Теоретична географія Альфреда Вагнера

?aoa?ao

Oai?aoe/ia aaia?ao?y Aeueo?aaea Aaaia?a

Aaiiao??y, aaieia?y, aaiaeac?y… — iana iaoe /a?ia? nai? a?aeiiino? «?c
Caie?». ? oea ia aeeaii, ine?eueee an? ie aeeaaii ia Caie? e aea/a?ii
yaeua, ye? ian ioi/othoue. Iia?aaiaaia an?ia, eiio ia e?iue, aaia?ao?y
aeyaey? a iao? aei? noiia aeaeiaeua, aaia?aoe ia aaaaeathoueny
na?eicieie a/aieie: aiie ia ?ic?iaeythoue ca?i? ianiaiai o?aaeaiiy, ia
iio?ynathoue oyao oai??yie i?inoi?o-/ano. ?oiy caeaoi?noue oaeaeei
noaaeoe iaiao, ?icaiaeeoe a aoaeue-yeiio i?noe? ieaiaoe aaaaooy e
ne?aooaaoe iaeiiiai?oia aeeooy aeni?aoaaiiyi ia iaio iaeiiiai?oieo
i?naiue /iio oa ia oe?io?oueny a iao? aei?, aea noiaea, ui aeoaea
iacaaa?ii ona ia?ai?ieoueny e iaeaieiai?oi? c iaoe noaia aaia?ao?y,
oi/i?oa, «oai?aoe/ia aaia?ao?y». Iniiaiiieiaeieeii oai?aoe/ii? aaia?ao??
aa?oi aaaaeaoe i?iaoeueeiai a/aiiai Aeueo?aaea Aaaaia?a. Caa?ioaoe oaaao
ia ca?a eiioo??a aa?aaiaeo e?i?e Ao?eee e Aia?eee, ui aei iueiai
aacnoii?aii aa/eee aaaaoi ooi, aea cioooaaee naaa ia iaa?oaoe ia oea
oaaae, Aeueo?aae Aaaaia? ?ic?iaea oai??th ae?aeoo eiioeiaio?a, ui
ii?eethaeiea o nai?e eiec? «Iioiaeaeaiiy iaoa?ee?a ? ieaai?a». Ui i?ney
oeueiai ii/aeiny! ?c i?eaieiiooth/ith e?eoeeith ia iueiai ia?ooeeeny an?
iiaaaeath/? naaa i?ioani?e aaia?ao??, aaieia??, aaio?ceee… i?iiia/aee
o?eueee o?aa aoae cian?i eaaea/? e i? aei /iai ia i?eaeaoi?. A 1930
?ioe? Aaaaia? o?aa?/ii caaeioa o eueiaeiaeeao A?aieaiae??, aea aeoiee,
ye? a?i aeneiaea, ia?aaeeee naiai eiiaiaee?a. Iiaa iieie?iiy
aaccanoa?aaeii «aeciaei» eiai e iaa?oue ciaeoei oi?ioethaaiiy, ui
aeaooiao? an?o: «Aoaeo/e ca i?ioan??th iaoai?ieiaii, a oaeiae aa?iiaaoii
? iiey?iei aeine?aeieeii, Aaaaia?, ii aeo/iiio ae?aaeaiith Aaeaa?aea
Aoeea?aea, iaeaaeaa «ia aei o??? i?ioni?eee».

C?iaeii ia?o? aeniiaee. Aeiaon, ye iaeia c oi?i a?ao?/iiai iiaeaiiy
Caie?, i?noeoue o nia? aaciaeith ?ioi?iaoe??, ? ?iiae? ia?iaeaeothoueny
ethaee, ye? ai?thoue /eoaoe ia i?e oa, /iai ?io? ia ai?thoue. Iiaeeeai,
oaeeo ethaeae aoei a a?eueoa, yeae aeiaon ia aoa oaeei iac?o/iei aai
yeae ian ciaeiieee c iei ia a oaeiio thiiio a?oe?, eiee ?i a?eueoa
oi/aoueny o oooaie c?a?aoe, /ei caienethaaoeny iaae oei, /iio a?i oaeee,
yei? ae?noaany iai a?ae i?aaee?a. Ioaea, iniiaia caeaoi?noue oao?aoey c
oai?aoe/ii? aaia?ao??: oi?oe /eoaoe ia ea?o? cian?i ia oa, ui oai
iaienaii, — i?eoiaeeoue o?eueee a aeic??eeo e?oao aei oiio, ooi ia
caaaeaee eaaeea ?c o/eoaeai aaia?ao?? a oeie? e ia??aeei aeooi ia??eaa
ia aeieth: iaa?ui eiai ciooothoue o/eoe oa, ui eiio i?eiee a aeeoo? ia
aoaea iio??aii. Aea iaeei ?ac a?i iiaeeaeoueny ia aeiaon ? iiaa/eoue oa,
ui ana oaae aa/aoue, aea, caeiaeiaai? ooai?aiiyi, ?aeeaiith, caniaaie
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?ae iaeaiueeee aaeioee aaeeei? oeea?e?caoe??, ia
ona?aeiieththoue oie, ui ae aiie aa/aoue.

Ui a?aeaoaeaoueny aeae?, ie aeia?a cia?ii ii ?noi??? Aeueo?aaea
Aaaaia?a. A?i aoaea aeiaiaeeoe, ui ana oea aeia?a aeaeii ia aeiaon?,
aeineoue o?eueee caa?iooe ia oeth oaaao, uia ia?aeiiaoeny, ui oeae ia
aeiaaeeiaee ca?a, oiio ui eiia??i?noue ca?ao aei??aith? ioeth… Aea
a/ai? /ieia?ee a?aeiiaeyoueny aa/eoe oa, ui ?oi? i/? aa/aoue. Aiaeia?/ia
neooaoe?y iaea i?noea a /ane Aae?eai Aae?eay. A?i ia?aeiioaaa, ui
iiaeaeeth niiy/ii? nenoaie ? THi?oa? c? nai?ie noiooieeaie: iiaeeaeoany
a oaeaneii, ia?aeiia?oany nai?. Aea a oaeaneii i?ooi aeeaeoeny ia noaa:
/iai oea ie oai ia aa/eee a ii?iaei?e o?oaoe?, ii iaeaeaa aiee cae?eoi?
noaeeaie? AEa?oe? a on? noie?ooy iaeiaeia?, oiio oai?aoe/ia aaia?ao?y —
oea aeiey aieiaie/eo aeeeaoaio?a, yeei aeiaon oe?eaaee ia oiio, ui aiie
c?a?aeeny eoaeenue ?oaoe, aai caaeaeeny iaoith oaeaeoa ?icaaaao?oe,
i?aeiyaoe ?c aeia ieaaio ne?eith, iaaeoo nea?aaie, aai, i?iao?eaoe a
caie? ae??o, iiaeeaeoueny iaooith, ui caa??aaeany oai; i?, ?o i?eoyaa?
oa?iie/ee a?ca?oiie ia eoe?, o yeiio ana ? oa?iieoey e caaaaeea, oe?eaa?
nai? ii nia?.

Na?oeee aai?e Aeueo?aaea Aaaaia?a aeaa iai i?aeianaiee i?eeeaae aenieiai
neoae?iiy ?noei?. Ae aeoia?oa, ui ana, ui iiaeia iiaa/eoe ia aeiaon?,
a?i oaea iiaa/ea, ui aeey ian ?c aaie oai a?eueoa i?/iai oe?eaaiai ia
caeeoeeiny? A?i o?eueee iaei-iaei a?aee?ea yuee Iaiaei?e. Aa/eee a ae c
yeith ?aoaeuei?noth ana eeioeeny ?ic?iaeyoe eiai ?aeath i?i
noia?eiioeiaio, oae caaii? Iaia??, oi/a oeae iai?yiie aeyaeany,
iaaacaeiaaiiei.

Aieiaia caneoaa Aeueo?aaea Aaaaia?a a o?i, ui a?i aeaa iai i?eeeaae
iiaiai aeaeo aeieac?a. O oai?aoe/i?e aaia?ao?? a?i c?a?aa ?ieue Nie?aoa,
a ?ieue A?enoioaey e Aaee?aea ye ue?ee eeoea? iinooieany iai c aaie,
aei?iaith /eoa/. Iaoa caaaeaiiy — ?icaeoe eiai a?aee?eooy. I?eeoia /an
?ic?iaeyoe iaoiaee, ui aeicaieythoue ?aeiino?othaaoe ?noi??th ieaiaoe,
ei?enooth/enue o?eueee ea?oaie aai ci?ieaie c einiino, ia
aeioi?eath/enue aei ?? iiaa?oi?, ia ao?a oai aeeaieeo oia?, ia
iai?aaeyth/e oeny/? aaieia?a ia e?eueea nioaiue ?ie?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeieeaaeieo iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. ? iaa?oue yeui an? i?ioani?e e
aeaaeai?ee, ui caeiathoueny iaoeaie i?i Caieth, iaeiinoaeii cayaeyoue,
ui oey iaoa aeo?ia, aacaeocaei e iaaeinyaeia, i?eeoia /an a?aeiia?noe
?i: iiaeeeai ae e i?aa?, aea /an iano?eii aeiaaa? ?ic?iaeyoe a?eueoa
aoaeoeai? iaoiaee aiae?co ci?ie?a iiaa?oi? ieaiao.

Oae ui aeaaaeoa a/eoeny aiioe?eii ni?eeiaoe aeiaon, ethaoaaoeny oei, ui
ia iueiio e?aneai, aeaoaoeny oiio, ui iiaeiia anaeyoe aeao o na?oea
eiaeiiai c ian, iio?oaoeny iaae aeooeie aaoi?eoaoaie ieioeiai, ye? a
oii? ia aa/eee oiai, ui ciaia’ycaii aoee a aa/eoe, ca a?io?, ye? ?i
ieaoeee; ? aeaaaeoa ?iaeoe a?aee?eooy iaaaaeeeai ye?: a?eueo? aai
iaeaiuee?, aieiaia, nai?. Iaei? aoaeooue iaae ieie ni?yoeny, ?io?
oieeaoe. Aea oea iaia’yceiaee aeaiaio oeueiai aeaeo oai?/ino?, ? ie
iiaeii? aooe ia o?eueee aei oeueiai aioia?, aea e ?aaeoaaoeny, ui ia
caeeoeee aaeaeoaeeie aaeeeeo o/aieo.

Ia?oee iiaa?oiaaee iiaeyae ia ea?oo Caie?.

Caieth aeoaea aaaeei aea/aoe, i/aaeaeii, oiio, ui eiaeiee oaaaea? ??
nai?th aeani?noth, ia? naith aeoieo i?i oa, /iio aa?oi aooe ia Caie?, a
/iio, iaaiaee, ia o?aaa. Uia ia ia?aaeaoe a?ae?aco 6,5 i?euey?ae?a
Caieaaeaniee?a, aeaaaeoa aoaeaii aaaaeaoe, ui ie aea/a?ii aeae? ia
??aeio iao?ieo Caieth, a yeeenue eini?/iee ia’?eo, a?aeiiee iai ii
ci?ieao, ui ie aa/eii a ia?oee ?ac ? a yeiio iai ana no?aiii, iacae/ii e
aeeaii.

Ioaea, oyaeii, ui ie aeine?aeaeo?ii iaaania o?ei e aai i?eianee ia
aenia?oeco /a?aiao ea?oo yei?nue ieaiaoe. Aeeaey/enue ia ia?, ae
i??eo?oa aaiein, ao?i, ia aaiein, a a ienueiiaiio aeae?, ine?eueee
a?ae?aco neeaaea?oa ca?o.

A?eueoa /anoeia ieaiaoe iie?eoa aiaeith, iniiaia /anoeia nooe iie?eoa
ai?aie na?aaeiuei? aenioe, aea ? e aeineoue aenie? a??nuee? nenoaie.
Iniaeeai aeae?ey?oueny a??nueea nenoaia a e?a?e /anoei? ea?oe, aea ai?e
ooai?youe iaeaea ui i?yiie?i?eiee eaioetha, ui ia?aoeia? ana iiea ea?oe
caa?oo aeie?eeoeue. Aeieea? i?aeic?a, ui ia aeine?aeaeoaai?e ieaiao?
?niothoue e?eueoeaa? a??nuee? nenoaie, ui iia??cothoue ?? ii
ie?oaeiinoyo aaeeeiai eiea. Oae? ie?oaeiino? aeieeathoue i?e ia?aoeiaii?
noa?e ieiueiith, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ?? oeaio?. O noa?e/i?e aaiiao???
aiie a?athoue aeoaea aaaeeeao ?ieue, aoaeo/e oai aiaeiaaie aaee?aeiaeo
i?yieo.

Aeineoue eeiooe ia ea?oo anueiai o?eueee iaeei iiaeyae, uia c?icoi?oe,
ui o?eueee ui aeneiaeaia a?iioaca i?i iayai?noue ia caie? yeeoinue
no?oeoo?, ui ? i?yieie noa?e/ii? aaiiao???, aeoaea ni?ea. Iiaeia neacaoe
iaa?oue a?eueo ae?acii, aiia iano?eueee ni?ea, ui a?aee?eooy, ui
aeiaaaei iiyniaiiy, Aeueo?aaea Aaaaia?a i?i ca?a aa?aaiaeo e?i?e Ao?eee
e Aia?eee iiaei a ? iioa?i?oe aei o??? ii?e, iiee ia iiyniaiee oeae
aeeaiee oaiiiai, ui aieiae?? aacnoii?aii aeiaaeueiei oa?aeoa?ii. sseui
a??ii iaioth/a iei? oai??th «oaeoii?ee ieeo», oi i?yeeo e?eueoeaaeo
a??nueeeo nenoai o Caie? aooe ia iiaeiia — oaioe/iee ?oo ieeo iiaeiia
?oeioaaoe no?oeoo?e, ui ? i?yieie noa?e/ii? aaiiao???, iaa?oue yeui aiie
aeieeee aeiaaeeiai.

Uia oaeaeei ia?aa??eoe: c?iaeee ie c aaie ?aaiethoe?eia /e a?aee?eooy
i?, nei?enoa?iiny aeiaonii. Aeey oeueiai o?aaa ciyoe noa?o c in?
iaa?oaiiy e iaoyaiooe ia ia? aio/eo e?i?eeo. E?i?eea ao?eio?oueny ia
iiaa?oi? aeiaona ca ?aooiie nee oa?oy o?eueee a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee aiia
?icoaoiao?oueny ia ie?oaeiino?, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oeaio? eoe?. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo aiia aeyaey?oueny, ia?acii aiai?y/e, o iieiaeaii?
Ao?eaeaiiaa inea — yeae aiia aoea iaei-iaei e?a?oa, aiia c?neiacioea a
oe?ai; yeae iaei-iaei i?aa?oa, oi ai?aai; a aeyaeaoenue oi/ii ia
ie?oaeiino?, aiia i?ye «ia iiaea ae??oeoe», eoaee ?e c?neiaciooe, ? oiio
caeeoa?oueny ia i?noe?.

E?i?eea, oo?eioaaia ia noa?? neeaie oa?oy, oea cian?i ia oie ?ino?oiaio,
yeei ei?enoothoueny a noa?e/i?e aaiiao??? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?yieo, aea
aaeaea e aaia?ao?y i?ye ia ? o??th iaoeith, o ye?e i?yia ? i?e?iaeiei
ia’?eoii, o?eueee ?oeioai?i? ia’?eoe, aoeeoe?, a?ae??cee aeayeeo aei??a
iiaee a «ieoaoeny» nai?? aaiiao?e/i?noth.

Ai?eciioaeuei? ia’?eoe iaaecae/aeii ne?eaeai?, oiio eiee ie aiai?eii, ui
ieiueia i?ioiaeeoue ii ai?ao, oa ia o?aaa oea ?icoi?oe aoeaaeueii, o?aaa
aeeaeoeny /a?ac ?iaeaa? ieoey?e iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a, o oiio
?icoi?ii?, ui /anoeia a?? eaaeeoue e?ai?o/, /anoeia — i?aai?o/, aea
a??nuee? eaioethae eaeooue o o?i aea iai?yieo e o aaciina?aaei?e
aeecueeino?.

A?aee?eooy noie?ooy.

E?i?eea iieaco?, ui a??nueea nenoaia Ei?aeeeue??e-Aiaee, no?iai
aiai?y/e, ia ooai?eoue eieueaeaai? a??nueei? nenoaie. A io Neaeyno? ai?e
oi/ii eaaeaoue o ieiuei?, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oeaio? Caie?, ?
iaoiiaeaia ieie ieiueia caaaeaee i?ioiaeeoue ii ai?ao! Ae?enii, e?i?y
Neaeynoeo a??, o?eaath/e, i?aeoiaeeoue aei Aa?eiaiaa i?ioioe?; ca?aeoe
o?aaa ia sseoonuee, Oeai Aaoi?, Aeaeiiieoiaio; i?ioiaeeoue iaaeaeaei
a?ae na?aaeeie ?iaeinoaio e, ii?eiath/e a ?iae?enueeee ieaai,
i?ioiaeeoue ocaeiaae eaioethaa Iaeueae?anueeeo ino?ia?a, ui ? aa?oeiaie
i?aeaiaeieo a?? (oiaoi a??nuee? nenoaie i?aeaiaei? ? iaaeaiaei?
noi?iaiaeaeothoue oeth e?i?th oa c iaei???, oi c ?ioi? noi?iie).

Aea ?c oeei neiaaniei iienii iaaecae/aeii iac?o/ii i?aoethaaoe. ?c
aeiaonii oaae iac?o/ii, a?i e?oaeee ? ia iueiio aeaeia o?eueee iaeia
iieiaeia, ao?i, iaa?oue oea ia cian?i i?aaaea, oiio ui, ciie, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny aeecueei aei e?a?a, ceeaathoueny e noathoue ia?ic??ciai?
/a?ac eiai eoeyno?noue. Oeea?e?caoe?y i?ea/eea ian i?aoethaaoe c
iaethieii ia a?eoo? iaia?o, ae?ai? eiii’thoa?a, ?c ieineei e?aneaiiyi, ?
?c oeei i?/iai ii?iaeoe aaea ia iiaeia. Ie oi/aii aa/eoe ia’?eo oe?eeii,
ie caeeee i?aoethaaoe ?c e?aneaiiyie, a ia ?c o?eaei??ieie iiaeaeyie.
Oey i?iaeaia c iniaeeaith aino?ioith anoaea i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eieae. Aea
acyoe ea?oe? Ia?icoiii i?aae’yaeyoe ye aeieac oioia?ao?? aeiaona c
e?i?eeith ia eiai iiaa?oi?!

Uia iaea?aeaoe ea?oo iaoi? ieaiaoe, ui a?aeiia?aea? i?iaeoe??, i?e ye?e
aeaaoi? i?ioiaeeoue ii Neaeynoeo ai?ao, ie aaeaeeny aei aeiiiiiae
eiii’thoa?a. Oaiaey/e OAOA = 75, PSI = 80, Fl = 0, iaea?aeo?ii ea?oo, ia
ye?e e?eueoeaaa a??nueea nenoaia niieo/aia c aeaaoi?ii.

Caa?i?oue oaaao, io oae, aoaeaiii e iaaaaaoi ioaeioaaoi ie i?aeoaa?aeeee
iaea?eueoa a?aee?eooy. Noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?yei? e?eueoeaai? a??nueei?
nenoaie i?, ia?icoiii — aiia ?, ia eiaeiiio aeiaon? oea aeaeii.
Aiai?eoe, ui oea i?/iai ia aeoiaeeoue, ui oeae aeiaaeeiaee ca?a, —
aeoiaeeoue, iaieineoe naaa ethaeeiith eaaeiaaaeiei. Ae?enii, aaieia?/ia
iaoea oioae?y?oueny ii iaei?e iaaeaeeaie?e oia?? ?iaeoe aeaeaei, ui
eaeooue aeniiaee (oiaoi ii e?aioe? ia iiaa?oi? Caie?), oiio a?aee?eooy
iiaiai eeano aeiaaeueieo ia’?eo?a — e?eueoeaaeo a??nueeeo nenoai
aeiaaeeiith a 40 oeny/ e?eiiao??a, ye? i?eiio aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia
aeiaiaeeei, — aacoiiaii ? aaaeeeaith iiae??th, ia iiaeooue aiie i?/iai
ia cia/eoe. Noiaea, ui oea ye?nue o?aie ia o?e? Caie?, ne?aee
ieaiaoa?ieo eaoano?io. Iai o?aaa c?icoi?oe oea yaeua, aooe iiaea, naia
aeeooy iaoa caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, c?icoi??ii ie oea /e i?. I?eiaeii?,
yeui eaoano?ioa, ui caeeoa? oae? o?aie, iai caa?iaeo?, oi a?aee?eoa iaie
e?eueoeaaa a??nueea nenoaia ia iiaeiia aooe oi?eaeueii?.

sseui ?nio? ?ioa e?eueoeaaa a??nueea nenoaia, oi aiia ia?aoeia?oueny c
o???, eio?o ie aaea a?aee?eee a yeeoinue aeaio e?aieao. Ia aoaea i?/iai
iaeia?/iiai, yeui a e?aioe? ?oiueiai ia?aoeiaiiy aeyaeoueny uinue cian?i
aoae ui i?aei?ia?oueny. Ioaea, Aeaeiiieoiaia oiio e aeua an?o aa?oei ia
Caie?, ui ? e?aieith ia?aoeiaiiy aeaio e?eueoeaaeo a??nueeeo nenoai.
Aeoiaeeoue, A?iaea? eaaeaoue o ieiuei? ?ioi? e?eueoeaai? a??nueei?
nenoaie!

Ae ii/oaa?oa ??cieoeth iaoiaeo oai?aoe/ii? aaia?ao?? e iaoiaeo oaeoii?ee
ieeo? Oaeoii?ea aiai?eoue, ui ?oaea-?oaea aacoe?eueii e aacaeocaei
?iae?y ia nai?e ieeo? e o??caeany a Ac?th — a?ae oaea?o aeieeee A?iaea?
e iaeaeua e e?anea?oa aa?oeia Aeaeiiieoiaia, oi/a ia iiaeia ia?aa??eoe
oea aenia?eiaioii. Ana aeiaaeeiai! A?iaea?a ? Aeaeiiieoiaie oai iiaei a
? ia aooe. I?, ona, ui ie aa/eii ia Caie?, ia iano?eueee aeiaaeeiai, ye
aai oio?einy a. Ea?oa — oea aaeeea eieaa i?e?iaee e i?eeoia /an o/eoeny
ia? /eoaoe!

Oae ui i?eeaaeeii e?i?eeo ocaeiaae A?iaea?a ? a?ae iiaeeao ii?i??ii.
ssea ianiiae?aaiea, ooi a i?a iiaeoiaoe, aiia ae?enii i?ioiaeeoue ii
e?eueoeaa?e a??nuee?e nenoai?: A?iaea?, Eaaeac, Ea?iaoe, Aeueie,
Aoeanuee? ai?e e o.ae.

Oaiaey/e OAOA = — 45, PSI = 120, Fl = 115, iaea?aeo?ii ea?oo, ia ye?e
e?eueoeaaa a??nueea nenoaia niieo/aia c aeaaoi?ii.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaioth/?e iei? oai??? oaeoii?/ieo ieeo, a??nuee?
nenoaie aeieeathoue o ?acoeueoao? c?oeiaiiy, ioaea, e?eueoeaaa a??nueea
nenoaia iiaea aeieeiooe o?eueee a ?acoeueoao? c?oeiaiiy aeaio iieiaeiie
Caie?. Oe?eaai, ia /iio ae aiie a oaeiio aeiaaeeo ?oaee? Aiae?noue,
iaia?aa??ai?noue, aacaeocae?noue oai???, 99% an?o i??eoaaiue yei?
i?enay/ai? iienai yeee aeie nooe ia ye?e ieeo? eoaee ?oaa, eiee e aea
aeiaaeeiai c ?ioei aeieii c?ooiaooaaeeny ? ye? naia a??nuee? o?aaoe e
?iaeiaeua ei?enieo eiiaeei i?e oeueiio aeieeaee, oaia? cian?i i/aaeaei?.

Ia ?nio? aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano, caeaoiiai ?ici?noeoe a?ey aeaio
aeanyoe?a a??nueeeo o?aao?a o ieiuei?, ui i?ioiaeeoue oi/ii /a?ac oeaio?
Caie?. Iaa?oue yeae ooi-iaaoaeue noaa na?aeiii oi?aaeyoe ?ooii ieeo, o
iueiai iaiaaii oea ia aeeoei a, oiio ui, noai?thth/e iaeio e?eueoeaao
a??nueeo nenoaio, a?i iaieio/a ?oeioaaa ae ?ioo. Ioaea, e?eueoeaa?
a??nuee? nenoaie aeieeathoue ia ye iane?aeie aeiaaeeiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy
aeie?a, a yeeinue ?ioei ia?acii, c aaieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ieoo?ai,
aiane?aeie yeeoinue eaoano?io?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui ?iiae? a?aeaoaathoueny
ia iao?e ieaiao?. Aiie iiaee a aeieeiooe i?e ci?i? iieiaeaiiy in?
iaa?oaiiy Caie?.

Ae?enii, aeaaoi??aeueiee ?aae?on Caie? aei??aith? 6378,245 ei; iiey?iee
— 6356,863 ei, oiaoi iiey?iee ?aae?on ei?iooa aeaaoi??aeueiiai ia 21,382
ei. sseui a ?acoeueoao? eini?/ii? eaoano?ioe iiaa a?nue iaa?oaiiy
aeyaeoueny ia aeaaoi??, neaaeaii oai, aea aoea Ao?eea, a Ao?eea, o naith
/a?ao, ci?noeoueny ia iiethn, oi iiaee iiethn aeyaeoueny ia aenio? 21
e?eiiao? iaae ??aiai ii?y, a noa?ee, ci?noeaoenue ia aeaaoi?, aeyaeoueny
i?ae aiaeith ia aeeaei? 21 e?eiiao?. Iaeneiaeueii i?eionoeia aenioa a??
ia Caie? aei??aith? i?eaeecii aeaa’yoe e?eiiao?ai. Ioaea, aaeeea
iaeanoue iiaa?oi? Caie?, ? a ?aeii? iiaiai iiethna Caie? ia aenio? 21
e?eiiao?, ii/ia i?iaeiaoe caiio iiaa?oith e /a?ac yeeenue /an oai
caeeoeoueny uinue ia/aaoi Aioa?eoeaee. O naith /a?ao noa?ee aeaaoi?, ui
i?noeyie i?aei?ia?oueny iaae aiaeaie Na?oiaiai ieaaio iaeaea ia 20
e?eiiao??a, ii/ia i?in?aeaoe, caeeoath/e e?eueoeaaee ne?ae o aeaeyae?
a??nueei? nenoaie, ui eaaeeoue o ieiuei?, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oeaio?
Caie? e ? aeiaaeeiith a 40 oeny/ e?eiiao??a. Eia?/ii? I?eiaeii? ia
yeeoinue ieaiaoao oaea iiaei a o?aieyoeny, oae ui aac iaeaaeii?
ia?aa??ee oeth iiaeeea?noue a?aeeeaeaoe ia iiaeia.

I?eiio ia/aaoi a ia iio??aia A?aieaiae?y.

?oooia iiaeaeue, yeee ae aacaeocaei? aiia ia aoea, aeicaiey? c?icoi?oe,
ui iiaaii c iaoith caieath, /iio ?? e?oinoa?a a yeeenue iiiaio iiaea
«ii?oaoe». Any ni?aaa a A?aieaiae??. Ui?ieo oai aaeeoue ni?a,
ca?eueooth/e oiaueio eueiaeiaiai iaioee?a.

A?aieaiae?y. Iiiaae 80% oa?eoi??? caeiyoi iie?eaiei eueiaeiaeeii
iiooaei?noth aei 3400i, Ia’?i eueiaeo 2,6 iei. ei3. Aenioa aei 3700i.
Aaaa eueiaeo 2,6 10 oiii. Oeaio? aaae ia?aaoaa? ia 450 ia?eae?ai?
cao?aeii? aeiaaioe, ia 70i i?ai?/io oe?ioo.

A?aieaiae?y c eiaeiei ?ieii ona na?eici?oa cayaey? i?i na?e iai??
a?aei?aaeoeny aei aeaaoi?a. sseae caiey aoea e?oaea, A?aieaiae?y aeaaii
a ia?ai?noeeany, aea aiia — niethniaiee ae?ini?ae; cnoao A?aieaiae??
ocaeiaae 45 ia?eae?aia cao?aeii? aeiaaioe ia?aoeiaeaea? eiioeiaioaeueiee
oaeueo o ?aeii? Iiainea??nueeeo ino?ia?a, yeui oai uinue a?aeaoaeaoueny,
oi «i?ioean i?aea» . O i?eioeei? oai iiaeia i?iaeoe ooieuei?, caeeanoe
ooaee yaea?i? i?ie e, i?ae??aaaoe ?o, aeiiiiiaoe A?aieaiae?? ?aae?coaaoe
?? iai??, a caiaeii e a?ae?a??oe Iao?ieo-?in?th.

Iaaoaeoeai?noue no/aniiai aeaaoi?a.

sseui ie iiaeeaeiiny ia no/ania iieiaeaiiy aeaaoi?a, oi ciooai? aoaeaii
a?aecia/eoe, ui ?icoaoiaaii a?i oe?ae iaaaeaei — c 40 oeny/ e?eiiao??a
caiii? ie?oaeiino? o?eueee 6 oeny/ i?ioiaeyoue ii noo?, ?ioi? 34 oeny/?
— ii o?ueio ieaaiao: Oeoiio, Aoeaioe/iiio, ?iae?enueeiio. A io eiee
aeaaoi? caeiaa iieiaeaiiy Noa?iai aeaaoi?a, ona aoei iaaiaee: ?iae?y,
No?aeia Nea??, *oeioea, Aeynea e cao?aeia ocaa?aaeaey iaio Aia?ee
aeyaeyeeny a aeaaoi??aeuei?e cii? (io eiee iiiaiei?aee Ac?? canaeeee
Aia?eeainueeee eiioeiaio!). Aeoiaeeoue, ui a iao? aei? niioea ia?a??aa?
i?eiio ia iio??aio ieaainueeo aiaeo.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iieiaeaiiyi iiethn?a iaoi? ieaiaoe, iieaco?, ui
I?ai?/iee iiethn a ie?ai? ?iee a e?/ai? aei? ia?ai?ua?oueny ia a?aenoai?
ii?yaeeo 100 ei /a?ac ia??aiii??i?noue aeiaaeaiiy aai oaiaiiy ni?ao,
oiio, eiee e?oinoa?a aeeaea c? noaio ??aiiaaae, oaeaee?noue ??
ia?ai?uaiiy aoaea aei??yoeny ia naioeiao?aie a ??e, a aeanyoeaie
e?eiiao??a o aeiao!

sseui A?aieaiae?y i?eeaea a ?oo, oi /a?ac ??e e?oinoa?a caeia cae/aeia
iieiaeaiiy e iaeaea an? aeeoae? iaoi? ieaiaoe aoaeooue aeeoe a cii?
aeaaoi?a. Aea iaea?eueoa aea?a? a?ae oeueiai ?in?y, oiae? ye ?a?iia
i?ia?a?.

Aea ia o?eueee a??nuee? nenoaie ooai?youe ia Caie? aeaaoi??aeuei?
no?oeoo?e, oi/a o?e aeyaeaieo iaie aeaaoi?a aeaeaei ia ae/a?iothoue
nienie e?eueoeaaeo a??nueeeo nenoai. Iai?eeeaae /?oei aeaeii, ui
?neaiae?y, Oi?oeaa?aai, Iiainea??nuee? ino?iae ?icoaoiaothoueny ia
iaei?e i?yi?e.

I/aaeaeii, oea ne?aee yeiainue a?oa?/iiai aeaaoi?a. Iiaa?oath/e aeiaon
ia eooe OAOA = 81, PSI = — 32, Fl = 100, iaea?aeo?ii ea?oo, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oea i?eiouaiiy.

Oea aeoaea aaaeeeaa e?i?y ia iiaa?oi? Caie?, a?ae ia? caeeoeeeny ne?aee
o aeaeyae? ino?iaa Naoae?i ? ssiii??, aiia noi?ioaaea Aaeeeee
aiaeiae?eueiee o?aaao a Aano?ae??, a?ae ?? caeeoeeiny aeoaea aaaaoi
ne?ae?a o ?aeue?o? Aioa?eoeaee. sseui ciiao c’?aeiaoe Ao?eeo e I?aaeaiio
Aia?eeo, oi iiaeia iiaa/eoe, ui aiia caeeoeea na?e ne?ae o aeaeyae?
Aiae.

?ioa e?eueoeaaa no?oeoo?a, eiioo?e yei? a?ae?aco aeaei? ia aeiaon?,
neeaaea?oueny ?c aeiaaeueiiai e?eueoeaaiai ?iceaio e?oinoa?e. Ie?ai?
oiaoee eiai aea/athoueny ye iacaeaaei?. Ethaee /iio oa iaiaeiththoue
naeeoeny ocaeiaae oeueiai Aeiaaeueiiai ?iceaio, oi/a oai aacoieiii
o?yna, a /an a?ae /ano caieao?ono an? ii??aiththoue ?c caieath. *iio iai
iiaeiaa?oueny aeeoe ia ?iceai?, ia/aaoi oai iaaeii iaiacaii? I?ooi ia
iiaea oeueiai iiynieoe.

Nai ?iceai i?ioiaeeoue, a?aeoeeyth/enue oa iaai?o, oa aeie?eeoeue, a
ieieeoe? e?i??, yeee iicia/aiee aeaaoi?. Oea naia naeni?/ii iaaacia/ia
ciia ia caie? e o oe?e cii? ?icoaoiaai? i?ia?aei? noieeoe? ie?o,
iaea?eueo? iaaaiie?ne.

*iionue oai iiaoaeiaai?, ia/aaoi ?ioiai i?noey ia aoei — Aaee?iaoii,
Iaeueao?i, Aaeaea?aea, Ii?oeaiae, Aaeen-Aaaaa, Aaeai, Ea??,
Ieaenaiae??y, Iaeea, ??onaeei, Oaeue-Aa?a, Ao?ie, ?ei, Aaiaoe?y,
AEaiaaa, Aa?i, A?aeaiue, Ia?eae, A?thnnaeue, Eiiaeii, Aeoae?i, Eaaaae,
Iii?aaeue, Oi?iioi, Aeao?ieo, no?aoii iaa?oue i?inoi ia?a?aoiaoaaoe
i?noa, oiio ui a oe?e cii? aeyaeany iiiaae iaaaiie?n, ui ii/eia?oueny a
Ainoii? e yeee cae?i/o?oueny a Iiaiio I?eaai?. Iaa?oue iaeneeaioe?
/iionue ?icoaooaaee Iao?ei oi/ii ia no?aoi?e e?i?? Aeiaaeueiiai
E?eueoeaaiai ?iceaio.

sseui ae oaaaeii iiaeeaeoany ea?oo aeiaaeueiiai E?eueoeaaiai ?iceaio, oi
ae iiaa/eoa, ui i?yia ?neaiae?y — Oi?oeaa?aai — Iiainea??nuee? ino?iae
ooai?eoue ynii aeaeeiee ?oaaoeue ia o?e? ieaiaoe. Ia iiaeaii ie oaeiae
«ia iiaa/eoe», ui Aaeee? ica?a I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee ?icoaoiaai? ia iaei?e
i?yi?e, ui eaea iaeaea ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei e?i?? Aeiaaeueiiai
E?eueoeaaiai ?iceaio, ia yeo iiae?aii aoneiai iaiecai? Aaeee? ica?a
Eaiaaee. Aacnoii?aii oea ne?aee yeiainue ae?aaiueiai ?iceaio, oiio ui
i?yiee a?ae??cie aeiaaeeiith 4,5 oeny/? e?eiiao??a aaci?e/eiii c’yaeoeny
ia iiaea, a yeui a?i c’yaeany ia aeiaaeeiai, oa a iueiai iiaeiia aooe
i?e?iaeia i?iaeiaaeaiiy c oaeeie ae aeanoeainoyie. Ie i?iiiio?ii
iaceaaoe eiai «?iceai Aaeeeeo ica?» .

Ae?enii, ia?eiaee eaioetha Aaeeeeo ica? o?eaa? ia?eiaei eaioethaii
iaaaeeeeo ii??a: Aa?eiaiaa, Ioionueea, ssiiinueea, AEiaoa,
O?e?ii?inueea, I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueea, ii?a Noeo, Noeaaan?, Iieoenueea
ii?a, ii?a Na?ai, ii?a Aaiaea, ii?a Naao, ii?a Oei?an, ii?a Aaee,
ssaainueea ii?a. Iiaea aooe, oea cao/eoue ciaiaoeueea, aea inoaiiy a?oia
iaaaeeeeo ii??a, aeoaea Aaeee? ica?a I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee.

O oeae ?iaio? iaaaaeai? oaeoe, ye? ia o?eueee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oai??th
Aeueo?aaea Aaaaia?a i?i ae?aeo eiioeiaio?a, aea e ciaoiaeyoue iia?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?nioaaiiy iaeiiai aaeeeiai eiioeiaioo.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Ae?oyiia A. A Caaaaei/iay aeia?aoey Caiee. — I, 1999.

2. Eaoe ss.A., ?yaooei A.A. Einie/aneay aaieiaey. — I., 1984.

3. Eaeaea? I. Ianiie?eia Caiey. — E, 1995.

4. Ea?eiiia A. E. Oe?eaaa ?iaeaia?ia aaieia?y. — E., 1998.

5. Iii?i A.N.Iiioey?ia ?noi??y Caie?. — E., 2000.

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