400,000 hectares. Arable land area, 1,900,000 hectares.
The Kharkiv Oblast is notable among other oblasts of Ukraine for a high
level of the production of grain, sugar beet, sunflowers seeds,
vegetables and potatoes, and for beef and dairy animal husbandry. The
Kharkiv Oblast is self-sufficient in main farm products.

Scientific potential

As regards scientific and scientific-and-technological organisations,
the Kharkiv Oblast is the second-largest one after Kyiv and the largest
region in Ukraine. There 56 per cent of R&D facilities of Ukraine are
concentrated.

36,000 specialists of 14 academic institutes, 79 highest accreditation
educational establishments, and two hundred branch institutes are
engaged with R&D. These include 30 Full Members and Corresponding
Members of the National Academy of Sciences, 228 ones of branch
academies of sciences, 1,496 Doctors of Sciences, 9,000 Doctors of
Philosophy.

The Kharkiv Oblast has a rich scientific heritage and is the motherland
of world-wide known scientific schools founded by well-known scientists
such as physicists L. Landau, K. Sinelnykov, B. Lazarew, B. Verkin, A.
Ioffe, A. Valter, astronomer I. Barabashov, mathematicians I. Akhiezer,
I. Ostrogradsky, chemists I. Beketov, I. Palladyn, biologists I.
Mechnikov and V. Yuriev and others.

It was the Kharkiv region where, for the first time in Europe, atom was
split, the most powerful radio telescope in the world was created,
elementary particle accelerators were developed and newest radiation and
space technologies, unique radar sounding and monocrystal growing plants
were proposed.

Kharkiv specialised science has been recognised both in the state and
abroad thanks to the development of the most powerful steam and
hydraulic turbines, electric generators and electric machines, aircraft
and space devices, to the production of engines and state-of-the-art
military machinery.

The medical science is represented by such important for human life
branches as cryomedicine, nuclear medicine, neurosurgery, microbiology,
orthopaedics, traumatology, neurology and psychiatry, pharmacotherapy
and general therapy.

Up to 56 per cent (by their total value in the state) of fixed assets
for research and technological activities, in particular, 15 per cent of
machines and equipment for scientific experiments are concentrated in
Oblast. Thanks to this, up to 10 per cent of the total R&D work volume
of Ukraine are performed in our region.

PRIORITY LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION

The main priority line of the development of the Kharkiv region is the
implementation of a proper social-oriented policy, creating necessary
legal, social, cultural, and economic conditions for life and activity,
environmental safety, satisfaction of material and cultural needs of the
public.

For the purposes of development of the region the following main
problems are to be solved: — structural readjustment of the economy of
industrial areas and centres characterised by heavy industry
concentration;

— encouraging the development of export-oriented and import-substitution
technologies;

— intensification of agriculture;

— substantial environmental recovery of industrial areas;

— more complete management of renewable resources;

— formation of a rational settling apart system;

— conservation and revitalisation of the cultural individuality of the
region’s inhabitants, protection of monuments of history and culture,
establishment of new wildlife reserves;

— development of the regional and interregional infra-structure
(transportation, communication, informatics);

— provision of a rational management of nature system.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Market infrastructure

The banking system of the Kharkiv Oblast is a reliable partner of
enterprises and organisations. Today, 12 self-supporting commercial
banks – legal persons – operate in its territory. As a whole, there are
87 banking institutions including 6 regional administrations and
directorates of national banks.

All banks has switched over to the international accounting standards
that have made it possible for them to be integrated in the world’s
banking system.

A developed banking system would constitute for the Oblast a system for
capital concentration for the purposes of investing in priority
projects, of solving regional problems of the economic growth of the
region.

A stock market infrastructure is actively developing in Oblast. In
particular, a branch of Ukrainian Stock Exchange, 75 institutional
traders in securities, 34 investment companies and foundations are
active.

As a whole, there has been formed the market infrastructure capable of
securing the development of business. 12 exchanges, 20 insurance
companies, 7 credit unions, 3 business incubators, 9 business centres,
over 200 auditing companies are active in the region.

Investment infrastructure

Consulting firms and agencies are actively being established, which are
capable not only to skilfully prepare business plans but also to serve
as intermediaries between the sources of investment resources and
originators of investment projects, to provide an efficient support and
monitoring of these projects.

The construction complex of the Oblast is capable of performing any
architectural and construction projects using state-of-the-art
technologies both by order from investors and in accordance with own
planning/designing documentation that are prepared by Technical
University of Construction and Architecture and Municipal Economy
Academy. 400 construction organisations are active in the Oblast; over
60 enterprises in construction and building material industry produce
cement, asbestos-cement products, reinforced concrete and concrete
products, construction ceramics, etc.

Telecommunication

In provision of the public with home telephones the Kharkiv Oblast is
one of the leading oblasts of Ukraine. The network of electric
communication, mobile communication is rather widely developed; there
are developed the services in package commutation data transfer using
X.25 and Frame Relay technologies, searching radio call (paging and
trunking communication); Internet network is rapidly developing.

Transportation network

The Kharkiv Oblast retains a convenient transport and geographical
position at the crossing of international ways ‘North-South’ and
‘West-East’.

The largest national highways – Kyiv – Kharkiv – Rostov and Moscow –
Simferopol cross the territory of Oblast.

Kharkiv is the junction of rail links in the Eastern Ukraine, which
services six adjacent oblasts.

In 1995, Kharkiv Airport received the international status. There are 3
lines of the subway with 26 stations.

Hotel and Customer Sevices

A wide network of hotels and public catering enterprises is available in
Kharkiv. Kharkiv, Kyivska, Mir and other hotels provide their services
of European standards to guests of the city.

Numerous laundries, dry cleaners, and other consumer service
establishments both at hotel and all round the city propose their
services.

In addition to numerous store that sell goods of domestic and foreign
producers, there is a number of stores that offer goods of leading
foreign companies.

All these make it possible to hope that businessmen who are going to
connect their business with the Kharkiv Region would feel themselves
comfortably when staying in our city.

INVESTMENT CLIMATE

In terms of provision and general economic potential Ukrainian oblasts
differ a lot from each other.

In this regard, according to investment attractivity (developed in the
Kiev Reform Institute) the Kharkiv oblast joins the group of so-called
leaders and takes the 6-th place among the most attractive oblasts in
terms of investment.

Foreign economic relations and foreign investments

The main goods that are exported abroad are as follows:

— machines and equipment;

— air- and spacecraft;

— electric machines;

— products of pharmaceutical and chemical industries; and

— food products, consumer products.

The main imports are as follows:

— mineral fuel; and

— machines and equipment.

Special Regime of Investment Activities

Act of Ukraine “On Special Regime of Investment Activities in the
Territory of the City of Kharkiv” is aimed to create a favourable
climate for both domestic and foreign investors. This Act came into
force from January 01, 2000, and creates attractive conditions for
investments in the development of priority economic activities.

Benefits and privileges as provided by Special Regime of Investment
Activities cover Projects the amount of investments whereof is over US$
3,000,000 for production of machines and equipment, metal-working; over
US$ 1,000,000 for production of electric power, gas and water,
transportation, communication, processing of scrap metal and metal
waste; over US$700,000 for civil engineering, waste treatment, chemical
production, furniture production, pulp-and-paper and printing
industries; over US$500,000 for food industry and processing farming
products, light industry.

Benefits and privileges provided for are as follows:

— exemption for 5 years from import duty and import VAT of raw
materials, supplies, equipment and constituent parts thereto that are
connected with the realisation of Investment Projects pursuant to
agreements (contracts) entered into with the Council;

— exemption from 100 per cent of taxation for 3 years and from 50 per
cent of tax on profit for further 3 years (in the part of profit earned
from the use of investments);

— exclusion of the amount of investments attracted from the gross
income;

— exemption for 5 years from payment for land during the period of
developing the latter.

Institute for Single Crystals, Scientific and Technological Concern

The implementation of an innovation state policy requires for a new
technological, sectoral, and structural organisation of the national
economy in accordance with the up-to-date global post-industrial
standards.

Just for this purpose, Institute for Single Crystals, Scientific and
Technological Concern, has been established in The Kharkiv Oblast for
the manufacture of high-tech products for both the needs of domestic
market and increase of the export potential of Ukraine, for ensuring the
complete cycle “Research – Development – Introduction – Industrial
Output”.

The priority lines of the development of this concern are as follows:
the development of technologies and mastering the production of a wide
range of products in the field of material science, in particular, the
production of materials, articles therefrom, apparatuses and equipment
for medicine, mechanical and instrument engineering, electronics,
chemical industries, power engineering, agroindustrial complex,
information technologies, biotechnologies, etc.; training of scientists
and specialists to be ready for R&D commercialisation; creation new
technological SMEs.

The concern enjoys a special regime of activities secured by appropriate
legislative acts of the state this making it especially attractive for
both domestic and foreign investors.

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