The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies
territory of the British Isles which are situated to the north-west of
Europe. They consist of two main islands: Great Britain and Ireland.
England is in the south of the island of Great Britain, Scotland is in
the north and Wales is in the west. Northern Ireland is situated in the
north-eastern part of Ireland. Its western coast is washed by the
Atlantic Ocean. In the east the island of Great Britain is washed by the
North Sea. The Irish Sea, the North Channel and the St. George’s Channel
separate Ireland from Great Britain. Great Britain is separated from
France by the English Channel, which is 32 km wide in its narrowest
part. In everyday speech “Great Britain” is used to mean the UK.
The climate of Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and
humid. As the weather changes with a wind, and Britain is visited by
winds from different parts of the world, the most characteristic feature
of Britain’s weather is its variability. Summers are not hot and winters
are not cold in Britain. The snow never lies for long on the ground. As
a rule there is no ice on the waters of rivers and lakes. So we may say
that the British climate has 3 main features: it is mild, humid and
changeable. That means that it’s never too hot or too warm.
Weather changes very often.
English is the official, but not the only language used in the country.
Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered
most part of Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent
tribes in the West and in the North. Further waves of invaders followed:
Angels, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to the
mixture we call English. For many centuries this country was known
simply as England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous
colonial wars. England, once the “work shop of the world”, was the first
to become a highly industrial country.
There are no big rivers in Great Britain. The biggest are Severn and
Thames. The Severn in England is the longest river. It is 350 kilometers
long. It flows south – west into the Irish Sea. There are a lot of
mountains in Great Britain, but they are nit high. The highest mountain
— Ben Nevis — is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much
varied and the fauna is similar to that of the north-west of Europe. The
country is not very rich in natural resources but there were suffice for
the Industrial Revolution to start.
London is the capital of the Great Britain.
It was founded by the Romans. It is very old city. It is two thousand
years old. London is only the capital of the country; it is also a huge
London is situated upon both banks of the Thames. There are 17 bridges
across the river. The population of London is over 8 million people.
London has got three parts of London, the West End, and the East End.
The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow
streets and pavements there. There are many offices, films and banks in
this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the
The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West
End. They are many, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben.
It is interesting that the clock “Big Ben” came into service in 1859.
Big Ben is biggest clock bell in Britain. It weight 13.5 tons.
The other interesting place is Westminster Abbey, which was founded in
1050. It is situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were
buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin and others.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was
built in the 18th century. There are many nice squares in London.
Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of West End. One
can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square.
There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Gallery
is one of the well – known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar
manufacturer. He was found of paintings and collected many pictures.
The British Museum is a very interesting place in London. It was founded
in 1753. The library of this museum has a lot of books.
The East End of London is the district for the working people. There are
many factories, workshops, docks there. There are many cars and buses in
London. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too. It is a nice
One can say that the City is the money of London, the West End is the
goods of London, the East End is the hands of London.
* * *
Great Britain is highly industrialized, this was the country in which
the earliest developments of modern industry.
The Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. A parliament is the
group of people who make the laws of their country. British laws are
made in the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The main political
parties in Great Britain are the Conservative, Labour, Liberal and
Social – Democratic Parties.
The largest cities of Great Britain besides London are: Birmingham,
Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, and
Edinburgh. The most important seaports are: London, Liverpool, Belfast,
Glasgow and Cardiff.
Литература: Т. Ю. Журкина «55 устных тем по английскому языку»
???????????????МОСКОВСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ
ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ И ИНФОРМАТИКИ
Реферат по английскому языку
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