Країни Азії

E??? A??

???y

A??? ?????-?????? i?????I?? — 17,075 ?i. ?2 (1/8 ???a ??); o ???? ?????y
1/3 ?????; a A?? — 2/3 ?????; ?? ??ae ? I?????i E????? O??i ? A?????i
???a; ?? ????? ???e ? ?????o ??? — c O??yi??th, I????th, ? c??? — c
A????th, E???th, E??th, I??ath, A????th, O???th, ? ??? — c A???th,
A??????, E?????, I????th, E??i, ? ????? ??? — c EIAe?; ??? ????? ??a
???? ??eo ??i, ? ??y? ? NIAe.I???? ???eI?????: ??? (??? ? ????? ???);
???? (??a, ?c, ???y); ????? ????e (??, ???, ???o, ???). C??? ????????? a
?????e ????; ??? ???e ?????? a ?? ?????i ????iy (Ia, A??, E?a, ???e,
A??, O?e, E??a, Ae?, I??a); ??ae 2 ?i. ?? (E???ue?, A??e, I???, E???a,
*??? ? ?i.); ?????a — ?????a ? A???a. C??????ue ????y ??????????? ??y?
??? (0,9 ? ? 1 ?e.). I? ??ae 20 % ????o ???a ??a, ???o 1/2 c ?o — ????
?y ?????yO??????a ????yE????ue ????y — 144,7 ?i. ?e. (6-a ??a o ??? ??y
E?ath, ????, NOA, ??????, A????). 78 % ????y — o ??????e ????. O?????
??? ???ey?? (????e ???? — –6,4‰). A????????a ???a — 130 ???a (4 ???
?i’?: ???????? — 89 % ????y; ????a -6,8 %; ????a — 2,4 %; ????a — 1,8
%). O????a ??????a ?????ue. ?????y ??????a, ???y ???a a 4 ?ce ??a ? ????
(?????? ???a — 29 ?e./?2; ????? ???a — 2,5 ?e./?2; I????a ???ue — 354
?e./?2; A?????? ????? ??a — 0,03 ?e./?2). 13 ??-?????a; o ?no? ???? 78 %
????y. I????a ?????y — ?e??? a ????. AAI ? ?? ????y — 2,1 ?n.
?e.I??????ueI??i????y — 1/4 ???? ?????? ?????, ??y? 9 ?i. ?e.: ??a
??????a ? ??? ? ??????? ?ce; ????/? — ? ? ??e, ? ? ??????? ??e, ? ? ????
????; ?????????? — ? ????a; ??????a?iy, ??a ? ????a — ? ???? ???;
??????a — ? ???e ???? ????? I????? ????; ?????a (?? ?? ???i?o);

O???a — ????? ?? ???, ? ??? ????a ?? (?i??a ??a a ??? ? ???? ????).

I???-?????a — ???a ? ??? (? ???? ?? ???? 1-a ??a a ???, a ? ???? ?
????yi ??e — 2-a ??a ??y N????i? A???); ???? (14 % ???? ????a);
????????a (OAN — 72 %; AAN, AAN; ?? ?? ???????e — ????, ?iy??, ??????).

I????y — ??a (???? ????a ??a, ?e?? ?? — O????, Oe????a, N????a) ? ????a.

E?n?a — ? ???? ???? ???? i???a ??a, ??? ???? — ???? ??; ????? OeIE —
E??iy??, A???, O?ue-??i?e, A????e, A???N???? ????????????i — ?????y ??a
(???y, e????, ??, y???, ?n); ????? ??o?e (????, ?????, ?????); ?????i.

O?????i — ??ae 60 % ???? ????? ????? ??????: ????? (?????e ?nya ?????);
????? (?? 1/3 i’y?); ????? (o ???????o ? ???? ???o); ????e?? (???o ???o
??); ?iy??i; ??y??i (???/)O????C?????e: ??y???ue — 87 o?. ?; ??? —
??ue?e (38 % ??o ?????; 1-a ??a ? ??????i — ??????? ??? (I???, A?????);
2-a ??a — A????? ??? (N??-I????, E?????ae); a ?e? I????? (I????,
A?????e, E????a), *?????? (I??????, O??a), E????? (A????, I????) ???e),
???ee (???? ??y ?c ????y? ? ?a??, ? ???? ?????i ? ???ae?? ????yo);
?????? — ??eth? ?????y? ?? ??? ???; ??????? — ? ??????i ?????
?????e.C?????????? ?’y?eCa ???? 10 ??a ????ny ????y ? ????a ?????o
?’y??a: ?? ????e ?a? ?’yc? c ???? NIAe, a ?? ??? O???th, ??????ny ?’y?e
c C???. A??? — ??????, ??? ? ????iy, ?n ? ??????e, ???e, ????e, ????
????. ???o — ??? ? ????iy, i’y?, ???, ?e, ?????.

E????

A??? ???ei-?????? ??????I?? — 2,7 ?i. ?2; ?????y a Oe?????e A??; i?? ?
???, ???? ? ??? c ????th, ? ??? — c O???????, O?????i, E??i, E?????i;
???ue ? ??? NIAe ? ?AI; ?????ny c 14 ???ae; ?? ??ae ? E?????i ??y, ?
??y? ???? ?’y??a c ???? E???, I????-C???? A??O??????a ????yE????ue ????y
— 15,4 ?i. ?e.; ???y ???a — 5,7 ?e./?2; ????? ??????i; o ??? ???? 56 %
???iiy; ????a ??y???: ??ae 50 % — ??a ??????iy, ??????ue ? ???? ?????? —
???o (??? 20 %); ?????? ??ae: 42 % — ??oe, 37 % — ??y?, ? 5 % — ????? ?
???; ??a ???????ue ????e ????e — 64 % ?ae c???? ????? ????y. A??? ??a —
A??a (???y), A??e, Ea???a, *???, I????; AAI ? ?? ????y — 1,14 ?n.
?e.I??????ueI? ???e ????-????e ?????: ???? — ???y, ??a; ??? — ????,
????? ??, ???e, ???, ??, ???, ??i???? ??; ???? — ???a ???? (??, ????e).
A??? ????????; ????a ?????y (???a ???, ?e?? ????? ?????), ??a ?????y (??
????th? ????i ????, ??? ??e???? ?????), ?????y ??????ny ? ???? ? ???,
??? ???????th ? ????a; ???????y (???a) — ?????????? (??????a ????th?ny o
???o ???), ???a ??????ue — ???a ??y (???a, ???a ???a, ???? ????), ????ny
? ????e ????; ??????a, ???a ??????ue — ????a ??a, i’y?????a, oy?? ?
????a ? ????N???? ????????????i — y? ???y (2/3 ??o ???? ??), ??ae ???th?
?i?, ?n, ???, y???, c ????? ???? — ????, ?iy??, ???? ??ye, ? ??e ????? —
??? ? ???eth, ????a ?????i, ???????. O?????i — ????? (????a ???, ??? —
????a, ?????, ????????, a????y?, ??th?a, ??????), ???a ??? — i’y?-???a
?????, ??ae ????iy ??e ? ??eth?a, ??e?a (? A??), o ???o ?????’yo —
??????O????????? ?? ?? ????i ?????, ????? ???iy — ?????e (O??????a,
O????i-N????a, O?i????? ?????); ????? ??????e ????o, ??? ??th? ? ????,
E???, A??; ??? ?????ny ??????? ????oC?????????? ?’y?eA??? — ?????a ????,
??? ? ????? ??ee, ???? ????iy; ???o — ?????? ? ????? ???, ????oth?, ???
? ????iy; ???? ????e — ??? NIAe (??e?i ???y, ??????ny ?????a c
O???th)ss??y

A??? ????-?????? ??????I?? — 378,2 ?n ?2; ?????y ? ???? N??? A??, ?????
???e — O?nth, O???i, Ethnth, N???; ???a ?a??, ? ?? ????? ????a c ???e
????e; ?oy??a c ?????i ??o ? ????e ??ae ??a ? 3,5 ?n. ?; ????? ??? —
E??, ???y, I??a?a E?ay ? I???/? E?ayO??????a ????yE????ue i???iy — 127,6
?i. ?e., ???y ???a — 330 ?e./?2; 99 % ???a — y???; ???e ??? ?????? — 76
%, ?????e ????n — O??? (60 ?i. ?e.); ???? ????y — 0,4 %; ?????y ??????a
???? ? ????iy ???? ????y; ??a ???????ue ??i?? ????e, y? ????yth?ny ???i
??? ?????? ? ?a???????I??????ue????? ?? ?? ???? ?y ????????e, ??????,
???????y, ???? ? ??? ???????; ??? ???????? — ??????, ????? ???, ? ???
????o ?????e: ?????i ???a ?’y?o, ??????, ??o ?????a, ??????y; ????a ???
— ???????y: ?????a, ????????y, ??????, ?????i ???????i ????iy, ????a,
??’th??a, ??? ???????; 1-a ??a a ??? c ?????a ??i, ?????a, ????a, ???a,
????? ???????; ????? ?????y, ???a, ??????a, ??a, ???a ??????ue; ??????a
????? a ??? ?i ???ei ?ae ?oN???? ??????Ia 3/4 ????? ????y ????? ????iy;
??? ????oth?ny ?? ??????, ?? ???? ?????? a????????; ???y??ny ?? 12 % ???
e???; ???a ??? — ?????? (?n, ?y, ???y, ???), ?i?e ????ny 2–3 ?? ? ?e,
????a ??? ?????? — ????? (1-a ??a a ??? ? ???i ??, ????i ???????a), ?
ae??? ??? — ?????, ????a ??????iO????Ae?? ????? ?????? ????; ????? ?ae —
??????e (40 ?i. ???? ? 25 ?i. ????o ??i); ?????e ???? ????? ?????y,
??????e ? ??? ?????yie ? ????y?; ????y?a ???iy ?? ????, y?e ???? 1-a ??a
a ??? ? ?????????th, ?? ?ny?e ???a; ????? ?????? (70 ?????a), ? ?????
??? E???? (i. Ethnth)C?????????? ?’y?e3-? ??a ? ?ny?? ?a???? ?????; ??i?
— ???, ????, ?????? ???e, ??e; ???o — ??ae??y, ????y ???????y, ???,
??ue, ????y ???? ???????; ???? ???? — NOA (30 % ?????? ???); ??? ??a o
?’y?? ???? ???o ????

E??

A??? ????-?????? ??????C????ny a Oe?????e ? N???e A??; ?? ??ae ? O??i
???; ???? ??a — 9,6 i?. ?2; ??? ??ey??ny ? C???? (????) ? N??? E?? (??o
????e); ?? ??ath? ??? ??o ???; ? ??? ????O??????a ????y1-a ??a a ??? ?
????th — 1 ??. 304 ?i. ?e.; ??????a ???? “????iy ?i’?”; 95 % — ????, 5 %
— ???, ????e, ???? (??? 50 ???a); ???y a??? — 125 ?e./?2; ? ??? — ? 5
?e./?2; ? ??? — ? 1500 ?e./?2; ???e ??? ?????? — 30 %, 35 ??-?????a,
????? — O??e, I??i; ??? ??????y ???? ????aI??????ueA??a?? ????-????e
?o???; ???? 50 % AAI; ??? ????????: ?????, ?????y, ???????y, ???a (????
??????a), ??a ??????ue; 1-a ??a o ??? c ?????a ???y?o, ?aiy?o, ???? ???;
????ue ?????? ????? a ?????o ???o, ????i ??i ?a ?o ????y o ????? ???
(??? ? ????, ???, ????a)N???? ??????I??a ???????ue ? ?????y; ?a???? ???
???e a ????o ????iy; ????a ??? — ??????i, ? 80 % ???? ? ???? ????e (?n,
????a, ???y, ??yi, ??i, ?y), c ????? ???th? ????, ??, ???o ????; 2-a ??a
a ??? c ?????a ?th; ?c ???e ???i??a — ????? (90 % ?????a i’y?), ?????,
?????, ?????i, ??????i ? ?????o ???, ?????i — ??????i, 3-? ??a a ??? c
??? ??O?????????e ?????i, ??? ????? ??? ? ?th? ???o ?????? ?????e,
?????o ?y?a ???? ????e ???o; ? 1 ?n. ?2 ???? ?eue? 50 ? ????ue; ???
???oy ?? ??? ???? ???y?a, ????? ???? ??e — O??e, Oe??i, A???oC??????????
?’y?eA??? — ?????????? ???? ? ???? ?? ????e, ??ae ???? ????a, ??????????
???, ??????? ????, ??i, ????? ???; ???o — ???, ???a, ????? ???, i???e
????iy ? ???? ???????, ?e???y ?y ??? ???e ???????; ???? ?????? ???? —
NOA, ss??y; E?? — ?? c ?????e ??????o ????a O???A?????ee ???? ? ??? ??a
?????? ???a E?ath

Ae???? ?????? ???A?????a ???????yA??? ??aI????i-N??????i-??????,
???????, ???????e ????O?ueyi, A???, O??ue, O??i, Aeayy?I???????????,
??????????iy, ???????iy, ?????i ?????o ?????aI??i, Oy???iN????????,
??i????y, ?????, ????????y, ?????y, ???a ??????ueO??e, I?e?i, O???,
Oe??i, O??oOe????????i-???????? ??i, ????e ??? ??????i
????O??I????e???i-???????? ??i, ???e ? ????A???o, Ny??I????i-C?????a?? ?
???? ???e, ???? ???? ??eN??ue, O???, Ey???I????-C???????i-???????? ??i c
???????i ????i ??????i ? ????ith ??????thOe???i, *??, E?? (O??)

O???? ? ???y

E???O???????yAAIC????ny ? ????? ??? A?? ? ????? ??? ???e, ? ???a??? ?y?a
c ??i? ? A?? ? c I?????’y ? N??????’y. *?i IAOI. I?? — 780,6 ?n.
?2C????ny o I????e A??, ? ????? ????i, ??a — 3287,5 ?n. ?2, ????ny
?????? ???iI???? ??e ? ???e???????? ???o, ??i??e ?????? ???o. E??? ????
— ????, ??ue, ??a, ??o?i, ??, ???y, i?????????? ???o, ???? ???o, ???
????ue ?iy?? ?????. E??? ???? — ????, ????? ??, ?th?, ???y, ??? ?
?????????; ?th???? ???eO?????e? ????y71,3 ?i. ?e.; 9/10 — ??e; ???????a
???; ?c??? ??????i, ??i ???? ????y ??a, 66 % ????y ?? o ???, c ?o ??? —
A??a (?i?oey), N???, ???. AAI ? ?? ????y — 2,1 ?n. ?e.1 ??. 65 ?i. ?e.
(2-a ??a a ???); 1/4 — ??????, ????????a ???; ???y ???a ????y — 260
?e/?2, 3/4 ????y ?? a ??o, ??? ????y — 28 %, ??? ??a — Ae?? (???y),
A?a?, E????, I??n. AAI ? ?? ????y — 476 ?e.A?????i???????i-???a
???A???-???????a ???I??????ueI??? ???? ???o a ???, ???? ??? ?????? n??;
??? ??????? — 22,6 % AAI. A???: ??e????a, ?????y, ???????, ???a,
?o?????iy, ??a ? ???a ??????ueIa ??? ??????? ???? 21 % AAI, ??y? 1/5
???a ????y ???. I???? ??a ??????ue, ????? ??????a ??????y (o ???? ???o
???), ??? ???? ???th?? ?????? ???. ????? i????y, ???????y, ???a, ??a
??????ueN???? ??????I??a — ??????, ?? 2/3 ?????; ???? ???? — ???y, y???,
????a, ???? ??ye, othothi, ????, ?iy??, ????, ???, ???e, ?????. O?????i
— ????iy ?c, ??ue, ??aA??i ?????? ???a, ????? ???; ????? ?????? (?n,
???y, ??i), a ??ae ???, ???? (??, ???n), ???, ???, ???a ?i??a, ?e, ????.
O?????i ?? ????a ???iy, ????a ????? (a ????o ye oy??a ??). 70 % ????y
??y? a ????? ??????C?????????? ?’y?eA??? — ??? ?????? ? ???? ??e????,
????a ???, ???a ??????ue, ?????????? ????y (?cthi, ?????, ???, ???), a
??ae ???? ??; ???o — ??a, ??? ? ????iy, ????? ???? ? ???eA??? — ?? ???a,
?????? ???, ?????????? ????y — ?e, ?o?e, ???n, ???a ????, ????, ??; ???o
— ??a ? ??????e, ??? ?????a, ???a ????y, ???? ???

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