Англійські неологізми (дипломна робота)

Дипломна робота

Англійські неологізми

Table of contents


The definition of neologism____________________________________

Changing culture_____________________________________________

Cultural acceptance___________________________________________

Versions of neologisms________________________________________

Types of neologisms__________________________________________

Neologisms in literature_______________________________________

Neologisms in psychology_____________________________________

Neologisms in theology_______________________________________

Methods of coinage neologisms________________________________

Word building models of coinage neologisms_____________________

Stylistic stratification of neologisms_____________________________

Semantical models of coinage of neologisms______________________

Description of the software product_____________________________

General information about NeoLog_____________________________

Basic features of Windows____________________________________

The Delphi Interface_________________________________________

The creation of the program in Delphi___________________________

Components of the NeoLog program____________________________

Use of databases in Delphi____________________________________

Tables of database of the NeoLog program_______________________

Combining of databases with the components of the program_________

Visible and invisible components_______________________________

Creation of procedures of studying the event______________________

Organization of multiwindows projects__________________________

Installation of the program____________________________________

Order of work in the NeoLog environment_______________________





\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\term.htm» \o «Term» term , or
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\phrase.htm» \o «Phrase» phrase
which has been recently created («coined») — often to apply to new
concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. Neologisms
are especially useful in identifying HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\inventions.htm» \o «Inventions»
inventions , new HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\phenomena.htm» \o «Phenomena»
phenomena , or old HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ideas.htm» \o «Ideas» ideas which
have taken on a new cultural context.

1800 ; thus for some time in the early 19th Century, the word
«neologism» was itself a neologism. It can also refer to an existing
word or phrase which has been assigned a new meaning.

Changing culture

Neologisms tend to occur more often in cultures which are rapidly
changing, and also in situations where there is easy and fast
propagation of information. They are often created by combining existing
words or by giving words new and unique HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\suffix.htm» \o «Suffix» suffixes
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\prefix.htm» \o «Prefix» prefixes .
Those which are HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\portmanteau.htm» \o «Portmanteau»
portmanteaus are shortened. Neologisms can also be created through
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\abbreviation.htm» \o «Abbreviation»
abbreviation or HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\acronym.htm» \o «Acronym» acronym
, by intentionally HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\rhyme.htm» \o «Rhyme» rhyming
with existing words, or simply through playing with sounds.

Neologisms often become popular by way of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\mass_media.htm» \o «Mass media»
mass media , the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\internet.htm» \o «Internet»
Internet , or HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\word_of_mouth.htm» \o «Word of
mouth» word of mouth . Every word in a language was, at some time, a
neologism, though most of these ceased to be such through time and

Neologisms often become accepted parts of the language. Other times,
however, they disappear from common usage. Whether or not a neologism
continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the
most important of which is acceptance by the public. Acceptance by
linguistic experts and incorporation into dictionaries also plays a
part, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neologism remains
current, thus continuing to need a descriptor. It is unusual, however,
for a word to enter common use if it does not resemble another word or
words in an identifiable way. (In some cases however, strange new words
succeed because the idea behind them is especially memorable or
exciting). When a word or phrase is no longer «new,» it is no longer a
neologism. Neologisms may take decades to become «old,» though. Opinions
differ on exactly how old a word must be to no longer be considered a
neologism; cultural acceptance probably plays a more important role than
time in this regard.

Cultural acceptance

After being coined, neologisms invariably undergo scrutiny by the public
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\linguist.htm» \o «Linguist»
linguists to determine their suitability to the language. Many are
accepted very quickly; others attract opposition. Language experts
sometimes object to a neologism on the grounds that a suitable term for
the thing described already exists in the language. Non-experts who
dislike the neologism sometimes also use this argument, deriding the
neologism as «abuse and ignorance of the language.»

Some neologisms, especially those dealing with sensitive subjects, are
often objected to on the grounds that they obscure the issue being
discussed, and that such a word’s novelty often leads a discussion away
from the root issue and onto a sidetrack about the meaning of the
neologism itself.

Proponents of a neologism see it as being useful, and also helping the
language to grow and change; often they perceive these words as being a
fun and creative way to play with a language. Also, the semantic
precision of most neologisms, along with what is usually a
straightforward syntax, often makes them easier to grasp by people who
are not native speakers of the language.

The outcome of these debates, when they occur, has a great deal of
influence on whether a neologism eventually becomes an accepted part of
the language. Linguists may sometimes delay acceptance, for instance by
refusing to include the neologism in dictionaries; this can sometimes
cause a neologism to die out over time. Nevertheless if the public
continues to use the term, it always eventually sheds its status as a
neologism and enters the language even over the objections of language

Versions of neologisms

Unstable — Extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a very
small subculture.

Diffused — Having reached a significant audience, but not yet having
gained acceptance.

Stable — Having gained recognizable and probably lasting acceptance.

Types of neologism

Scientific — words or phrases created to describe new scientific
discoveries or inventions. Examples:

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\black_hole.htm» \o «Black hole»
black hole . (1968) A black hole is a concentration of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\mass» \o «Mass» mass great enough
that the force of gravity prevents anything from escaping from it except
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\quantum_tunneling» \o «Quantum
tunneling» quantum tunneling behavior.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\laser.htm» \o «Laser» laser .
(1960) A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
is an optical source that emits HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\photons» \o «Photons» photons in
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\coherence_(physics)» \o «Coherence
(physics)» coherent beam.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\prion.htm» \o «Prion» prion .
Prions — short for proteinaceous infectious particle — are infectious
self-reproducing HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\protein» \o «Protein» protein

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\quark.htm» \o «Quark» quark .
(1960) Quarks are one of the two basic constituents of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\matter» \o «Matter» matter in the
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\standard_model» \o «Standard Model»
Standard Model of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\particle_physics» \o «Particle
physics» particle physics .

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\radar.htm» \o «Radar» radar .
(1941) It is a system used to detect, range (determine the distance
of), and map objects such as HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\aircraft» \o «Aircraft» aircraft
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\rain» \o «Rain» rain .

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\posterized.htm» \o «Posterized»
posterized . Posterization occurs when a region of an image with a
continuous gradation of tone is replaced with several regions of fewer
tones, resulting in an abrupt change from one tone to another. This
creates an effect somewhat similar to that of a simple graphic
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\poster» \o «Poster» poster .

beetle bank. (early 1990s) In HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\agriculture» \o «Agriculture»
agriculture , a beetle bank is a strip of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\poaceae» \o «Poaceae» grass or
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\perennial» \o «Perennial»
perennials in a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\field» \o «Field» field that
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\habitat» \o «Habitat» habitat
which fosters and provides cover for HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\insect» \o «Insect» insects
hostile to pests. They are used as a form of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\biological_pest_control» \o
«Biological pest control» biological pest control to reduce or replace
the use of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\insecticide» \o «Insecticide»
insecticides .

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\science_fiction.htm» \o «Science
fiction» Science fiction concepts created to describe new, futuristic
ideas. Examples:

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ringworld.htm» \o «Ringworld»
Ringworld (1971) Ringworld is a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\hugo_award» \o «Hugo award» Hugo
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\nebula_award» \o «Nebula award»
Nebula award-winning HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1970_in_literature» \o «1970 in
literature» 1970 HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\science_fiction.htm» \o «Science
fiction» science fiction novel by HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\larry_niven» \o «Larry Niven»
Larry Niven , set in his HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\known_space» \o «Known Space»
Known Space universe. The work is widely considered one of the classics
of science fiction literature. It is followed by three sequels, and it
ties in to numerous other books in the Known Space universe.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\dyson_sphere.htm» \o «Dyson Sphere»
Dyson Sphere (circa 1960) A Dyson sphere is a hypothetical HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\megastructure» \o «Megastructure»
megastructure first described in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1960» \o «1960» 1960 by the
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\physicist» \o «Physicist»
physicist HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\freeman_dyson» \o «Freeman Dyson»
Freeman Dyson in a short paper published in the journal HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\science_(journal)» \o «Science
(journal)» Science entitled «Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of
Infra-Red Radiation».

r-whorf_hypothesis.htm» \o «Sapir-Whorf hypothesis» Sapir-Whorf
hypothesis . Example:

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\political_correctness.htm» \o
«Political correctness» political correctness (1990). Political
correctness (also politically correct, P.C. or PC) is a term used in
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\english-speaking_countries» \o
«English-speaking countries» English-speaking countries to describe
real or perceived attempts to impose limits on the acceptable language
and terms used in public discussion. While it usually refers to a
linguistic phenomenon, it is sometimes extended to cover political
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ideology» \o «Ideology» ideology
or public behavior.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\sie_and_hir.htm» \o «Sie and hir»
sie and hir (neologisms). Sie and hir are two terms proposed to serve
as gender-neutral HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\grammatical_person» \o «Grammatical
person» third person HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\grammatical_number» \o «Grammatical
number» singular personal HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\pronoun» \o «Pronoun» pronouns in
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\english_language» \o «English
language» English . These HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\neologism.htm» \o «Neologism»
neologisms are used by some people who feel that there are problems
with gender-specific pronouns because they imply HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\sex» \o «Sex» sex and/or
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\gender_role» \o «Gender role»
gender . However, sie and hir are very rare compared to other solutions
and most commentators feel that it is unlikely that they will catch on.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\homophobia.htm» \o «Homophobia»
homophobia (1969). The term «homophobia» is a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\portmanteau.htm» \o «Portmanteau»
portmanteau derived from the words HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\homosexuality» \o «Homosexuality»
homosexual and HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\phobia» \o «Phobia» phobia . In
current usage it is employed to refer to the aversion to, or disapproval
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\homosexuality» \o «Homosexuality»
physical intimacy and sexual expression between individuals of the same
sex and those who engage in such activities. This aversion may range
from mild to intense.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\meritocracy.htm» \o «Meritocracy»
meritocracy (1958) As the suffix «-cracy» implies, meritocracy is
strictly speaking a system of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\government» \o «Government»
government based on rule by ability (merit) rather than by wealth or
social position. In this context, «merit» means roughly intelligence
plus effort. However, the word «meritocracy» is now often used to
describe a type of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\society» \o «Society» society
where wealth, income, and HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\social_status» \o «Social status»
social status are assigned through HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\competition» \o «Competition»
competition , on the assumption that the winners do indeed deserve
(merit) their resulting advantage. As a result, the word has acquired a
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\connotation» \o «Connotation»
connotation of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\social_darwinism» \o «Social
Darwinism» Social Darwinism , and is used to describe aggressively
competitive societies, with large HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\inequality» \o «Inequality»
inequality of income and wealth, contrasted with HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\egalitarianism» \o «Egalitarianism»
egalitarian societies.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\dog-whistle_politics.htm» \o
«Dog-whistle politics» dog-whistle politics (1990). Dog-whistle
politics is a term used to describe a type of political campaigning
which is «only heard» by a specific intended audience. It is usually
used pejoratively by those that do not approve of the tactics.

cide.htm» \o «Genocide» genocide . Genocide is the systematic killing
of substantial numbers of people on the basis of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ethnicity» \o «Ethnicity»
ethnicity , HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\religion» \o «Religion» religion ,
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\politics» \o «Politics» political
opinion , HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\social_status» \o «Social status»
social status or other particularity. The most widely known example is
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\holocaust» \o «Holocaust»
Holocaust (the genocide of various groups, especially HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\jews» \o «Jews» Jews , during
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\world_war_ii» \o «World War II»
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\nazi_germany» \o «Nazi Germany»
Nazi Germany and its HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\the_holocaust» \l
«Who_was_directly_involved_in_the_killings.3F» \o «The Holocaust»
collaborators ). Lesser known in the West are HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\stalin» \o «Stalin» Stalin ‘s
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\holodomor» \o «Holodomor» forced
starvation of Ukrainian farmers , or HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\mao» \o «Mao» Mao ‘s murder of 20
to 60 million Chinese

Some political neologisms, however, are intended to convey a negative
point of view. Example: HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wiktionary.org\\wiki\\brutalitarian» \o
«wiktionary:brutalitarian» brutalitarian

Pop-culture — words or phrases evolved from mass media content or used
to describe popular culture phenomena (these may be considered a
subsection of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\slang.htm» \o «Slang» slang ).

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\jumping_the_shark.htm» \o «Jumping
the shark» jumping the shark . Jumping the shark is a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\metaphor» \o «Metaphor» metaphor
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\united_states» \o «United States»
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\television» \o «Television»
television HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\critic» \o «Critic» critics and
fans since the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1990s» \o «1990s» 1990s . The
phrase, popularized by HYPERLINK
\o «Jon Hein» Jon Hein on his HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\website» \o «Website» website ,
jumptheshark.com, is used to describe the moment when a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\popular_culture» \o «Popular
culture» pop culture icon, originally a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\television_program» \o «Television
program» TV show or similar episodic medium, is in retrospect judged
to have passed its «peak» and shows a noticeable decline in quality, or
when it has undergone too many changes that take away the original charm
and interest.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\chuck_cunningham_syndrome.htm» \o
«Chuck Cunningham syndrome» Chuck Cunningham syndrome . Chuck
Cunningham syndrome is a term that refers to a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\television_series» \o «Television
series» television series in which a main character or a character
otherwise important to the show’s plot is removed without explanation.
The term comes from the character Chuck Cunningham in the American
television series, HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\happy_days» \o «Happy Days» Happy
Days .

Baldwin (a good-looking man, such as one of the Baldwin family of

Scooby Gang (a group which humorously resembles the teens on the cartoon
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\scooby-doo.htm» \o «Scooby-Doo»
Scooby-Doo )

sex-it-up a recently used phrase describing the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\memo.htm» \o «Memo» memo that was
said to be the cause of the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\iraq.htm» \o «Iraq» Iraq

Imported — words or phrases originating in another language. Typically
they are used to express ideas that have no equivalent term in the
native language. Examples:

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\zen.htm» \o «Zen» zen (1727). Zen
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\japan» \o «Japan» Japanese name
of a well known branch of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\mahayana» \o «Mahayana» Mah?y?na
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\buddhism» \o «Buddhism» Buddhist
schools, practiced originally in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\china» \o «China» China as
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\chan» \o «Chan» Chan (?), and
subsequently in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\korea» \o «Korea» Korea ,
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\japan» \o «Japan» Japan , and
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\vietnam» \o «Vietnam» Vietnam .
Zen emphasizes the role of sitting HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\meditation» \o «Meditation»
meditation ( HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\zazen» \o «Zazen» zazen ) in
pursuing HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\bodhi» \o «Bodhi» enlightenment .
Zen can be considered a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\religion» \o «Religion» religion ,
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\philosophy» \o «Philosophy»
philosophy , or simply a practice depending on one’s perspective. It has
also been described as a way of life, work, and an art form.Zen is the
common name for this branch of Buddhism in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\japanese_language» \o «Japanese
language» Japanese as well as in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\english_language» \o «English
language» English . However, in the last half of the 20th century, Zen
has become an international phenomenon, with centers in many countries
around the world.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ao_dai.htm» \o «Ao dai» ao dai
(1960s). The ao dai (pronounced ‘ao yai’ in the South; pronounced ‘ao
zai’ in the North) is a traditional HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\vietnam» \o «Vietnam» Vietnamese
dress worn by women. It is the uniform for female students in Vietnamese
secondary schools and universities. The ao dai is and has been more
prevalent in southern Vietnam than in northern Vietnam.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\tet.htm» \o «Tet» Tet (1968). T?t
Nguyen ?an (derived from HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\chinese_language» \o «Chinese
language» Chinese ???), more commonly known as T?t (?), is the most
important holiday in HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\vietnam» \o «Vietnam» Vietnam . It
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\vietnam» \o «Vietnam» Vietnamese
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\new_year» \o «New Year» New Year
which is based on the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\chinese_calendar» \o «Chinese
calendar» Chinese calendar , a HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\lunisolar_calendar» \o «Lunisolar
calendar» lunisolar calendar .

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\anime.htm» \o «Anime» anime
(1988). Anime (???) is HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\japan» \o «Japan» Japanese
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\animation» \o «Animation»
animation , sometimes referred to by the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\portmanteau.htm» \o «Portmanteau»
portmanteau Japanimation. It is often characterized by stylized
colorful images depicting vibrant HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\fictional_character» \o «Fictional
character» characters in a variety of different settings and
storylines, aimed at a wide range of audiences. Anime is usually
influenced by Japanese HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\comics» \o «Comics» comics known
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\manga.htm» \o «Manga» manga .

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\d_25c3_25a9tente.htm» \o «Detente»
detente (1960s). Detente is French for relaxation. It was also the
general reduction in the tension between the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\soviet_union» \o «Soviet Union»
Soviet Union and the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\united_states» \o «United States»
United States and a weakening of the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\cold_war» \o «Cold War» Cold War ,
occurring from the late HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1960s» \o «1960s» 1960s until the
start of the 1980s. More generally, it may be applied to any
international situation where previously hostile nations not involved in
an open war «warm up» to each other and threats de-escalate.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\manga.htm» \o «Manga» manga .
Manga (??) is the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\japanese_language» \o «Japanese
language» Japanese word for HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\comics» \o «Comics» comics and/or
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\cartoons» \o «Cartoons» cartoons
(not necessarily animated, this includes print cartoons); outside of
Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\comics» \o «Comics» comics . Manga
developed from a mixture of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\ukiyo-e» \o «Ukiyo-e» ukiyo-e and
Western styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\world_war_ii» \o «World War II»
World War II .

ricized_trademark.htm» \o «Genericized trademark» genericized trademark
. Example: HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\laundromat.htm» \o «Laundromat»
Laundromat . A laundromat (U.S.), launderette (British), Washette
(Southeastern U.S.) or washateria (Southwestern U.S.) is a store where
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\clothes» \o «Clothes» clothes are
washed and dried. This is often done by coin operated machines that are
worked by the client. Laundromats may have a staff to wash the clothing;
this is referred to as Fluff-n-Fold or drop-off service. Laundries are
equipped with both HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\washing_machine» \o «Washing
machine» washing machines and HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\dryer» \o «Dryer» dryers , usually
specialized ones designed to survive heavy use.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\nonce_word.htm» \o «Nonce word»
Nonce words — words coined and used only for a particular occasion,
usually for a special literary effect.

Inverted — words that are derived from spelling (and pronouncing) a
standard word backwards. Example: HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wiktionary.org\\wiki\\redrum» \o «wiktionary:redrum»

Paleologism — a word that is alleged to be a neologism but turns out to
be a long-used (if obscure) word. Used ironically.

Neologisms in literature

Orwellian (from HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\george_orwell.htm» \o «George
Orwell» George Orwell , referring to his novel HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\nineteen_eighty-four.htm» \o
«Nineteen Eighty-Four» Nineteen Eighty-Four ) and HYPERLINK
it» \o «Ballardesque» Ballardesque (from HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\j.g._ballard.htm» \o «J.G. Ballard»
J.G. Ballard , author of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\crash.htm» \o «Crash» Crash ).
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\kurt_vonnegut.htm» \o «Kurt
Vonnegut» Kurt Vonnegut ‘s HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\cat_2527s_cradle.htm» \o «Cat’s
Cradle» Cat’s Cradle was the container of the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\bokononism.htm» \o «Bokononism»
Bokononism family of Nonce words.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\lewis_carroll.htm» \o «Lewis
Carroll» Lewis Carroll ‘s poem » HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\jabberwocky.htm» \o «Jabberwocky»
Jabberwocky » has been called «the king of neologistic poems» as it
incorporated some dozens of invented words. The early modern English
prose writings of Sir HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\thomas_browne.htm» \o «Thomas
Browne» Thomas Browne HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1605.htm» \o «1605» 1605 —
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\1682.htm» \o «1682» 1682 are the
source of many neologisms as recorded by the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\oxford_english_dictionary.htm» \o
«Oxford English Dictionary» OED

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\psychology.htm» \o «Psychology»
psychology , a neologism is a word invented by a person suffering from a
language disorder, which may occur in the context of HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\psychosis.htm» \o «Psychosis»
psychosis or HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\aphasia.htm» \o «Aphasia» aphasia
acquired after HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\brain_damage.htm» \o «Brain damage»
brain damage  ; clinicians can sometimes use these neologisms, which
often have meaning only to the subject, as clues to determine the nature
of the disorder.

\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\theology.htm» \o «Theology»
theology , a neologism is a relatively new doctrine (for example,
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\rationalism.htm» \o «Rationalism»
rationalism , also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical
doctrine that asserts that the HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\truth» \o «Truth» truth can best
be discovered by reason and factual analysis, rather than HYPERLINK
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\faith» \o «Faith» faith ,
\\wikipedia\\en.wikipedia.org\\wiki\\dogma» \o «Dogma» dogma or
religious teaching.). In this sense, a neologist is an innovator in the
area of a doctrine or belief system, and is often considered heretical
or subversive by the mainstream church.

Methods of coinage neologisms

The studying of linguistic vocabulary in a functional aspect foresees
the analysis of methods of coinage neologisms, which enables to pass to
the pragmatic aspect of new words. Taking into account the method of
appearance neologisms are subdivided into: 1) phonological, 2)
borrowing, 3) semantic, 4) syntactic, coined by combination of signs
already existing in a language (word building, combination of words). It
will be expedient to divide the last type of neologisms into
morphological (word building) and phraseological (combination of words).

Phonological neologisms are formed from separate sounds and are unique
by their configuration. Such words are sometimes called “artificial” or
“invented”. The new configurations of sounds are from time to time
connected with the morphemes of Greek or Latin origin, example:
adhocracy (a flexible organizational system designed to be responsive to
the needs of the moment), acryl, perlon (synthetic materials). Words
coined from exclamations also belong to the group of phonological
neologisms such as: to zap (to make more powerful, exciting; to
revitalize) formed from a similar word “zap” which was used in comics
for the transmission of the sound of space weapon (in a graphic form ).
It is possible here to deliver the words formed by the change of writing
for passing their pronunciation, for example: wannabe (a person who
wants to be someone else) coined from “want to be”, wheneye (a person
who exasperates listeners by continually recounting tales of his
experiences and exploits) arose up due to an introductory phrase “when
I…” Such type of neologisms can be delivered to “strong neologisms”, in
fact they have the high degree of connotation of newness, that increase
by an unusual thing and freshness of their form.

It is possible to concern borrowings which are characterized by
untypical for the English language by the distribution, by the
morphological division and absence of motivation to strong neologisms.
And although on this stage borrowings are on periphery of lexical
system, they are still an integral part of innovations. For the last
decade growth of borrowings from Japanese ands Spanish has taking place.
The main centers of attraction for new borrowings are: 1) art and
culture: cinemateque (from French), karaoke (from Japanese); 2) social
and political life: Ossi, Wessi (from German) – denotation of citizen of
the East and West Germany; fatwa (from Arabic) – a legal decision or
ruling given by Islamic religious leader; karoshi (from Japanese) –
death caused by overwork or job-related exhaustion; 3) everyday life:
taqueria (from Spanish) – a restaurant specializing in Mexican food,
particularly tacos; otaku (from Japanese) – people who are obsessed with
the trivia of a particular hobby; geek (from Danish) – unfashionable,
boring or socially inept person; basuco (from Colombian) – a cheap
impure form of cocaine; bimbo (from Italian) — an attractive but
unintelligent young woman; 4) scientific and technical borrowings:
biogeocenose (from Russian) – ecological system. Barbarisms differ by
the greatest degree of newness which are not assimilated units of a new
vocabulary, for example: jihad (from Arabic) – a struggle. Xanizms are
close to the barbarisms (they are adopted units which represent the
specific of the country – the source of borrowing): za-zen (from
Japanese) – a type of mediation in Zen Buddhism.

The difference between barbarisms and xanizms that the first ones have
synonyms in language-recipient, and the second ones mean the phenomena,
objects and concepts, that exist only in a language-source and are
strange for other countries.

Substantial diminishment of amount of the traced words is noticeable:
traffic calming (from German Verkehrsberuhihung) — the deliberate
slowing of traffic, esp. along residential streets, by construction of
road humps or other obstacles to progress.

The result of borrowings is not only the addition to lexical composition
of the language, the stylish colouring of lexical units changes in the
process of borrowing and their inner structure homonymical relations are
formed, that promotes, the variation of lexical units and partly
predetermines it.

Less neological are morphological neologisms, which appear after
standards which exist in the linguistic system from morphemes present in
a language. The question is in word building and such regular word
building processes as affixation, conversion, word composition,
shortening, etc. The main sign, that distinguished morphological
neologisms from phonological and from borrowings is the presence of
analogy and typology in the basis of their creation.

As to semantic neologisms, the unique problem at their studying is the
establishment of criteria after which it is possible to distinguish a
separate independent word or a new meaning of already existing word,
which are the results of semantic changes.

Word building models of coinage neologisms

The first attempt of creation taxonomy of word building facilities was
made by Platon in his “Cratyl”. And although nowadays there appeared
several new types of word building, such as acronymy or telescopy
(blend), it is possible to speak about existence of traditional taxonomy
of word building. The role of word building consists not only in making
up new words but in producing the words already existing in a language.

The Bulk of innovations of the last decades, after the researches of
I.B. Andrusiak, are the derivative units, formed from words and
combination of words and combination of words present in the language,
by the various methods of word building.

It is known that one of the most widespread methods of forming
derivative words is affixation. There are other facilities of word
building such as conversion, composition, blending, shortening acronymy.

For the last decades in coinage of new words there were used 103
suffixes after the I.B. Zabotkinoyi research: — ability, — able, -ac, —
asy, — (i)al, — ally, — (i)an, — age, -ance, — ant, — ar, — arium, —
ary, — ase, — ate, — atic, — ation, — ative, — cade, — dom, — ectomy, —
ed, — ee, — eer, — eme, — emia, — er/or, ers, — ery, — ese, — est, —
esque, — et, — eteria, — ette, — fest, — hood, — ia, -iasis, — ic, —
ica, — ical, — ician, — icity, — ics, — idase, — ide, — ie, — ification,
— ify, — igenic, — in, — ine (adj.), — ine (nominal), — ing, — ino, —
ion, — ional, — ish, — ism, — ist, — ite (person), — ite (mineral), —
ity, — ium, — ive, — ization, — ize, — ized, — less, — let (te), — ly, —
metry, — mycin, — ness, — nik, -o, — oid, — ol, — ola, ologist, ology, —
oma, — on, — onium, — orium, — ory, -ose, -osis, — ous, — plex, -ry,
-s(area of study), — s (plural of disease), — scape, — ship, — ster, —
sville, — tron, — tuplet, — ure, — y(adj.), — y (nominal).

Besides, in formation of new units actively participate semisuffixes
(or combing forms): — athon, — friendly, — gate, — gram, — hydro, —
intensive, — info, -man, -ship, — oriented, a/oholic, — pedia/paedia, —
speak, — tool, — watcher, — wide.

Among prefixes which take part in the coinage of neologisms, prefixes
and semiprefixes of the Latin origin prevail. It is worth mentioning the
most productive of them: ant-, co-, de-, ne-, non-, post-, pre-, sub-,

The characteristic feature of modern suffixes is their severe pragmatic
attaching after the certain sphere of their usage, that is their
terminology. Besides the considerable part of innovations belongs to the
scientific and technical sphere.

The most active on this stage of development of the language derivation
is realized in making up new stylistically neutral words which
represents the phenomena of public life and acquires wide distribution
among linguists.

v+er?N: stalker (a person who follows or pesters somebody, with whom
he/she has become obsessed), comper (a person who enters for
competitions regularly in order to win as many prizes as possible),
slacker (a person regarded as being one of a large group of people, esp.
of young adults who are perceived to lack a sense of direction in life).
The model of creation neologism by addition to the noun the suffix -ing
is interesting: N+ -ing?N, for example: hydrospeeding (a sport in which
participants launch themselves down rapids holding on to a float);
carjacking (the violent abduction or “hijacking” of a car or its

In policy it is widespread derivation of neologisms with the help of
suffix -ism or semisuffix -nomics to the proper names, for example:
Brairism (the political and economic policies of the British Labour
politician Tony Blair), Majorism, Clintonomics (the economic policies of
President Clinton) Nixonomics. Especially important in the aspect of
functional neology is efemerism (words of wide use in a certain period
of public development, as a rule, connected with activity of political
figures which after words pass to the general fund according to the
definite events): Thatcherism, Raiganomics.It follows that this model
activates as a result of certain changes in the life of the society.

The period of spreading of feministic movement also imposed the imprint
on the linguistic system, expressed in the suffixes of the neutral
tender colouring, for example: -eer – marketeer (a specialist in
marketing), -tron – waitron (a waiter or waitress). The suffix -ed is
used in formation of adjectives from verbs, for example, after the model
V+ed?Adj. there appeared such neologisms as: oxygenated (containing
oxygenate additives which reduce harmful emission such as carbon
dioxide), caffeinated (containing caffeine, having had caffeine added),
challenged (lacking a physical or mental attribute, not having a
specified skill).

Word building with prefixes is less spread, but nevertheless lexical
units demonstrate the semantic loading of prefixes and semiprefixes.

In fact not only the root of word but also its affixes show their
semantic signs, for example: reskill (to retrain in the skills required
by a modern business), outsource (to obtain by contract from a source
outside an organization or area; to contract out).

Some affixes are more used in everyday intercourse because they have
marking “slang”. One of the most active suffixes of slang is a suffix
-y/-ie, which developed a new humiliatingly-ironical meaning, forming
neologisms after the model N+-y/-ie?N. Words, coined with the help of
this suffix, limited in the use and are kept indoors of inofficial
communication, mainly among young people. For example: fundie (a
fundamentalist, esp. a religious one), foodie (a person whose hobby or
main interest is food, a gourment). Although, at the same time in the
language there continues to exist the suffix -y in its diminished-tender
meaning: techie (an expert in or enthusiast for technology, esp.
computing, a technician), monty (everything that is necessary or
appropriate, “the works”). Besides the sufficient word building activity
is shown by the omonymical suffix -y which forms new adjectives, for
example: touchy-feely (given to a tactile expression of one’s feellings,
motivated by emotion rather than intellect).

Acronym model+-ie?N. The innovations after such algorythm have status of
words which represent the division of society in the USA and Great
Britain into different groups and layers, for example: yuppie (young
urban professional) and rumpie (rural upwardly mobile professional). By
analogy with these neologisms, other words appear: muppie (middle-aged
urban professional person), yeepie (youthful energetic elderly people),
woopie (well-off older person).

To neologisms of this type it is possible to concern such words as:
dinkie (double income, no kids) – childless family, nilkie (no income,
lost of kids) – family with many children of an unemployed person. But
the lexical units, formed after this model have ironical connotation
strengthened due to the suffix -ie, and their usage is limited by the
representatives of the middle class.

On the whole for the word building models of neologisms with the help of
affixes the characteristic tendecy is the multisignificance. Especially
ramified semantic structure is distinguished by the models of formation
nouns with the help of affixes that it is conditioned by their cognition
feature to mark objects, phenomena, processes of the real reality in the
whole variety of their connections and relations, each of which can find
oneself in man’s eyeshot and become the object of process of cognition.
The system of word building with the help of affixes of the English
language is not only one of the active neogenic methods of addition to
dictionary composition but also is marked by high potential to
self-fulfilling, what testifies about the appearance of new word
building models; affixes and also new components in their semantic
structure, and pragmatic differentiation of affixes after different
spheres of the use also differs.

The appearance of derivatives is caused by not only nominative necessity
of a new denotation but also stylistic factors: the use of derivatives
is instrumental in the syntactic compactness of the text, its

The prime example of such words is the compound words where semantic and
syntactic compression is observed the same time – the expansion of
syntactic functions of initial structure. Compound words are coined in
two ways: composition which means drafting of bases and confluence
(blending telescopy), the process of formation of the unit itself in
which one truncated element and complete form of the other element, is

An underproductive type of making up compound words is also possible.
That is the contamination which means imposition of final element of the
first word to the omonymical beginning of the second one, as for
example, in the word of “twigloo” (“twig”+”igloo”). The formation of
telescope nominations and word-bars is caused by “the principle of the
least efforts” and is one of the law economy display of language

Adv (“drop-dead” – referring to an attractive person: very stunningly).

Some researchers indicate to existence of separate type of compound
words, namely syntactic, the basis of which serve combinations of words;
sentences or parts of sentence. The semantic capacity of derivation
units is practically unlimited, as they are able to include variable
information a linguist intends to pass. For example, hole-in-the-wall
(machine which dispenses cash and gives information about a person’s
bank accounts).


Such word building method as blanding is rather widespread in the modern
English, for example: Japanimation (animated cartoons produced in
Japan). Thus both models with truncating of the component and models
with truncating of both elements are active. In the first case first
part of the compound word can be unchangeable (for example, netizen —
network user, from «net» + «(cit)izen», mokney — inauthentic and
affected imitation of cockney, from «mock» + «(cock)ney»), or its final
element (for example, feminazi — a radical feminist, from «femi(nist)» +
«nazi», emergicenter — a clinic offering emergency outpatient treatment,
from «emerg(ency)” + «center»). Making up of the new telescope words has
been activating during the last decades, where both elements are the
subject to truncating, namely the final truncating of the first
component and initial truncating of the following: edutainment
(entertainment with an educational aspect; from «edu(cation)» +
«(enter)tainment»), vegelate (chocolate which contains a certain
proportion of vegetable fat other than cocoa butter, from «vege(table)»
+ «choco(late)»).

A tendency to formation of «haplological» telescope neologisms is
multiplied in which laying of phonemes on the collision of two words is
observed, for example: faction (fiction, based on facts, from «fact» +

Telescope nominations, as well as compound words represent the tendency
to universalization and rationalization of the language, demonstrate
different degrees of motivation and division.Thus the degree of their
division and motivation is lower, that is explained by the presence of
the hidden cut off elements.

Conversion as the method of coinage of new words by derivation has
considerably reduced its activity for the last years. Active models are
mutual transitions of nouns and verbs, V?N and N?V: drive-by (a shooting
carried out from a moving vehicle), add-in (something which is added to
a computer or other system to improve in capabilities or perfomance), to
mouse (to carry out by using a mouse), to reskill (to retrain workers in
the skills required by a modern business). A new model appears:
shortening of the phrase and substantivation of the adjective A?N, for
example: plastic (credit cards, debit cards, and other plastic cards
which can be used in place of money to pay for goods and services).

Shortening as a result of the action of the law of language economy are
also widely used among the word building methods of coinage neologisms.
Thus a word has a tendency to shortening both initial and final elements
of the structure. For example, burb — a suburb, a suburban area; rad —
really good or exciting; cool, hip, awesome (from «radical»). Some
innovations assimilate in the language, getting new signs: diss (an
insult or put-down, from «disrespect»), or skell (a homeless person, a
derelict, from «skeleton»). The others remain changeable shortened
variants of existing equivalents in the language: aero (aerodynamic in
design or appearance), impro (a form of live entertainment based on
improvisation and interaction with the audience). It worth mentioning
that the shortened words are most often used in the colloquial speech in
the case when the speakers exactly know, what the question is about, and
there is no need to use the initial variant of the certain word.

Acronymy is also rather active method of word building and
words-acronyms are often spread among linguists and become current, at
first as fashionable words (buzz-words), later as comfortable colloquial
forms. For example, FOB (a supporter of President William Jefferson
Clinton; from «Friend Of Bill»), FAQ (a document, usually in electronic
form online, containing a list of questions most often asked about a
particular subject, usually with answers to them; from «Frequently Asked
Questions») Acronyms from current phrases, also exist and function in
the language, as for example: BTW (by the way) or TINA (there is no

Stylistic stratification of neologisms

Any social conduct, including the language activity is regulated by
rules. As stylistic stratification of neologisms is based on the
pragmatic rules which impose the limitation on the use of lexical units,
it is necessary to keep to the chart structure of lexical meaning of a
word, developed by M.B.Nikitin.

In his monograph «Lexical meaning in word and combination of word» he
praves that in the content of a word it is pointed out the intension
(kernel of meaning); implication (all stereotype associations which are
traditionally connected with the denotation), emotion
(subjectively-accessed component: feeling tone, emotive valeur). The
components of word meaning can be correlated with any three aspects of
meaning. If they are correlated with intension, denotative inclination
of a word outlines the spheres of its adequate usage, the circle of
possible situations of intercourse. For example, the detonative
specifics of the words applet, add-in limits their usage by the scopes
of the situations linked with the use of computer. Pragmatic components
can be localized in the implication of meaning. For example, it is
necessary to know for the correct use of word babe (an attractive girl
or young woman) that the components of this type encode the social,
age-old, sexual, ethnic parameters of speakers, their role relations.
And finally, given components can be correlated with the emotion of
meaning and expressed through the mark in the dictionary (pejorative,
mocking, ironical, derogatory), through the emotionally-painted word
building elements, through the assessed words in definition. These
pragmatic components encode such parameters of situational variation as
the tone of situation of intercourse, intention of the linguist.
According to this it is possible to distinguish three large layers in a
new vocabulary:

1) words with intensional pragmatic components;

2) words with emotional pragmatic components;

3) words with implicational pragmatic components.

Semantical models of coinage of neologisms

Among the researchers there is no the only thought about the status of
semantic innovations. Criteria, according to which it is possible to
distribute the semantic changes on those which conduce to appearance of
an independent word, and those which result is the appearance of a new
meaning in already existent lexical unit aren’t developed till now. The
hypothesis that semantic word creation consists in reinterpretation of
previous words and in forming of homonyms by disintegration of word in
two ones is the only offered way out from this situation.

It follows that about complement, independent lexical unit it is
possible to speak only in the case when the semantic changes of the
polysemantic word where brought to the complete gap of the community of
the semantic connection between the separate meanings of the word, that
is to the formation of the homonym with the absolutely different
meaning. But this thought is not often adopted because there are no
objectively certain algorythms of referring of innovations to the
homonyms. From the other side, some authors eliminate semantic
innovations considerating neologisms at all. Nevertheless nowadays
two ways of studying of semantic neologisms were set in our time: 1)
distinguishing of semantic word building models and establishment of
formal criteria of grant to innovations the status of new word-homonyms.
2) the analysis examination of the results of the semantic
transformations as the new meanings in the semantic structure of existed

It’s worth mentioning that at differentiation of concepts «formation of
word» and «formation of meaning» the change of lexico-grammatical
description of a word is necessary to point out that if a word passes to
the other lexico-grammatical digit, the question is about
lexico-semantical word-building. For example, the word «squeegee» the
old meaning of which is «rubber-edged implement set on a handle and used
for cleaning window» and the new meaning of it is «a person who cleans
the window screen of a car stopped in traffic and solicits payment from
the driver».

Both meanings are incorporated by the same semantic «cleaning windows»
but transition of a word in other lexico-grammatical category is needed
to consider as a result of lexico-semantical word building. It means
that words are independent lexical units (homonyms).

However such perspective on the whole, approach to the question about
the lexico-semantical word-building has the row of lacks: a) more or
less clear determination of concept of differentiating lexico-semantical
sings, that assumes subjectivism at the division of words on
lexico-grammatical classes is absent; b) the mechanism of semantic
transformations is not taken into consideration, as a result some
innovations, got by an identical way can be set in the digit of words,
and others – in the digit of meanings; c) the durability of the semantic
communication which can be between the meaning of polysemantic word,
considerably stronger than lexico-grammatical sings is not taken into

Most researches adhere to the point of view, that in all cases, where
the semantic connection between the meanings of polysemantic word is
kept, if should be considered as word-lexeme, that contains the certain
amount of lexico-semantical variants (or meanings). It is up to the
status of the semantic new formations too, which are the
lexico-semantical variants of a word.

On the whole, the semantic method of nomination belongs to those
phenomena in the language, which are not considerd to synonymous
interpretation. It is obviously explained that the talk is about
semantic processes which belong to semasiology and onomasiology at the
same time.

The formation of homonyms in their classic understanding is rather rare
phenomenon, if to examine the word building for the short span of time.
It is possible to give such examples of neologisms: to zap — to make
more powerful, exciting or lively; to revitalize; to spice or pep up,
while the previous meaning of the word 1) to kill; 2) to break; 3) to
take aback; to veg — to pass the time in vacuous inactivity, while the
first meaning «to veg» — «to vegetate»; rock — a crystallized form of
cocaine which is smoked for its stimulating effects, where the initial
meaning of the word was: 1) a cliff, a mountain; 2) a stone; 3)
swinging; 4) music style; 5) slang — money.

Most semantic neologisms are new lexico-semantical variants of words
that formed on the basis of already existent lexical units and are
complemented with the lexico-semantical variants of these words. As the
elements of the difficult polysemantic structure have hierarchical
interdependence, at the analysis of neologisms it is necessary to
distinguish the initial meanings in relation to which semantic
innovations are derivative. But in the process of semantic nomination
not always the main (invariant) meaning is primary. Two basic types of
formation of lexico-semantical variants are considered in this
connection: 1) the chain one, when the last meaning of the polysemantic
word with the semantic structure of subsequent increases comes forward
in quality of an initial word; 2) radial, when the basic meaning serves
at the initial for all subsequent innovations between which there
appears the relation of parallelism.

The example of semantical innovation by a chain method can be neologism
«space» (the freedom to think, act, or be oneself) that is coined as a
result of the successive evolution of meanings which follow from each
other: 1) unused or unfilled gap or area between two or more objects or
points; 2) unoccupied area or place available for use; 3) large area
(esp. of land not built on); 4) continuous expanse in which all things
exist and move; 5) universe beyond the earth’s atmosphere in which all
other planet and stars exist, that is «distance between two objects» —
«unoccupied territory» — «large area (not built up)» — «continuous
space» — «freedom (space) for thought and actions».

The example of the radial method can be the coinage of neologism «mule»
(a person who acts as a courier for illegal drugs). It arose up parallel
with such meanings as: 1) animal that is the offspring of a donkey and
horse, used for carrying load and noted for its stubbornness; 2)
stubborn person, independent of each other, but combined with the basic
meaning «the creature for moving the load».

In the basis of semantical nomination the formal-logical relations are
fixed between concepts, which represent certain associations able to
appear in a man’s consciousness. For the semantical method of nomination
such types of relations are relevant: a) subordination of concepts that
at the semantic level are expressed in the processes of expansion and
narrowing of meaning; b) intersection, that is the basis of semantical
process of metaphorical and metonymical transfers.

Semantical neologisms are formed from roots, affixes and difficult
lexical units (including word combinations). While analysing the
innovations it is also important to distinguish between the use of
existent lexemes for the nomination of new objects and phenomena and the
usage of this method for vivid, synonymous detonation of objects and
phenomena which have already the expressively neutral name. For example,
«pen» — a hand-held device used as a writing tool to input commands and
data into a computer via a screen versus «kicking» as a synonyms to the
words of «exciting», «great», «lively», «excellent.”

There are such semantic processes, except of above enumerated, as
worsening and improvement of meaning, which are connected with the
change of connotative element of the word meaning.

Narrowing of meaning takes place in accordance with the model: A? a
(where A is the basis of the seme of gender meaning (archiseme), and a —
the differentiating seme of the specific meaning). For example,
«adventure» — a type of computer game in which the player plays a role
in a story involving stimulated danger; an instance of playing this king
of game; or a computer slang word «export» — to transfer (data) out of
one computer system into another or from one application within a
computer to another; in business sphere neologism «niche» is also used
in the narrowed meaning — a position from which an entrepreneur is able
to exploit a gap in the market; a profitable section of a market; or
informal «hole-in-the-wall» that means «a machine usually installed in
an outside wall of a bank, which dispenses cash and gives information
about a person’s bank account». In the policy of Canada is widely
functioned neologism «allophone» — a person, living in a French Canada
who speaks a language (and is of ethnic descent) other than French or

In prison slang is widely spread the innovation “beast” – a person
convicted of a sexual offence, that also shows narrowing or
specialization of the meaning.

Expansion of meaning passes according to the model A · a ? A. For
example, trainspotter in the slang usage gets the generalized meaning
“an obsessive follower of any minority interest or specialized hobby”.
The other slang lexical unit also shows the expansion of the meaning:
“babe” – an attractive young woman; similarly as well as “item” – a
couple in romantic or sexual relationship, and “squeegee” – a person,
who cleans the windowscreen of a car stopped in traffic and solicits
payment from the driver.

The metaphorical transfers consists in the removal or replacement of the
basic (genitive) seme (archiseme) at saving of differential (specific
seme) which becomes the initial seme of denomination. This type of
semantical transformation can be examined as a symmetric relationship of
two names with replacement of archisemes. For example, green shoots –
signs of growth or renewal, especially of economic recovery.
Schematically this metaphorical transfer can be given as A·b (where b –
new growth, A – about plants) — B·c (B – new growth, c – about economy).
Similar coined neologism “jungle fever” – a burning desire to engage in
an interracial sexual relationship. Schematically this transfer is
described as: A·b (where A – malaria, b – severe form) — B·c (B –
severe, burning desire, c – an interracial relationship).

The model of metaphorical transfer Nzool ? Npers is very active in
formation of substandard vocabulary, for example, neologism “mule” – a
person, who acts as a courier for illegal drugs; “bird” – an attractive
young woman or girl.

Some neologisms which are the names of people are formed according to
the model: Nobj ? Npers: “squeegee” ? a person who cleans the wind
screen of car stopped in a traffic and solicits payment from the driver
(old meaning – a rubber-edged implement set on a handle used for
cleaning windows); “anorak” ? a person who pursues an interest with
obsessive dedication (old meaning – kind of a jacket).

But it is necessary to distinguish to basic types of metaphorical
transfer: 1) metaphorical transfer which is based on the obvious
similarity of objects, for example: bubble – a woman’s hair style in
which the hair is arranged in a round bubblelike shape; whisker – a
thick hair-like crystal of great strength; 2) the metaphorical transfer
in the basis of which the association is fixed, connected related with
the name of the object: vegetable – a person who is like a vegetable; a
lifeless, inert creature.

Metonymy (contiguity of meaning in the basis) is another source of
formation of semantical neologisms, however it is not as active as
metaphor, for example “air miles” – a consumer incentive scheme under
which credits redeemable for free air travel are issued to frequent
flyers, or to people taking part in designated transaction; “juice” – a
favourable standing position, power of influence.

The metonymical transfers consist in that the basic seme of one word is
the component of the second word, thus the relations between elements
have asymmetric character. For example “longhair” – a person wearing
long hair; “skinhead” – a person wearing closely cropped hair.
Neologisms coined by mentonymy are constituents of word combinations:
“brain-drain” – the emigration of scientists, scholars; “blue-helmet” –
a member of the international military peacekeeping force of the United
Nations, whose uniform includes a blue helmet.

Semantical processes which are up to the changes in the denotative
component of lexical meaning are expressed through the generalization
(expansion of meaning) or concretization (narrowing of meaning). A
tendency to narrowing of meaning is observed in the processes of
formation of terminology, for example: to import/to export – to transfer
(data) into/out of a computer from/into another one; adventure – a type
of a computer game in which the player plays a role in a story involving
simulated danger. In current words sometimes stylistically marked as a
“slang” the process of expansion of meaning can be observed. For
example: item – couple in a romantic or sexual relationship;
trainspotter – an obsessive follower of minority interest or specialized
hobby. In the last case the worsening of meaning is present. Neologism
“babe” in the meaning of “an attractive young woman” also shows the
expansion of meaning in connection with the appearance in the detonative
element of word of new seme. The semantic changes in the connotative
component of the meaning mean acquisition by lexical units of negative
or positive estimation. These changes of lexical meaning are conditioned
by the social factors. For example, word “dude” – old meaning: a swell,
a dandy; new meaning – person, a guy, one of the “gang” or neologism
“mad” – old meaning: crazy, unwell in head; new meaning – remarkable,
unusual, exciting.

“Payoration” of meaning in contrast to “melioration” is more difficult
to observe as the majority of stylistically marked word have the certain
seme of negative meaning in its lexical meaning. But nevertheless there
are instants of worsening of meaning at the formation of neologisms:
trainspotter – old meaning: a person with a strange unusual hobby; new
meaning – an obsessive follower of any minority interest or specialized
hobby. In the gained new meaning this neologisms is used as a scornfull
slang word.

Some words which were considered as negative ones now have the opposite
positive estimation, are rehabilitated because such type of semantical
changes as neutralization. For example neologism “black” in new
combination has the positive seme: black is beautiful, black is power.

The instants of new meanings just contrary already existent are also
observed. Such meanings are called enuntiosemes. For example: “head” –
new meaning: 1) a drug addict (-); 2) a devotee (+).

It is worth marking that the given neologism in both meanings serves
initial basis for derivatives which have positive or negative seme in
its lexical meaning, for example, basehead (-), headcase (+).

Changes of lexical meaning also include euphemisms or the usage of
indirect expressions omission of rough or scornful lexical units in the
opinion of a linguist: “otherly abled” or “challenged” – instead of
“disabled” or “handicapped”, “a client” instead of “a convict”,
“socially disadvantaged” in the meaning of “mentally ill”. In general,
euphemisms are rather interesting in the modern linguistics, where there
is a tendency to the direct nomination, that is the result of people’s
freedom from the great majority of religious prohibitions, their greater
relaxation in the moral plan freedom of ethnic additions and
reglamentations which are characteristical for nowadays. Therefore it is
possible to estimate the tendency of direct nomination is greatly
blocked by contrary ability to express one’s thoughts parafrastically.

For the last decades the formation of euphemisms has been taken place
according to the typical for English language models. It is first of all
the semantical displacements among which the narrowing of meaning
according to its wide spread takes the first place, that is the usage of
words or word combinations of wide semantic and polysemantical in much
narrower meaning. For example: “amateur” in the meaning of “an
unprofessional politician”, “golden age” instead of “old age”,
“newsreader” in the mean of the “reader of the latest news on the TV or

Euphemisms-neologisms functioning in different subject – conceptual
spheres where the moral factors of tabu and euphemistic replacement act
and they are formed with the help of all typical for English language
semantical and formal means.

Having looked at different models of the formation of the semantical
neologisms it is possible to make certain conclusion. Semantical
transfers serve as the means of strengthening of expression of the
vocabulary at the expense of new formed more expressed lexical units –
synonyms to already existent neutral words. The amount of neologisms on
different topical groups depends on the development intensity of the
corresponding kinds of people’s activity and on the degree of changes in
the way of life of the society. It is worth mentioning that for the last
time it gets more complicated to separate exactly terminological and
current vocabulary as the wide usage of everyday technique is followed
by the penetration of the great amount of the technical words in the
everyday vocabulary. Popular-science TV-programs and articles of media
also help the appearance of diffusion of words into the everyday
colloquial speech. In general, according to the laws of language
development there exist mechanisms which regulate the addition and
anewing of the vocabulary thanks to the semantical innovations,
supporting them in corresponding activity. Some of the new meanings of
the old words become an integral part of the language, the others can
find the resistance in the language usage.

Description of the software product

One of the basic stages of linguistic modelling of the text is the
creation of a dictionary. In the ABBYY Lingvo 8.0 system two types of
dictionaries intended for the user are foreseen. For «operative work»
user dictionaries that can be enriched, are used (that is the
dictionaries created by the user directly during the work with ABBYY
Lingvo 8.0). Dictionaries of the other type, that are in rich positions
of marking (similar to the systematical dictionaries) it can be created
by the compiler of the DSL language but they support the operative
addition in the session with ABBYY Lingvo 8.0

Beginning with the Lingvo 6.0 version, the compiler of the DSL language
is included in the complement of the system (Dictionary Specification
Language). The Compiler Dslcomp.exe is in the root directory Lingvo. The
compiler allows to create the dictionaries which can be put on the shelf
of Your Lingvo system, to pass for the use to your colleagues and
friends or even to offer the whole concord of Lingvo users. Thus the
authors of user dictionaries have at their disposal the same positions
of formatting the cards, as well as the creators of the Lingvo system

Unlike those dictionaries, which it is possible to create operatively
and fill up directly from the Lingvo system, the dictionary in the DSL
language is created in an external text processor, and then is compiled.

The initial text of the dictionary must be written as simple text file.
The text in the dictionary is needed to be saved in ANSI-code or as
Unicode Text, and then to change the expression of the file on dsl (for
example, in Microsoft Explorer).

The dictionary in the DSL language is the sequence of cards. Each card
consists of the title (title word or combination of words) and the text
of the card. At the use of the dictionary in the LINGVO system the title
is shown in the List of Title Words, and the text of the card (together
with the title) is given out in the window of the card as a translation
or interpretation.

A card in the DSL language has such structure:

1. A word — title. It is written from the first position of a new line.
In the title of the card there can be the alphabetical symbols of
English and Ukrainian languages, the figures gap, hyphen, ‘,» and {} —
it is used for the distinguishing in the title of the part, that is not

2. The body of the card. It is written down from the next line after a
title. Every line in it must retreat from the first position at one gap
or tabulation at least. The body of the card reaches the title of the
next card (the feature of it is the symbol in the first position,
different from the gap or tabulation) or to the end of the file.

The following areas can be selected in the card:

labels (by request);

translation section;

comment section (by request);

example section (by request);

pictures or sound (by request);

references to web-pages (by request).

If the body of the card is very long, it is possible to decrease the
amount of the information, that is simultaneously represented on the
screen. For this purpose the part of the card (for example, word
combination with the word — title) is marked as the second reflection
and is shown, only if the user wishes it. As the second reflection any
fragment of the card can be set (except of the title); the amount of
such fragments also can be free. Presently the Lingvo shell at the show
of the second reflection uses the type font of the other color.

To mark a part of a card as shown only in full translation mode:

The beginning of the text is marked with the «[*]» tag, the end — «[/*]»

You can insert one or several blank lines between the body of one card
and the heading of the next one as it facilitates the reading of the
source dictionary text. Entries can be entered in any order you want
(violating, for example, the alphabetical order). You cannot enter two
different entries with the same heading. This restriction doesn’t apply
to headings varying in case (you can have, for example, a card cardigan
and a card Cardigan, or even a card caRdigan).

The title of the card can be not only a word but also the word
combination. Between the words in such word combination there can be any
number of gaps. However at the reflection of the dictionary they are
substituted by one gap. The gap between words is taken into account at

The presence of a few titles at one card is assumed. In this case all
titles (each — from the first position of a new line) are written down
first, and then — the body of card according to the given above rules.
All titles are shown in the List of Words-Titles (each — on its place),
and at addressing to each of them the body of card is given out.

The List of the Word-Titles can simultaneously contain words in
different languages: they can be the titles of the cards, and the titles
of the subcards at the same time. At sorting for the letters of every
language a «natural lexicographic order» is used, and all Ukrainian
(Russian) letters are considered those, that go after all English ones.

Its unassorted part can be certain in the title. Its basic assignment is
pointing on the characteristic models of the compatibility of
word-title. The unassorted part is not shown in the List of
Words-Titles, it is not taken into account at sorting and comparing
words. It means that the attribution to a title-word of the unassorted
part does not create a new word of the title and, consequently, can not
be used for the creation of a new card or subcard with the modified

The inlaid subcard can be determinated in the body of the card. Usually
the translation or interpretation of the most common expressions and
combinations of words, in which the word-title is used, is given in it.
As well as the card, the inlaid subcard has the title and the body. At
giving out on the screen of the basic card only the title of the inlaid
subcard is shown in it. It is distinguished by the colour. At the
addressing to such title the other card with the body and the title of
the inlaid card is given out. The title of the inlaid subcard is shown
in the List of Words-Titles, and at the addressing to it the card with
the title and the body of a subcard is given out in the List (or at the
translation of the proper word-combination from the editor). One card
can contain a few subcards.

In the body of the card or subcard there can also be references to the
other card (for example, to the card to the synonym or antonym of the
word-title of this card). To create it, it is necessary to use in the
body of the card one of the titles of the card which is referenced to,
putting it in double angular brackets. Such construction can be met
straight in the text of the card (but not in the title of the subcard)
and it mustn’t compulsory begin from a new line. In the card the word,
through which the reference is done is not marked by any special sign,
and is simply distinguished by the same colour, that the title of the
inlaid subcard has. At the addressing to it the other card with
translation of a word appears.

You can enter comments in the source text of the dictionary; these
comments are ignored by compiler. Any DSL expressions present in
comments are ignored too. A comment is entered in double braces. Several
lines of the source text may be included in braces.. A comment may begin
in any part of a line, also braces may be entered in any part of a line.
The only restriction is that comments must not divide an entry (card) or
subentry heading (but they may be entered in the same line after the
heading). A line containing a comment in its first position cannot
contain any card heading, but you may enter a subentry heading after the
comment in this line.

The dictionary is indexed in ABBYY Lingvo 8.0 at the attempt of
searching or at demand (for example, at connecting the dictionary
<../LV_DICTIONARY_SETUP_DLG.htm>). Intended for the user dictionaries
are indexed the same way as the systematical dictionaries ABBYY Lingvo
8.0. In order the maintenance of the cards was taken into account at
the search, it is necessary to place into a card the tags of areas of
indexation. Otherwise, only the titles of the cards will take part in
the search. ABBYY Lingvo 8.0 looks at the whole area of indexation as at
one search area.

All tags look like the following: «[a]». «a» is a particular tag symbol,
toggling a particular mode on. The respective toggling-off tag looks
like «[/a]».

[b], [/b] — HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/text_format.htm» boldfaced type .

[i], [/i] — HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/text_format.htm» italics .

[u], [/u] — HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/text_format.htm» underlined type .

[c], [/c] — HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/text_format.htm» colored (highlighted) type .

[*], [/*]  — the text between these tags is only displayed in
DSL%20Compiler/EntryStructure.htm» \l «SecondaryRepresentation» full
translation mode (see); sample translations etc. are usually marked by
these tags.

[mN] — this tag sets the left HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/paragraph_form.htm» paragraph margin (counted from the
left card margin). N is any digit from 0 to 9. N spaces will separate
the left margin of any paragraph entered between this tag and its
toggle-off tag («[/m]») and left card margin. The toggle-off tag must be
entered explicitly.

[trn], [/trn] — to mark a HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/DictionaryIndexing.htm» \l «translation» translation
section .

[ex], [/ex] — to mark a HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/DictionaryIndexing.htm» \l «example» sample section .

[com], [/com] — to mark a  HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/DictionaryIndexing.htm» \l «comment» comment section .

[s],[/s] — to mark a multimedia section (it is used to HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/PictureInDictEntry.htm» insert pictures or sound files
into a dictionary entry (card)).

[url],[/url] — to insert HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/URLReference.htm» reference to a web-page .

[!trs], [/!trs] — the text between these tags will be excluded from
indexing, and, respectively, from full-text search.

[p], [/p] — HYPERLINK
DSL%20Compiler/features.htm» labels marking (when a label is pressed a
window with its definition appears).

[lang][/lang] — the language of a word or a phrase; you must specify it
for the words in the card that are written in other language than the
one specified for the dictionary entry (if you do so, such words will be
available for full-text search, translation, etc.) Parameters: language
name or language ID (say, [lang id=1]). The language name must be
enclosed in brackets, for example [lang name=»Russian»]. See the list of
supported DSL languages in » HYPERLINK
LV_WORD_LANG_DLG.htm» Supported languages » section.

[ref][/ref] — reference to a card in the same dictionary (you may also
use << and >> signs to enclose the card heading to make a reference).

[sub][/sub] — subscript.

[sup][/sup] —  superscript.

According to DSL language rules the embedding of index zones, as well as
formatting commands of one and the same type, is forbidden.

General information about NeoLog

The programmatic mean NeoLog is created with the purpose of automation
of collection, equipment with modern menities, editing of new
word-formations and their interpretations, formation of dictionaries and
preparation of them to the inclusion in the system of the electronic
dictionaries ABBYY Lingvo. Created program with the help of the system
of the visual object-oriented programming Delphi, is intended for the
development of the Windows additions.

Basic features of Windows

For the creation of software products which at Windows are named
additions (application) and their effective use under the management of
the operating system is necessary to consider the basic features of

1. A multitasking is a possibility of the simultaneous use of several
additions. Thus the system provides the division of resources: own
address space is given to every addition, distributing of processor time
is carried out and turns for access to the peripheral devices are
organized. In the middle of additions it is also possible to organize
concurrent execution of separate fragments (streams).

2. Independence of the programs from the instrument room features of
devices. For the management by vehicle facilities each addition
addresses the operating system, that provides independence from concrete
physical descriptions of devices: at the change of a device there is no
need to change anything in the program.

3. General-purpose graphic interface with a user. Basic co-operations
with a user are carried out in the graphics mode. Each addition carries
out taking out into a separate region of the screen (window). The window
consists of standards. It simplifies mastering of work of the programs
for users and facilitates the work of a programmer, as the libraries of
interface components are given in his order. Such libraries enter in the
complement of different systems of programing including Delphi.
Interface components address the devices not directly, but through the
functions of the operating system which have the name API (Application
Program Interface is programmatic interface of the addition). Functions
of API are in dynamic libraries (DLL — Dynamic Link Library) which use
all additions. These libraries are named dynamic because functions which
they contain are not connected with each file, that is executed to
implementation of the program, but is caused in the moment of addressing
to them. In the basis of man-machine interface there is the picture on
the screen of the monitor (Desktop) where there are objects: windows,
labels, menus. The user can change their sizes and locations. At every
the moment one of the objects is active, others are nonactive. The user
can easily change the active object.

4. The support of virtual address space for every addition. The
operative storage space is accessible for each application. An operating
system represents its physical addresses and provides the defence of
additions from one another.

5. The possibility of data exchange between additions. Additions can
exchange data through the buffer of exchange, the DDE (Dynamic Data
Exchange) and OLE mechanisms (Object Linking and Embedding is
communication and introduction of objects).

6. Event-guided programming. In the basis of the work of the programs
under the management of Windows the principle of management by events is
put. It means that the system itself and additions after the start
directed on the implementation expect the actions of the user and react
on them by the beforehand set appearance. Arbitrary action of the user
(the pressure of the key on a keyboard, clicking by the mouse, moving of
mouse button) is named an event. An event is perceived by the program
and is transformed into the message — the record, which contains
necessary information about an event (for example, which key is pressed,
where the clicking by the mouse button took place). Not only the user
but also the operating system itself, and also other additions can be
the source of events. Each addition contains the cycle of working on
messages, which chooses the messages from the turn and through the
operating system causes the program intended for working on this event.
Thus, the Windows additions consist of the main program, which contains
actions as to initialization and completion of the addition and the
cycle of the working on messages, and the set of the programs which work
over concrete events.

The Delphi Interface

The system of visual object-oriented programming Delphi is intended for
working out the additions of the operating system Windows. The VCL
(Visual Component Library) library, which contains components for
construction of interface of additions, and also structures for saving
and working of information is included into Delphi.

The interface of the Delphi programming environment consists of several
windows. The main window which contains menus and tool bars is located
above. The panel which contains the library of components is called the
palette of components. It consists of a few insets on which components
are grouped according to their functional sign. The window of inspector
of objects is disposed on the left. In its overhead part there is a
list, that opens up and contains the list of components which are in the
complement of application. For a select object its properties
(Properties) and events (Events) which he can react on are represented
on two insets. With the help of the inspector of objects properties and
procedures of objects, that work over events related to this object are
set. Basic part of the screen is occupied by the purveyance of form,
that is the window of a future application. A form is intended for
placing components. Under the form there is the window of editor of code
in which the program text is written.

The creation of the program in Delphi

The process of creation of the Windows addition by Delphi consists of
two basic stages: visual planning, that is the creation of outside type
of application, and determination of its conduct by writing the
procedures of working over events.

The visual planning consists in placing component on a form and
determination of their properties with the help of the inspector of
objects. The simplest method of placing the component is a double
clicking by the mouse button on the proper sign on the palette of
components, here the component takes place in the center of the form.
Then it is possible to change its place and size by a mouse. The
inspector of objects represents the properties of presently chosen
components. Grant of values to properties of the component or their
change is carried out in the inspector of objects by the choice from the
list of possible values or by taking out of the necessary meaning from
the keyboard. If next to the property there is a sign +, it means that
this property is an object which contains other properties, for access
to them it is needed to click on a sign +.

For determination of the conduct of the program the events, which are on
the inset of the Events inspector of objects are used. The template of
procedure for working over the event is caused by the double clicking on
the field, located on the left from the title of the proper event. For
each component the set of events which it can react on is certain. The
following events are used more often:

OnActivate — at getting the object of focus of input;

OnClick, OnDblClic — at the single and double clicking by the mouse

OnClose — at closing the form;

OnCreate — at creation the form;

OnKeyDown, OnKeyUp — at pressure and setting of the keys free;

OnKeyPress — at pressure of the aplhabet-numeral key;

OnMouseDown, OnMouseUp — at pressure and setting of the mouse button

OnMouseMove — at moving the mouse;

OnPaint — at redrawing the form;

OnShow — comes each time when the property of the Visible object gets
the True meaning.

Components of the NeoLog program

At the creating of the Neolog program the following components were

MainMenu — for the creating of the main menu of the program, with the
help of which the choice of various actions is carried out;

DataSource, Table — for providing of communication with the files of

Label — for the reflection of comments on a form;

DBGrid — for the reflection and editing of records of database in a
tabular form;

DBMemo — for introduction, reflection and editing meanings of the fields
of database, which have the Memo type;

DBNavigator is implementation of actions above the records of database;

DBEdit — for introduction, reflection and editing the meaning of the
fields of database, which have the letter type;

DBLookupComboBox — for introduction data information to the field of
database by the choice from present variants and reflection of meanings
of the fields of database;

StatusBar — for the reflection of common amount of records in a database
and number of current record;

Panel — for the groupment of objects with the purpose of simplification
of their management;

Edit — for introduction of the sought data;

Button — for the call of event connected with the working over the

GroupBox — for the groupment of objects under the name and creation of
comfortable interface;

Memo — for the reflection and text editing;

SaveDialog — for organization of dialog of saving the text in a file;

OpenDialog — for organization of reading the text from a file.

Procedures were also written on working over the events that arose at
the choice of commands from the main menu and clicking by the mouse
button on the Button components.

Use of databases in Delphi

Four files of database are used in the NeoLog program. The structure of
all files of database is created by the Database Desktop program which
is in the system of the Delphi programming and is started by the Delphi
(Tolls/Database Desktop) menu directly, or by the Windows menu
(Start/All programs/Borland Delphi/ Database Desktop). The files of
databases are created in the Paradox 7 format.

For providing of the subsequent connection of the tables of databases
with the components of the program before formation of structure of
database Alias (pseudonym for way in to the files of database) is
created. For this purpose in the Database Desktop environment the option
Alias Manager is chosen from the menu. In the window that is opened New
is taken, in the field of Database alias the title is put in, by the
Browse button the manager of files is caused and the necessary folder is
found. After pressure of the button Ok the way to the selected folder is
taken out to the Path field. Then it’s necessary to click on the Save As
button and keep data in the file of the configuration IDAPI32.CFG.

For creating the structure of the table of database a command with the
File/New/Table menu is selected, the type of the Paradox 7 table is set
and the name of the first field is put, its type is set by the choice
from the list after pressure the carriage space key, the field size is
put if necessary. In order the sorting of information was carried out on
this field it is necessary to press any alphabet-numeral key in the key
column. Next fields are put by analogy. For every field it is possible
to set additional limitations, for example, maximal and minimum meanings
of these fields, etc. In the end the Save As command is chosen, the way
by Alias is set, the file name is put and preserved. It is possible to
enter or edit data directly in the Database Desktop environment if
necessary, but mostly Database Desktop is used only for creating the
structure of table.

Tables of database of the NeoLog program

The basic file of database of the NeoLog program is called Words.db and
has the following structure:

Field Name Type Size Key

1 Word A 50 *

2 Source A 20

3 Target A 20

4 Uses A 20

5 Note M 240

6 Eh M 240

A — string to 250 symbols, M — texts that consist of many lines, * — in
the Key column means that on the Word field, sorting of information is
carried out.

Records of other files of database: Source.db, Target.db, Uses.db
consist of one field. These tables are auxiliary and serve as fixed data
source for the proper fields of the table Words.db.

Combinig of databases with the components of the program

For adjusting of connection between the tables of databases and
components of the project special components Table and DataSource are
used. For Table the DatabaseName property even Alias is set. It was
created and specifies the way to the files of database, and also the
TableName property, even to the name of file of database. For the
DataSource component the DataSet property even to the name the Table
components which she associate with is set. Studying the information of
databases is carried out with the help of the components, which are in
the inset of the palette of instruments with the Data Controls name.
Necessary component is set on a form and is contacted with a database by
the DataSource and DataField properties. In order the component used
data from the database, the active component «Table» propertly must have
the meaning «True».

At the use of a several tables of database Table and DataSource pair
must correspond to each table with the proper adjusting, therefore in
our program there are four of them.

Visible and invisible components

The components of the VCL library have various allocations. One of them
are intended for the reflection of information, the others provide only
combining with other objects. The first ones are called visible
components, the others — invisible. For example, Button component is a
visible one, Table and DataSource components are invisible. The NeoLog
Program also uses the other invisible components: MainMenu, SaveDialog,
OpenDialog. With the help of the MainMenu component multilevel menus can
be created. For example, the menu of the Neolog program has the
following structure:

Dictionary Search Parameters DSL Info…

All Exit To create

Computer Formed To open

Economy Industries —————-


To store






Creation of procedures of studying the event

For providing of functionality of the program procedures of studying the
events are created. For example, in the NeoLog program, the first menu
Dictionary item is intended for the setting of information, its editing
and revision.

Its call provides the correct reflection of all components, that give
necessary information, and also the components, that manage the

The text of the proper procedure looks like this way:

procedure TForm1.N1Click(Sender: TObject);



















StatusBar1.Panels.Items[1].Text:=’All in all: ‘


In this procedure the meaning of the property Visible objects are set,
and functions of determination of the amount of records are also used in
the table of database and current number of record.

For the creation of template of procedure it is enough to click in the
menu Dictionary in the Delphi environment and the following code will

procedure TForm1.N1Click(Sender: TObject);



Between begin and end; it is necessary to write down needed commands
which answer the Object Pscal programming language, which is a host
language for Delphi.

Organization of multiwindows projects

Using the property of the Visible objects it is possible to create the
dynamic picture of software environment on one form. But Delphi allows
to create applications, the work of which is organized in different
windows. Such projects contain several forms. Thus there is the method
of the use of equal windows and unequal ones, that is one of the windows
is main and the others are daughter’s. Different multiwindow methods are
used in the NeoLog program. For example, for organization of the work of
the menu: Dictionary, Search, DSL one form is used, and a dynamics is
achieved by manipulation of the Visible property. Other options of the
menu form windows in other forms. Thus, as the menu Parameters, has the
critical value for studying data, the work in the main window is blocked
up to the completion of the work with the inferior window.

Installation of the program

For correct work of the application in the Windows environment, the
exact concordance between the components of the addition and operating
system is necessary especially at the use of databases. Therefore the
simple copying of programmatic files from one computer on the other does
not give the desired result, and sometimes additions do not work at all.
For the decision of this problem special program is created which also
enters the system of the Delphi visual programming and has the
InstallShield name. The simplest way is to create an installation
package with the help of the master which is started in the
InstallShield environment. It step by step leads the user to the
complete formation of installation files. Transference of the program on
the other computer is carried out by the start of the programmatic file
Setup with subsequent implementation of requirements of installator.
Mostly the program is set in the Program Files folder of the system

Order of work in the NeoLog environment

During installation of the NeoLog program, the label for the start of
the program appears in the Windows menu.

After the first start of the program it is necessary to set date into
the dictionary, therefore the dictionary menu is to be choosen.

allows to abolish the set meaning into the current record. The record
is saved in the database not only at the pressure of the Post button but
also at the transition to the other record by any method, including the
creating a new record too.

search. On account of that the buttons with the name, that answers the
searched words are deleted in case if such words are in the database, is
deleted otherwise the message.

At the successful search it is possible to get the interpretation of
words by pushing the proper button or to choose the menu Dictionary and
edit the searched data in the objects Menu-dictionary there is searched
and reflected data in the objects menu Search.

In a menu parameters there are facilities with the help of which the
fixed set for introduction of data into the fields Exit, Formed and
Industry can be edited.

The DSL Menu allows to create from the records of database the text with
the DSL commands, to write it down in a file, to read the file for

The subsequent studying of text file created by the NeoLog program:

1. To open a file with the help of Windows Notebook to cause the menu
File/To save as… and in the dialog window of saving to set the
Unicode, and to change the expansion of the file name from *.txt into
*.dsl .

2. The received file can be compiled by DSL Compiler, which works in the
dialogue mode, but it is necessarily to turn off CheckBox automatically
to add the mark, needed for the search of the content of the cards of
the dictionary.

3. The final file of the dictionary *.lsd and the file of the errors
*.dde are formed after compiling. Errors in the dictionary appear mostly
in connection with violation of the rule of introduction of the text in
the fields of database, namely, extra and empty strings and pressure of
the Enter key in the end of the line. Therefore following the file of
errors and the NeoLog program in the mode of search and editing the
error is quickly and easily corrected.

4. After error correction it is needed again to create the text file by
the DSL menu again and execute actions, beginning with the first point.

Having got the file of the dictionary because of the absence of errors,
it can be connected to the system of the Lingvo dictionaries. For this
purpose the menu of Service/Languages and dictionaries the Lingvo
programs is used and the instrument of the connecting of the dictionary
from the file is chosen.


Ein Neologismus ist ein lexikalisches HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeichen» \o «Zeichen» Zeichen , das in
einem bestimmten Zeitraum in einer Sprachgemeinschaft aufkommt, weite
Verbreitung unter den Sprechern findet und schliesslich in die
Woerterbuecher, die den Wortschatz dieser Sprache kodifizieren,
aufgenommen wird. Charakteristisch fuer die Neologismen ist es, dass sie
fuer eine gewisse Zeit von den Sprechern als neu empfunden werden.
Welche lexikalischen Zeichen als Neologismen betrachtet werden, haengt
also auch davon ab, zu welchem Zeitpunkt man den Wortschatz einer
Sprache betrachtet oder untersucht. Neologismen werden in
allgemeinsprachlichen Standardwoerterbuechern der jeweiligen Sprachen
erfasst, es gibt fuer viele Sprachen aber auch Spezialwoerterbuecher,
die ausschliesslich diesen Teil des Wortschatzes erfassen.


Sprecher von lebenden Sprachen produzieren oder erfinden taeglich neue
Woerter, mit denen eine spontan entstehende Benennungsluecke geschlossen
wird. Die meisten dieser Woerter werden aber nur ein einziges Mal
verwendet. Ihr Zweck ist mit dieser einen Benennungssituation erfuellt.
Diese Gelegenheitsbildungen ( HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelegenheitsbildung» \o
«Gelegenheitsbildung» Okkasionalismen ) werden nicht als Neologismen
betrachtet und nicht lexikographisch erfasst. Im Deutschen, das die
Bildung komplexer Komposita erlaubt, entstehen taeglich Dutzende solcher

In der HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychiatrie» \o
«Psychiatrie» Psychiatrie wird Neologismen beim Erheben des
ction=edit» \o «Psychopathologischer Befund» psychopathologischen
Befunds im Zusammenhang mit Erkrankungen wie der HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenie» \o «Schizophrenie»
Schizophrenie spezifischere Bedeutung als im linguistischen
Verstaendnis zugemessen (siehe dazu HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neologismus_(Psychologie)» \o «Neologismus
(Psychologie)» Neologismus (Psychologie) ).

Gelegentlich werden Woerter, die lange Zeit nicht mehr verwendet wurden
und nicht mehr lexikographisch erfasst werden ( HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaismus» \o «Archaismus» Archaismen ),
durch erneuten Gebrauch wiederbelebt. Auch diese sprachlichen Zeichen
sind keine Neologismen.

Die Lexik einer lebenden Sprache ist ein komplexes Gebilde aus
allgemeinsprachlichen, fachsprachlichen und gruppensprachlichen
Woertern. Allgemeinsprachliche Woerterbuecher erfassen nur den
Kernbereich der Lexik, der in der HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alltagssprache» \o «Alltagssprache»
Alltagssprache verwendet wird. Gelegentlich kommt es vor, dass bereits
lang verwendete Woerter einer Fachsprache in den alltagssprachlichen
Diskurs vordringen. Dies gilt zum Beispiel fuer die Fachsprachen
technischer Schluesselbereiche wie Informationstechnik und
Telekommunikation. Auch diese Woerter werden nicht als Neologismen
betrachtet, da sie in der jeweiligen Fachsprache schon laenger im
Gebrauch sind. Ein besonders produktiver Bereich ist die Gruppensprache
der Jugendlichen. Viele der in dieser Gruppe gebildeten Neuwoerter sind
allerdings nicht sehr langlebig.

Woerter, die aus einer anderen Sprache entlehnt werden (z. B. downloaden
aus dem Englischen) und in den allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch uebergehen,
werden hingegen als Neologismen betrachtet und entsprechend
lexikographisch erfasst.

In der Praxis der Lexikographie ist die Abgrenzung zwischen Neologismen
einerseits und Okkasionalismen, wiederbelebten Archaismen und
Fachwoertern andererseits recht schwierig. Besonders HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textkorpus» \o «Textkorpus» Textkorpora ,
die den aktuellen Sprachgebrauch dokumentieren, leisten bei der
Erfassung und Beschreibung von Neologismen nuetzliche Dienste.

Typen von Neologismen

Folgende Arten von Neologismen lassen sich unterscheiden:

Neuwoerter. Bei diesen Neologismen sind sowohl der Ausdruck als auch die
Bedeutung neu. Ein Beispiel aus der juengsten Zeit ist das Verb simsen,
mit dem das Versenden von SMS bezeichnet wird.

Neubedeutungen. Hier ist lediglich die Bedeutung neu, einem bestehenden
Ausdruck wird also eine neue Bedeutung zugeschrieben. Ein etwas aelteres
Beispiel ist die Bedeutung „technisches Geraet, Teil der
Computerperipherie“ fuer den Ausdruck Maus.

Neue Wortkombinationen. Dabei kann man das Zusammenziehen von
gebraeuchlichen Woertern (Internetcafe, Laptop-Tasche) von
metaphorischen Neubildungen unterschieden werden. Bei letzteren ist fuer
die Verwendung eines der Woerter nicht die tatsaechliche Bedeutung
sondern eine charakteristische Eigenschaft entscheidend (Modezar,
HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literaturpapst» \o
«Literaturpapst» Literaturpapst , Boersenzwerg, Wirtschaftsauguren).

Neologismen und Sprachnorm

Wenn ein neues Wort in Gebrauch kommt, dann gibt es bei den Sprechern,
die diesen Ausdruck verwenden wollen, oft Normunsicherheiten. Diese
Unsicherheiten betreffen u. a.:

Die HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rechtschreibung» \o
«Rechtschreibung» Rechtschreibung . Schreibt man Spinoff, Spin-off oder

Die HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aussprache» \o
«Aussprache» Aussprache . Dies ist besonders kompliziert bei
Lehnwoertern, deren Aussprache sich oft, aber nicht immer dem
Phonemsystem der entlehnenden

Sprache anpasst. Ein Beispiel ist Download, dass sich von / HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Lautschrift» \o
«Wikipedia:Lautschrift» …lo?d / nach / HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Lautschrift» \o
«Wikipedia:Lautschrift» …lo?t / entwickelt.

Das HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genus» \o «Genus» Genus .
Heisst es der Engine oder die Engine?

Die HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flexion» \o «Flexion»
Flexion . Heisst es des Piercing oder des Piercings? Heisst es im Plural
die PC oder die PCs?

Oft muss sich eine Norm auch erst etablieren. Dies gilt zum Beispiel
fuer das Genus von Lehnwoertern aus dem HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Englische_Sprache» \o «Englische Sprache»
Englischen , wo das Genussystem nur schwach ausgepraegt ist.

Sprecher, die ein Neuwort verwenden, signalisieren manchmal, dass sie
das entsprechende Wort noch nicht als Teil der Sprachnorm akzeptieren.
Haeufig dafuer verwendete Mittel sind Anfuehrungszeichen
(der »Breakeven« sei noch nicht erreicht) oder abgrenzende Ausdruecke
(der sog. Breakeven, der Breakeven, wie man heutzutage sagt).

Der pragmatische Wert von Neologismen

Nicht immer besteht die Hauptfunktion eines Neologismus darin, einen
neuen Sachverhalt zu bezeichnen. Mit der Verwendung von Neologismen
moechte man oft etwas signalisieren: Zugehoerigkeit zu einer bestimmten
Gruppe, Modernitaet, oder einfach nur Aufmerksamkeit erregen. Diese
beiden pragmatischen Funktionen sind die Ursache dafuer, dass Neuwoerter
vor allem in der Sprache der Werbung verwendet werden. Die
Signalfunktion neuer Woerter wird bis dahin ausgereizt, dass gegen
grammatische Regeln verstossen wird (unkaputtbar, hier werden Sie

Neologismen werden auch als ersetzende Bezeichnungen verwendet, wenn dem
Bezeichneten eine andere Wertung oder ein anderes Ansehen gegeben werden
soll. Der Wortschatz der Deutschen Bahn AG ist ein Musterbeispiel fuer
eine solche Sprachpolitik (Schaffner >> Zugbegleiter; Schalter >>
Servicepoint, neuerdings Counter).

Zugleich entzuendet sich an Neologismen als Symptom oft ein HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprachkritik» \o «Sprachkritik»
sprachkritischer Diskurs. Konservative Sprachkritiker machen an
Neologismen, und vor allem an Lehnwoertern, einen von ihnen behaupteten
Verfall der Sprache fest. Dagegen wird an den Neologismen ebenfalls die
Wandlungsfaehigkeit einer Sprache und ihre Faehigkeit, den staendig sich
wandelnden Benennungsanforderungen gerecht zu werden, festgemacht.

Quellen von Neuwoertern

Eine Quelle von Neologismen, die Entlehnung aus anderen Sprachen, wurde
bereits genannt. Ein Sprachsystem stellt aber noch eine Reihe weiterer
Mittel fuer die HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wortbildung»
\o «Wortbildung» Neuwortbildung bereit. Hierzu gehoeren unter anderem:

Komposition. Die Zusammensetzung neuer Woerter aus existierenden ist im
Deutschen der produktivste Wortbildungsprozess und entsprechend auch
eine ergiebige Quelle fuer Neologismen (Dosenpfand, Genmais).

Derivation. Die Ableitung mittels HYPERLINK
«http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affix» \o «Affix» Affixen (insbesondere
HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/PrA¤fix» \o «Praefix» Praefixe
oder HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suffix» \o «Suffix»
Suffixe ) ist ebenfalls eine ergiebige Quelle. Dabei koennen Affixe
selber Neupraegungen sein (z. B. Cyber-) und eine groessere Gruppe von
Neuwoertern praegen (Cyberpunk, Cyberkriminalitaet).

Abkuerzungen sind ein wichtiges Mittel sprachlicher Oekonomie.
Verfestigt sich ihr Gebrauch, dann koennen auch sie als Neologismen
betrachtet werden (SMS, Hiwi).

Zusammenziehungen, im Englischen auch portmanteaus genannt. Diese werden
aus dem ersten Teil einen Wortes und dem zweiten Teil eines zweiten
Wortes gebildet. Beispiel: education + entertainment >> Edutainment.
Zusammenziehungen sind im Deutschen selten, sie werden meist aus anderen
Sprachen entlehnt.

HYPERLINK «http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verballhornung» \o
«Verballhornung» Verballhornungen


Мова, як соціальне явище знаходиться під постійним впливом
екстралінгвістичних факторів і віддзеркалює усі процеси соціального
життя шляхом номінації, результатом якої є поява нових лексичних
одиниць. Виникнення нових слів – неологізмів – пов’язане з необхідністю
дати найменування яким-небудь новим явищам, предметам чи поняттям, що
входять в життя у зв’язку із розвитком науки і техніки, економіки і т.д.
Оскільки належність слів до неологізмів є ознакою відносною та
історичною, не існує єдиного універсального визначення цієї категорії
лексичного складу мови. З одного боку, їх пояснюють як слова, значення
або сполучення слів, які з’явилися у певній мові протягом певного
періоду часу, або ж слова, які виникли за пам’яті покоління, що їх
використовує. З іншого боку, неологізми визначаються за денотативною
ознакою(як слова, що означають нові реалії) і стилістичною
(супроводжуються ефектом новизни). Одні вважають вирішальними критеріями
приналежності того чи іншого слова “свіжість і незвичність”, що
відчувають носії мови щодо новоутвореної лексичної одиниці. Інші
вказують, що таке стилістичне забарвлення властиве не всім неологізмам,
багато з яких засвоюються одразу всіма мовцями і входять в загальний
узус як цілком нейтральні за значенням одиниці. Одні лексикологи
вважають достатнім критерієм недавнє виникнення слова, інші відносять до
неологізмів лише слова-позначення нових реалій і понять, треті вважають
неологізмами слова, незареєстровані досі лексикографами. На думку одних
лінгвістів, неологізми – це слова будь-якого періоду, що є новими по
відношенню до попереднього періоду; слова, нові для даного різновиду
мови (літературна мова, варіант мови, діалект); не лише нові слова, але
і нові значення слів (лексико-семантичні варіанти слова), і навіть нові
фразеологічні або стійкі словосполучення слів; одиниці, що виникають із
існуючих у мові елементів даної мови.

У мові існує кілька шляхів утворення нових слів. Серед них визначаються
такі, як наукові новоутворення, власні імена, торгівельні і промислові
найменування (товарні назви), ініціали (скорочення), запозичення (як
зовнішні так і внутрішні). Значну групу складають наукові новоутворення,
що відбивають нові поняття у ділянці науки, яка завжди знаходиться у

Ця група слів включає в себе: glycobiology, hydrofluorocarbon,
minimally invasive, pharm, ribozyme, WIMP та інші. Оскільки наука у
сучасному суспільстві набрала виробничого характеру, її слова вийшли за
межі вузького вживання часто задля потреб щоденного спілкування і
поширення науково-технічних знань: escape key, genetic engineering,
spell-cherk, virtual, virus. Окремі слова стали загальновживаними
внаслідок широкого розповсюдження самих предметів чи явищ, або частого
нагадування про них у пресі, наприклад: shuttle, body piercing,
cable-ready. Широкий узус неологізмів у повсякденному мовлені призводять
зазвичай до процесів семантичної зміни їх значення наприклад:
rollerblade; або до появи розмовних (вернакулярних) варіантів: blade,

У той час, як більшість неологізмів носять відбиток спонтанності,
найменування у галузі торгівлі (особливо торгівельні марки) є
новоутвореннями цілеспрямованого характеру. Оскільки до цих назв
висуваються певні сугестивні вимоги, що відбивають їх здатність
викликати увагу, запам’ятовуватися, примушувати купувати навіть
непотрібні речі, вони ґрунтуються на дослідженнях мотиваційної поведінки
перспективного покупця краму.

Такі новоутворення часто базуються на морфологічному перетворенні
структури (бленд): swaption = swaptoption.

Оскільки будь-яке нове слово має якості неологізму, тобто тимчасову
конотацію новизни, доки колективна мовна свідомість реагує на нього як
на нове, новоутворення відрізняються від канонічних слів особливостями
зв’язками з часом, які фіксуються виключно у свідомості мовців.

Одиницею еволюції мови у часі є зміна номінації, яка може бути чотирьох

використання даного знака для позначення нового об’єкта;

введення нового знака для позначення уже існуючого об’єкта;

введення нового знака разом з новим позначуваним об’єктом;

вилучення знака у зв’язку з дезактуалізацією позначуваного поняття.

Останній тип зміни відображає процес старіння слова і його архаїзацію як
продукт розвитку лексичного складу мови. Решта ж змін пов’язані саме із
процесами утворення неологізмів та їх функціонування у мові.

Крім вищезгаданих класифікацій неологізмів за переліком понять чи
способами словотвору, варто назвати також класифікацію нових лексичних
одиниць відповідно до типу зміни номінації. Виходячи з цього у
вокабулярі неологізмів виділять:

1). власне неологізми (новизна форми співвідноситься із новизною
змісту): ribozyme (a type which is capable of acting as an enzyme), to
out-source (to obtain by contract from a source outside an organization
or area), eyephone (a headset used in virtual reality environments which
provides its wearer with stereoscopic visual image and synchronized

2). трансномінації, що поєднують новизну форми слова із значенням, яке
раніше втілювалося в іншу форму: nigga (a black man), rolling news (a
twenty-four-hour radio news service), waitron (a waiter or waitress);

3) семантичні інновації, або переосмислення, коли нове значення
позначається уже існуючою у мові формою: vanilla (plain, basic,
conventional, ordinary, standard), allophone (a person living in French
Canada who speaks a language ( and is of ethnic descent) other than
French or English); to rip (to attack verbally; to criticize severely).

В англійській мові останніх десятиліть переважають одиниці першої групи,
оскільки суспільство стикається із проблемою номінації нових реалій, що
виникли у зв’язку з науково-технічним прогресом. Так, бурхливий розвиток
комп’ютерної техніки викликав появу таких лексичних одиниць, як: add-in
(something which is added to a computer to improve its capabilities or
performance), BBS (bulletin board system, a non-profit, computer—based
forum which may permit discussion, the exchange of electronic-mail, or
access to software and other electronically-encoded material by means of
telephone lines & modems), chipset

Трансномінації виникають у мові з метою дати нове, більш емоційне ім’я
предметові, який уже володіє нейтральною назвою, і відображають
тенденцію до вживання більш експресивних форм. Наприклад: otaku,
trainspotter (derogatory or jocular term for a person, who pursues an
interest with obsessive dedication), feminazi (a radical feminist), to
veg ( to vegetate, to pass the time in vacuous inactivity), dweeb (a
contemptible and boring person, especially one who is studious, puny, or
unfashionable), wazzlock (a s?????????????

Під терміном “семантичні інновації” розуміють нові значення уже існуючих
слів. При цьому можливі два варіанти: (1) старі слова цілком змінюють
своє значення, втрачаючи попередню семантику; (2) у семантичній
структурі з’являється ще один лексико-семантичний варіант при збереженні
традиційних сем: space (the freedom to think, act, or be oneself), mule
(a person who acts as a courier for illegal drugs), patch (an adhesive
piece of drug-impregnated material which is worn on the skin, enabling
the drug to be absorbed gradually over a period of time), pen (a
hand-held device used as a writing tool to input commands & data into a
computer, via a screen).

Варто зазначити, що викладена класифікація не враховує спосіб утворення
нових одиниць, а спрямована на аналіз внутрішніх змін семантичної
структури неологізмів.

Як правило, утворення неологізмів є спочатку явно вмотивованим.
Винятками можуть бути запозичення або інновації, які були вмотивовані на
ранніх стадіях, але дуже швидко стали функціонувати як неподільні знаки.
Однак, є випадки, коли етимологія нових слів невизначена, і можна лише
висувати окремі гіпотези про їх можливе походження, наприклад,
простежити окремі слова “wazzlock” (a stupid or annoying person)
проблематично, в той час як сленгове слово “phat” (excellent, great)
вважають імовірною абревіатурою фрази “pussy, hips, ass, tits”, хоча
загалом етимологія цих слів досить неясна.

З часом новоутворення приймається до лексичного складу мови і, як
наслідок частого вживання, перестає вважатися новим; або ж неологізм не
входить в узус з певних причин і зникає з мовної системи. Долю інновацій
важко передбачити: у деяких з них коротке існування, інші ж, навпаки,
стають загальноприйнятими і широковживаними. Закріпившись у лексичному
складі мови, неологізми згодом самі стають основою для подальших
словотворчих процесів і їхні деривати продовжують новизну і свіжість
сприйняття певної лексичної одиниці.


Unlike numerous (even for enough short time) lexical and phraseology
neologisms new word building elements do not arise up suddenly, the
amount of affixes in a language almost is exactly known, addition to
their arsenal can not take place during decades. For the last period of
time ten new (after a form or on maintenance) affixes began to function,
to the center of the lexical or word building system ten morphemes,
which were to it on periphery, that were limited in functioning,
relocated yet, was finally designed yet: certain amount of word building
elements which arose up in a previous period of development of English.

The analysis of neologisms of English testifies that high word building
activity of affixation (with the help of suffixes and prefixes are built
more 30 % lexical innovation) is determined not only by participation of
traditional word building elements but also all by the greater role of
new affixes. Words of full meaning (both the German origin and adopted
from other languages), and also parts of words, can serve as primary
material for creation of affixes.

It is necessary to mark that creation of new words by analogy, that
according to the sample concrete existent word, is the most widespread
way of forming of new affixes.

The processes of origin and registration of new derivational facilities
expose intercommunications between the morpheme and lexical levels of
language and proper units of these levels. Rather spread in English it
is possible to suppose the phenomenon of «bifunctionality» (functional
homonymy) units which execute at the same time the role of lexemes and
the role of affixes, thus such bifunctionality inherent not only to the
word building elements which arose up on the base of lexical units, but
also on the base of pseudomorphemes, fragments of words.

Phenomenon of bifunctionality, interlevel correlation, the presence of
intermediate linguistic elements (semiaffixes) testifies about the
absence of clear border between morpheme and lexical levels, about
«diffusion» units of these levels. Bilateral communication between
lexical and word building innovation consists in that neologisms create
condition for forming of new derivational elements which, in their turn,
are used for subsequent lexical innovations etc.

The general tendency of word building development is traced in direction
of expansion of realization of its potential due to much more freedom,
expansion the limits of normativeness in the conditions of cross-purpose
of action of the factors related to intervariant and intravariant
migration of vocabulary. The role of complex methods of creation of
innovations is growing, inclusion of a few nominative-derivational
mechanisms that, from one side, show the certain system of word
building, and from other side, is the evidence of complication of
onomasiological processes in connection with complication of our
knowledge and notions about the surrounding world.

Semantic innovations is related to those modifications of content of
existent units which arise up as a result of their functional dictionary

Distributing of innovations after sociofunctional classes enables to
light up a problem «language and its environment», to set the role of
the concrete social factors which most influence on innovative
processes, to expose the sociofunctional marking centers of forming of
new word building elements and lexico-semantical paradigms. In the
spheres of social life, which are the spheres of radical changes,
actively there are the processes of update and enrichment of dictionary
composition, the certain tendency of the development of
lexico-semantical system of English are engendered.

A new vocabulary which is correlated with economic life makes most
sociofunctional group of innovation of the last decades (in a previous
period other spheres of social life went out on the first plan).
Neologisms of economy sphere and business represent the radical changes
which are connected with the circulation and realization of economic
theories, with transition of many countries to the market economy, with
the improvement of management by an economy and its separate links, with
introduction of modern informative technique.

Round concepts which are correlated with these processes and phenomena,
there is most concentration of a new vocabulary and phraseology. The
role of economic sphere in the supply of innovation in a language
becomes more noticeable, in enrichment of phraseology fund. It testifies
about growth of influence of factors, connected with economic basis of

Neologisms of social and political sphere show two sides of the
civilized progress of humanity — integrational and differential
processes, political and public motions, testify about growth of
influence on the innovative processes of such factors, as sex, age,
social status, valuable orientations of transmitters of English. As a
result of growth of influence of the noted factors all anymore the
political pragmalinguistic parameter of «political correctness»
determinates not only political but also other discussion. The necessity
of the change of reference points of the civilized development entailed
not only the explosion of ecological neologisms but also forming of
highly productive resources of lexical and semantic derevation,
lexico-sementical and phraseology paradigms.

Sharpening of the problem of criminality, terrorism, drug addictions and
fight against these negative phenomena find the reflection in the
considerable amount of innovations, in the origin and fixing after the
»criminal sphere» of whole row of word building elements, in creation
of wide synonymous rows round the defined notions. Growths of
delinquency and drug addiction rates entailed growth of scales of
penetration in the «standard» language of words and combinations of
words from the jargon criminal world of drug addicts.

Important role in society of mass media, predetermines that fact, that
exactly «media» is the sphere of «primitive context», by the main
channel of spreading of neologisms, which are the product of word
building of state, political, public figures, journalists, writers,

Considerable influence on dictionary composition of the English
language, on development of its lexico-semantical system corrected
informative revolution. The explosion of computer neologisms causes
action of mechanisms of semantic changes necessary for fixing of
existent units after new reviewers. Expansion of the special vocabulary
related to the informative technique in a common language is also
accompanied by semantic changes and modifications. The consequences of
semantic processes and changes find the embodiment in new linguistic
phenomena which all anymore pierce the system, influence on existent
semantic subsystems and semantic group of the vocabulary.

The whole row of lexical units is fastened on the concepts related to
the modern informative technique by the all semantic structure or
separate lexico-semantical variants. These units not only become
keywords but also grow into the centers of word- and creation of
phrases, enter as dominant elements in the ramified new
lexico-semantical paradigms.

Actuality of processes and phenomena of modern stage of scientific and
technical progress predetermines aspiration to remove these processes
and phenomena by variation and nominative facilities, as a result is
observed attraction synonyms to the proper concepts. Informative
revolution caused both the phenomenon of polynomination of its important
concepts and stipulated the necessity of more clear differentiation of
the defined «cybernetic» notions by retronyms, that the phenomenon
«differentiating renomination».

Computerizing made substantial alterations in the word building system,
generated the whole row of new productive derevative elements entailed
moving of whole row of prefixes and suffixes (together with moving of
whole layers of vocabulary) from periphery of the system, where they
served only («languages for the special aims») to the kernel, to
national language, wearing away the same border between a
kernel and periphery of language.

A new vocabulary and phraseology which arose up in connection with
informative revolution pierces now almost all spheres of social life, it
removes both the numerous blessings and benefits and new social
problems, negative consequences of modern stage of scientific and
technical progress.


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