Географія Фастівського району

1. CAAAEUeI? A?AeIIINO? OA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA I?E?IAeIEO OIIA ?AEIIO

1.1. Caaaeuei? aeai?

Oano?anueeee ?aeii, ca?aeii i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?aeiioaaiiy, a iniia? yeiai eaaeeoue eaiaeoaooii — aaiaoe/iee i?eioeei,
?icoaoiaaiee ia oa?eoi??? o?ueio i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?aeii?a. Eiai i?ai?/ia /anoeia a?aeiineoueny aei Oano?anueeiai,
i?aaeaiia aei Neae?nueeiai, a no?aeia aei
A?eioea?e?anueei-Ie?ii?anueeiai i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?aeii?a E?ninoaiiai? ciie.

?aeii ciaoiaeeoueny a cao?aei?e /anoei? Ee?anueei? iaeano? ? iaaeo? ia
i?aii/? c Iaea??anueeei, ia noiae? — c Aaneeuee?anueeei, ia i?aaeaiiiio
noiae? — c A?eioea?e?anueeei, ia i?aaei? — c? Neae?nueeei ?aeiiaie
Ee?anueei? iaeano?, ia caoiae? — c Ei?inoeoaanueeei oa Iii?eueiyinueeei
?aeiiaie AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

Oano?anueeee ?aeii, ye aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueio iaeeieoeth,
ooai?aii a 1923 ?ioe?. A 1930 — 1931 ?ieao a Oe?a?i? e?ea?aeiaaii
aoaa?i?? oa ie?oae ? a 1932 ?ioe? noai?aii 5 iaeanoae, a oiio /ene? ?
Ee?anueeo. Oaeei /eiii, caii/aoeiaaii iiaee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ono??e a
aea?aeaa? — iaeanoue, ?aeii, n?euenueea ?aaea (?en. 1.1.)

Ia aeaiee /an ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio, ye iae?eiai —
eaaeano?iaa iaeeieoey, ?nio? 23 n?euenueeeo ? 2 naeeuieo ?aaee.

Caaaeueia ieiua caiaeue ?aeiio noaiiaeoue 89695 aa aai 3,2 % a?ae
oa?eoi??? iaeano?. Aaei?i?no?aoeaiei ? eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii ?aeiio ?
Oano?a, i?noi

iaeaniiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, yea ?icoaoiaaia ia ?. Oiaa?, a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ?aeiio ? ciaoiaeeoueny ia a?aenoai? 64 ei a?ae
noieeoe? Oe?a?ie i. Ee?aa. Oano?a a?aeiiee ua c 1390 ?. Noaoon i?noa
eiio i?enai?ii a 1938 ?.

Ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio ?ici?uaii 49 ianaeaieo ioieo?a, c ieo aeaa naeeua —
Ai?iaa oa Eiaeaiea, a ?aooa 47 — n?euenuee? ianaeai? ioieoe.
*enaeuei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy (noaiii ia 1.01.2002?.) neeaaea?
37,7 oen /ie., a oiio /ene? a naeeuao – 11,9 oen. /ie. U?euei?noue
ianaeaiiy 42 /ie. ia 1 ei2 .

Oano?anueeee ?aeii ia? aeineoue ?icaeiooo oeyoiao ia?aaeo, yea
caaania/o? aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? ca’ycee, a nai ?aeiiiee oeaio? ? aaeeeei
cae?cie/iei aoceii. Cae?cie/ieie noaioe?yie oaeiae ? Iioiaee?aea
(Ai?iaa) oa Eiaeaiea. I?ioyaei?noue aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a caaaeueiiai
ei?enooaaiiy neeaaea? 286,6 ei, o oiio /ene? c oaa?aeei iie?eooyi —
171,4 ei. Iniiaieie iaa?no?aeyie ? aaoiiia?euei? aei?iae aea?aeaaiiai
cia/aiiy oae? ye: Ee?a – Aeo?a – Oano?a oa Oano?a – Ieoieoey; iaeaniiai
cia/aiiy – Oano?a – Eiaeaiea, iaaea AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, A?ea
Oea?eaaaa – Oano?a oa Eiaeaiea – Oo?ne – Aieiaea?ea. *a?ac oa?eoi??th
?aeiio i?ieyaa? I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeia cae?cieoey o iai?yieao Ee?a – Oano?a,
Oano?a – Eicyoei, Oano?a – Ie?ii?aea.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa ?aeiio niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia
ae?iuoaaii? ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa oeoe?iaiai ao?yea, a a oaa?eieoeuee?e
aaeoc? ia?aaaaea? iiei/ii-i’yniee iai?yiie oa naeia?noai.

I?iieneia?noue ?aeiio i?aaenoaaeaia ?yaeii i?aei?e?inoa, i?ia?aeieie
na?aae yeeo ? Eiaeainueeee oeoe?iaee oa O?ee?nueeee nie?oiaee caaiaee,
Oano?anueea iaaeaaa oa oaaeia oaa?eee, a oaeiae ?yae i?aei?e?inoa ii
ianeoaiaoaaiith cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo; caaiaee iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
aeaeo?ioa?i?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, aaciiacooieo i?eno?i?a oa
aaciaeei?enoiaoth/i? aia?aoo?e, ye? ?ici?uai? a i.Oano?a, oa
aea?aaiia?iaiee eiia?iao a naeeu? Ai?iaa.

Iai’yoee a?o?oaeoo?e ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio i?aaenoaaeaii? Iie?ianueeith
oea?eaith — 18 no. (1740 ?.) oa einoueieii (1903-11 ??.) ? ciaoiaeyoueny
i?ae ioi?iiith aea?aeaae. Ia’?eoaie oo?ecio a oano?anueeiio ?aeii? ?
aoaeeiie, a yeiio a 1919-1922 ?.?. aeea oe?a?inueeee eiiiiceoi? E. A.
Noaoeaiei, iocae eiiiiceoi?a oa iai’yoiee ia eiai iiaee? ciaoiaeyoueny a
n.Aai?ee.

1.2. Ee?iao

Ee?iao ?aeiio iii??ii-eiioeiaioaeueiee c aeineoue oaieei e?oii oa
iii??ii oieiaeiith ceiith.

Na?aaeiuei??/ia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y neeaaea? +6,7°, iaea?eueo oieiaeiiai
i?nyoey n?/iy (-6,2°), a iaeoaie?oiai i?nyoey (eeiiy) — (+19.1°). A?ae
oeeo na?aaei?o aaaaoi??/ieo iieaciee?a a ie?ai? ?iee niinoa??aathoueny
a?aeoeeaiiy.

Aaniethoiee iaeneioi oaiia?aoo?e aeinyaa? (+38°) , i?i?ioi — (-33°), ui
cana?ae/o? iiaeeea?noue aeia?caiiy a iaeini?aei? ceie iceieo oa
iioeiaeaeaiiy ieiaeiaeo aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, a a ie?ai? ia??iaee
nooiai aea?eiai e?oa niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeai?aiiy iceieo oa y?eo
ca?iiaeo.

O?eaae?noue aacii?iciiai ia??iaeo, aeinyaa? a na?aaeiueiio 160-170
aei?a, a aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae i?iaeiaaeo?oueny c ae?oai? aeaeaaee
ea?oiy aei o?aouei? aeaeaaee aeiaoiy c noiith aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo?
2650-2800°. Oeeo i?e?iaeieo oaeoi??a aeinoaoiuei aeey ae?iuoaaiiy
?aeiiiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa aaaaoi??/ieo
ianaaeaeaiue.

Na?aaeiuei??/ia noia iiaae?a neeaaea? 560 ii, aea ?iciiae?e ?o ii
i?nyoeyo ?ieo ??aiii??iee. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iiaae?a aeiaaea? a
eeii? (77 ii). A iinooeea? ?iee iaeeai iaei iiaae?a aeiaaea? a o?aai?,
ui iaaoaii aieeaa? ia noiaee ?ineei.

Aeey ceiiaiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?ii iano?eea eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo? oa
aenioa ni?aiaiai e?eao, yea eieeaa?oueny a?ae 10 aei 22 ni. Aeineoue
/anoi niinoa??aa?oueny aeiaaeaiiy ceiiaeo iiaae?a o aeaeyae? aeiuo, ui a
naith /a?ao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy eueiaeyii? e??ee ? iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e.

Aeeaeia i?iia?caiiy a?oioo a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 40 ni. Aiia
caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? aeeaeie ni?aiaiai iie?eao, aea
oaeiae a?ae oeio a?oio?a oa ?o iaoai?/iiai neeaaeo.

A?aeiinia aieia?noue aeinyaa? naiai iaeneioio ainaie ? aceieo — 80-85%.
Iinooeeaeo aei?a c a?aeiiniith aieia?noth iaioa 30% a na?aaeiueiio ca
??e aoaa? a?ae 15 aei 20, c ieo a?eueo?noue i?eiaaea? ia o?aaaiue.

Oano?anueeee ?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny cia/iei aeia?iaoaaiiyi aieiae, yea
aeinyaa? 420-460 ii ??e, a oiio, iacaaaeath/e ia iiceoeaiee aaeain
aieiae, a ie?ai? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny iinooa. Eiaeia ii?a ?ieo
oa?aeoa?ia nai?ie iiceoeaieie oa iaaaoeaieie ee?iaoe/ieie oiiaaie,
ia?ao?ae a?ae iaei??? ii?e ?ieo aei ae?oai?, ye i?aaeei a?aeaoaa?oueny
iinooiiai.

Aania caoyaeia, iano?eea, c /anoeie ci?iaie oieiaeii? ? oaiei? iiaiaee.
Ii/aoeii aanie aaaaeathoue e?iaoeue ae?oai? ? ii/aoie o?aouei? aeaeaaee
aa?aciy. Oaiaiiy ni?ao, a ca’yceo c iayai?noth aaeeeeo ieiu e?n?a,
a?aeaoaa?oueny iia?eueii ? i?ioyaei?noue ni?aioaiaiiy a na?aaeiueiio
noaiiaeoue 20-25 aei?a.

E?oi oaiea, aea ia niaeioia, aeiuiaa. A ie?ai? ?iee iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue iiaae?a, ye? aeiaee iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e, a ?acii c oei i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeiieaiiy oa aeeyaaiiy oe?a?a aai noai?ththoueny iani?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
cai?o a?iaeath. A aeaye? ?iee iaiii?aaio oeiaeo n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noao iaiineoue a?aae. Ae?oeo ia?aaaaeathoue i?a?/ii-cao?aei?
a?o?e.

Ia?ao?ae aei inai? iinooiiaee, c /anoei iiaa?iaiiyi oaiei? iiaiaee.
Ia?oa iieiaeia inai?, ye i?aaeei, nooa ? oaiea. Iioio?a, i?ioieiaeia oa
c aeiuai aiia ii/eia?oueny iai?ee?ioe? aeiaoiy. Ni?a ii/eia? aeiaaeaoe c
eenoiiaaea.

Ceia i’yaea, iioio?a, c /anoeie a?aeeeaaie. I?ae /an a?aeeea
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaiaiiy ni?ao, ?ieiee aei iiaiiai eiai cieeiaiiy. *a?ac
aeayeee /an ni?aiaee iie?ea anoaiiaeth?oueny ciiao ? aeaeiee oea yaeua
iiaea iiaoi?thaaoenue aeae?eueea ?ac?a. Aceieo ia?aaaaeathoue
i?aaeaiii-no?aei? a?o?e.

A oe?eiio ee?iaoe/i? oiiae ?aeiio ii e?eueeino? oaiea, na?oea, aieiae
ni?eyoeea? aeey ae?iuoaaiiy an?o ?aeiiiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?.

1.3. ?aeue?o

Oano?anueeee ?aeii ii oiiaao ?aeue?oo yaey? niaith neaaeioaeeynoa eaniaa
ieaoi, yea neeaaea? eaiaeoaooiee oii iiaa?oi? c ie?aieie ii?aii —
caiae?iaeie a?aaaiyie, i?ai?/ia /anoeia ?aeiio — iiai?aiaaia, a
i?aaeaiia — /anoeiai a?iaeiaaia ( y?e, aaeee).

Eaniaa ieaoi ?ic/eaiiaaia aeieeiaie ??/ie ??i?iue, Oiaaa, Eaiaiea,
Nooaia oa ia?aaeath aaeie c aeineoue cia/iei iioe?aiiyi ?o a
i?aaeaiii-no?aeio oa i?ai?/io /anoeio ?aeiio. ??/eia? aeieeie iathoue
iaoe?ie? caaiei/ai? caieaae ? ia?aaaaeii iaeio, ??aeoa aea?, ae?aaeai? a
?aeue?o? iaaecaieaai? oa?ane. Ei??ii? aa?aae ??/ie iathoue iieia? noeee
c iacia/ieie i?iyaaie a?ic??, noeee aaeie iaoiiaeththoue aeineoue
cia/iee ?icaeoie a?ic??.

A i?ai?/i?e /anoei? ?aeiio ia ia?aoiae? a?ae neaaioaeeynoiai ieaoi aei
caieaa ??/ie cono??/athoueny aocuee? ai?ia? oa?ane. Caieaae ??/ie
iaoe?ie? a?ae 100 aei 500 iao??a, ye i?aaeei, caaiei/ai? ? a iniiaiiio
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey n?iiein?iiy. Iacia/ia /anoeia ?o inooaia ?
?ici?th?oueny. I?i? caie? ?ici?uai? a iniiaiiio ia neaaioaeeynoiio
ieaoi, ui a naith /a?ao aeicaiey? ?ioaineaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

1.4. A?ae?ia?ao?y ? a?ae?ieia?y

Oa?eoi??y Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aonoith ??/eiaith
ia?aaeath. Caaaeueia i?ioyaei?noue ??/ie oa no?oie?a ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio
neeaaea? 261 ei. An? ??/ee iaeaaeaoue aei aanaeio Aei?i?a ? aeey ieo
oa?aeoa?i? no?aeii?a?iiaenueeee ?aaeei noieo c ia?aaaaeaiiyi
ni?aiaiai aeeaeaiiy, aeiey yeiai ia?aaeuo? 50% ??/eiaiai noieo (aeey
iaeeo ??/ie aiia aeioiaeeoue aei 80%). Ae?oaei ca cia/aiiyi aeaea?aeii
aeeaeaiiy ??/ie ? i?aecaii? aiaee. Iaea?eueo e?oiiith aiaeiith a?oa???th
?aeiio ? ?.??i?iue, yea i?io?ea? a i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? ?aeiio.
I?ioyaei?noue ?? a iaaeao ?aeiio neeaaea? 30 ei, oe?eia ?onea
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 3-5 20-50 iao??a, a aeeaeia a?ae 1 aei 2 iao??a.
Oe?eia ??/eiai? aeieeie a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 2 ei, caieaaa ??/ee
i?noeyie caaiei/aia.

??/ee – Nooaia, Oiaaa oa Eaiaiea a?aeiinyoueny aei iaeeo ??/ie ?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny /?oei ae?aaeaieie, aenieeie aaniyieie iaaiaeeaie,
iecueeei e?oiuei-in?ii?i ??aiai aiaee, yeee ii?ooo?oueny iacia/ieie
aeiuiaeie iaaiaeeaie.

Na?aaei? noeee iiaa?oi? a?aeiinii iaaaeee?. ??/ee Nooaia, Oiaaa, Eaiaiea
a?aeiinyoueny aei ??/ie ??aieiiiai oeio. A aeaiee /an ?onea ??/ie,
iaeaea ia an?e ?o i?ioyaeiino?, ca?aaoeueiaai? noaaeaie. Ieiua aiaeiiai
ca?eaea noaae?a oa aiaeieieu ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio neeaaea? 1012 aa. Aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iniiaiiio aeey ?eai?icaaaeaiiy, c?ioaiiy oa ?ioeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa, a oaeiae ? i?noeai a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy.

A?oioia? aiaee iathoue ??cio aeeaeio caeyaaiiy, yea eieeaa?oueny a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aeue?oo. Aeeaeia caeyaaiiy ??oioiaeo aiae ia oe?ieeo
aiaei?icae?eueieo ieaoi aei 10-15 i , a ia aa?oeiao aiaei?icae?e?a aei
25-30 i. Iaeaeuee ?o ??aaiue a caieaaao ??/ie oa ii aeieuao aaeie —
1,5-2,0 i. Ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio ?ici?uaii /ioe?e aiaeiiinieo ai?eciioe.
Iniiaiei c ieo ? aiaeiiiniee ai?eciio, yeee a?aeiineoueny aei
e?oiiica?ienoeo i?ne?a th?nueeiai ia??iaeo. Oeae aiaeiiiniee ai?eciio
oe?iei aenieoaoo?oueny i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi aaciina?aaeiuei oaooieie
eieiaeycyie oa naa?aeeiaeiaie.

1.5. Aaieia?/ia aoaeiaa oa a?oioiooai?thth/? ii?iaee

A aaino?oeoo?iiio a?aeiioaii? oa?eoi??y Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio
a?aeiineoueny aei i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai noeeo Oe?a?inueeiai e?enoae?/iiai
ueoa. Oe?a?inueeee e?enoae?/iee ueo caciaa aieeao aeaioaeaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ?icaeoie yeeo ca /an a?ae a?oath aei o?aoeiiiai ia??iaeo
coiiaea aeieeiaiiy oaeeynoi? aeaioaeaoe?eii? ??aieie, neeaaeaii?
aeeneieiaaieie e?enoae?/ieie ii?iaeaie aeieaia??th. E?enoae?/i? ii?iaee
i?aaenoaaeai? a?ai?oaie oa a?ai?oi – aiaenaie. Iiaa?oiy e?enoae?/ieo
ii??ae iie?eoa inaaeiaeie ii?iaeaie o?aoeiii? oa /aoaa?oeiii? nenoai.
Aa?oi? oa?e /aoaa?oeiieo a?aeeeaaeaiue ? a?oioiooai?thth/eie ii?iaeaie.
Oea ia?o ca ana eane, ia yeeo noi?ioaaeenue iaea?eueo ?iaeth/? a ?aeii?
/i?iicaie oeiia? oa ii?aecieai? a?oioe. Ia aiaeii-eueiaeieeiaeo oa
aeaaiueiaetha?aeueieo a?aeeeaaeao ooai?eeeny a?aei? a aa?iiii?/iiio
a?aeiioaii? aea?iiai — i?aecieeno? a?oioe.

Aeaetha?aeuei? oa aetha?aeueii-aeaetha?aeuei? a?aeeeaaeaiiy ?ici?uaii? a
aeieuao aaeie oa caieaaao ??/ie. Ia ieo ooai?eeeny iaieo?, eo/ii —
/i?iicaii?, aea?iia? oa aieioi? a?oioe. Ia no/anieo aetha?aeueieo
a?aeeeaaeaiiyo, ooai?aieo i?e ?iceeaao ??/ie, ooai?eeeny oaeiae aea?iia?
oa aieioi? a?oioe.

1.6. Y?oioiaee iie?ea

Ee?iaoe/i? oiiae, a?oioiooai?thth/? ii?iaee, ?aeue?o, aaieia?/ia
aoaeiaa, ?ineeii?noue oa aa?ieoeueoo?ia ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie – iniiai?
/eiieee ??oioiooai?aiiy.

Y?oioiaee iie?ea ?aeiio i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?aaaaeii /i?iicaiaie oeiiaeie
(43,8%) oa ii?aecieaieie a?oioaie (33,4%). Iaio iioe?ai?
eo/ii-/i?iicaii?, aea?iiai-i?aecieeno?, eo/i? ? /i?iicaiii-eo/i?,
aieioi? oa ?io? a?oioe (aeea. ?en. 1.6.1). Neeaae a?oioiaiai iie?eao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue iaaaaeaiee o oaae. 1.1.

Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeai? a?oioe oi?aa?naeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy — /i?iicaie
oeiia? caeiathoue ieiuo 22,9 oen.aa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue.
Aeei?enoiaothoueny aiie a iniiaiiio i?ae i?i? caie?.

Cina?aaeaeai? /i?iicaie oeiia? aieiaiei /eiii a no?aei?e /anoei? ?aeiio,
aea aiie neeaaeathoue a?ae 45 aei 90% ieiu n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue. Aoioniaaiee i?io?eue /i?iicai?a oeiiaeo ia? iiooaei?noue 80 –
100 ni, ai?no aoiono a i?iiio ai?eciio? neeaaea? 2,5-3,5%. ?aaeoe?y
??oioiaiai ?ic/eio neaaieenea – ?I a na?aaeiueiio 5,6. Oe? a?oioe
iathoue cia/i? caiane aaeiaeo oa ?ooiieo oi?i iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei,
ni?eyoeea? o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa aiaeii-iia?o?yiee ?aaeei, i?ioa
noeeuei? aei caieeaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy e??ee. Aiie i?noyoue oaeiae cia/ii
a?eueoa aeeienoeo /anoie, aiane?aeie /iai caeaoi? iaeiie/oaaoe i?aai?/io
?a/iaeio oa ooai?thaaoe aa?iiii?/ii oe?iio no?oeoo?o. Cia/ia oiaueia
aoioniaeo ai?eciio?a ? aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue aoiono a ieo aeicaieythoue
iiaeeaethaaoe i?iee oa?.

Oaaeeoey 1.1.

No?oeoo?a a?oioiaiai iie?eao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue

?, i/iIacaa aaiaoe/ieo a?oi a?oio?aN?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
oa?aeaeyOnueiaiA o./. ??eeyaa%aa%1Aea?iiai-i?aecieeno?
a?oioe33826,231706,52Ii?aecieai? a?oioe1751133,41726535,43*i?iicaie
oeiia?2298243,82230945,74Eo/ii-/i?iicaii? a?oioe48539,247489,75Eo/i? ?
/i?iicaiii-eo/i?6571,24070,86Aieioi? a?oioe18553,64190,97Aea?iia?
a?oioe10091,93660,78Iaieo? a?oioe2390,5830,29Aeoiaee ii??ae ? ?icieo?
a?oioe940,240,1?acii ianoaaeaii5248210048771100Ia
ianoaaeaii7556o2550oAnueiai ii iae?eo60038o51321o

Aianaiiy i?aai?/ieo ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
?iaeth/ino? a?oioo ? a?iaeath n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Aeey
iaeo?ae?caoe?? eeneioiino? a?oioe iio?aaothoue aaiioaaiiy. Ii?aecieai?
a?oioe a ?aeii? caeiathoue 17,5 oen. aa (33,4%)
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, c ieo iaeaea iieiaeia
aeei?enoiao?oueny i?ae i?ieie caieyie. Iioe?ai? aiie aieiaiei /eiii a
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e /anoei? ?aeiio, aea neeaaeathoue iniiaiee oii. Oe?
a?oioe a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? noi?ioaaeeny ia ea?aiiaoieo eaniaeo
ii?iaeao. Aoioniaee ai?eciio o ieo ia? oiaueio 20-30 ni. E?euee?noue
aoiono o aa?oiueiio ai?eciio? aoaa? aeineoue iecueeith – 1,0-1,8, a o
cieoeo a?aei?iao – 0,5-0,8%.

Aaee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee ii ieoiiino? cao?ao, iiaiii?io?eueieo a?oio?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eaaeano?iaiai ?aeiio neeaaeathoue a?ae 37 aei 54,
neaaicieoeo a?aeiia?aeii — a?ae 34 aei 48, na?aaeiueicieoeo — a?ae
31 aei 45. Ia iiaiii?io?eueieo a?oioao ? neaaicieoeo a?aei?iao,
iioe?aieo iaei?icae?eueieo ieaoi ? noeeao aei 3° iiaeia ae?iuoaaoe an?
?aeiiiaai? eoeueoo?e.

Oaiii-n??? ii?aecieai? a?oioe ? /i?iicaie ii?aecieai? (13,8 oen. aa)
iathoue a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue ?iaeth/ino?. A ieo iiooaeiee (32-40 ni),
aeinoaoiuei aoioniaaiee ( 3,9-2,5% aoiona a ai?eciio? ) i?io?eue. Oe?
a?oioe, ye ? /i?iicaie oeiia?, oi?aa?naeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy. Neaaieenea
?aaeoe?y ??oioiaiai ?ic/eio ( ?I=5,7 ) ni?ey? aeayeiio ca?eueoaiith
?ooiiino? ? aeeaeaiiy ?ineei. Oae, e?euee?noue ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?ii?
eeneioe noaiiaeoue 12-18, acioo 6-8, eae?th 10-15 ia ia 100 a? a?oioo.

Aaee aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee neeaaeathoue a?ae 54 aei 64 ? iaa?oue 72 (
aea?a? a?aei?ie). A cii? iioe?aiiy ii?aecieaieo a?oio?a iathoue i?noea
iecueeii?iaeoeoeai? aea?iiai-i?aecieeno? a?oioe, ye? a a?eueoino?
iathoue eaaeee iaoai?/iee neeaae. Oea a?oioe iaiaaeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy,
ai?no aoiono a ieo iecueeee – 0,5-1,0%.

C oe??? a?oie iaea?eueo a?aeieie ia iiaeeai? ?a/iaeie ?
aea?iiai-ne?eoii?aecieeno? oa aea?iiai-i?aecieeno? aeaoeueiaai? i?uai?
a?oioe, ye? e??i oeueiai, caaaeyee eaaeiio iaoai?/iiio neeaaeo, ?
ina?aaeeaie a?o?iai? a?ic??. Iie?auaiiy ?o iiaeeeaa oeyoii iin?ao
neaea?ao?a oa iaianaiiy ?iaeth/iai oa?o a?oioo.

Eo/i? oa /i?iicaiii-eo/i? a?oioe noi?ioaaeeny aieiaiei /eiii ia oa?anao
??/ie, ii aeieuao aaeie oa ia iaea?eueo iiieaeaieo ae?eyieao ieaoi.
*i?iicaiii-eo/i? a?oioe oi?iothoueny a i?noeyo aeecueeiai caeyaaiiy
??oioiaeo aiae. Ca ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie iiae?ai? aei /i?iicaiieo
a?oio?a ? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ieo iaea?i?noth ieae/eo ai?eciio?a. O
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia?aaeuothoue ca ai?noii aoiono /i?iicaie. ?aaeoe?y
??oioiaiai ?ic/eio neaai-eoaeia (?I=7,3), iathoue cia/io e?euee?noue ye
aaeiaeo, oae ? ?ooiieo oi?i iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei. Aeecueea caeyaaiiy
??oioiaeo aiae ? aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei noai?ththoue
aeineoue ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ae?iuoaaiiy aenieeo o?iaea?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?. Caeaa?eueoiai oe? a?oioe
aeei?enoiaothoue i?ae iai/aa? eoeueoo?e aai i?ae oe?ii? ei?iia?
(eoeo?oaeco ia neein ? ca?ii, ei?aiaieiaee oa ?i.).

Aieioi? a?oioe (1,8 oen. aa) iioe?ai? ii aeieuao aaeie oa a caieaaao
??/ie. Iaaaoeaiith iniaeea?noth a ieo ? i?aeaeuaia aieia?noue,
oiene/i?noue iaaeeaiei caeyaath/iai iaea?iiai ai?eciioo. Cia/ia /anoeia
oeeo a?oio?a aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey n?iiein?iiy oa i?ae ianiaeua. Oe?
a?oioe iathoue aenieo iioaioe?aeueio ?iaeth/?noue, aea uia ?o
aeei?enoiaoaaoe, o?aaa i?iaanoe inooaiiy.

Aea?iia? a?oioe (1,0 oen. aa) iioe?ai? a caieaaao ??/ie.
Aeei?enoiaothoueny aiie, aieiaiei /eiii, i?ae ei?iiaeie oa?aeaeyie, ui ?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei. A neeaae? i?ieo caiaeue ia ieo ?aeiiaiaeonoueny
?ici?uoaaoe iai/aa? eoeueoo?e.

Iaieo? a?oioe i?eo?i/ai? aei aeieu aaeie ? aaeeeiai iioe?aiiy ia
iathoue. Aeei?enoiaothoueny a iniiaiiio i?ae n?iiein?iiy.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey, ?ici?uai? a?ey ?icieoeo a?oio?a oa
aeoiae?a ii??ae noaiiaeyoue iacia/io ieiuo. ?o aeioe?eueii canaaeeoe
e?nii aai aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ae iino?eiei caeoaeaiiyi.

1.7. ?ineeii?noue

I?e?iaeia ?ineeii?noue ?aeiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeith
??ciiiai?oi?noth ? aaaaonoaii, aea caa?aaeany aiia eeoa ia ia?ici?aieo
ae?eyieao e?ooeo noee?a aaeie, ?o aeieuao, ??aeoa – ia aiaei?icae?eueieo
ieaoi.

E?niaa ?ineeii?noue ?aeiio i?aaenoaaeaia niniith, aeoaii, a?aaii,
aa?acith, eeaiii, eeiith oa ?i. A?aaiai-aoeia? e?ne ?ici?uai? a
iniiaiiio ia ii?aecieaieo a?oioao ?aeiio ? a aeaiee /an cono??/athoueny
??aeei. Ca?ac cono??/athoueny o?eueee ie?ai? aecaiiey?e ii?ine? aeoaa ?
a?aaa, /aaa?ieee e?ueie, a?onieoe?. Ia aeieuao aaeie a iniiaiiio
?inoooue aa?aa, a?eueoa oa ?i.

Na?aae o?aayii? ?ineeiiino? ia noeeao ia?aaaaea? einoa? aacinoee, ie??e
iiaco/ee, oeny/aeenoiee, ca??ia?e, aaicaeeea oa ?io? ?ineeie c
i?iaeoeaiei iie?eooyi 50-60%. Iaaani? ooo c’yaey?oueny aaaaoi aaniyieo
aaaaoi??/iee?a: i?ie?ne?a, o?aeie, aeiaoye?a, oiui. C aeiaaiaaaaooth/eo
?inoooue oiieii?a aaeiaee, eooeii?aeea e?niaa, eino?eoe?, c??i/ee,
eoieia e?ea?nueea oa ?i.

Ia oe?eeiieo ae?eyieao caieaa Oiaae, ??i?iy, Nooaie, Eaiaiee, a oaeiae
ii aeieuao aaeie, ?inoa eo/ia oa aieioia ?ineeii?noue: iniea, neoiee,
i?noeyie i/a?ao; ?c aieiaiethaeaeo ceaeiaeo – oiieii?a cae/aeiee,
a?anyieoey eo/ia, iieueiaeoey aieioia; ?c ??ciio?aa’y – aa?aiue eo/ia,
aa?aic?eey eo/ia, eaethaeieoey aieioia, e?inueeee uaaaeue. Ia ia?aoiae?
aei iai?aa?ae?iii?oieo a?oio?a cono??/athoueny aiaia? ?ineeie.
I?iaeoeaia iie?eooy o?aaaie ia oaeeo ae?eyieao neeaaean 70-80%. Ia i?ieo
caieyo, iniaeeai na?aae i?inaiieo eoeueoo? oa aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue
iioe?ai? ??ciiiai?oi? ao?’yie — no??iea, oaiu iieueiaee, eiaiaea a?ea,
aieioea iieueiaa, inio, aeeea ?aaeueea oa ?io?.

?ineeii?noue n?iiaeaoae, ye aa/eii, i?aaenoaaeaia o?aa’yienoeie oa
o?aa’yii-aieioieie a?oioaaiiyie, ye? oi?iothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
?aeue?oo oa ??oioiaiai iie?eao.

1.8. Ei?eni? eiiaeeie

Ei?eni? eiiaeeie oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio i?aaenoaaeai?
??ciiiai?oieie ii?iaeaie, iia’ycaieie c oa?aeoa?ii aaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aeaii? i?noeaaino?, a naia: aoae?aaeueieie iaoa??aeaie oa oi?oii.

Ca?aeii aeaieo Oe?a?inueeiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai aaieia?/iiai oiiaeo (OOAO)
o ?aeii? ? aoae?aaeueiee eai?iue, i?nie, oeaaeyii-/a?aie/ia ne?iaeia.

Iieeaaee aoae?aaeueiiai eaiaith (a?ai?oo oa ?ioeo e?enoae?/ieo ii??ae)
i?aaenoaaeai? Iaeini?oeinueeith, Eiu??anueeith oa ss?io?anueeith
ae?eyieaie. Caaaeuei? a?aee?eo? caiane ?o neeaaeathoue 732 oen. i3.

A?aee?eo? ii?iaee i?aaenoaaeai? i?neii i?eeica?ienoei aeeienoei,
aetha?aeueiei i?neii oa neeueii aea?o?aieie a?ai?oaie.

?ica?aeai? caiane aoae?aaeueiiai i?neo neeaaeathoue 192 oen. i3. Ei?enia
oiaua i?aaenoaaeaia n??eie oa aeiaooaaoi-n??eie eaa?oeaaeie i?neaie
iiooaei?noth a?ae 0,4 aei 10,0 i.

Iieeaaee oeaaeyii-/a?aie/ii? ne?iaeie (noaeeie?a) ?ici?uai? a?ey i.
Oano?a. ?iaeiaeua ?ic?iaey?oueny i?noeaaei oeaaeyiei caaiaeii. Ie??i
oeueiai, a ?aeii? iathoue i?noea iaeiaea/ai? iieeaaee oeaaeyii? ne?iaeie
a?ey n. Aaeeea Io??ia; a o?i/eu? „Oiaaa»; a?ey n?e O?ee?ne oa Ieeei?aea,
ye? ia??iaee/ii ?ic?iaeythoueny i?noeaaeie i?aei?e?inoaaie.

?c ai?th/eo ei?enieo eiiaeei ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio aeyaeai? ?iaeiaeua
oi?oo. Caaaeueia ieiua ?iaeiaeu oi?oo neeaaea? 475 aa, a caiane – 1,3
iei. oii.

?ic?iaea ?iaeiaeu aaaeaoueny iioa?iai – iiaa?oiaaei niiniaii a ianyaao
130-140 oen. oii ui??/ii aeey aeaioiaeaiiy i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea.

Ae?eyiee, aeae?eai? i?ae oi?oi?ic?iaee, i?ney ciyooy oa?o oi?oo
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iiaeaeueoiio a neeaae? oeo oa?aeue, a yeeo aoee
aei ?ic?iaee.

2. NO*ANIEE NOAI AEEI?ENOAIIss CAIAEUe ?AEIIO

2.1. ?iciiae?e caiaeue ii eaoaai??yo, caieaei?enooaa/ao oa aeaeao
oa?aeue

Ca aeaieie aea?aeaaiiai iae?eo caiaeue caaaeueia ieiua ?aeiio noaiii ia
01.01.2002 ?ieo neeaaea? 89695,00 aa, c yeeo 60038,01 aa aai 70%
noaiiaeyoue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey.

A?aeiia?aeii aei Caiaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyoiai a 2001 ?ioe?,
an? caie? ca iniiaiei oe?eueiaei i?ecia/aiiyi iiae?eythoueny ia oae?
eaoaai???:

· caie? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy;

· caie? aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae;

· caie? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oa ?ioiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy;

· caie? icaei?ia/iai i?ecia/aiiy;

· caie? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy;

· caie? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy;

· caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo;

· caie? aiaeiiai oiiaeo;

· caie? i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee, iai?iie oa
?ioiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee eiaeii? eaoaai??? caiaeue iiaeooue ia?aaoaaoe o
caian?, yeui aiie ia caoiaeyoueny o aeaniino? aai ei?enooaaii? a?iiaaeyi
/e th?eaee/ieo in?a.

Aei caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy a?aeianaii 61279 aa
aai 68,3% an?o caiaeue ?ieiio. Oea caie?, iaaeai? aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ?ici?uaiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aai i?ecia/ai? aeey oeeo oe?eae.

Caie? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy aeeth/athoue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey (??eey, ia?aeiae, aaaaoi??/i?
ianaaeaeaiiy, n?iiaeao? oa ianiaeua), ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
oa?aeaey (ainiiaea?nuee? oeyoe ? i?iaiie, iieacaoeni? e?nia? nioae oa
?io? caoeni? ianaaeaeaiiy, e??i oeo, ui a?aeianai? aei caiaeue e?niaiai
oiiaeo, caie? i?ae ainiiaea?nueeeie aoae?aeyie ? aeai?aie, caie?, ye?
ia?aaoaathoue a noaae?? iae?i?aoeaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa).

A eaoaai??th caiaeue aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae aeae?eaii
caiaeuei? ae?eyiee a iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a, a oaeiae ca ?o iaaeaie,
ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?ici?uaiiy aeeoeiai? caaoaeiae,
a?iiaaenueeeo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae, ?ioeo ia’?eo?a caaaeueiiai
ei?enooaaiiy. Oaeeo caiaeue a ?aeii? iae?/o?oueny 1541 aa (1,7%).

Aei caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo oa ?ioiai i?e?iaeii-ioi?iiiiai
i?ecia/aiiy a?aeianaii 3319 aa (3,7%).

Oea ae?eyiee c i?e?iaeieie eiiieaenaie oa ia’?eoaie, ui iathoue iniaeeao
i?e?iaeiioi?iiio, aeieia?/io, iaoeiao, anoaoe/io, ?ae?aaoe?eio oa ?ioo
oe?ii?noue, yeei a?aeiia?aeii aei caeiio iaaeaii noaoon oa?eoi??e oa
ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo.

Caiaeue icaei?ia/iai i?ecia/aiiy, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue caie?, ui iathoue
i?e?iaei? e?eoaaeuei? aeanoeaino?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aai iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey i?io?eaeoeee ? e?eoaaiiy ethaeae, ia oa?eoi???
?aeiio ia aeyaeaii.

Aei caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy a ?aeii? a?aeianaii 1517 aa, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy, a?eueoo
/anoeio oeeo caiaeue noaiiaeyoue ae?eyiee aeey aoae?aieoeoaa, a oaeiae
eaii?iae oa aiaei? ia’?eoe.

Aei caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio
a?aeianaii 135 aa oeea?eueieo eeaaeiaeu.

I’yoa /anoeia ieiu? an?o caiaeue i?eiaaea? ia caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo
(19,5%), aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue caie?, ae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, a
oaeiae iaae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, iae?nia? caie?, ye? iaaeai? oa
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iio?aa e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Aei caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo a?aeianaii 1128 aa (1,3%), caeiyo? ??/eaie,
ica?aie, aiaeinoiaeuaie, ?ioeie aiaeieie ia’?eoaie, aieioaie, a oaeiae
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie nii?oaeaie, e??i oeo aiaeieo ia’?eo?a, ui a?aeianai?
aei caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo.

Caieyie i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee, iai?iie
aecia/ai? caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, iaaeai? a onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo
i?aei?e?inoaai, onoaiiaai, i?aai?caoe?yi aeey cae?eniaiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
ae?yeueiino?. Oaeeo caiaeue a ?aeii? aeyaeaii 3225 aa (3,6%).

?iciiae?e caiaeue ?aeiio ca oe?eueiaei i?ecia/aiiyi ii eaoaai??yo
caiaeue iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 2.1.

?c an?o caiaeue ?aeiio iaeaea iieiaeio oa?eoi??? aeei?enoiaothoue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa (46,6%). A?iiaaeyie, yeei iaaeai?
caie? o aeani?noue ? ei?enooaaiiy neeaaeathoue /anoeo a 19,4% a?ae
caaaeueii? ieiu? ?aeiio. Ua a?eueoith ? ieoiia aaaa i?iaeoeoeaieo
oa?aeue o aeaniino? oa ei?enooaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Cie?aia, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa aeei?enoiaothoue 65,0%
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, a a?iiaaeyie eeoa 26,5%.

A ei?enooaaii? ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo caieaei?enooaa/?a
ciaoiaeeoueny 24,4% caiaeue, c ieo iaea?eueo cia/ieie caiaeueieie
?ano?naie ?icii?yaeaeathoueny e?niainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa
(20,3%).

?aooa caiaeue (9,6%) ia?aaoaa? o caian?.

?c caaaeueii? ieiu? caiaeue, caeiyoeo o a?iiaaenueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?,
iaea?eueoa ieoiia aaaa i?eiaaea? ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey –
66,9%, c

Oaaeeoey 2.1.

?iciiae?e caiaeue ?aeiio ii eaoaai??yo

?Iacaa eaoaai??e caiaeueCaaaeueia ieiua caiaeue, anueiaiA oiio /ene?
n?euenueeiainii-aea?nuee? oa?aeaeyC ieo i?i? caie?aa%aa%aa%1.Caie?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy6127968,35885598,05121999,8c ieo
caie? caiano525661,349511009081002.Caie? aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei?
caaoaeiae15411,7—-c ieo caie? caiano8399,8—-3.Caie?
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oa ?ioiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
i?ecia/aiiy33193,7500,1—c ieo caie? caiano4895,7—-4. Caie?
?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy15171,611331,91020,2c ieo caie?
caiano——5.Caie? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy1350,3—-c ieo
caie? caiano1201,4—-6.Caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo1755119,5—-c ieo caie?
caiano123614,4—-7.Caie? aiaeiiai oiiaeo11281,3—-c ieo caie?
caiano5926,9—-8.Caie? i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee,
iai?iie oa ?ioiai i?ecia/aiiy32253,6—-c ieo caie?
caiano360,5—-Anueiai ii eaoaai??yo caiaeue896951006003810051321100c
ieo caie? caiano85709,649518,29081,7

ieo i?i? caie? neeaaeathoue 85,5%, ia?aeiae – 4,1%, aaaaoi??/i?
ianaaeaeaiiy – 3,2%, n?iiaeao? – 3,8%, ianiaeua – 3,4%.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea inai?i?noue ?aeiio noaiiaeoue 66,9%,a
?ici?ai?noue oa?eoi??? – 60%.

2.2. Noai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy

Caieyie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy aecia/athoueny caie?,
iaaeai? aeey ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??,
cae?eniaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oa iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, ?ici?uaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e aai
i?ecia/ai? aeey oeeo oe?eae.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aei caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ecia/aiiy a?aeianaii 61279 aa, ye? aeeth/athoue 58854 aa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue (51219 aa ??ee?, 2476 aa ia?aeia?a,
882 aa aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, 2259 aa n?iiaeaoae oa 2019 aa
ianiaeu).

?c an?o caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy 56023 aa (91,4% )
ia?aaeaii o aeani?noue oa iaaeaii a ei?enooaaiiy, 5256 aa ( 8,6% )
ia?aaoaathoue a caian?. O?aoth /anoeio caiaeue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy aeei?enoiaothoue a?iiaaeyie 15032
aa ( 24,5% ) aeey aaaeaiiy iniaenoiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
ai?iaeieoeoaa, n?iiein?iiy oa aeianaiiy ooaeiae, aaaeaiiy oiaa?iiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oa?ia?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. A
ei?enooaaii? e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ciaoiaeeoueny eeoa 0,3%
caiaeue oe??? eaoaai???.

sse cacia/aeinue aeua, 5256 aa caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
i?ecia/aiiy ia ia?aaeai? o aeani?noue ? ia iaaeai? o iino?eia
ei?enooaaiiy ? a aeaiee /an ia?aaoaathoue o caian?. Oe? caie?
i?aeeyaathoue a iiaeaeueoiio ia?a?iciiae?e? ca oe?eueiaei i?ecia/aiiyi.

2.2.1. Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo caieaei?enooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa

I?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao cia/ii aieeioa ia ?o i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nuee? oi?ie oa ci?iea caiaeuei? a?aeiineie. A
?acoeueoao? oeueiai nooo?ai ca?eueoeeinue /enei
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Aei 1991 ?ieo iniiaieie
caieaei?enooaa/aie aoee eieainie ? ?aaeainie o e?eueeino? 16
(oaae.2.2.).

Oaaeeoey 2.2.

?iciiae?e caiaeue ?aeiio ii eieainiai (?aaeainiai) noaiii ia 1980 ??e

?Iacaa eieainio (?aaeainio)Oeaio? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy1?aaea. Oiaanueeeei.
Oano?a2?aaea. Oano?anueeeei. Oano?a3ciioaoi. aini. ?in?yi.
Oano?a4Eiioi?non. Aae.Iioiaee?aea5?anna?on. Aae. Iioiaee?aea6Ni?oea?an.
O?ee?ne7Oeyo aei eiioi?cion. O?ee?ne8AEiaoaiuen. ssoie9Iiaa aeeooyn.
Iaeiiieiaaoeueea10A?eueoiaeen. Aeieo??aea11Caiia?o ?ee?/an.
Oano?aaoeue12Eai?ian. Ae?ae?aueia13Oe?a?ian. Noaaee14?ee?/an. Aae.
Aoeyee15E??iaan. Aei?iaeiea16?aaea. Eiaeainueeeenio. Eiaeaiea

O i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei aaea a 1995 ?ioe? eieainie
aoei ?ai?aai?ciaaii a eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa
ia iniia? eieaeoeaii? aeaniino? ia caieth.

Iathaaiiy caiaeue noai?eei i?aaia? e i?aai?caoe?ei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey
cae?eniaiiy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa oeyoii noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oi?ioaaiue ?eieiaiai oeio, ae?iaie/a ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aaco?oueny ia
i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ia caieth.

A i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee noai?aii 52
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?eieiaiai oeio, c ieo 22
oiaa?enoaa c iaiaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth, 9 i?eaaoieo oa
i?eaaoii-i?aiaeieo i?aei?e?inoaa, 2 aeoe?iia?ieo oiaa?enoaa, 10
oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa oa 9 ?ioeo noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy (oaae.
2.3.).

?c caaaeueii? ieiu? caiaeueieo oa?aeue iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a 81,2% (33946,4 aa)
aeei?enoiaothoue iaaea?aeaai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa,
18,8% (7859,0 aa) — aea?aeaai?.

Ca ia??iae c 1995 ii 2002 ?iee e?euee?noue iaaea?aeaaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ae?inea c 24 aei 28, a oie aea
/an e?euee?noue aea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ia
ci?ieeany. Ca oeae aea ia??iae cia/ii ciaioeeenue ?ici??e iaaea?aeaaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Oae, a 1995 ?ioe? na?aaei?e
?ici?? iaaea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa
neeaaeaa 4147 aa, a ia ii/aoie 2002 ?ieo – 719 aa. Oea iia’ycaii c i, ui
ia oa?eoi??? eieeoi?o eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
ooai?eeeny iia? aa?ioi?ioaaiiy, caieaei?enooaaiiy, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ia
caieyo, ui ia?aaoaathoue a i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ?o caniiaiee?a, a oaeiae
ca ?aooiie i?aiaee caiaeueieo /anoie ( ia?a).

Iathaaiiy caiaeue noai?eei i?aaia? e i?aai?caoe?ei?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? eieaeoeaieo
n?eueainii?aei?e?inoa oeyoii noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia?
n?enueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue ?eieiaiai oeio, ae?iaie/a
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aaco?oueny ia i?eaaoi?e aeaniino? ia caieth.

Oaaeeoey 2.3.

E?euee?noue iaaea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
noaiii ia 1.01.2006 ?.

Iacaa n?euenueeeo (naeeuieo) ?aaeCa?a?no?iaaii aa?ioi?ioaaiue,
anueiaiNaeyinuee? ainiiaea?noaa (a o./. ?c ni?eueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
caie?) aac iaaoooy th?eaee/ii? iniaeAnueiai n?euenueeiainii-aea?nueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?aAi?oiee?anueea1131Aaeeeiaoeye?anueea3-2Aaeeeini?oeinueea
—Aai?eoeueea6-6Aieeoeueea221Ae?ae?aueinueea2302Aeieo??anueea453Aei?iae
inueea4252Eeueinueea111Iaeiiieiaeoeueea5-4Iaeini?oeinueea3-3Iioiaeei-Nei
a?aenueea222Ieai?anueea—Iaeyie/ainueea1-1Ieeei?anueea3142I?eoeaaeueieo
eueea3-1Ne?eaae?anueea1—Oiiao?anueea1231O?ee?nueea311Oano?aaoeueea1-1*a
?aiiainueea242*a?aiiiiioiaee?anueea212ssoi?anueea2-2Ai??anueea
naeeuia—Eiaeainueea naeeuia—Anueiai:5212140

2.2.2. Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo caieaei?enooaaiiy a?iiaaeyi

?aae?coth/e aeiiae i?iaieioaiiai ua o 1994 ?ioe? I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie
eo?no ia aeieiei??iio ci?io nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?, na?aeoeaaeiith yeiai ? oaca, ui caiey
iiaeiia iaeaaeaoe oei, ooi ?? ia?iaey?, ai?iaeiaae oeeo ?ie?a aaeeaaeeny
a?aeiia?aei? caoiaee, a iei? i?ioean cae?eniaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? anooiea o caaa?oaeueio oaco.
Oeueiio, ye a?aeiii, ia?aaeoaaei i?iaaaeaiiy ia iaio aaaeeeaeo caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei ?eieiaiai oeio. Cie?aia,
caii/aoeiaaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaaea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa, ?icoe?aii caieaei?enooaaiiy iniaen?eo naeyinueeeo
ainiiaea?noa ianaeaiiy, ianaiia?aae naeyi.

A ?acoeueoao? iathaaiiy caiaeue a Oano?anueeiio ?aeii? 9499 a?iiaaeyi
io?eiaee i?aai ia caiaeueio /anoeo (iae). 2215 aeanieee na?oeo?eao?a aai
23% ioi?ieee aea?aeaaieie aeoaie i?aai i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth, c
ieo 121 aaaeooue ainiiaea?noai naiino?eii. A ?aeii? ca?a?no?iaaii
iioa??aeueii iina?ae/aieo 982 ia?aoiaee i?aaa ia caiaeueio /anoeo (iae),
c ieo 22 aea?oaaiiy, ?aooa 958 — ia?aoiae?a i?aaa ii niaaeuei?, 2 –
i?iaeaii.

Iaeiei ?c iacaia?a/ieo aeinyaiaiue caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?aiaee caie?. A?aeiia?aeii aei Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 3 a?oaeiy
1999 ?ieo «I?i iaa?aeeeaaei? caoiaee uiaei i?enei?aiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee » o 2002 ?ioe? aeiaiai?e ia i?aiaeo
caiaeueieo /anoie ( ia?a ) oeeaee 8783 aeanieee na?oeo?eao?a ia i?aai ia
caiaeueio /anoeo ( iae ) , ui noaiiaeoue 92,5% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aeaniee?a caiaeueieo /anoie ( ia?a ), a?eueo?noue c ieo (5470
/ie. aai 57.5 %) iain?iia?e, ui aea? ?i iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe e??i
iieaoe i?aoe? aai iain?e, i?aiaeio ieaoo ca nai? caiaeuei? /anoee (ia?).
Aeey naeyi — iain?iia??a oea aaaiiee oaeoi? ?oiueiai nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo.

?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aeiaiai??a i?aiaee a?eueoa iieiaeie (57%)
oeeaaeaii c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oiaa?enoaaie c iaiaaeaiith
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth. Aeiaiai?e i?aiaee Oeeaaeaii a iniiaiiio no?ieii
a?eueoa 3 ?ie?a.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aeanieeaie ? ei?enooaa/aie caie? ?
75749 a?iiaaeyi, o aeaniino? ? ei?enooaaii? yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny 17361,9
aa caiaeue, iio?aae yeeo iiai?noth caaeiaieai? o ae?eyieao aeey
iniaenoiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, naae?aieoeoaa, ai?iaeieoeoaa,
n?iiein?iiy oa aeianaiiy ooaeiae, a oaeiae caiaeueieie ae?eyieaie aeey
aoae?aieoeoaa ? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeeo aoaeeie?a, ainiiaea?nueeeo
aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae.

Iniaenoa i?aeniaia ainiiaea?noai aaaeooue 15473 a?iiaaeyie ia ieiu?
3976,6 aa, na?aaei?e ?ici?? iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa 0,26 aa.

I?enaaeeaio ae?eyieo, na?aaei?e ?ici?? yei? 0,22 aa, iathoue 22683
a?iiaaeyie. Aeey eieaeoeaiiai naae?aieoeoaa 16384 a?iiaaeyiai aeae?eaii
1497,4 aa, a aeey eieaeoeaiiai ai?iaeieoeoaa — 2269 a?iiaaeyi io?eiaee
315,2 aa, na?aaei?e ?ici?? iaei??? ae?eyiee a?aeiia?aeii 0,09 ? 0,14
aa.

Aeey n?iiein?iiy oa aeianaiiy ooaeiae a?iiaaeyie aeei?enoiaothoue 758,7
aa aai 4,4 % an?o caiaeue, ui ciaoiaeyoueny o ?o aeaniino? ?
ei?enooaaii?.

?c caiaeueiith ?aoi?iith iia’ycaii noaiiaeaiiy oa?ia?noaa. Oa?ia?nuee?
ainiiaea?noaa ye oi?ia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia iniia? i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia
caieth i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?aaeeuei?noue iaeiiai c aieiaieo i?eioeei?a
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie – noai?aiiy oiia aeey ??aiii?aaiiai ?icaeoeo oeeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

2.2.3. Noai iae?i?iaaieo caiaeue

Iae?i?iaai? caie? oaeoe/ii ? no?aoiaei oiiaeii aea?aeaae.
A?ae aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy caeaaeeoue
aeiiii?/ia, aeieia?/ia oa nioe?aeueia noaa?euei?noue a e?a?i?.

Aiane?aeie aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, yeith ioiieai? an? aaeoc? noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, nooo?ai cieceeany aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
iae?i?iaaieo caiaeue oa ?o ?ieue o i?iaeiaieue/iio caaacia/aii?
aea?aeaae. A?eueoa oiai, aiane?aeie ??ceiai nei?i/aiiy ianya?a
o?iainoaaiiy a aaeoc? iae?i?aoe?? caiaeue c’yaeeeny caa?iceea?
oaiaeaioe??. Ianaiia?aae oea oaeaee? oaiie ii?aeueiiai ? o?ce/iiai
noa??iiy a?ae?iiae?i?aoeaieo nenoai oa ia’?eo?a, aeo?ae c
eaaeo iniiaieo iae?i?aoeaieo oiiae?a oa iia??oaiiy oaoi?/iiai noaio
iae?i?aoeaii? ia?aae?. Aenie?eaoe?y c?iooaaieo caiaeue a iaaeao ?aeiio
iaaaaeaia a oaae. 2.4.

Oaaeeoey 2.4.

Aenie?eaoe?y c?iooaaieo caiaeue

Iacaa n?euenueeeo ?aae, ainiiaea?noaCaaaeueia ieiua,
aaN?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaeyI?ei?oea??eey, aaAaaaoi??/-i?
ianaae-aeaiiy, aaN?ii-aeao?, aaIaniae-ua, aa1. Aaeeeini?oeinueea
n?euenueea ?aaeaIAeA „Aaeeeini?oeinueea”453,0453,0—i?aeeyaa?
nienaiith?acii453,0453,0—

Ieiua inooaieo caiaeue ?aeiio ca aeaieie caiaeueiiai iae?eo noaiii ia
01.01.2002 ?. neeaaea? 672,0 aa, a o./. n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue – 606,0 aa. C?iooaaieo caiaeue 453,0 aa, a o./.
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue – 453,0 aa.

Ia i?ioyc? aeiaaio?eaaeiai /ano iieeai? caie?, ye c?iooaai? ia
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, oae ye i?aeoe/ii any aeiuoaaeueia oaoi?ea
a?aei?aoethaaea na?e aii?oecaoe?eiee oa?i?i oa aoea nienaia,
?iciiae?eue/a ia?aaea oa a?ae?inii?oaee iio?aaothoue
eai?oaeueii-a?aeiiaethaaeueieo ?ia?o. Ea?oth/enue iaoa??aeaie
ianoaaeaiiy c?iooaaeueii? nenoaie oa aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? ?iaioe iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe eiiieaenio ?aeiino?oeoe?th ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iiai? aeiuoaaeueii? oaoi?ee, ui iio?aao? aaeeeeo
eai?oaeueieo cao?ao, aeioe?eueii ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i nienaiiy nenoaie,
ye oaei?, ui a?aei?aoethaaea na?e ?ano?n, a caie? ia?aaanoe a aiaa?i?.

A Oano?anueeiio ?aeii? aenieoaoothoueny 1 i?aeainiiaea?nueea
inoooaaeueia nenoaia – ?. Oiaaa oa aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueea – ?.
??i?iue.

I?e ianoaaeaii? iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai anoaiiaeaii, ui ia inooaieo caieyo
a Oano?anueeiio ?aeii? a?eueoa 10 ?ie?a iacaaeia?eueii i?iaiaeeeeny
ae?ae iaiao?aei? aa?iiae?i?aoeai? caoiaee (ieaioaaiiy caiaeue, aeeaiea
?icioooaaiiy, oiui). Iiiaae 20% iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a ca?inee
/aaa?ieeaie oa caioeeeeny. Iacaaeia?eueiee oaoi?/iee noai
ainiiaea?nueeeo inoooaaeueieo nenoai i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iani?iiiaeiino? aeeiiaiiy ieie nai?? iniiaii? ooieoe?? – a?aeaaaeaiiy
iaaeeeoeiaeo aiae, a ?o ?oeioaaiiy noai?th? aeieia?/io oa oaoiiaaiio
iaaaciaeo. I?ae /an iaaiaee?a ca?eueoothoueny ciie ? oa?i?ie caoiieaiiy
caiaeueieo oa?aeue. *a?ac iacaaeia?eueiee oaoi?/iee noai iae?i?aoeaii?
ia?aae? a iinooeea? ?iee ia ia an?e ieiu? aeei?enoiaothoueny ca
i?ecia/aiiyi nenoaie aeainoi?iiiuei? ae??. Aia?aaoe/ia iaeaaeiaiiy
iieueaea?ieo ianinieo noaioe?e a?aei?aoethaaei ii?iaoeaiee oa?i?i ?
iio?aao? eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo oa cai?ie. Aenie?eaoe?y inoooaaieo
caiaeue iaaaaeaia a oaae. 2.5.

Aea/eaoe oa i?iaiae?coaaaoe iaoa??aee ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? iae?i?aoeaieo
nenoai, ca?oe ??i?inueeiai aenieoaoaoe?eiiai oi?aae?iiy iae?i?aoeaieo
nenoai ? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiiiiai a?aeae?eo caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae
aeoe ui??/iiai ianoaaeaiiy oaoi?/iiai noaio nenoai, i?iiiio?oueny
nienaoe iniiai? iae?i?aoeai? oiiaee, a caie? ia?aaanoe a aiaa?i? anueiai
ia ieiu? 514,.8aa, a naia:

— i?iiiio?oueny nienaoe inoooaaeueio nenoaio ?. Oiaaa ia ieiu? 514,8 aa,
a o./.: oea oa?eoi??? Oiiao?anueei? n?euenueei? ?aaee ia ieiu? 92,0 aa,
Iaeini?oeinueei? n?euenueei? ?aaee ia ieiu? 40,0 aa,
*a?aiiiiioiaee?anueei? n?euenueei? ?aaee ia ieiu? 192,0 aa,
Aei?iaeinueei? n?euenueei? ?aaee ia ieiu? 8 aa oa oa?ia?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa «Aa??cea» ia ieiu? 6,0 aa, aea a?eueoa i?ae 70% aeeoee c
eaaeo eaiaee, a?ae?ioaoi?/i? nenoaie.

?acii c oei aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy nenoai iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe
?aeiino?oeoe?th 157,2 aa.

Oaaeeoey 2.5.

Aenie?eaoe?y inoooaaieo caiaeue

Iacaa n?euenueeeo ?aae, ainiiaea?noaCaaaeueia ieiua,
aaN?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey?io?, aaI?ei?oea??eey, aaN?iiaeao?,
aaIaniaeua, aa1. *a?aiiiiioiae-e?anueea n?euenueea ?aaeaCaie?
caiano192,0-44,0107,041,0iio?aao? nienaiiy2. Aei?iaeinueea n?euenueea
?aaeaCaie? caiano157,2141,1—16,1iio?aao? ?aeiino-?oeoe??Caie?
caiano184,8165,91,012,05,9iio?aao? nienaiiyNOA
„Aa??cea”6,06,0—iio?aao? nienaiiy?acii 348,0313,01,012,022,03.
Oiiao?anueea n?euenueea ?aaeaCaie? caiano92,028,011,051,02,0iio?aao?
nienaiiy4. Iaeini?oeinueea n?euenueea ?aaeaCaie?
caiano40,023,015,01,01,0iio?aao? nienaiiy?acii ii
?aeiio672,0364,071,0171,066,0

Aeey iio?aa aenieoaoaoe?? oa caoenoo a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy, iioeiaeaeaiiy ?
?oeioaaiiy iaa?no?aeueieo, i?aeainiiaea?nueeeo oa ?ioeo eaiae?a ia
c?iooaaeueieo ? inoooaaeueieo nenoaiao, a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo oa
a?ae?iiao?e/ieo nii?oae, a oaeiae aiaeiei ? a?aaaeue ia ??/eao
anoaiiaeththoueny a?aeaaaeaiiy c iniaeeaei ?aaeeiii ei?enooaaiiy.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee a iaaeao nioa a?aeaaaeaiiy iaaeathoueny i?aaiai
aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aeey niaoe?aeueieo iio?aa ? iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ieie aeey

noai?aiiy aiaeiioi?iiieo e?niianaaeaeaiue, aa?aaioe??iethth/eo oa
i?ioea?ic?eieo a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae.

Aiae?c no/aniiai oaoi?/iiai oa iae?i?aoeaiiai noaio inoooaaeueieo nenoai
iieaco?, ui aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iaeiie/aieo i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano i?iaeai
iaiao?aei? eiooe, iniiaiei aeaea?aeii yeeo caeeoathoueny aea?aeaaiee ?
i?noeaaee athaeaeaoe oa eiooe i?aei?e?inoa on?o oi?i aeaniino?.

O?iaeaei?noue ia iae?i?iaaieo caieyo o?nii iia’ycaia c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno iae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a (aaiioaaiiy, aeeaiea
?icioooaaiiy caiaeue o cii? Iie?nny). Canoinoaaiiy i?aai?/ieo oa
i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea iei? caaaeaii iai?aaoeue. Oe? oa ?io? oaiaeaioe??
i?ecaaee aei aeieeiaiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno i?iaeai, ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo
iaiiaeeeaa aac aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, cie?aia oeyoii ?aae?caoe??
eiiieaeno caoiae?a:

— caaacia/aiiy noaeiai oa iaae?eiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy iayaieo
iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai;

— cieaeaiiy aia?ai- oa iaoa??aei?iiino? iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai;

— i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?iaaieo caiaeue;

— iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio c?iooaaieo oa inoooaaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue;

— eaae?iaa, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?;

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei o aaeoc? iae?i?aoe?? caiaeue ye
neeaaeiai? /anoeie aea?aeaaii? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee.

?ica’ycaiiy oeeo i?iaeai iiaeiii ocaiaeaeoaaoeny c ia?niaeoeaith
?icaeoeo aaeoc?, aeiiii?/ieie iiaeeeainoyie aea?aeaae, a?aooaaiiy
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiai a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo.

2.2.4 Ioe?iea ye?niiai noaio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue oa
?icaeoeo aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a

Aeaa?aaeaoe?ei? a?oioia? i?ioeane — oea i?ioeane, ye? iia??oothoue
aeanoeaino? ??oio?a ? iaiaaeothoue ?o ?iaeth/?noue. Aiie ?icae?eythoueny
ia i?e?iaei?, i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaii? ? aeania aio?iiiaaii?. Ine?eueee
i?iaanoe ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?e?iaeieo ? aio?iiiaaiieo ??oioiaeo i?ioean?a
ui, oi ioe?ieo i?e?iaeieo ? i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieo aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a neeaaeii, ie aoaeaii cae?enithaaoe ?o ioe?ieo ni?eueii. I?e
ioe?ioe? oa iae?eo aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaa
iieacieee: 1 – nooi?iue aeaa?aaeaoe?? ??oio?a, 2 – a?aenioie o/ano?
aeaa?aaeiaaieo ??oio?a o a?oioiaiio iie?ea? (ioe?iea oa?eoi??aeueiiai
i?iyao aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a).

Noai caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy ?noioii iia??oeany ? iaaoa caa?iceeaiai oa?aeoa?o. A
ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny ??oioiaiai iie?eao, yeee a cia/i?e i???
ao?aoea i?enooi? eiio aeanoeaino? naii?aaoeyoe??.

A?aei?iiino? a ai?eciioaeueiiio oa aa?oeeaeueiiio ?ic/eaioaaii? ??cieo
/anoei Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aecia/eee ?iciiae?e i?ieo caiaeue ca
e?oo?noth noee?a (oaae. 2.6.). Ia?aaaaeathoue eooe iaoeeo i?ieo noee?a
aei 2° — ?o 90,6 % a?ae caaaeueii? ieiu? ??ee?. Iaea?eueo iaaacia/i?
aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?i? noeee c e?oo?noth a?eueoa 3° — ?o 4,9 %, a ia
oa?eoi??? aeayeeo n?euenueeeo ?aae aei 15%, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i?,
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?icaeoeo aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Oaae. 2.6.

?iciiae?e i?ieo caiaeue ca e?oo?noth noee?a

?ici??-i?noueAnueai ianoaaeaieo i?ieo caiaeueO oiio /ene? ca e?oo?noth
noee?a, a?aaeon?ana?a-aei?<11-22-33-55-77-1010-15>151,415aa
4629835353655421241286526282173—%100,076,414,24,52,81,10,60,4—

Ai?aenoee oa?aeoa? ?aeue?oo, cia/ia ai?eciioaeueia oa aa?oeeaeueia
?ic/eaioaaiiy oa?eoi???, /anoi iaaeeaiea caeyaaiiy aiaeio?eaeeo oa??a
aecia/eee ?icaeoie i?ioean?a a?ic??, aeaoeyoe??, i?aeeeneaiiy oa
caaiei/oaaiiy ??oio?a oa aeayeeo iaaacia/ieo aaieia?/ieo yaeu (cnoa?a,
i?in?aeaiue ianea?a eaniaeo ii??ae, iaaae?a oa ?i.).

Aiaeia oa a?o?iaa a?ic?y.

Aiaeia ? a?o?iaa a?ic?y ? iaea?eueo na?eiciei oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, aeaa?aaeaoe?? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a. Aiia
ia?aoai?eeany ia iaaecae/aeia yaeua nueiaiaeaiiy, yea aaciina?aaeiuei
caa?iaeo? naiiio ?nioaaiith ??oioo, ye i?ia?aeiiio caniao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? iacai?iiiio eiiiiiaioo
a?inoa?e. Oea iaoiiaeaii oa?aeoa?ii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, i?e yeiio noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ?ioaineaiiai
?icaeoeo a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a. Aaeaea aeey ooo/ieo
aa?ioeaiic?a iaeneioi i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy i?eoiaeeoueny ia eeiaiue –
na?iaiue, ui ia ni?aiaaea? c i?eii ceeaiai? aeoeaiino? (e?iaoeue o?aaiy
– /a?aaiue).

A?aeiia?aeii aei noaie a?ic?eiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie aeaia oa?eoi??y
ciaoiaeeoueny a cii?, iaaacia/i?e a a?ic?eiiio a?aeiioaii?, a iaeano?
ia?aaaaeath/iai ?icaeoeo aiaeii? a?ic?? c ia?aaaaeath/ei aieeaii
aeiuiaiai noieo. Na?aae inai?ieo caiaeue iaea?eueo /anoi i?aeaeai? cieao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey ? a ia?oo /a?ao ??eey. ?ioaineai?noue
cieao ??oio?a c cyao ? /i?iiai ia?o /anoi aeinyaa? 300 o/aa a ??e.
Iaeiae oaeee ciea niinoa??aa?oueny eieaeueii. Na?aaeiuei??/iee
?ic?aooieiaee ciea ?iaeth/iai oa?o a?oioo c i?ieo caiaeue neeaaea? 12,5
o/aa.

Caaaeueia ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, ye? caciaee caoaiiai
aieeao aiaeii? a?ic??, neeaaea? 5645 aa, a oiio /ene? 4820 aa i?ieo
caiaeue (10,4% a?ae ianoaaeaii? ieiu? oeeo oa?aeue). O neeaae?
a?iaeiaaieo i?ieo caiaeue iae?eiao?oueny 2073 aa c na?aaeiuei- oa
neeueiicieoeie ??oioaie. Iniaeeaa caiaiiei?iiy aeeeeeathoue ianooaae oa
?ioaineai?noue oeeo i?ioean?a ia /i?iicaiieo oa aeecueeeo aei ieo ca
?iaeth/?noth ??oioao.

Uiaei aeeiai?ee a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, oi iniaeeai aenieeie oaiiaie
c?inoa? ieiua na?aaeiuei- oa neeueiicieoeo ??oio?a, a iaea?eueoee
i?e??no ieiu a?iaeiaaieo ??oio?a a?aei?/a?oueny a ?aeiiao a?aeiinii
aeaaiiieo/ieo a a?ic?eiiio a?aeiioaii? (oaae. 2.7.). Inoaiiy ianoaaeia ?
iane?aeeii i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ia iaea?eueo
i?aeaeaieo ae?eyieao ? iaaeinoaoiuei? oaaae aei a?aeiinii aeaaiiieo/ieo
oa?eoi??e.

Oaaeeoey 2.7.

Aeeiai?ea a?iaeiaaiino? ??oio?a i?ieo caiaeue

Nooi?iue a?iaeiaaiino? a?oio?aIeiua cieoeo a?oio?a,

oen. aaI?e??no ieiu? cieoeo a?oio?a c 1960 ii 1996 ??.,
oen.aaNa?aaeiuei??/iee i?e??no ieiu? cieoeo a?oio?a, aa1960 ?.1996
?.Anueiai cieoeo a?oio?a3,24,81,646o oiio
/ene?:neaai-2,42,80,411na?aaeiuei-0,61,30,720neeueii-0,20,70,515

Ia ianiaeuao a?ic?ei? i?ioeane ?icaeaathoueny iaio ?ioaineaii. Iaeiae
aiane?aeie ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ianiaeu, ooaeiaa ae?aea? o?aao i?ae ei??iue
oa iioeiaeaeo? eiieoaie aea?iiaee iie?ea, ui ni?e/eiy? aeoea?caoe?th
oeeo i?ioean?a. Caaaeueia ieiua a?iaeiaaieo ??oio?a ia ianiaeuao
neeaaea? 666 aa, i?e/iio 74,6 % oeeo oa?aeue oa?aeoa?ecothoueny neeueiei
nooiaiai a?iaeiaaiino?. N?iiaeao? ?icoaoiaai? ia?aaaaeii a iiieaeaieo
aeaiaioao ?aeue?oo ? oiio a?iaeiaai? o nai?e iacia/i?e i???.

A ?acoeueoao? a?ic?? ??cei iaaea? ai?no aoiono a ??oioao oa cieaeo?oueny
?o ?iaeth/?noue. Na?aaeiuei??/i? ao?aoe aoiono a?ae a?ic?? a oe?eiio
aeey Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio neeaaeathoue 19 oen. oii. O 1981 ?ioe? ai?no
aoiono neeaaeaa 2,8 %, a o 1882 ?ioe? (aeey ii??aiyiiy aeei?enoai? aeai?
A.A.Aeieo/a?aa) – 3,6%.

Ii?yae c ieiueiiith a?ic??th aeineoue ?ioaineaii ?icaeaathoueny i?ioeane
e?i?eiiai ?icieao oa y?iooai?aiiy. Ieiua aeoeaieo y??a neeaaea? 105,7
aa. Iaaaoeaiee aieea y??a i?iyaey?oueny ia i?eeaae?e oa?eoi??? ieiuath
aeecueei 300 aa. Aeeaeia a??co y??a iiaeaeoaee aeinyaa? 20-25 i.
Cono??/athoueny an? ?o aaiaoe/i? oi?ie (aa?aaia?, i?eaiaeiae?euei?,
aaeeia?), c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aa?aaiaeo y??a. Inoaii? ?ic/eaiythoue i?aaee
ei??iiee noee aeieei Oiaae, Nooaie, Eai’yiee oa noeee eiai i?eoie, a
oaeiae cono??/athoueny ia noeeao iaeaea an?o aaeie. Ia e?ooeo y?oaeieo
noeeao a?aei?/athoueny aeoeai? iaaaee.

Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo a?o?iai? a?ic?? ??oio?a o iaaeao ?aeiio
aecia/athoueny iayai?noth a?oio?a eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo.
Ca aeaieie ye?niiai iae?eo caiaeue o neeaae?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ?aeiio ia?aoiao?oueny 29272 aa
aeaoeyoe?eiiiaaacia/ieo, a oiio /ene? 27363 aa aeaoeyoe?eiiiaaacia/ii?
??ee?, c ieo 1724 aa aeaoeueiaai? (a?iaeiaai?). Ianiaeua oaeiae o
cia/i?e i??? aeaoeueiaai?. ?c 1476 aa iaoaaeaieo ianiaeu 622 aa
aeaoeueiaaii, ui neeaaea? 23,7%.

Eeneioi?noue. Ieiua eeneeo ??oio?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue
neeaaea? 33162 aa aai 65,0 % a?ae ianoaaeaii? ieiu? oeeo oa?aeue, a oiio
/ene? 32883 aa noaiiaeoue ??eey. Ieiu? eeneeo caiaeue iino?eii
ci?iththoueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aianaieo aeia?ea, i?iaaaeaiiy o?i?/ii?
iae?i?aoe??, ? iiaeooue ia?aoiaeeoe ?c iaei??? eaoaai??? a ?ioo,
ia??aeei a?eueo aeaa?aaeiaaio. Oey o?ainoi?iaoe?y – c iaei??? eaoaai???
eeneioiino? a ?ioo ? iaaiaee – a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeoaea
oaeaeei aai ae ??oioe i?iyaeythoue aaeeeo no?ee?noue uiaei c?ooaiiy
eeneioii-eoaeii? ??aiiaaae, yea aaiaoe/ii ?i i?eoaiaiia. I?aeoeea
o?i?/ii? iae?i?aoe?? ? caiea?ianoaa na?ae/eoue, ui naia ia iano?eeeo
??oioao c aeoaea a?aceeaei eeneioii-eoaeiei na?aaeiaeuai iae/ano?oa
aeieeathoue e?ecia? aa?iaeieia?/i? neooaoe??. Oae, iai?eeeaae aaiioaaiiy
eeneeo i?uaieo ? iaa?oue noi?uaieo a?oio?a aeoaea oaeaeei ia?aaiaeeoue
?aaeoe?th ??oioo ?c eeneiai na?aaeiaeua a iaeo?aeueia ? iaa?oue a
neaaieoaeia.

A?aecia/eii, ui ? ca ?ioeie ye?nieie iieacieeaie (ia?acaieiaeai?noue,
caaiei/ai?noue oa ?i.) caiaeueiee oiiae Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ia? noaeo
oaiaeaioe?th aei iia??oaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ca aeaieie Aea?aeeiicaio
Oe?a?ie 998 aa caeiathoue ia?acaieiaeai? ? 2091 aa — caaiei/ai? ??oioe.

Aeaa?aaeaoe?y ??oio?a a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae aieeaii aaaeei?
a?oioiia?iaethth/i? oaoi?ee (?oeio?oueny no?oeoo?a, cieaeo?oueny
aiaeino?ee?noue no?oeoo?ieo aa?aaao?a, i?aeaeuo?oueny u?euei?noue i?iiai
oa?o), c?ioaiiy, iniaeeai canieaieie ? eoaeieie aiaeaie (ci?ith?oueny
a?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeei, a?aeaoaa?oueny aoi?eiia canieaiiy,
caaiei/oaaiiy ? inieiioethaaiiy a?oio?a).

No/ania ae?aaeaiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?eiiai i?ioeano aeoaea /anoi iia’ycaia c
iia??oaiiyi o?ce/ieo ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??oio?a /a?ac
ou?eueiaiiy i?aei?ieo ai?eciio?a, ca?eueoaiiy a?eeenoino?,
o??ueioaaoino? ? ieanoe/iino? i?iiai oa a?eueo aeeaieeo oa??a. Ana oea
i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy iaeiie/aiiy aieiae ? ia’?io ei?aiaaeeaiiai
oa?o i?e aeinoaoiueiio caaacia/aii? eoeueoo? aeaiaioaie aeeaeaiiy. Ia
oaeee i?iya aeaa?aaeaoe?? caa?oathoue iiee ui iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae.

Inoaii?i /anii iineeeeenue i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe?? ??oioiaiai iie?eao,
ye? iaoiiaeai? oaoiiaaiiei caa?oaeiaiiyi. Aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? caa?oaeiaiiy ??oio?a ??cieie oiene/ieie niieoeaie,
na?ae/eoue, ui aeecueei 20% oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ia?aaoaa? a
iacaaeia?eueiiio noai?. Iaea?eueoo iaaaciaeo aeey iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua i?aaenoaaey? caa?oaeiaiiy ??oio?a ?aae?iioee?aeaie, aaaeeeie
iaoaeaie, ianoeoeeaeaie, caoaeieeaie ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia oa ?i. A
??oioiaiio iie?ea?, ui i?eeyaa? aei i?no c ?icaeiaiith i?iieneia?noth,
niinoa??aa?oueny caa?oaeiaiiy aaaeeeie iaoaeaie. Cia/i? ieiu? caiaeueieo
oa?aeue caa?oaeiai? ?aae?i?cioiiaie (oeac?e, no?iioe?e).
Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy nueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue ? ??ee? iaaaaeaia a oaae. 2.8 oa oaae. 2.9.

I?aeneeaiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?? ??oio?a a cia/i?e i??? ca’ycaii c ??ceei
cieaeaiiyi ianya?a caoiae?a c i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaeth/ino?. Iinoa/aiiy
i?ia?aeueieo oa i?aai?/ieo aeia?ea o 1996 ?. ii??aiyii c 1986 ?.
ciaioeeiny a 10-12 ?ac?a. Iaeii/anii c o?iaeayie ui?ieo, caeaaeii a?ae
?o aaee/eie, aeiineoueny c ??oioo aei 100-200 ea/aa iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei. A
?acoeueoao? ia?aaeuaiiy aeiino iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei iaae ?o iaeiie/aiiyi a
i?ieo ??oioao neeaany ?o a?ae’?iiee aaeain.

I?enei?aiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aaeeeith i??ith iaoiiaeaii oei,
ui a inoaii? 8-9 ?ie?a aea?aeaaa ??cei nei?ioeea aneaioaaiiy ia ioi?iio,
iie?ioaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa /a?ac e?eciaee o?iainiaee noai
oaeiae iani?iiiaei? cae?enithaaoe ?iaanooaaiiy caieaioi?iiieo caoiae?a
ca ?aooiie aeanieo eioo?a.

Oaaeeoey 2.8.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue

Iacaa n?euenueei? ?aaeeIeiua oa?aeue, caa?oaeiaieo 137Cs, aaO o./. c?
u?euei?noth caa?oaeiaiiy, E?/ei2Aei
11-5Aaeeeini?oeinueea299,4-299,4Iaeini?oeinueea465,5-465,5Iaeyie/ainueea
392,0-392,0Oano?aaoeueea66,5-66,5*a?aiiainueea182,0182,0-Anueiai1405,418
2,01223,4

Aeciaaii? aaieia?/i? iaaaoeai? yaeua iioe?ai? a?eueo ye ia 60% oa?eoi???
?aeiio. Ieiua yeo caeiathoue aeoeai? cnoae neeaaea? aeecueei 3 aa, aiie
?icaeaathoueny ii ao?eo ? no?ieaoeo aeeiao. Uii?aaaea a inoaii? ?iee
cnoai? i?ioeane aeaui noaa?e?coaaeeny a ?acoeueoao? canoinoaaiiy
e?niiae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a.

Oaaeeoey 2.9.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ??ee?

Iacaa n?euenueei? ?aaeeIeiua oa?aeue, caa?oaeiaieo 137Cs, aaO o./. c?
u?euei?noth caa?oaeiaiiy, E?/ei2Aei
11-5Aaeeeini?oeinueea299,4-299,4Iaeini?oeinueea289,5-289,5Iaeyie/ainueea
392,0-392,0Oano?aaoeueea66,5-66,5*a?aiiainueea182,0182,0-Anueiai1229,418
2,01047,4

I?inaaeia? yaeua o eaniaeo ianeaao a?aei?/athoueny ia o?aoei? ieiu
?aeiio. A oe?eiio caaaeueia o?aaeai?noue oa?eoi??? aeciaaiieie
aaieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie neeaaea? 53410 aa.

Oe? aeai? aeathoue i?aenoaae c?iaeoe iaao?oiee aeniiaie, ui a
Oano?anueeiio ?aeii? Ee?anueei? iaeano? aenieeie oaiiaie cieaeo?oueny
ye?noue ? ?iaeth/?noue ??oio?a oa eaoano?io?/ii iia??oo?oueny
aeieia?/iee noai caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Aeey ai?ioueae c aeaa?aaeaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie aeei?enoiaothoue
eiina?aaoe?th (caie? ia aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa aei a?aeiiaeaiiy yeino? ca ?aooiie
caeaoiino? naiia?aeiiaeaiiy a?oio?a oa iae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a), aei yei?
aeeth/athoue ?aaa?e?oaoe?th (ia oeeo caieyo i?iaiaeyoue aeoeai? caoiaee
ii a?aeiiaeaiith yeino?) oa o?ainoi?iaoe?th (caie? ia?aaiaeyoue o ?ioa
ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy, i?e yeiio aieea iaaaoeaieo yaeu ia
aeaa?aaeiaai? ae?eyiee ciaioo?oueny ), ui iieacaii a oaae. 2.10.

2.3. Aiae?c aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iie caiaeue
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy

2.3.1. Noai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ?icoaoiaaii 47 n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo
ioieo?a, aeaa naeeua oa i?noi Oano?a. I?noi Oano?a ? aaei?i?no?aoeaiei
oeaio?ii ?aeiio.

Aaei?i?no?aoeaieie oeaio?aie n?euenueeeo ?aae ? 23 n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo
ioieoe, a naeeuieo – naeeua Ai?iaa oa Eiaeaiea.

Aei caiaeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a iaeaaeaoue on? caie?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
iaaeao, onoaiiaeaieo aeey eiaeiiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo a ii?yaeeo
caieaono?ith ? ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeaii? i?nueei?, naeeuii? oa
n?euenueeeo ?aae.

Oaaeeoey 2.10.

Ianyae oa iai?yiee eiina?aaoe?? aeaa?aaeiaaieo ? iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo
a?oio?a i?ieo caiaeue

Aeaee aeaa?aaeaoe??Ieiua eiina?aaoe??A oiio /ene?, aaaa% a?ae ieiu?
??ee? ii ?aeiio?aaa?-e?oaoe?yO?ainoi?iaoe?yanueiaiA oiio
/ene?:N?ii-aeao?Iani-aeuaE?n?aaaia-?aoe?yEaaeee iaoai?/iee
neeaae40717,9-4071—4071-Cieo?noue
19903,81335655—60946-Ia?acaieiaeai?noue ?
caaiei/ai?noue570,1-57—57Aieioi? i?aaiiaaii? ? i?ia?aeuei? inooai?
a?oioe3620,8-362362—Onueiai caiaeue, ui i?aeeyaathoue
eiina?aaoe??648012,613355145362609411757

Aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
i?iaeo?a ieaioaaiiy caaoaeiae aeaiiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo.

Ca aeaieie aea?aeaaiiai iae?eo ieiua caiaeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a
?aeiio noaiii ia 1.01.2002 ?ieo noaiiaeoue 13586 aa, ui neeaaea? 15%
a?ae ieiu? ?aeiio.

Iaaea i?noa, naeeua, naea – oea oiiaia caieiooa e?i?y ia iiaa?oi? caie?,
ui a?aeie?aieth? oa?eoi??th ianaeaiiai ioieoo a?ae ?ioeo
oa?eoi??e. Caie? a iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a ciaoiaeyoueny o
a?aeaii?, oiaoi a oi?aae?ii? a?aeiia?aeieo ?aae aei ?iciaaeoaaiiy ?o ia
aea?aeaaio oa eiioiaeueio aeani?noue. A iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a
?icoaoiaai? caiaeuei? ae?eyiee ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o
aeaniino?, ei?enooaaii?, i?aiae? aeaniee?a oa ei?enooaa/?a caie?.
Iniiaieie caieaaeanieeaie ? caieaei?enooaa/aie a iaaeao
ianaeaieo ioieo?a ? a?iiaaeyie, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue 73,1% an?o
caiaeue (9937 aa ) ? 90,7% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ianaeaieo
ioieo?a (9246 aa).

?c caaaeueii? ieiu? caiaeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a 20,9% ( 2837 aa ) oea
caie? caiano oa caie?, ye? ia iaaeai? o aeani?noue oa iino?eia
ei?enooaaiiy, a iniiaiiio aiie i?aaenoaaeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie
oa?aeaeyie 837 aa, caaoaeiaai? caie?, cie?aia i?ae aoeeoeyie ? ieiuaie
(32,8%), a oaeiae e?naie oa aieioaie.

O iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a oa?eoi??aeueiith aacith aeey ?o ?icaeoeo ?
caie? aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae, aei yeeo iaeaaeaoue
caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?ici?uaiiy aeeoeiai?
caaoaeiae, a?iiaaenueeeo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae, ?ioeo ia’?eo?a
caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae
cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei aaia?aeueiiai ieaio ianaeaiiai ioieoo,
ieaio caiaeueii — ainiiaea?nueeiai ono?ith, ?ioi? aeieoiaioaoe?? c
aeio?eiaiiyi aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a ? ii?i, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa i?noeaaeo
i?aaee caaoaeiae.

A?iiaaeyiai ca ??oaiiyi i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy iiaeooue
ia?aaeaaaoeny aacieaoii o aeani?noue aai iaaeaaaoeny a i?aiaeo caiaeuei?
ae?eyiee aeey aoae?aieoeoaa oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeeeiai aoaeeieo,
ainiiaea?nueeeo aoae?aaeue ? aa?aaeiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a iaaeao ii?i,
aecia/aieo Caiaeueiei eiaeaenii Oe?a?ie.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, ia yeeo ?icoaoiaai? aaaaoieaa?oe?i? aeeoeia?
aoaeeiee, a oaeiae iaeaaei? i ieo aoae?ae?, nii?oaee oa i?eaoaeeieia?
oa?eoi???, iaaeathoueny a iino?eia ei?enooaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaai,
onoaiiaai ? i?aai?caoe?yi, ye? cae?eniththoue oi?aae?iiy oeeie
aoaeeieaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei Caiaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie aei caiaeue aeeoeiai? oa
a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae iaeaaeaoue caiaeuei? ae?eyiee a iaaeao ianaeaieo
ioieo?a.

Ca ia??iae c 1992 ii 2002 ?iee ieiua ianaeaieo ioieo?a ca?eueoeeanue ia
734 98 aa a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie caaoaeiaaieo caiaeue (aeiaeaoie 1.).

2.3.2. Caie? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo oa ?ioiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai
i?ecia/aiiy

Caie? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo yaeythoue niaith ae?eyiee noo? ?
aiaeiiai i?inoi?o c i?e?iaeieie eiiieaenaie oa ia’?eoaie, ui iathoue
iniaeeao i?e?iaeiioi?iiio, anoaoe/io, ?ae?aaae?eio oa ?ioo oe?ii?noue,
yeei a?aeiia?aeii aei caeiio iaaeaii noaoon oa?eoi??e oa ia’?eo?a
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo.

Aei caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo aeeth/athoueny i?e?iaei?
oa?eoi??? oa ia’?eoe (i?e?iaei? caiia?aeieee, iaoe?iiaeuei? i?e?iaei?
ia?ee, a?inoa?i? caiia?aeieee, ?aa?iiaeuei? eaiaeoaooi? ia?ee,
caeacieee, iai’yoee i?e?iaee, caiia?aei? o?i/eua), a oaeiae ooo/ii
noai?ai? ia’?eoe (aioai?/i? naaee, aeaiae?ieia?/i? ia?ee, ciieia?/i?
ia?ee, ia?ee-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa).

Caeacieee, iai’yoee i?e?iaee, aioai?/i? naaee, aeaiae?ieia?/i? oa
ciieia?/i? ia?ee, ia?ee-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa caeaaeii
a?ae ?o aeieia?/ii? oa iaoeiai? oe?iiino? iiaeooue aooe
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai aai i?noeaaiai cia/aiiy.

Caeaaeii a?ae iioiaeaeaiiy, ?ioeo iniaeeainoae i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a oa
ia’?eo?a, ui iaieioothoueny caeacieeaie /e iai’yoeaie i?e?iaee, iaoe ?
iaiao?aeiiai ?aaeeio ioi?iie:

· caeacieee iiae?eythoueny ia eaiaeoaooi?, e?nia?,
aioai?/i?, caaaeueii-ciieia?/i?, i?i?oieia?/i?, aioiiieia?/i?,
?oo?ieia?/i?, a?ae?ieia?/i?, caaaeueii-aaieia?/i?, iaeaiioieia?/i? oa
ea?noiai-niaeaieia?/i?;

· iai’yoee i?e?iaee iiae?eythoueny ia eiiieaeni?, aioai?/i?,
ciieia?/i?, a?ae?ieia?/i? oa aaieia?/i?.

No/aniee i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee oiiae Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio
neeaaea?oueny c e?eueeio Eaiaeoaooieo caiia?aeiee?a, caeaciee?a,
aeaiae?iia?eo oa ?ioeo aioai?/ieo iai’yoie i?e?iaee, ?c yeeo
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia cia/aiiy ia? o?eueee iaeei, a ?aooa — i?noeaaa
cia/aiiy.

Aei caeaciee?a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy a?aeianaii o?i/eua
«Oiaaa», yea ciaoiaeeoueny iaaeao Oano?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa ?
a?aeiineoueny aei e?niaiai oeio caeaciee?a. Eiai ieiua oaiiaeoue 974 aa.
Noaoon caeacieea caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy aoei iaaeaii o?i/euo
Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 20.08.96?. ?751-96.

Oa?eoi??y caeacieea yaey? niaith oe?iiee ianea oeiiaiai aeey ?aa?iio
eenoyiiai e?no, yeee ia? aaeeea aiaeiioi?iiia oa ??oioicaoenia cia/aiiy.
Ooo caa?aaeeny ae?eyiee noa?eo aeoa?a 100-150 ??/iiai a?eo. Iniaeeaith
oe?ii?noth oe??? oa?eoi??? ? ?? aaaaoee oaa?eiiee na?o. A o?i/eu?
„Oiaaa” iaoea? aaaaoi aeae?a nnaaoe?a: aiaa?, eeneoey, ca?oeue n??ee,
?aeae, eanea. Na?aae ieo cono??/athoueny aeaee, caianai? aei *a?aiii?
eieae Oe?a?ie. C ioao?a ia ai?caeoaaii? iii?/ai? aaaaoi aeae?a ae??aieo
ni?ai/eo ioao?a. A oae? ioaoe ye ai?cae?aea cae/aeia, i?eai-a?eioa?no,
ooe?ea ?oaeee, ioaa/, ye? aiaeyoueny ooo, caianai? aei *a?aiii? eieae
Oe?a?ie. Ia oa?eoi??? caeacieea cono??/athoueny oaeiae aeaye? aeaee
ieacoi?a, caiiiaiaeieo oa aaco?aaaoieo.

O?i/eua «Eii/aee» ?icoaoiaaia ia oa?eoi??? Ni?oeinueeiai e?nieoeoaa ?
caeia? ieiuo 12 aa. Eiai noaoon iaieioaii ??oaiiyi Ee?anueei? iaeanii?
?aaee 16 nan?? 21 neeeeaiiy a?ae 10.03.94?. ? a?aeianaii aei
a?ae?ieia?/iiai oeio caeaciee?a.

Oa?eoi??y o?i/eua i?aaenoaaey? niaith ae?eyieo, yea ia? a?ae?ieia?/io
oe?ii?noue, ine?eueee ?ici?uaia a caieaa? ?.??i?iue. Iniiai? ieiu?
na?aae o?aa’yii? ?ineeiiino? caeiathoue oa?oioaaiiy inie (iniea
cao?ieiaa, iniea ia?anueea), cicoeei? /a?aae/ee ni?aaaei?,
iaeue/aoiei??iiee Ooena, cicoeeiaoeue iaiaeaiee, aaaaoi aeae?a
e?ea?nueeeo ?ineei. Aeaye? aeaee ?ineei caianaii aei *a?aiii? eieae
Oe?a?ie. ?c oaa?ei — i’yaea iaaee/ia, ?eaa — ia?aia aei?i?ianueea oaeiae
caianai? aei *a?aiii? eieae Oe?a?ie.

Caeaciee Eiaeainueea aaeea ciaoiaeeoueny iiaeeco n. Iaeiiieiaaoeueea ?
a?aeiineoueny aei eaiaeoaooiiai oeio caeaciee?a. Ieiua eiai noaiiaeoue
50 aa. Noaoon caeacieea Eiaeainuee?e aaeoe? aoei iaaeaii ??oaiiyi
Ee?anueei? iaeanii? ?aaee 16 nan?? 21 neeeeaiiy a?ae 10.03.94?.

Caeaciee yaey? niaith iaaeeaieo aaeeo, yea oyaiaoueny a iai?yieo ?c
caoiaeo ia no?ae ia 1,7 – 1,9 ei. Aaeea ? yne?aaei aeaiaioii i?ai?/ii?
/anoeie e?ninoaio. ?ineeiiee iie?ea eiai oa?eoi??? caaaeii aeia?a
caa?aaeaiee, aeineoue ??ciiiai?oiee ? oeiiaee aeey aeaiiai ?aa?iio.
??ciio?aa’y i?aaenoaaeaia ia?aaaaeii eo/ieie aeaeaie ?ineei.

Iai’yoeaie i?e?iaee iaieioo?oueny ie?ai? oi?eaeuei? i?e?iaei?
ooai?aiiy, ui iathoue iniaeeaa i?e?iaeiioi?iiia, iaoeiaa, anoaoe/ia ?
i?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy, c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy ?o o i?e?iaeiiio noai?.

Iaieioaiiy iai’yoie i?e?iaee i?iaaaeeoueny aac aeeo/aiiy caiaeueieo
ae?eyiie, aiaeieo oa ?ioeo i?e?iaeieo ia’eo?a o ?o aeaniee?a aai
ei?enooaa/?a.

Ia oa?eoi??? iai’yoie i?e?iaee caai?iiy?oueny aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue,
ui caa?iaeo? caa?aaeaiith aai i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? /e ci?ie
ia?a?niiai ?o noaio.

Aeanieee aai ei?enooaa/? ia’?eo?a, iaieioaieo iai’yoeaie i?e?iaee,
aa?ooue ia naaa Ciaia’ycaiiy uiaei caaacia/aiiy ?aaeeio ?o ioi?iie oa
caa?aaeaiiy.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?aaeeio ioi?iie i?e?iaeieo
eiiieaen?a oa ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeieo caiia?aeiee?a, caiia?aaiiy
iaaaoeaiiio aieeao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia i?eeaaeeo aei
ieo oa?eoi??yo onoaiiaeththoueny ioi?iii? ciie.

A ioi?iieo ciiao ia aeiionea?oueny aoae?aieoeoai i?iieneiaeo oa ?ioeo
ia’?eo?a, ?icaeoie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia oa?eoi??? oa ia’?eoe i?e?iaeii — caiia?aeiiai
oiiaeo.

Caie? ?ioiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy a Oano?anueeiio ?aeii?
neeaaeathoue 2190 aa, c ieo 50,0 aa ?ici?uai? ia oa?eoi??yo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?enoa, a ?aooa — ia caieyo caiano oa
caieyo ia iaaeaieo o aeani?noue oa ei?enooaaiiy.

Neeaae caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo iaaaaeaii a oaae. 2.11.

2.3.3. Caie? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy

Aei caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy iaeaaeaoue caie?, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy, oo?ecio oa
i?iaaaeaiiy nii?oeaieo caoiae?a.

Aei oeeo caiaeue a?aeiinyoueny caiaeuei? ae?eyiee caeaieo cii ? caeaieo
ianaaeaeaiue i?no ? ?ioeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, iaa/aeueii-oo?enonueeeo
noaaeie, ia?eiaaieo o?an, caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, caeiyo? oa?eoi??yie
aoaeeie?a a?aeii/eieo, iain?iiao?a, ia’?eo?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ?
nii?oo, oo?enoe/ieo aac, eaii?ia?a, yoo-eeoa?a, noaoe?iia?ieo ?
iaiaoiaeo oo?enoe/ii-icaei?ia/eo oaai??a, aoaeeie?a ?eaaeie ?
ieneeaoe?a, aeeoy/eo oo?enoe/ieo noaioe?e, aeeoy/eo oa nii?oeaieo
oaai??a, ?ioeo aiaeia?/ieo ia’?eo?a, a oaeiae caiaeuei? ae?eyiee,
iaaeai? aeey aea/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? nii?oaeaeaiiy ?ioeo ia’?eo?a
noaoe?iia?ii? ?ae?aaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 2.11.

Neeaae caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo

Iacaa oa?eoi??? oa ia’?eoo i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeoEaoaai??y
Ieiua,aaI?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy1. E?niaee caeaciee caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai
cia/aiiy „O?i/eua Oiaaa”Caeaciee CECAe974,0Oano?anueeee aea?aee?naini,

Oano?anueea e?nieoeoai2. Ia?e-iai’yoea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
„Oano?anueeee”IIAI33,0Oano?anueeee aea?aee?naini,

Oano?anueea e?nieoeoai3. Ia?e-iai’yoea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
„Iieiae?aeiee”IIAI14,02i. Oano?a4. A?ae?ieia?/iee caeaciee „O?i/eua
Eii/aee”CAI72,0Oano?anueeee aea?aee?naini,

Ni?oeinueea e?nieoeoai5. Eaiaeoaooiee caeaciee „Eiaeainueea
aaeea”CEaiaeI50,0Iaeiiieiaaoeueea n?euenueea ?aaea Oano?anueeiai
?aeiio6. Iai’yoea i?e?iaee aioai?/ia „Aeoa
/a?auaoee”IIAI0,02Oano?anueeee aea?aee?naini,

Oano?anueea e?nieoeoai7. Iai’yoea i?e?iaee aioai?/ia „A?eiaa
ninia”IIAI0,02Oano?anueeee aea?aee?naini,

Aei?iaeinueea e?nieoeoai

Ieiua caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy o Oano?anueeiio ?aeii?
noaiiaeoue 1517 aa, a oiio /ene? 10 aa o ianaeaieo ioieoao.

Aeey aaaeaiiy eieaeoeaiiai naae?aieoeoaa eiiia?aoeaai a?iiaaeyiai ca
??oaiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? ?aaee ( n?euenueei?, naeeuii?, i?nueei?, ?aeiiii?
) ia?aaeaii o aeani?noue 14886 caiaeueieo ae?eyiie, ?ici?? yeeo neeaaea?
0,09 aa ia iaeiiai /eaia eiiia?aoeao.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee aeey eieaeoeaiiai naae?aieoeoaa neeaaeathoueny ?c
caiaeue caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy, ui ia?aaoaathoue o ni?euei?e aeaniino?
eiiia?aoeao, oa ?c caiaeue, ui ia?aaoaathoue o i?eaaoi?e aeaniino?
/eai?a eiiia?aoeao.

Aei caiaeue caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy iaeaaeaoue caiaeuei? ae?eyiee,
caeiyo? oeyoaie, i?i?caeaie, nii?oaeaie oa ?ioeie ia’?eoaie caaaeueiiai
ei?enooaaiiy.

Ia caieyo ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy caai?iiy?oueny ae?yeuei?noue, ui
ia?aoeiaeaeo? aai iiaea ia?aoeiaeaeaoe aeei?enoaiith ?o ca i?ecia/aiiyi,
a oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? aai iiaea aieeiooe ia i?e?iaeiee noai oeeo
caiaeue.

Ii?yaeie aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy aecia/a?oueny
caeiiii.

2.3.4. Caie? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy

Aei caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy iaeaaeaoue caie?, ia yeeo
?icoaoiaai?:

a) ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? caiia?aeieee, ioca?-caiia?aeieee, iaii??aeuei?
ia?ee, iaii??aeuei? eeaaeiaeoa, iiaeee, ?noi?e/i? aai iaii??aeuei?
naaeeae, aoaeeiee, nii?oaee ? iai’yoi? i?noey, iia’ycai? c ?noi?e/ieie
iiae?yie;

a) ai?iaeeua, eo?aaie, aeaai? iioiaaiiy, iai’yoi? neoeueioo?e
? iaaae?oe, ianeaeuei? cia?aaeaiiy, iiey aeaai?o aeoa, caeeoee
oi?oaoeue, a?enueeiaeo oaai??a, iinaeaiue ? noiyiie, ae?eyiee
?noi?e/iiai eoeueoo?iiai oa?o oe??ieaiue, ae?iaieoeoa, eaiae?a, oeyo?a;

a) a?o?oaeoo?i? ainaiae?, eiiieaene, ?noi?e/i? oeaio?e,
eaa?oaee, ieiu?, caeeoee noa?iaeaaiueiai ieaioaaiiy ? caaoaeiae i?no
oa ?ioeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, nii?oaee a?o?oaeoo?e, ia?iaeiiai ciae/anoaa,
naaeiai-ia?eia? eiiieaene, oiiiaa caaoaeiaa.

Oano?aueia aaaaoa ia iai’yoee, iia’ycai? c iiae?yie ae?oai? Na?oiai?
a?eie. Iaeaea aeiaeai ianaeaiee ioieo ia iaieioea a?eia.

Ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio ca?a?no?iaaii ? ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ioi?iiith
aea?aeaae aeae?eueea iai’yoie, aeia’ycaieo c iiae?yie Aaeeei?
A?o/eciyii? A?eie ( a?aonuee? iiaeee ai?iai, ye? caaeioee a ?iee a?eie,
iai’yoee ia /anoue ai?i?a — iaeiinaeueoe?a, ye? ia iiaa?ioeenue c
o?iio?a a?eie, iiaeee ia?oecaiai oa iaa?aeiiei ai?iai, iai’yoi? ciaee ia
/anoue ai?i?a-aecaieeoae?a oa ai?i?a-iaeiinaeueoe?a). Iaeaea an?
iai’yoee ciaoiaeyoueny ia oa?eoi??? eeaaeiaeu, ye? a?aeianai? aei
caiaeue ?noi?eei — eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ciaoiaeyoueny oae? aecia/i? iai’yoee
a?o?oaeoo?e ye Iie?ianueea oea?eaa (1740?.) oa einoueie (1903-1911 ??).
A ca’yceo c iacia/iith ieiuath oe? caie? a ?aeiiiiio ca?o? ia aeeth/ai?
a ieiuo caiaeue ?noi?eei — eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Aei caiaeue ?noi?eei — eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia oa?eoi???
Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aeeth/aii aoaeeiie, a yeiio 1919-1922 ?ieao aeea
oe?a?inueeee eiiiiceoi? E. A. Noaoeaiei, iocae eiiiiceoi?a oa iai’yoiee
ia eiai iiaee? ciaoiaeyoueny a n. Aai?ee.

Caie? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia?aaoaathoue o aea?aeaai?e
aeaniino? aei ?o ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia aea?aeaaio oa eiioiaeueio.

Ii?yaeie aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy
aecia/a?oueny caeiiii. Ia caieyo ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy
caai?iiy?oueny aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue, ui noia?a/eoue ?o oe?eueiaiio
i?ecia/aiith.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aaeeio ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo caiia?aeiee?a,
iaii??aeueieo ia?e?a, iioiaaiue, a?oaieia?/ieo ? a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie
anoaiiaeththoueny ioi?iii? ciie c caai?iiith ia caieyo oeeo cii
ae?yeueiino?, yea oe?aeeeai aieeaa? aai iiaea aieeiooe ia caaacia/aiiy
aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

2.3.5. Caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo

Aei caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo iaeaaeaoue caie?, ae?eo? e?niaith
?ineeii?noth, a oaeiae iaae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, iae?nia? caie?,
ye? iaaeai? oa aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iio?aa e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aei caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo a?aeianaii
17551 aa ( 19,5% a?ae ieiu? ?aeiio)

Iaea?eueo e?oiieie ei?enooaa/aie caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo ?
e?niainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue 91,2% an?o
caiaeue, a?aeianaieo aei e?niaiai oiiaeo.

A ?aeii? i?aai?ciaaii o?e aea?aee?nainie: Oano?anueeee, Ni?oeinueeee oa
Aei?ia?inueeee.

A?aeiia?aeii aei E?niaiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo
iiae?eythoueny ia:

a) e?nia?:

— ae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth (aea?aaeiiith ? /aaa?ieeiaith)
?ineeii?noth; ia ae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, ye? i?aeeyaathoue
cae?naiith (c?oae, ??aeeie?nny, ionoe?? oa ?io?), caeiyo? e?niaeie
oeyoaie, i?in?eaie, i?ioeiiaeaaeieie ?ic?eaaie oiui );

a) iae?nia?:

— caeiyo? nii?oaeaie, iia’ycaieie c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, o?anaie e?i?e aeaeo?iia?aaea/, i?aecaiieie
eiioi?eaoe?yie oiui;

— caeiyo? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie (??eey,
aaaaoi??/i? ianaaeaeaiiy, n?iiaeao?, ianiaeua, iaaeai? aeey iio?aa
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa);

— caeiyo? aieioaie ? aiaeieiaie a iaaeao caiaeueieo ae?eyiie e?niaiai
oiiaeo, iaaeaieo aeey e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

E?nia? caie? e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa neeaaeathoue 97,1% a?ae ?o
caaaeueii? ieiu?, 2,9% i?eiaaea? ia ia ae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo caiaeue a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? aea?aee?naini?a. A e?niaiio oiiae? aea?aee?naini?a
ia?aaaaeathoue ianaaeaeaiiy ninie cae/aeii? ( a?ey 80% ), aa?ace caenei?
( 9% ) ? aeoaa /a?ao/aoiai ( 5%). Na?aaei?e a?e ianaaeaeaiue – 50 — 55
?ie?a.

Iaea?eueo e?oiieie niiaeeaa/aie aea?aaeie ? ?aeiii? aoae?aaeuei?
i?aai?caoe??. Iniiai? ani?oeiaioe, ui niiaeeaathoueny: ieeiai/iee,
aoaee?n, ae?iaa.

A ca’yceo c oei, ui oa?eoi??y aea?aee?naini?a a cia/i?e i??? caa?oaeiaia
?aae?iioee?aeaie, iia?/ia aeei?enoaiiy iaiaaeaia, ? a oeae /an ia?
i?noea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy, aeianaiiy ooaeiae,
n?iiein?iiy ? ieneeanoai.

E??i caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a aea?aaei?, e?ne
iathoue aaeeea i?e?iaeiioi?iiia cia/aiiy. Aiie aeeiiothoue
aiaeiioi?iii?, ??oioicaoeni?, ee?iaoi?aaoethth/?, naio??ii-a?a??i?/i? oa
?io? ei?eni? ooieoe??.

Ca?aeii c E?niaei eiaeaenii e?ne Oe?a?ie ca aeieia?/iei ?
ainiiaea?nueeei cia/aiiyi iiae?eythoueny ia ia?oo ? ae?oao a?oie.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue e?ne, ui aeeiiothoue ia?aaaaeii
i?e?iaeiioi?iii? ooieoe??. Caeaaeii a?ae ia?aaaa aeeiioaaieo ieie
ooieoe?e e?ne ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue aei oaeeo eaoaai??e caoeniino?:

— aiaeiioi?iii? ( nioae e?n?a acaeiaae aa?aa?a ??/ie, iaaeiei ica?,
aiaeieieu oa ?ioeo aiaeieo ia’?eo?a );

— caoeni? (e?ne i?ioea?ic?ei?, i?eiieiieii?, caoeni? nioae e?n?a
acaeiaae cae?cieoeue, aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a i?aeia?iaeiiai,
aea?aeaaiiai oa iaeaniiai cia/aiiy, iniaeeai oe?ii? e?nia? ianeae,
aea?aeaai? caoeni? e?nia? nioae oiui). Aei oe??? eaoaai??? iaeaaeaoue
oaeiae iieacaoeni? e?nia? nioae, e?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy ia nioaao a?aeaiaeo
aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a;

— nai?oa?ii – a?a??i?/i? oa icaei?ia/? ( e?ne ianaeaieo ioieo?a, e?ne
caeaieo cii iaaeiei ianaeaieo ioieo?a ? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa, e?ne
ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai iiyn?a cii nai?oa?ii? ioi?iie aeaea?ae
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy oa e?ne cii ie?oa?a nai?oa?ii? ioi?iie
e?eoaaeueii – icaei?ia/eo oa?eoi??e ).

Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue oaeiae e?ne ia oa?eoi??yo
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo (caiia?aeieee, iaoe?iiaeuei? i?e?iaei?
ia?ee, iai’yoee i?e?iaee, caiia?aei? o?i/eua), ?aa?iiaeuei? eaiaeoaooi?
ia?ee, e?ne, ui iathoue iaoeiaa aai ?noi?e/ia cia/aiiy).

Aei ae?oai? a?oie iaeaaeaoue e?ne, ui ii?yae c aeieia?/iei iathoue
aenieoaoaoe?eia cia/aiiy ? aeey caa?aaeaiiy caoenieo ooieoe?e,
aacia?a?aiino? oa iaaeniaaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy yeeo anoaiiaeth?oueny
?aaeei iaiaaeaiiai e?niei?enooaaiiy.

?c caaaeueii? ieiu? e?n?a oa ?ioeo e?niae?eoeo ieiu e?niainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa aei e?n?a ? a?oie a?aeianaii 14197 aa ( 69.9% ), aei II
a?oie -5323 aa ( 26.2% ).

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai aea?aee?nainio ? iai’yoee
i?e?iaee, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie niniiaeie oa
niniiai-aeoaiaeie ianaaeaeaiiyie.

Aieiaieie caaaeaiiyie, ye? noaaeyoue ia?aae niaith i?aoe?aieee
e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ? ni?eyiiy i?aeaeuaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?n?a, iie?auaiiy nai?oa?iiai noaio aea?aainoai?a,
iineeaiiy caoenieo ? ee?iaoi?aaoethth/eo ooieoe?e e?no.

Ui??/ii i?iaiaeeoueny e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy.

A e?nao II a?oie i?iaiaeeoueny ?oaee aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy. Oea ? ?
iniiaiei aeaea?aeii iinoa/aiiy aea?aaeie.

Uia io?eiaoe i?iaeoeoeai? ianaaeaeaiiy a noeaeiio a?oe? c oi?ioith
ni?oeiaioiith i?iaeoeoe??th, a aea?aee?nainiao i?iaiaeyoueny ?oaee
aea?aainoi?a, ye? ao?a/athoue nai? nai?oa?ii – a?a??i?/i? ?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino?.

A e?nao ? a?oie ainiiaea?noai aaaeaoueny c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy e?niaiai
na?aaeiaeua. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaothoueny ?oaee aeiaeyaeo ?
nai?oa?ii? ?oaee.

A ?ae?aaoe?eieo oe?eyo aeei?enoiaothoueny caoeni? nioae e?n?a acaeiaae
aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a. Ooo i?aai?ciaai? ?ae?aaoe?ei? ioieoe ? ciie
ei?ioei/aniiai a?aeii/eieo, anoaiiaeai? e?nia? iaae?, iaeaaeiai? aiaieua
? aaoinoiyiee.

Ieiua iae?niaeo caiaeue a e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao noaiiaeoue
469 aa. Aiia i?aaenoaaeaia: aieioaie – 226 aa, caaoaeiaaieie caieyie –
65 aa (ia?aaaaeii a?iiaaenueeiai i?ecia/aiiy), a?aee?eoeie caieyie aac
?ineeiiiai iie?eao – 42 aa ( ia?aaaaeii y?e ? i?nee ) oa i?ae aiaeith
136 aa.

E??i e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, aei caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo
a?aeianaii 312 aa e?niaeo caiaeue aea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa oa 1236 aa e?n?a oa ?ioeo e?niae?eoeo ieiu, ye? ia iaaeai?
o aeani?noue oa ei?enooaaiiy, ? ia oeae /an ia?aaoaathoue a caian?. Oea,
ia?aaaaeii, caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo eieeoi?o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Neeaae caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 2.12.

Oaaeeoey 2.12.

Neeaae caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo

Aeanieee caie?, caieaei?enooaa/? oa caie? aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?Caaaeueia
ieiua caiaeue, aaE?ne oa ?io? e?niae?eo? ieiu?, aaCaaoaeiaai? caie?,
aaAieioa, aaA?aee?eo? caie? aac ?ineeiiiai iie?eao, aaAiaee,
aaN?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, anueiai312321—-Aea?aeaai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa,
anueiai195195—-E?niainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa1600315534652242136Caie? caiano oa caie?, ia iaaeai? o
aeani?noue oa ei?enooaaiiy12361236—-Caie? caiano692692—-Caie?
caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy 544544—-Anueiai caiaeue e?niaiai
oiiaeo17551170826522642136

2.3.6. Caie? aiaeiiai oiiaeo

Aei caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo, a?aeiia?aeii aei Aiaeiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, iaeaaeaoue caie?, caeiyo?:

— ii?yie, ??/eaie, ica?aie, aiaeinoiaeuaie, ?ioeie aiaeieiaie,
aieioaie, a oaeiae ? ino?iaaie;

— i?eaa?aaeieie caoenieie nioaaie acaeiaae ii??a, ??/ie oa iaaeiei
aiaeiei;

— a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie, ?ioeie aiaeiainiiaea?nueeeie nii?oaeaie oa eaiaeaie,
a oaeiae caie?, aeae?eai? i?ae nioae a?aeaaaeaiiy aeey ieo;

— aa?aaiaeie nioaaie aiaeieo oeyo?a.

Aeey noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai ?aaeeio aiaeieo ia’?eo?a iaaeiei
ica?, aiaeinoiaeu oa ?ioeo aiaeiei anoaiiaeththoueny aiaeiioi?iii?
ciie.

A iaaeao Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aei caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo aeeth/aii 1128
aa caiaeue, c yeeo 52,5% ia?aaoaathoue a caian? (oaae. 2.13.).

Iaea?eueo e?oiieie ei?enooaa/aie caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo ? aea?aeaai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa. A ?o ei?enooaaii? ciaoiaeyoueny
317 aa (28,1%) caiaeue oe??? eaoaai???.

Noi aeanyoue aaeoa??a caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo (i?ae noaaeaie)
ciaoiaeeoueny ia oa?eoi??? i?iieneiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa. A
no?oeoo?? oa?aeue caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo iaea?eueoa ieoiia aaaa
i?eiaaea? ia aiaeinoiaeua (81,2%) ? ??/ee oa no?oiee ( 13,5% ).

A ?aeii? noai?aia niaoe?ae?ciaaia neoaeaa ii aeiaeyaeo ca ??/eaie,
i?eaa?aaeiei caoenieie nioaaie, a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie nii?oaeaie oa
i?aeo?eiaiith ?o o iaeaaeiiio noai? (Oano?anueea oi?aae?iiy
iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai ? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa — OINAA).

I?ae /an inooaiiy caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy
cae?eniththoueny caoiaee uiaei caiia?aaiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?? oeeo caiaeue, a
oaeiae ioi?iie aiaeieo ia’?eo?a.

Ui??/ii Oano?anueeei OINAA cae?enith?oueny ?yae caoiae?a c ioi?iie
aiaeieo ia’?eo?a: i?iaiaeeoueny nai?oa?ia ?ic/enoea ??e, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aeaea?ae, ?aiiio a?ae?iiino?a, anoaiiaeaiiy ioi?iiieo ciae?a oa ?io?
caoiaee.

C iaoith caiia?aaiiy oe?aeeeaeo ae?e aiae ( aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny:
iane?aeee iiaai?, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei caoiieaiiy ? i?aeoiieaiiy caiaeue
oa ianaeaieo ioieo?a; ?oeioaaiiy aa?aa?a, caoenieo aeaia oa ?ioeo
nii?oae; caaiei/aiiy, i?aeoiieaiiy ? canieaiiy caiaeue, ni?e/eiai?
i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy ??oioiaeo aiae oa ?i.) a ?aeii? ui??/ii
i?iaiaeeoueny caeoaeaiiy oa noai?aiiy e?niianaaeaeaiue ia
i?eaa?aaeieo caoenieo nioaao, noeeao, aaeeao oa y?ao;
nii?oaeaeaiiy ae?aiaaeo; oe??ieaiiy aa?aa?a oiui.

Iino?eii aaaeaoueny eiio?ieue ca nai?oa?iei noaiii noaae?a, yeeo a
?aeii? iae?/o?oueny 81 c ieiuath aiaeiiai aeca?eaea 1012 aa.

Oaaeeoey 2.13.

Neeaae caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo

Aeanieee caie?, caieaei?enooaa/? oa caie? aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?Caaaeueia
ieiua, aaCaaoaei-aai? caie?, aaAiaee, aaanuei-aii?e?iae-i?
aiaei-eieooo/-i? aiaei-eieica-?anoaa-eeOoo/i?
aiaei-noiae-uaN?euenueeiainii-aea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa317131612248272-Aea?aeaai? n.-a.
i?aei?e?inoaa286128511164254-Ae?eyiee aeey cae?eniaiiy
ian?euenueeiainii-aea?nueei? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?—106—106-I?iieneia? oa ?io?
i?aei?e?inoaa110-110—110-Caie? caiano a iaaeao ianaeaieo
ioieo?a5953592140231428-Caie? caiano299-2996181229-Caie? ?aca?aiiai
oiiaeo19-19314-3-Caie? caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy275-275762-197-Anueiai
caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo112841124152479916-

2.3.7. Caie? i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee, iai?iie oa
?ioiai i?ecia/aiiy

Caieyie i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee, iai?iie oa
?ioiai i?ecia/aiiy aeciathoueny caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, iaaeai? a
onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo i?aei?e?inoaai, onoaiiaai oa i?aai?caoe?yi aeey
cae?eniaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ae?yeueiino?.

Aei oe??? eaoaai??? iaeaaeaoue caie?, ia yeeo ?ici?uai? iniiai?,
i?aeniai? oa aeiiii?aei? aoae?ae? nii?oaee i?iieneiaeo, o?ainii?oieo oa
?ioeo i?aei?e?inoa, ?o i?ae’?caei? oeyoe, ?iaeaia?i? ia?aae?,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii — iiaooia? aoaeeiee, ?io? nii?oaee.

?ici??e caiaeueieo ae?eyiie, ui iaaeathoueny aeey cacia/aieo oe?eae,
aecia/athoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei caoaa?aeaeaieo o anoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo
ii?i ? i?iaeoii – oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe??.

Noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 2002 ?ieo a ei?enooaaii? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
aaoiiia?eueiiai, o?oaii?ia?aeiiai oa ?ioiai o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae ?ioeo
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, i?aai?caoe?e ? onoaiia
ciaoiaeeeinue 3225 aa caiaeue, aai 3,6% an?o caiaeue ?aeiio .

A ei?enooaaii? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ciaoiaeeoueny 257 aa, ui
neeaaea? 8,0% an?o caiaeue oe??? eaoaai???.

I?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa cina?aaeaeai? ia oa?eoi??? Eiaeainueei? oa
Ai??anueei? naeeuieo ?aae, a oaeiae ia oa?eoi??? O?ee?nueei? n?euenueei?
?aaee.

?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? a ?aeii? aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? i?noeaai?
ne?iaeie.

I?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa i?aaenoaaeai?: Eiaeainueeei oeoe?iaei caaiaeii,
Ai??anueeei aea?aaiia?iaiei eiia?iaoii, O?ee?nueeei nie?oiaei caaiaeii
oa ?ioeie i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Caie? aaoiiia?eueiiai o?oaii?ia?aeiiai oa ?ioiai o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae
caie? ca’yceo caeiathoue 1235 aa aai 38,2% oa?eoi??? aeaii? eaoaai???
caiaeue.

Caie? o?ainii?oo aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie, i?aai?caoe?yie
o?ainii?oo aeey cae?eniaiiy iieeaaeaieo ia ieo niaoe?aeueieo caaaeaiue
c aenieoaooaaiiy, oo?eiaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa, ?aeiino?oeoe??,
oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo nii?oae oa ?ioeo ia’?eo?a o?ainii?oo.

Iacia/ia ieiua caiaeue i?iieneiaino? (23 aa aai 0,7% ) ia?aaoaa? a
caian?. Oea caie? a?aee?eoeo ?ic?iaie oa ea?’???a, ye? ia
aenieoaoothoueny.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, ui aea?eueiythoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie ii aeaeiaoaaiith
ei?enieo eiiaeei, ?ioeie i?iieneiaeie aai o?ainii?oieie i?aei?e?inoaaie
ia iaaeaieo ?i o ei?enooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo /e e?niaeo
oa?aeaeyo, iiaeii? aooe i?eaaaeai? ieie o noai, i?eaeaoiee aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio, e?niaiio, ?eaiiio ainiiaea?noa?, aeeoeiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa? aai naae?aieoeoa?, a caiaeuei? ae?eyiee ia iaaeaieo o
ei?enooaaiiy ?ioeo caieyo – aeey aeei?enoaiiy ca i?ecia/aiiyi.

2.3.8. Caie? caiano

A?aeiia?aeii aei Caiaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie caieyie caiano
aeciathoueny an? caie?, ia ia?aaeai? o aeani?noue aai ia iaaeai? o
iino?eia ei?enooaaiiy. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue oaeiae caie?, i?aai aeaniino?
aai ei?enooaaiiy yeeie i?eieiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei noaoae 140, 141
Caiaeueiiai eiaeaeno.

Caie? caiano ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeaii? n?euenueeeo, naeeuieo,
?aeiiieo, i?nueeeo ?aae ? i?ecia/athoueny aeey ia?aaea/? o aeani?noue
aai iaaeaiiy a ei?enooaaiiy, a oiio /ene? a i?aiaeo, ia?aaaaeii aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee eiaeii? eaoaai??? caiaeue iiaeooue ia?aaoaaoe a
caian?.

A?eueoa iieiaeia caiaeue caiano (61,3%) — oea caie?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy, c yeeo 94,2%
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey.

Caie? aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae a no?oeoo?? caiaeue caiano
caeiathoue 9,8% (839 aa) ? neeaaeathoueny ?c caaoaeiaaieo caiaeue
(aoeeoeue).

Iacia/ia ieoiia aaaa a caieyo caiano caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oa
?ioiai i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy — 489 aa aai 5,7%, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c a?aee?eoeo caaiei/aieo caiaeue.

Ia caie? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy i?eiaaea? 1,4% (120 aa)
caiaeue caiano. A iniiaiiio oea oeea?euei? eeaaeiaeua.

Caie? e?niaiai oiiaeo caeiathoue 14,4% (1236 aa) a no?oeoo?? caiaeue
caiano ? ia noi a?aenioe?a neeaaeathoueny ?c caiaeue ae?eoeo e?niaith
?ineeii?noth, ye? iinyoue caoenio oa i?e?iaeiioi?iiio ooieoe?th
aeei?enoaiiy .

Ia caie? aiaeiiai oiiaeo i?eiaaea? 6,9% (299 aa) ? neeaaeathoueny aiie
?c caiaeue i?ae aiaeith 229 aa i?ae noaaeaie , 8 aa i?ae eaiaeaie oa
eaiaaaie, 61 aa i?ae ??/eaie oa no?oieaie, 1 aa i?ae ica?aie).

?aooa caiaeue caiano -23 aa (0,5 %) — oea caie? i?iieneiaino?, 100% yeeo
neeaaeathoue a?aei?aoeueiaai? ?ic?iaee oa ea?’??e.

3. AIAE?C NOAIO CAIAEUeIEO ?ANO?N?A ?AEIIO

3.1. Noai caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy

Ianueiaiaei? ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ?niothoue 52
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaa ?eieiaiai oeio, i?e/iio
e?euee?noue iaaea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
c?inoa?, a ?o ?ici??e cia/ii ciaioeeenue. ?c caaaeueiith ieiu?
caiaeueieo oa?aeue iniiaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
81,2% aeei?enoiaothoue iaaea?aeaai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa, 18,8% i?eiaaea? ia aea?aeaai?.

??eey caeia? 87% caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy (?en.
3.1.1). Ia ??eeth i?eiaaea? iaea?eueoee oene iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a:
ui??/ia ?ici?thaaiiy (oiaoi ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e a?oioo), ou?eueiaiiy oa
caa?oaeiaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith oaoi?eith oa aa?io?i?eaoaie,
ii?ooaiiy oeeeeo e?oaiia?ao i?aai?ee aiane?aeie aeianaiiy o?iaeath oa
iaaaeaeaaoiiai aianaiiy aeia?ea oiui.

O ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth eioo?a o n?eueainiae?iaiee?a ia i?eaeaaiiy
ianoeoeeae?a oa aa?io?i?eao?a ia i?iaiaeeeeny ?iaioe ii ianii?oecaoe??
neeaae?a. A ?aeii? aoei ianii?oeciaaii eeoa 2 neeaaee aeey i?iaeia?ea
oa ianoeoeeae?a – a CAO „Aa?io?ina?a?n” oa IAeA „Aaeeeini?oeinueea”.

Ii ??oaiith ?ae?aaee c on?o ainiiaea?noa a ?aeii? ia neeaae CAO
„Aa?io?ina?a?n” a iiia?aaei? ?iee aoee caacai? an? iai?eaeaoi? aeey
aeei?enoaiiy io?ooio?i?eaoe. Ca?ac ia eiai neeaae? a iaoaeaaeo ?iiinoyo,
caoeuaieo a?ae aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a, caa??aa?oueny 84 oiie iai?eaeaoieo
aeey aeei?enoaiiy ianoeoeeae?a oa aa?io?i?eao?a.

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8c0057008a009300a40041008f0007000000fc0200004d4d80000000040000002d010400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?en. 3.1.1. Neeaae caiaeue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy
Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio

E??i oiai ia 2004 ??e ia neeaae? CAO „Aa?io?ina?a?n” caa??aaeany
caeeoeiaa e?euee?noue aa?io?i?eao?a:

— C?iei? – 40 ea,

— Oo? – 2200 e,

— Oiiiaa?ae – 230 ea,

— Aacaaa?ae – 6 ea,

— I?aiae – 580 e,

— O?oon – 0,79 ea,

— Ii?ioie aeey ian?iiy – 200 ea,

— A?oaaaen – 140 ea,

— I??ai?i – 25 e,

— I?aiae – 160 ea,

— ?io? – 132 ea.

A?aenooi?noue oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy noaio caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a. Ine?eueee eiaeia
i?aei?e?inoai ? eiaeai aeaniee caie? cae?eniththoue ia?ia?oie caie?, ia
caaaeaee a?aoiaoth/e noai a?oioo, eiai i?eaeaoi?noue aeey aea?aii?
eoeueoo?e, ?icaeoie a?ic??, nooi?iue ?aae?iaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy oiui.
Aianaiiy ??cieo aeia?ea ??cieie ei?enooaa/aie caiaeue /anoi ni?ey?
caa?oaeiaiith no?/ieo aiae oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??,
ine?eueee ia aeio?eio?oueny iioeiaeueia noaia aianaiiy aeia?ea. Ia
?ic?iaeaia oaeiae nenoaia caieaei?enooaaiiy aeey ?aae?iaeoeaii
caa?oaeiaieo caiaeue, ui ni?ey? iaeiie/aiith ?aae?iioee?ae?a o aeayeeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeoeoao ? iiaea ni?e/eieoe oe?aeeeaee aieea
ia i?aai?ci niiaeeaa/a.

Ca?ac ? aaaeeeaith oaeiae i?iaeaia naiicaoiieaiiy caiaeueieo ae?eyiie.
Ia?aaaaeii oea ionoe?i? caie?, aea aoaathoue oaeiae naiicaoiieaiiy
/anoeie ??/eiaiai aa?aaa, /anoeie e?ninioa acaeiaae aaoioeyo?a oiui. I?e
iayaiino? iiceoeaieo noi??i oeueiai yaeua, oiaoi ieoeueoo?aiiy ionoe??a,
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, ye? ?ai?oa ia aeei?enoiaoaaeenue, aeey
a?aeii/eieo, aeey aeanieo ainiiaea?nueeeo iio?aa, a oe?eiio oea yaeua
iaaaoeaia. Ine?eueee naiicaoiieaiiy caiaeue a?aeaoaa?oueny noeo?eii, ia
i?aeoaa?aeoth/e aeani?noue ia caieth ca caeiiii, ui i?ae?eaa? aaoi?eoao
caiaeueiiai i?aaa, aei oiai ae oneeaaeith? i?ioeaaeo?o i?eoyaiaiiy aei
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeanieea ca oiiae iaoe?eueiaiai aeei?enoaiiy caie?
aai iaa?oue a?oaiai ii?ooaiiy caiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa (iai?eeeaae
iiaoaeiaa ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae ia aa?ac? ??/ee).

Aiane?aeie aeiiii?/ii? e?ece n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa nooo?ai
cieceeanue aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iae?i?iaaieo caiaeue oa ?o ?ieue o
i?iaeiaieue/iio caaacia/aii?. C’yaeeeny caa?iceea? oaiaeaioe??: ciioaiiy
? ii?aeueia noa??iiy a?ae?iiae?i?aoeaieo nenoai oa ia’?eo?a, iia??oaiiy
oaoi?/iiai noaio a?ae?iiae?i?aoeaii? ia?aae?. C?iooaaeuei? caie? ca?ac
ia aeei?enoiaothoueny, ine?eueee aeiuoaaeueia oaoi?ea a?aei?aoethaaea
na?e aii?oecaoe?eiee oa?i?i ? aoea nienaia, caie? ia?aaaaeai? a aiaa?i?.
Aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? ?iaioe iio??aii i?iaanoe iiaio ?aeiino?oeoe?th, ui
iio?aao? aaeeeeo eai?oaeueieo cao?ao.

Ia inooaieo caieyo o?eaaeee /an iacaaeia?eueii i?iaiaeeeeny ae?ae
iaiao?aei? aa?iiae?i?aoeai? caoiaee (ieaioaaiiy caiaeue, aeeaiea
?icioooaaiiy, oiui). Iiiaae 20% iae?i?aoeaieo eaiae?a ca?inee
/aaa?ieeaie oa caioeeeeny. Iacaaeia?eueiee oaoi?/iee noai
ainiiaea?nueeeo inoooaaeueieo nenoai i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iani?iiiaeiino? aeeiiaiiy ieie nai?? iniiaii? ooieoe?? – a?aeaaaeaiiy
iaaeeeoeiaeo aiae, a ?o ?oeioaaiiy noai?th? aeieia?/io oa oaoiiaaiio
iaaaciaeo. I?ae /an iaaiaee?a ca?eueoothoueny ciie ? oa?i?ie caoiieaiiy
caiaeueieo oa?aeue, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ye?noue ? ?iaeth/?noue
a?oio?a oa ni?ey? aeoeaiiio ?icaeoeo aiaeii? a?ic??.

Ai?aenoee oa?aeoa? ?aeue?oo, cia/ia ai?eciioaeueia oa aa?oeeaeueia
?ic/eaioaaiiy oa?eoi???, /anoi iaaeeaiea caeyaaiiy aiaeio?eaeeo oa??a
aecia/eee ?icaeoie i?ioean?a a?ic??, aeaoeyoe??, i?aeeeneaiiy oa
caaiei/oaaiiy ??oio?a oa aeayeeo iaaacia/ieo aaieia?/ieo yaeu (cnoa?a,
i?in?aeaiue ianea?a eaniaeo ii??ae, iaaae?a oa ?i.).

Aiaeia ? a?o?iaa a?ic?y ? iaea?eueo na?eiciei oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, aeaa?aaeaoe?? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a. Aiia
iaoiiaeaia oa?aeoa?ii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue,
i?e yeiio noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey ?ioaineaiiai ?icaeoeo a?ic?eieo
i?ioean?a. Aaeaea aeey ooo/ieo aa?ioeaiic?a iaeneioi
i?iaeoeaiiai iie?eooy i?eoiaeeoueny ia eeiaiue – na?iaiue, ui ia
ni?aiaaea? c i?eii ceeaiai? aeoeaiino? (e?iaoeue o?aaiy – /a?aaiue).

A?aeiia?aeii aei noaie a?ic?eiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie aeaia oa?eoi??y
ciaoiaeeoueny a cii?, iaaacia/i?e a a?ic?eiiio a?aeiioaii?, a iaeano?
ia?aaaaeath/iai ?icaeoeo aiaeii? a?ic?? c ia?aaaaeath/ei aieeaii
aeiuiaiai noieo. Na?aae inai?ieo caiaeue iaea?eueo /anoi i?aeaeai? cieao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey ? a ia?oo /a?ao ??eey. ?ioaineai?noue
cieao ??oio?a c cyao ? /i?iiai ia?o /anoi aeinyaa? 300 o/aa a ??e.
Iaeiae oaeee ciea niinoa??aa?oueny eieaeueii. Na?aaeiuei??/iee
?ic?aooieiaee ciea ?iaeth/iai oa?o a?oioo c i?ieo caiaeue neeaaea? 12,5
o/aa.

Caaaeueia ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue, ye? caciaee caoaiiai
aieeao aiaeii? a?ic??, neeaaea? 5645 aa, a oiio /ene? 4820 aa i?ieo
caiaeue (10,4% a?ae ianoaaeaii? ieiu? oeeo oa?aeue). Uiaei aeeiai?ee
a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a , oi iniaeeai aenieeie oaiiaie c?inoa? ieiua
na?aaeiuei- oa neeueiicieoeo ??oio?a, a iaea?eueoee i?e??no ieiu
a?iaeiaaieo ??oio?a a?aei?/a?oueny a ?aeiiao a?aeiinii aeaaiiieo/ieo a
a?ic?eiiio a?aeiioaii? (?en.2). Oea ? iane?aeeii i?ioea?ic?eieo
caoiae?a, ui ai?iaaaeaeothoueny ia iaea?eueo a?ic?eii iaaacia/ieo
ae?eyieao ? iaaeinoaoiuei? oaaae aei caoiae?a iiia?aaeaeaiiy aeieeiaiiy
a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a (ui ia? i?noea oaeiae /a?ac iaaeinoaoi? o?iainoaaiiy
i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a).
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050000000102ffffff00050000000902ccffff00040000002c0100000700000016045101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?en. 3.1.2. Aeeiai?ea a?iaeiaaiino? i?ieo a?oio?a

Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo a?o?iai? a?ic?? a?oio?a o iaaeao ?aeiio
aecia/athoueny iayai?noth a?oio?a eaaeiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo. Aei
aeaoeyoe?eiiiaaacia/ieo oa?eue a?aeiinyoueny 53,3% ??ee? oa 23,7%
ianiaeu.

Ca ?ioeie ye?nieie iieacieeaie (eeneioi?noue, ia?acaieiaeai?noue,
caaiei/ai?noue oa ?i.) caiaeueiee oiiae Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ia? noaeo
oaiaeaioe?th aei iia??oaiiy.

I?enei?aiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aaeeeith i??ith iaoiiaeaii oei,
ui a inoaii? 8-9 ?ie?a aea?aeaaa ??cei nei?ioeea aneaioaaiiy ia ioi?iio,
iie?ioaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a.
N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa /a?ac e?eciaee o?iainiaee noai
oaeiae iani?iiiaei? cae?enithaaoe ?iaanooaaiiy caieaioi?iiieo caoiae?a
ca ?aooiie aeanieo eioo?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ianooiiee ieai caoiae?a c
ioi?iie caiaeue (oaae. 3.1.1.).

Aeciaaii? aaieia?/i? iaaaoeai? yaeua iioe?ai? a?eueo ye ia 60% oa?eoi???
?aeiio. Ieiua yeo caeiathoue aeoeai? cnoae neeaaea? aeecueei 3 aa, aiie
?icaeaathoueny ii ao?eo ? no?ieaoeo aeeiao. Uii?aaaea a inoaii? ?iee
cnoai? i?ioeane aeaui noaa?e?coaaeeny a ?acoeueoao? canoinoaaiiy
e?niiae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a. I?inaaeia? yaeua o eaniaeo ianeaao
a?aei?/athoueny ia o?aoei? ieiu ?aeiio.

Oaaeeoey 3.1.1.

Ia?niaeoeaiee ieai caoiae?a c ioi?iie caiaeue

1. Caoiaee c ioi?iie caiaeue 1. Aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee, oen. aa —
aaca?aeaaeueiee ia?ia?oie a?oioo6,7 — ai?iioaaiiy aie/anoiai
ai?iiith24,0- iin?a i?ioea?ic?eieie n?aaeeaie6,7 — caeoaeaiiy0,087 —
iie?ioaiiy i?e?iaeieo ei?iiaeo oa?aeue iin?aii aaaaoi??/ieo o?aa2,0 —
u?ethaaiiy a?oioo6,02. Iie?ioaiiy inooaieo caiaeue, aa — ?aeiino?oeoe?y
inoooaaeueieo nenoai157,2 — ?aiiio eieaeoi?ii-ae?aiaaeii? ia?aae?- —
aa?iiae?i?aoeai? caoiaee-3. E?niiae?i?aoeai? caoiaee, aa — nooe?eueia
cae?niaiiy aeaa?aaeiaaieo ? iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo caiaeue4117 — noai?aiiy
iieacaoenieo oa noiei?aaoethth/eo e?ninioa53 — nooe?eueia cae?niaiiy
y??a oa aaeie186 — noai?aiiy e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue acaeiaae ??/ie oa
iaaeiei aiaeiei168 — cae?niaiiy i?ne?a cnoa?a oa ?ioeo caiaeue494.
A?ae?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee — aaee-eaiaae, ei44 — aaee-oa?ane, aa23 —
aaee-aei?iae, ei22 — aeiieiaeaiiy ? caneiea y??a, aa12 — aiaeineeaei?
nii?oaee, oo.13 — caaaoe eai?oaeuei?, oo.49 — o?oa/ano? ia?a?caee, oo.10
— caeoaeaiiy aiaeinoie?a, ei20 — i?ioea?ic?ei? noaaee, oo22. Eai?oaeuei?
aeeaaeaiiy ? cao?aoe, cai?iaeoiaai? aeey aeeiiaiiy oeeo caoiae?a, oen.
a?i.11520,13. Ieoii?noue eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ? cao?ao, ?ie?a2,9

Oaeei /eiii, no/aniee noai cia/ii? /anoeie caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a
Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye e?eciaee oa
ia?aaee?eciaee, c oaiaeaioe??th aei i?ia?anoth/iai iia??oaiiy,
i?inoi?iai iaiaeii??aeiee, iaaacia/iee iiaeeea?noth i?iyao noiooiueiai
aieeao ia ethaeeio oa a?ioo ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy, aa?io?i?eao?a,
i?iieneiaeo aeeeae?a. Oea aeiaaa? aecia/aiiy uiaei i?eioeeiiaeo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy oa iaoai?ci?a ?o
?aae?caoe??.

Ia?o ca ana, ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iiaiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
caaacia/aii? ia aea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?noeaaiio ??aiyo, ui
iaiiaeeeai aac i?aai?caoe?? iii?oi?eiaiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue ca noaiii
a?oio?a.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaeiei ?c i??i?eoaoieo caaaeaiue ? cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ieiu
i?ae oa?aeaeyie, ui ni?eythoue aeieia?/i?e noaa?e?caoe?? aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a
(e?ne, eoee, ianiaeua ? o.ae.).

E??i oiai, iio?aaothoue ii?aoethaaiiy oa aeeeth/iiai aeio?eiaiiy
aeieia?/ii ia??oioiaai? ii?iaoeae an?o aeae?a aio?iiiaaiieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia caiaeuei? ?ano?ne.

3.2. Noai caiaeue ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy

3.2.1. Noai caiaeue a iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a

Aei caiaeue ianaeaieo ioieo?a iaeaaeaoue on? caie?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a
iaaeao, anoaiiaeaieo aeey eiaeiiai ianaeaiiai ioieoo a ii?yaeeo
caieaono?ith ? ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeaii? i?nueei?, naeeuii? aai
n?euenueei? ?aaee.

Ca inoaii? ?iee ieiua ianaeaieo ioieo?a caaaeii ii ?aeiio ca?eueoeeanue
ia 734,98 aa. Aei ooieoe?e a?oioo iaeaaeeoue nai?oa?ia (caeaoi?noue
ia?a?iaeyoe a?aeoiaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?aai?ci?a, ?aooie ?ineei,
oaa?ei, a oaeiae aio?iiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy, ui iio?aiey? ui??/ii a a?oio
oa ia eiai iiaa?oith). Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a i?ioean? i?iaeoeoe?? –
aeano?oeoe?? i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie aa?ooue o/anoue ia o?eueee
i?e?ii?aai?cie, a e aaco?aaaoi? oaa?eie, ui ?acii ooai?ththoue neeaaeiee
eiiieaen i/euaiiy a?oio?a. I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue i?ia?ae?caoe?? a?oioo
caeaaeeoue ye a?ae ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?, oae ? a?ae aeaeiai?
??ciiiai?oiino? i?aai?ci?a, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o oeueiio i?ioean?. Aea
a iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a aiane?aeie anoaeueooaaiiy oa nii?oaeaeaiiy
aeeoeiai? oa a?iiaaenueei? caaoaeiae ao?a/a?oueny caeaoi?noue a?oioo aei
naiii/euaiiy, i?eai?/o?oueny aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue a?oioiaeo
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ? aiane?aeie oeueiai o a?oio? iaeiie/othoueny
caa?oaeithth/? ?a/iaeie oa ?o iaoaaie?oe.

O iaaeao ianaeaieo ioieo?a caie? aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae aeey ia’?eo?a
nii?oo oa eoeueoo?iiai a?aeii/eieo, oiaoi noaae?ii, caeai? ianaaeaeaiiy
acaeiaae oeyo?a, ia?ee a?aeii/eieo oiui. ?aeiiiee oeaio? ia? aeineoue
u?euei? caeai? ianaaeaeaiiy acaeiaae aoeeoeue, ui aeiiiiaaa? ai?ioeny c
ooiiaei caa?oaeiaiiyi, aeoeiiieie aacaie aaoiiia?e?a oiui (?en.
3.2.1.1.).

Ia n?euenueeeo i?enaaeeaieo ae?eyieao, aea caeiathoueny oa?eiieoeoaii, c
/anii iaeiie/othoueny i?iaeoeoe ?iceeaaeo na/iaeie ? a?aeaoaa?oueny
caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioo ai?aeii oa iiae?aieie niieoeaie, ?iiae? aei ao?aoe
a?aeoai?thaaeueii? caeaoiino? a?oioo.

Ua iaeia aaeeea i?iaeaia n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a – ni?oo?caaeeua.
Ine?eueee oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie aeaacaiiy ni?ooy c n?e iaia?, oi aiie
ooai?ththoueny noeo?eii, o iai?ecia/aieo aeey oeueiai i?noeyo.
Aiane?aeie ci?ooaaiiy ??cieo oei?a ni?ooy (iiaooia? a?aeoiaee, iaoae?/i?
ae?iae, neei, ieanoianna, ea?ai?ea, oiui) ooai?ththoueny
iae??ciiiai?oi?o? niieoee, ye? i?ini/othoueny e??cue a?oio o a?oioia?
aiaee oa ?iiae? ni?e/eiythoue io?o?iiy eieiaeyc?a. Oi/a ieiua noeo?eieo
ni?oo?caaeeu iaioa 1% a?ae ieiu? ?aeiio, aiie yaeythoueny aaeeeith
i?iaeaiith, yea iio?aao? iaaaeieo caoiae?a ii ?? ae??oaiith (?en.
3.2.1.2.).

3.2.2. Noai caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo

No/aniee i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee oiiae Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio
neeaaea?oueny c e?eueeio Eaiaeoaooieo caiia?aeiee?a, caeaciee?a,
aeaiae?iia?eo oa ?ioeo aioai?/ieo iai’yoie i?e?iaee, ?c yeeo
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia cia/aiiy ia? o?eueee iaeei, a ?aooa – i?noeaaa
cia/aiiy.

Aei caeaciee?a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy a?aeianaii o?i/eua
«Oiaaa», yea ciaoiaeeoueny iaaeao Oano?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa ?
a?aeiineoueny aei e?niaiai oeio caeaciee?a.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?aaeeio ioi?iie i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a oa
ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeieo caiia?aeiee?a, caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaiiio aieeao
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia i?eeaaeeo aei ieo oa?eoi??yo
onoaiiaeththoueny ioi?iii? ciie.

A ioi?iieo ciiao ia aeiionea?oueny aoae?aieoeoai i?iieneiaeo oa ?ioeo
ia’?eo?a, ?icaeoie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia oa?eoi??? oa ia’?eoe i?e?iaeii — caiia?aeiiai
oiiaeo.

Ia aeaeue, i?noeaa? ?aaee aeae?eythoue iaaeinoaoiuei o?iainoaaiiy aeey
caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ?aaeeio ioi?iie i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a oa
ia’?eo?a i?e?iaeieo caiia?aeiee?a. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai
iia??oaiiy noaio iai’yoie i?e?iaee, iioeiaeaeaiiy aea?aa, cani?/aiiy
oa?eoi??? aiane?aeie aeeeiai oo?ecio, i?ioecaeiiiiai ae?oaoaaiiy aea?aa
a iaaeao caiaeue i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo oiui.

3.2.3. Noai caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy

Aei caiaeue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy iaeaaeaoue caie?, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo ianaeaiiy, oo?ecio oa
i?iaaaeaiiy nii?oeaieo caoiae?a.

Uiaei caiaeueieo ae?eyiie caeaieo cii ? caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue i?no ?
?ioeo ianaeaieo ioieo?a, ?o /enoioith oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth
ii?eothoueny i?noeaa? ?aaee aai aaciina?aaei? aeanieee. Ao?y, yea aoea
ae?oeo 2005 ?ieo iiaaeeea oa iioeiaeeea aaaaoi aea?aa o ia?eao, ui
i?ecaaei aei i?aeaeuaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue (ia aeaacaiiy aea?aa oa ia
caeoi?aeth ? iinaaeeo iiaeo naaeaeaioe?a).

Iaa/aeueii-oo?enonuee? noaaeee, ia?eiaaieo o?ane ciaoiaeyoueny o
aeineoue caaeia?eueiiio noai?, aea ?o aeei?enoaiiy iaiaaeaia aiane?aeie
caiaiaaeo i?aai?caoe?e, ui caaacia/othoue eoeueoo?iee oo?eci.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, caeiyo? oa?eoi??yie aoaeeie?a a?aeii/eieo,
iain?iiao?a, ia’?eo?a o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e ? nii?oo, oo?enoe/ieo aac,
noaoe?iia?ieo ? iaiaoiaeo oo?enoe/ii-icaei?ia/eo oaai??a, aoaeeie?a
?eaaeie ? ieneeaoe?a, aeeoy/eo oo?enoe/ieo noaioe?e, aeeoy/eo oa
nii?oeaieo oaai??a oo?eiothoueny ca ?aooiie aeaniee?a oa i?aoeththoue
ia?aaaaeii a oaieee ia??iae ?ieo.

3.2.4. Aiae?c noaio caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy

Oano?aueia aaaaoa ia iai’yoee, iia’ycai? c iiae?yie ae?oai? Na?oiai?
a?eie. Ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio ca?a?no?iaaii ? ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ioi?iiith
aea?aeaae aeae?eueea iai’yoie, aeia’ycaieo c iiae?yie Aaeeei?
A?o/eciyii? A?eie. Iaeaea an? iai’yoee ciaoiaeyoueny ia oa?eoi???
eeaaeiaeu, ye? a?aeianai? aei caiaeue ?noi?eei — eoeueoo?iiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio ciaoiaeyoueny oae? aecia/i? iai’yoee
a?o?oaeoo?e ye Iie?ianueea oea?eaa (1740?.) oa einoueie (1903-1911 ??).
Iauiaeaaii caaa?oeeanue ?anoaa?aoe?y einoueieo, yea /a?ac a?ae eioo?a
o?eaaea aeecueei aeanyoe ?ie?a.

Eeaaeiaeua, ui iaeaaeaoue aei caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy,
ia oo?eiothoueny iaeaaeiei /eiii. Ia caiaaeaaieo ae?eyieao eeaaeiaeu
aeieeathoue noeo?ei? ni?oieee, ui aaaea aei caa?oaeiaiiy a?oioo
i?iaeoeoaie ?iceeaaeo.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aaeeio ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo caiia?aeiee?a,
iaii??aeueieo ia?e?a, iioiaaiue, a?oaieia?/ieo ? a?o?oaeoo?ieo iai’yoie
anoaiiaeththoueny ioi?iii? ciie c caai?iiith ia caieyo oeeo cii
ae?yeueiino?, yea oe?aeeeai aieeaa? aai iiaea aieeiooe ia caaacia/aiiy
aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeeio caiaeue ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

?c an?o ia’?eo?a ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy aeecueei 20%
ia?aaoaathoue a iacaaeia?eueiiio noai? ? iio?aaothoue ?anoaa?aoe??.

3.2.5. Aiae?c noaio caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo

Aei caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo iaeaaeaoue caie?, ae?eo? e?niaith
?ineeii?noth, a oaeiae iaae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, iae?nia? caie?,
ye? iaaeai? oa aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iio?aa e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aei caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo a?aeianaii
17551 aa ( 19,5% a?ae ieiu? ?aeiio) (?en. 3.2.5.1.).

Iaea?eueo e?oiieie ei?enooaa/aie caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo ?
e?niainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue 91,2% an?o
caiaeue, a?aeianaieo aei e?niaiai oiiaeo.

E?nia? caie? e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa neeaaeathoue 97,1% a?ae ?o
caaaeueii? ieiu?, 2,9% i?eiaaea? ia ia ae?eo? e?niaith ?ineeii?noth, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo caiaeue a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? aea?aee?naini?a.

A ca’yceo c oei, ui oa?eoi??y aea?aee?naini?a a cia/i?e i??? caa?oaeiaia
?aae?iioee?aeaie, iia?/ia aeei?enoaiiy iaiaaeaia, ? a oeae /an ia?
i?noea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy, aeianaiiy ooaeiae,
n?iiein?iiy ? ieneeanoai. Ia oa?eoi??? ?aeiio i?aoeththoue 3
ieneeanueeeo ainiiaea?noaa, ye? caaacia/othoue iio?aae ianaeaiiy o
aeoeaiiio a?aeii/eieo.

E??i caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a aea?aaei?, e?ne
iathoue aaeeea i?e?iaeiioi?iiia cia/aiiy. Aiie aeeiiothoue
aiaeiioi?iii?, ??oioicaoeni?, ee?iaoi?aaoethth/?, naio??ii-a?a??i?/i? oa
?io? ei?eni? ooieoe??.

E?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy aeeiiothoue naith aiaeiioi?iiio ooieoe?th oeyoii
iiaeeiaiiy ? ciaoeiaeaeaiiy aeayeeo ?a/iaei, ui caiia?aa? ?o aeieaaiith
a iiaa?oiaa? aai a?oioia? aiaee. Oaeiae e?ne ni?eythoue ciaioaiith
aieeao aiaeii? a?ic?? caaaeyee ?icaeaaiith no?oiai?a, ui iio?aieythoue
ia eenoy, ce??ieaiith /anoie a?oioo ei?aiaaith nenoaiith, neia?ioe/iei
ca’yceai c a?oioiaith i?e?ioei?ith.

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?en. 3.2.5.1. No?oeoo?a caiaeue e?niaiai oiiaeo, aa

Aaeee? ianeae e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue ni?eythoue ?aaoeyoe?? ee?iaoo oeyoii
i?aeo?eiaiiy iino?eii? aieiaino? ca ?aooiie ee?oeiiiai aeeoaiiy oa
aeia?iaoaaiiy. Oaeiae o na?oeee ia??iae /ano e?nia? ianeae caaaa/othoue
aoiinoa?o eeniai, iaiao?aeiei an?i aa?iaiei i?aai?ciai.

E?nia? ianeae caaaeyee aaee/aci?e ieiu? iiaa?oi? eenoy cao?eiothoue
aeae?eueea oii ieeo ca ??e, a oaeiae ni?aothoue ?io? caa?oaeithaa/?, ye?
ia?aoiaeyoue aiane?aeie iaoaaie?cio o ia?ooii? oi?ie, iaoe?aeeea? aeey
aeiae?eey.

E??i oiai e?n ? na?aaeiaeuai aeeooy a?eueoino? aeeeeo oaa?ei oa ioao?a,
ui ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith a?i??ciiiai?ooy.

Ia oa?eoi??? Oano?anueeiai aea?aee?nainio ? iai’yoee
i?e?iaee, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie niniiaeie oa
niniiai-aeoaiaeie ianaaeaeaiiyie.

Aieiaieie caaaeaiiyie, ye? noaaeyoue ia?aae niaith i?aoe?aieee
e?niainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ? ni?eyiiy i?aeaeuaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?n?a, iie?auaiiy nai?oa?iiai noaio aea?aainoai?a,
iineeaiiy caoenieo ? ee?iaoi?aaoethth/eo ooieoe?e e?no. Ui??/ii
i?iaiaeeoueny e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy.

A ?ae?aaoe?eieo oe?eyo aeei?enoiaothoueny caoeni? nioae e?n?a acaeiaae
aaoiiia?eueieo oeyo?a. Ooo i?aai?ciaai? ?ae?aaoe?ei? ioieoe ? ciie
ei?ioei/aniiai a?aeii/eieo, anoaiiaeai? e?nia? iaae?, iaeaaeiai? aiaieua
? aaoinoiyiee.

Iniiai? i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo caiaeue oea:

— iacaeiii? ae?oaee aea?aa (aeiaeaoie 2),

— caa?oaeiaiiy e?niaeo ieiu ?aae?iioee?aeaie,

— caa?oaeiaiiy e?n?a ?ae?aaoe?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy iiaooiaei ni?ooyi,

— a?aeiiue??noai.

3.2.6. Aiae?c noaio caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo

A iaaeao Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio aei caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo aeeth/aii 1128
aa caiaeue, c yeeo 52,5% ia?aaoaathoue a caian?.

Iniiaieie i?iaeaiaie aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue aiaeiiai oiiaeo ?:

— caa?oaeiaiiy no?/ieie aiaeaie (iniaeeai a?aoiaoth/e, ui i/eni?
nii?oaee ia a?eueoino? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ?aeiio a?aei?aoethaaee
na?e aii?oecaoe?eiee oa?i?i aai acaaae? a?aenooi?),

— caa?oaeiaiiy aiae eiioiaeueieie noieaie (ine?eueee nenoaia
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ? eaiae?caoe?? iio?aao? eai?oaeueiiai ?aiiioo aai iiaii?
cai?ie, a inoaii? ?iee ii/ano?oaee aeiaaeee i?i?eao ia?aae?),

— caa?oaeiaiiy aiae ianoeoeeaeaie oa ?ioeie aa?io?i?eaoaie (aiane?aeie
ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai aianaiiy aeia?ea oa aeei?enoaiiy ianoeoeeae?a oiui),

— caioeaiiy aeaea?ae oa ?onae ??/?e,

— aeaa?aaeaoe?y caiaeue i?ae /an inooaiiy,

— caaiei/aiiy,

— i?aeoiieaiiy,

— canieaiiy,

— ?oeioaaiiy aa?aa?a ??/eiaeo ?onae oa iae?i?aoe?eieo eaiae?a
(aiane?aeie i?aeieaaiiy aa?aa?a).

Ui??/ii Oano?anueeei oi?aae?iiyi iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai ? aiaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa cae?enith?oueny ?yae caoiae?a c ioi?iie aiaeieo ia’?eo?a:
i?iaiaeeoueny nai?oa?ia ?ic/enoea ??e, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeaea?ae, ?aiiio
a?ae?iiino?a, anoaiiaeaiiy ioi?iiieo ciae?a oa ?io? caoiaee.

C iaoith caiia?aaiiy oe?aeeeaeo ae?e aiae (aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny:
iane?aeee iiaai?, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei caoiieaiiy ? i?aeoiieaiiy caiaeue
oa ianaeaieo ioieo?a; ?oeioaaiiy aa?aa?a, caoenieo aeaia oa ?ioeo
nii?oae; caaiei/aiiy, i?aeoiieaiiy ? canieaiiy caiaeue, ni?e/eiai?
i?aeaeuaiiyi ??aiy ??oioiaeo aiae oa ?i.) a ?aeii? ui??/ii
i?iaiaeeoueny caeoaeaiiy oa noai?aiiy e?niianaaeaeaiue ia
i?eaa?aaeieo caoenieo nioaao, noeeao, aaeeao oa y?ao;
nii?oaeaeaiiy ae?aiaaeo; oe??ieaiiy aa?aa?a oiui.

3.2.7. Noai caiaeue i?iieneiaino?, o?ainii?oo, ca’yceo, aia?aaoeee,
iai?iie oa ?ioiai i?ecia/aiiy

A ei?enooaaii? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ciaoiaeeoueny 257 aa, ui
neeaaea? 8,0% an?o caiaeue oe??? eaoaai???.

I?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa cina?aaeaeai? ia oa?eoi??? i. Oano?a,
Eiaeainueei? oa Ai??anueei? naeeuieo ?aae, a oaeiae ia oa?eoi???
O?ee?nueei? n?euenueei? ?aaee. ?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? a ?aeii?
aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? i?noeaai? ne?iaeie.

I?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa noai?ththoue i?iaeaio iaaaoeaiiai aieeao a?ae
caa?oaeiaiiy i?iieneiaeie a?aeoiaeaie (iai?eeeaae, ethi?ianoeaioieie
eaiiaie). Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui i/eni? nii?oaee i?aei?e?inoa ? ii?aeueii
canoa??eeie, ciioaieie aai acaaae? ia i?aoeththoue, aeeeaee, neeaee oa
a?aeoiaee iio?aieythoue o aeiae?eey ? iiaeooue ni?e/eiyoe oe?aeeeaee
aieea ia ethaeae, a?ioo aai aeinenoaio a oe?eiio. Iai?eeeaae, neeaee
iie?a?ao?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa c aenieei ai?noii naeioeth i?eai?/othoue
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue a?oioiai? i?e?ioei?e, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy
noaio a?oioo, ?ineei, oaa?ei, ethaeae. Na?aae aeeeae?a i?aei?e?inoa
i.Oanoiaa cono??/athoueny aaaee? iaoaee (ia?aaiaoeue, oeeie), ye?
iaeiie/othoueny a i?aai?ci?, i?ia?aeuei? ianea oa ?io? oiene/i?
?a/iaeie, ye? ia i?aeeyaathoue ciaoeiaeaeaiith i?e?iaeiei oeyoii ?
caa??aathoueny, ooai?thth/e ua a?eueo oiene/i? i?iaeoeoe ?iceeaaeo,
aaaaoi ?ie?a. Noia?iee neeaae oiene/ieo a?aeoiae?a i?aei?e?inoa ?aeiio
ca ??e iaaaaeaiee o oaae. 3.2.7.1.

Caie? aaoiiia?eueiiai o?oaii?ia?aeiiai oa ?ioiai o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae
caie? ca’yceo caeiathoue 1235 aa aai 38,2% oa?eoi??? aeaii? eaoaai???
caiaeue (?en. 3.2.7.1. oa ?en. 3.2.7.2.)

Caie? o?ainii?oo iioa?iathoue a?ae ianooiieo i?iaeai:

— caa?oaeiaiiy o?i?/ieie ?a/iaeiaie (aaiceie, aeecaeueia iaeeai,
niey?ea, ianoeea oa ?io? niaoe?aeuei? ??aeeie),

— iaaoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aiane?aeie iacaaeia?eueiiai noaio
aei?iaeiiai iie?eooy,

— caa?oaeiaiiy i?eaei?iaeieo nioa iiaooiaei ni?ooyi,

— i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue ooio ii?yae ?c cae?cie/iei aiecaeii, cae?cie/iei
aeaii);

— ia?aou?eueiaiiy a?oioo acaeiaae cae?cie/ieo oeyo?a oiui.

Ine?eueee i.Oano?a ? aaaeeeaei cae?cie/iei aoceii, aeoaea nooo?aei ?
caa?oaeiaiiy a?ae cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. *a?ac cae?cie/iee aiecae
uiaeiae i?ioiaeeoue aeecueei 100 ianaaee?nueeeo aeaeo?iii?cae?a oa
aeecueei 25 aaioaaeieo. sseui eiaeai aaioaaeiee ninoaa ia?aaiceoue
aeecueei 5000 oii aaioaaeo, oi a?aoiaoth/e ao?aoe i?e o?ainii?ooaaii?
0,01% ia 100 ei oeyoo io?eio?ii caa?oaeiaiiy aeecueei 200 i iaaeiei
cae?cieoe? – uiaeaiii aeecueei 0,35 oiie.

E?i?? aeaeo?iia?aaea/ oa aenieiaieueoi? e?i?? aeey aeaeo?iii?cae?a
noai?ththoue aeineoue iiooaeia aeaeo?iiaai?oia iiea, yea aieeaa? ye ia
ethaeae, oae ? ia aeinenoaie aeiaeiea ieo. Aieea aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey
ia aeea? ?noioe caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?oae iiey, /ano ae??, /anoioe aai
aeiaaeeie oaee?, ni?eeiyoeeaino? i?aai?cio.

Caiaeuei? ae?eyiee, ui aea?eueiythoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie ii aeaeiaoaaiith
ei?enieo eiiaeei, ?ioeie i?iieneiaeie aai
o?ainii?oieie

Oaaeeoey 3.2.7.1.

Noia?iee neeaae oiene/ieo a?aeoiae?a i?aei?e?inoa Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio
ca 2004 ??e

Aeae oiene/ieo a?aeoiae?aE?euee?noue, oiiEean iaaaciaeeEthi?ianoeaioi?
eaiie2881,00 oooe1A?aei?aoeueiaai?
aeoioeyoi?e16,252Iaooia?aeoiaee4,742O?eoei?aoeeai0,202A?aei?aoeueiaai?
ianoeea6,913Iaoa??aee iaoe?i/i?7,903Cieaea
a?aei?aoeueiaaia22,083A?aeoiaee aea?aaeie173,654A?ooo /i?ieo
iaoae?a9227,984A?aeoiaee aa?y/iai ooaiioaaiiy1,304A?aeoiaee
eiioiaeuei?376,884A?aei?aoeueiaai? oeie13,264I?iiieano36,004Ei?aeia?
iaieiiee2,864Aoae?aaeuei? a?aeoiaee10,004A?e neea oaoi?/iiai1,004Oiaee
noa?ii?eaeaoi?2779,004A?aeoiaee aaeueaai?/iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa0,434O?enaaeiee ?ic/ei
a?aei?aoeueiaaiee10,254Iaeoeaoo?a3431,144Ieanoeie ae?oea?nuee?
a?aei?aoeueiaai?26,774Oioioaoi?/ia ie?aea
a?aei?aoeueiaaia0,804Iie?aoeeaiiaa ie?aea7,554

ia iaaeaieo ?i o ei?enooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo /e e?niaeo
oa?aeaeyo, iiaeii? aooe i?eaaaeai? ieie o noai, i?eaeaoiee aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio, e?niaiio, ?eaiiio ainiiaea?noa?, aeeoeiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa? aai naae?aieoeoa?, a caiaeuei? ae?eyiee ia iaaeaieo o
ei?enooaaiiy ?ioeo caieyo – aeey aeei?enoaiiy ca i?ecia/aiiyi.

4. IOI?IIA I?AOe?

Ioi?iia i?aoe? — oea nenoaia i?aaiaeo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo,
i?aai?caoe?eii – oaoi?/ieo, nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo ?
e?eoaaeueii-i?io?eaeoe/ieo caoiae?a oa cania?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y ? i?aoeacaeaoiino? ethaeeie a i?ioean? i?aoe?.

Ioi?iia i?aoe? – i?iaeaia neeaaeia ? aaaaoia?aiia. Aeey ?? ?ica’ycaiiy
iio??aia aeoeaia o/anoue oao?aoe?a ??cieo i?io?e?a: i?iaeooaaeueiee?a,
aeieia?a, e?ea??a oa ?i. ? iniaeeaa ?ieue o oe?e aaaeeea?e ni?aa?
iaeaaeeoue ?iaeaia?ai.

4.1. Ia?ae?e iaaacia/ieo ? oe?aeeeaeo ae?iaie/eo oaeoi??a.

Ioi?iia i?aoe? ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy aacia/ieo ? caei?iaeo
(iaoe?aeeeaeo) oiia i?aoe? aeey eiaeiiai ?c i?aoethth/eo.

Aacia/i? ? caei?ia? oiiae i?aoe? — oea oae? oiiae, i?e yeeo aeeeth/aiee
aieea ia i?aoethth/eo iaaacia/iiai ? oe?aeeeaiai ae?iaie/iai oaeoi??a.
A?aeiia?aeii aei AINO 12.0.003-74 iaaacia/i? ? oe?aeeea? oaeoi?e ca
nai?th ae??th i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia ianooii? a?oie: o?ce/i?, o?i?/i?,
a?ieia?/i?, ineoio?ce/i?.

I?e aeeiiaii? aiae?co oa ia?ia?oeo aeaieo ia i?aoethth/iai iathoue aieea
ianooii? oe?aeeea? oaeoi?e:

· o?ce/i? oa ia?aiai-ineoieia?/i? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy: ci?iaee aeeneiioi?o
i?ae aieeaii ?iaioe ia eiii’thoa??;

·

iiiioiii?noue ?iaioe, a?iiaeeiai?y;

· i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue aeaeo?iiaai?oieo aei?ii?ithaaiue;

· i?aeaeuaia cia/aiiy iai?oae a aeaeo?e/iiio eaioethc?, caieeaiiy
yeiai iiaea a?aeaooeny /a?ac o?ei ethaeeie;

I?e/eie aeieeiaiiy:

Ci?iaee aeeneiioi?o. I?e ?iaio? c eiii’thoa?ii, iniaeeai c aeeniea?i,
iniiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?eiaaea? ia an? aeaiaioe ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a.
Aeaea?aeii iaaaciaee ? 17-oe ? 19-oe aetheiia? aeeniea?, ine?eueee
cai?noue oiai, uia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia aaeeeiio ae?ai? o?eooe a?eueoiai
?ici??o, ei?enooaa/ i?aaia iaeneiaeueii caiiaieoe ae?ai ?ioi?iaoe??th,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio aeoaea iae? neiaiee, a oaeiae aaeeeo
e?euee?noue eiio?anoieo eieuei??a, ui noai?th? i?e ?iaio? no/anieo
aeeniea?a aeiaeaoeia? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ci?iaee aiae?caoi?.

Iiiioiii?noue ?iaioe. *anoi ia?ia?oie ??cieo a?oi aeaieo ia eiii’thoa??
i?iaiaeeoueny ca iaeiaeiaith noaiith, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aoaeoo
iiaoi?thaaiino? ?, ye iane?aeie, aoaeoo iiiioiiiino?, ui cieaeo? oaaao ?
aeeeeea? ineoieia?/iee aeeneiioi?o.

A?iiaeeiai?y. sseui ia?ia?oie aeaieo caeia? aaaaoi /ano, ei?enooaa/
i?aaia c?iaeoe yeiiiaa a?eueoa ca iaeei ?ac, oiaoi aeieea? aeeneiioi?o
a?ae iai?oaeaiiy iaaieo a?oi i’yc?a, a oie aea /an aeieea? cano?e e?ia?
o i’ycao, ye? ia i?aoeththoue i?ae /an ?iaioe.

Aeaeo?iiaai?oia aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aeey ia?iaee oa aiae?co iaoeiaeo aeaieo
ianueiaiaei? aeei?enoiao?oueny eiii’thoa?. Eiii’thoa? ? aeaea?aeii
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oi/a ca?ac no/ani? eiii’thoa?e
aeioneathoue ?c caoenieie ae?aiaie aai niaoe?aeueii iaianaiei ia
aeenieae caoeniei oa?ii, oea ia ae??oo? i?iaeaie aieeao
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ei?enooaa/a eiii’thoa?a. Ua
aeaea?aeii aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea eaea
?c caaei?o no?iie eiii’thoa?a i?e eiai ?iaio?, yea aieeaa? ia ethaeeio,
yeui oey /anoeia eiii’thoa?a ia caoeuaia. Oaeiae aeiaeaoeiaeie
aeaea?aeaie neoaeaoue ia?eoa??ei? i?eno?i? eiii’thoa?a — i?eioa?e,
neaia?e oa ?i. E??i oiai, iaaaciaea i?aeaeuo?oueny, yeui a i?ei?uaii?
ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaeei, a aeae?eueea eiii’thoa??a.

O?aaeaiiy no?oiii. Iani?aaia aeaeo?ii?iaiaeea aai iani?aai?noue
aeaeo?e/ieo i?eeaae?a, oaeiae iaaeio?eiaiiy i?aaee oaoi?ee aaciaee
iiaeooue noaoe i?e/eiaie o?aaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii. I?aeaeuaia
aieia?noue iia?o?y ?iai/i? ciie, iacacaieai? aeaeo?ionoaiiaee oaeiae
noai?ththoue iaaaciaeo aeieeiaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a.

4.2. Oaoi?/i? caoiaee, ye? aeeeth/athoue /e iaiaaeothoue ae?th ia
oaoi?/iee ia?niiae iaaacia/ieo oa oe?aeeeaeo ae?iaie/eo oaeoi??a.

Ci?iaee aeeneiioi?o. ?iaioa ca eiii’thoa?ii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui
iino?eiee iai?oaeaiee iiaeyae ia ae?ai aeenieay ciaioo? /anoioo
ii?aaiiy. I?e oeueiio iia??oo?oueny caieiaeaiiy iiaa?oi? i/iiai yaeoea
neueiciaith ??aeeiith, yea caoeua? ?ia?aeo a?ae aeneoaiiy, ieethee oa
?i. caa?oaeiaiue. Iane?aeeii iai?oaeaii?

ci?iai? ?iaioe ca eiii’thoa?ii iiaea aooe ia eeoa ii?ooaiiy ooieoe??
ci?o, aea e aeieeiaiiy aieiaiiai aieth, iineeaiiy ia?aiai– ineo?/iiai
iai?oaeaiiy, cieaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?. Oaeei /eiii, ii?ooaiiy ci?iaeo
ooieoe?e o ei?enooaa/?a eiii’thoa??a iia’ycai?, a iniiaiiio, c o?ueiia
a?oiaie oaeoi??a:

— ia?aiao?aie ina?oeaiiy ?iai/iai i?noey;

— oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeenieay;

— niaoeeo?eith ?iaioe ca eiii’thoa?ii.

Oiio a i?io?eaeoeoe? caoai?thaaiiy i/ae o ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii
caa?iooe oaaao ia caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ina?oeaiiy ia ?iai/iio
i?noe?, aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeeniea?a c iie?auaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
aeio?eiaiiy ?aaeei?a i?aoe? oa a?aeii/eieo, a oaeiae o?aaa uia oeaio?
ae?aia aeenieay aoa ieae/ee a?ae eooa ci?o ethaeeie.

Aeaeo?iiaai?oia aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Aeey caoenoo ia?niiaeo iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ianooii? niiniae ? caniae: canoinoaaiiy cania?a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai caoenoo; aeaeaeaiiy ?iai/iai i?noey a?ae aeaea?aea
AIA; ae?aioaaiiy ?iai/iai i?noey.

C iaoith i?io?eaeoeee iani?eyoeeaiai aieeao aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae eiii’thoa?a ia ei?enooaa/a iaiao?aeii:

· anoaiiaeoe ia ?iai/iio i?noe? a?aeai oa?i?iae, ui a?aeiia?aea?
no/aniei aeiiaai noiniaii caoenoo a?ae aei?ii?ithaaiiy ;

· anoaiiaeoe ia a?aeai oa?i?iae? noa?i? eiino?oeoe?? (aeione aei 1995
?ieo) cacaieaiee i?eae?aiiee o?eueo? (iacacaieaiee caoeniee ae?ai
a?ae?a?a? eeoa aeaei?aoeaio ?ieue uiaei caoenoo a?ae aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy);

· aeieeaoe a?aeaioa?i?iae, yeui ia iueiio ia i?aoeththoue, iaeiae
ciaoiaeyoueny iaiiaeae?e a?ae iueiai;

· noaaeoe eiii’thoa? a eooeo, aai noaaeoe ye?nue iaiaaeoth/? no?iee ia
caaeith /anoeio eiii’thoa?a, uia aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea eaea c a?aeai
oa?i?iaeo ia iio?aieyei ia ethaeae.

?ic?aooiie aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?iaiiy.

Ca AINO 12.1.006-84 „Yeaeo?iiaaiua iiey ?aaeei/anoio” aeaeo?iiaai?oi?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iio??aii ioe?ithaaoe a ae?aiacii? /anoio 300 IAoe – 300
AAoe ca aonoeiith iioieo aia?a?? oa ca aia?aaoe/iith iaa?oceith, yea iei
ni?e/eiy?oueny. Aiaa?aoe/ia iaa?ocea – oea noia?iee iioie aia?a??, ui
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeeieoeth ii?ii?ithaaii? ieiu? ca iaeeieoeth /ano.

?ic?aoo?ii aacia/io a?aenoaiue ei?enooaa/a a?ae i?aoethth/iai
a?aeaioa?i?iaea ca oi?ioeith:

AIA = ?aeae / 4 ? R2,
(4.1)

aea AIA – aonoeia iioieo aia?a??,

?aeae – iiooaei?noue aeaea?aea,

R – a?aenoaiue a?ae aeaea?aea.

Ine?eueee AIA aeey eiii’thoa?a aei??aith? 5 Ao/i2,

O?aaeaiiy no?oiii. A?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia AINO 12.1.019-79
«Yeaeo?iaaciianiinoue. Iauea o?aaiaaiey», AINO 12.1.038-79 «I?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiua o?iaie iai?yaeaiey i?eeiniiaaiey e oieia» caoeno a?ae
iaaacia/iiai aieeao aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio i?e aenieoaoaoe?? ? ?aiiio?
onoaoeoaaiiy, eiii’thoa??a caaacia/o?oueny:

· canoinoaaiiy caoeniiai cacaieaiiy;

· ae??aithaaiiyi iioaioe?ae?a;

· ?cieyoe??th no?oiiaaaeo/eo /anoei (?iai/i?, iiaea?eii?,
aeiaeaoeiai?);

· ia??oiooaaiiyi ? iioeiaeueiei aeai?ii aeaiaioii? aace, ui
aeeeth/athoue o?aaeaiiy ? iaa?oue ia?aaeoiiaa aei o?aaeaiiy no?oiii, a
oaeiae oiiae aeieeiaiiy iiaeaae?;

· iai?iaeaeaiiyi no?oiiaaaeo/eo /anoei, ui caiia?aathoue aeiaaeeiaee
aeioee aei ieo;

· canoinoaaiiyi aeaeo?e/iiai, aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai ? iaoai?/iiai
aeieoaaiue ? ciae?a aaciaee;

· ia?e??oaaiiyi, ?icoea?/aiiyi iiioaaeieo aeaiaio?a ? i?iaiae?a, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo aeeeth/a?oueny ia?aieoooaaiiy i?e iano?ithaaii? ?
?aaoethaaii?, a oaeiae aeiaaeeiaa iiaea/a ?ioeo

iai?oa;

· aeio?eiaiiyi oiia aaciaee i?e onoaiiaoe? ? cai?i? aenieiaieueoieo
aeaeo?iaaeooiieo i?eeaae?a;

· iaae?eiei eiioaeoiei c’?aeiaiiyi c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiaaeo ee?iaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a ( oaiia?aoo?e, aieiaino?).

4.3. Caaacia/aiiy iiaeaaeii? oa aeaooiai? aaciaee

Iiaeaaea — iaeiio?ieueiaaia ai??iiy, ui ?icaeaa?oueny a /an? ? i?inoi??.
I?e/eie iiaeaae ? caai?yiue a aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ? aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiiyo
iiaeia caanoe aei ianooiieo a?oi:

— iani?aai?noue, ii?ooaiiy ?aaeeio ?iaioe nenoai iiaeaiiy, aaioeeyoe?? ?
eiiaeeoe?iioaaiiy iia?o?y;

— ia?aaaioaaeaiiy aeaeo?e/ieo onoaiiaie ? ia?aae;

— iani?aai?noue ae?iaie/iai onoaoeoaaiiy ? ii?ooaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a;

— a?aenooi?noue /e iani?aai?noue aeeneaaeia?aeaiae?a ia aoaeeieao ?
nii?oaeaeaiiyo;

— iaiaa?aaeia iiaiaeaeaiiy c aiaiai (iae?iiy a iaanoaiiaeaieo i?noeyo,
iaaeaaea i?iaaaeaiiy aiaiaaeo ?ia?o, caeeoaiiy aac aeiaeyaeo
aeaeo?iiaa??aaeueieo i?eeaae?a ? o.i.); ionoiu? ae?oae c aiaiai.

Aei iaaacia/ieo oaeoi??a iiaeaae? a?aeiinyoueny: a?aee?eoee aiaiiue /e
?ne?e; i?aeaeuaia oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, i?aaeiao?a oiui; oiene/i?
i?iaeoeoe ai??iiy; aeei (aenieiaeenia?nia aa?icieue ?c oaa?aeeie
/anoeaie); cieaeaia eiioeaio?aoe?y eenith; iaaaeaiiy /e ooeiaeaeaiiy
aoaeeie?a, nii?oaeaeaiue; aeaoo.

Iniiai? caaea/? iiaeaaeii? i?io?eaeoeee a?aeiinyoueny:

· caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ethaeae. Oea aeinyaa?oueny nenoaiith i??,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy aieeao ia ethaeae iaaacia/ieo oaeoi??a
iiaeaae?;

· i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caiia?aaiiy iiaeaae?, ui
aeinyaa?oueny nenoaiith caiia?aaiiy iiaeaae? — eiiieaenii
i?aai?caoe?eieo ? oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeeeth/aiiy oiia
aeieeiaiiy iiaeaae?;

· i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a, ui iaiaaeothoue iioe?aiiy iiaeaae?.
Aeinyaa?oueny i?eno?i?i i?ioeiiaeaaeieo ia?aoeiae, canoinoaaiiyi
aiaiaia?aoeiaeaeath/eo i?eno?i?a, canoinoaaiiyi cania?a, ui
caiia?aathoue ?iceeao ??aeei ? o.i.;

·

i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue e?ea?aeaoe?th iiaeaae?, ui
aeinyaa?oueny canoinoaaiiyi cania?a iiaeaaeii? neaiae?caoe??, cania?a
iiaeaaeaaan?iiy, i?aai?caoe??th iiaeaaeii? ioi?iie ? o.i.

Caaaeuei? aeiiae aei nenoai caiia?aaiiy iiaeaae ? iiaeaaeiiai caoenoo
?aaeaiaioo?oueny aea?aeaaieie noaiaea?oaie nenoaie noaiaea?o?a aaciaee
i?aoe? AINO 12.1.004-91 ? AINO 12.1.010-76 ? niaoe?aeueiith
ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/iith aeieoiaioaoe??th.

Caoiaee ii oia?aaeaeaiith iiaeaae. Aeey oia?aaeaeaiiy iiaeaae, aeaoo?a,
aaa??e a?ae ia?aiaaaioaaeaiiy oa ei?ioeeo caieeaiue a
aeaeo?ionoaoeoaaii? iaiao?aeii i?aaeeueii aeae?aoe aeaiaioe aeaeo?e/ieo
eaioetha?a oa caaacia/eoe nenoaio aeaeo?icaoenoo (iiaeaaei?
neaiae?caoe?? oa ?i.).

Aeeiiaiiy aeiia iaae?eiino? eiioaeoieo c’?aeiaiue i?e iiioaae? noai
ciaioo? eiia??i?noue aeieeiaiiy iiaeaae? i?e aenieoaoaoe?? i?eno?i?a.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy iiaeaaeiaeaooiiaaaciaee ia?
i?aeo?eiea iaiao?aeiiai oaieiaiai ?aaeeio iaeaaeiaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
i?e?iaeii? aai iaoai?/ii? aaioeeyoe??, a oaeiae oaiei a?aeaiae?a
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaiao?aeii i?eeiyoe ?yae caoiae?a, aeey caaacia/aiiy aan?iiy iiaeaae.
Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny aoae?aieoeoai aeeiiaeo ethe?a aeey aeaeaeaiiy oa
iaiaaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeeio, yeee aeieea? i?e iiaeaae?,
aoae?aieoeoai niaoe?aeueieo noiae?a, caaacia/aiiy i?ae’?cae?a aei
nii?oae, aoae?aaeue oa aeaea?ae aiaee. Aeey aan?iiy iiaeaae
aeei?enoiaothoue aiaiaaanieee (i?ii?, ??aeeii?, aacia?).

I?e aeieeiaii? iiaeaae? ?aeiiaiaeothoueny ianooii? ae??:

· aeaanoe ethaeae ? iaoa??aeuei? oe?iiino? c iaaacia/ii? ciie;

· aeeeeeaoe iiaeaaeio ioi?iio;

· aaeeoe caoiaee ii eieae?caoe?? iiaeaae?;

· ii iiaeeeaino?, aaeeoe caoiaee ii aan?iith iiaeaae?.

Aeaooiiaaaciaea – oaeee noai ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, i?e yeiio
aeeeth/a?oueny iiaeeea?noue aeaooo aai o aeiaaeeo eiai aeieeiaiiy
caiia?aa?oueny aieea ia ethaeae aeeeeeaieo ?o iaaacia/ieo ? oe?aeeeaeo
oaeoi??a ? caaacia/o?oueny caa?aaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae.

Aaciaea i?e aeaooao. Caaacia/o?oueny: anoaiiaeaiiyi i?i?iaeueii?
e?eueeino? aeaooiiaaacia/ieo ?a/iaei, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue o
eaai?aoi??yo; aeei?enoaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy, yea ?ic?aoiaaia ia oene aeaooo;
canoinoaaiiy aeoeaieo nenoai ciaioaiiy aeaooo oa cania?a
iiia?aaeaeoaaiiy.

Aeey caiia?aaiiy iiaeaae ? aeaoo?a iaiao?aeii aeeeth/eoe iiaeeea?noue
ooai?aiiy aeaooiiaaacia/iiai na?aaeiaeua, i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?
oeneo aeaiiai na?aaeiaeua aeua iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeieo cia/aiue
ai?th/ino?.

AENIIAEE OA ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

Iioei?caoe?y caieaei?enooaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? iiooe caaeainiaaiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aenieoaoaoe??th caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a, oiaoi ?o
?aoe?iiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi, ioi?iiith ? oe?eani?yiiaaiei
ia?aoai?aiiyi. Eiiieaen caoiae?a, ye? iai?aaeai? ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy
iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioo caieaei?enooaaiiy, a??i?oa i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy,
ia ??ai? eaiaeoaooo, iaceaathoue eiai aeieia?/iith iioei?caoe??th. C
?ioi? noi?iie oeae eiiieaen caoiae?a iiaeiai caaacia/eoe i?i?iaeuei?
oiiae, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey ?nioaaiiy, a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ooai?aiiy ??cieo
eiiiiaio?a eaiaeoaooo.

Caiaeueiiio oiiaeo Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio i?eoaiaiia iaaia aeai?no?noue: c
iaeiiai aieo a a?oioiaiio iie?ea? ?? ia?aaaaeathoue ?iaeth/? ??oioe, c
ae?oaiai – i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a ioiieththoue i?aeoe/ii anth
eiai oa?eoi??th.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaooo ? oaeineiiaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa. ?aoe?iiaeueia ? aeieiaiaacia/ia
aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iiaeo iaoeiaeo
canaaeao iiaeiii ia?aaeaa/aoe anaa?/ia ? aeineiiaea aea/aiiy aeieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae oa?eoi??e eiaeiiai ?aa?iio. C oe??th iaoith iio??aii
cae?enieoe iiaoaiia aea/aiiy aeieia?/ieo oiia caiaeueiiai oiiaeo ?
ni?yioaaiiy ?icaeoeo ?ineeiieoeueeeo aaeocae o iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea?
aa?iaeieia?/i? oiiae.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? oaeineiiaeth?oueny ? ?aae?co?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y
caiaeue, ui aeicaieeoue o iaaeao eiaeii? n?euenueei? ?aaee aecia/aoe
ieiu? i?iii?eaeaoieo

caiaeue, caiaeue n?iieinii-ianiaeuiiai, e?niainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy
oiui.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? an? i?iii?eaeaoi? caie? eeaneo?eothoueny ca
i?eaeaoi?noth aeey ae?iuoaaiiy eiaeii? c iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, a oaeiae ioe?iththoueny uiaei oe???
iaoe (oeyoii aii?ooaaiiy ??oio?a ? aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee caiaeue). Oea
aeanoue iiaeeea?noue oieeiooe noa’?eoea?cio i?e aeei?enoaii? caiaeue ?
cae?enithaaoe eiai ia iaoeia?e iniia?.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? iaiao?aei?noue eeaneo?eaoe?? caiaeue ca i?eaeaoi?noth
aeey aeei?enoaiiy a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? aacnoii?aia. Oaea
eeaneo?eaoe?y aeanoue iiaeeea?noue o eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo
i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue c iaoith eiai iioei?caoe??, a
oiio /ene? caiia?aoe aacainiiaea?nueeiio noaaeaiith aei i?iaeoeoeaieo
caiaeue.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y caiaeue ca i?eaeaoi?noth ia? aooe iiaoaeiaaia ii 2
eii?aeeiaoao, c cacia/aiiyi ii aa?oeeae?
i?e?iaeii-n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ?aa?ii?a, a ii ai?eciioae? —
oaenii?a eeaneo?eaoe?? (eaoaai??e i?eaeaoiino? ? eean?a). Ca aeiiiiiaith
eeaneo?eaoe?? iiaeia neeanoe a?aeiia?aei? ea?oe ? aenie?eaoe?? eean?a
caiaeue ii oa?aeaeyo, ui noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeiooueny aiae?cii oaeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue oeyoii ni?anoaaeaiiy ieiu? aeioe?eueiiai ?
?nioth/iai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue (oa?aeue). Eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aaeoeia ca
aeoeaio iniiao aeey iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a.

Aeieia?/ia iiaeeea?noue aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii ??oio?a (aaiacenii,
ii?oieia?/iith aoaeiaiai, aeanoeainoyie – c aeoeaioii ia iacaaeia?euei?,
?aaeeiaie, iaoai?/iei neeaaeii), iniaeeainoyie ??oioiooai?thth/eo ?
i?aenoeeath/eo ii??ae, oiiaaie caeyaaiiy ? caieiaeaiiy. Oea iaea?eueo
neeaaeia ? a?aeiia?aeaeueia noaae?y eeaneo?eaoe??, i?e ye?e aa?ooueny
aei oaaae ? aiae?cothoueny /eneaii? i?e?iaei? /eiieee i?ae eooii ci?o ?o
aieeao ia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue o neeaae? iaaieo oa?aeue.
I?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueia oaaaa iaaea?oueny iaiaaeoth/ei oaeoi?ai ?
nooiaith ?o aieeao ia ia?aaeaa/oaai? aaeaoioiie. I?ae aeiiii?/iith
aeioe?euei?noth ?icoi??oueny, c iaeiiai aieo o?aooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
aoaeoo a?ae iaaiiai aeaeo aeei?enoaiiy, c ae?oaiai, i???ioiaia
aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o iae?i?aoeaiiai aieeao ia caie? aeey oiai, uia ?o
i?e?iaei? iieacieee a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai oaeiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Iioei?caoe?y eaiaeoaooo – oea noeoii?noue caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
oi?ioaaiiy a iaaeao eaiaeoaooo oaeeo oiia, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue
iaaaoeaiiio aieeao ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ia i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua
? caaacia/othoue aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo
a iaaeao aeiionoeieo ii?i, a?aeoai?aiiy ? ioi?iio ?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy
anoaoe/ii?, icaei?ia/i? ? ?ae?aaoe?eii? oe?iiino? eaiaeoaooo.
Iioei?caoe?y cae?enith?oueny oeyoii oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?ioeanaie ? yaeuaie ?c a?aooaaiiyi noaio ??aiiaaae i?ae eiiiiiaioaie
eaiaeoaooo ? iiaeeeainoae naiii/euaiiy, naii?aaoeyoe?? ?
naiia?aeiiaeaiiy.

?aoe?iiaeueia ? aeieiaiaacia/ia aaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ia iiaeo iaoeiaeo canaaeao iia’ycaia ianaiia?aae c
iioei?caoe??th ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?e?iaeieo aeinenoai oa aa?iaeinenoai,
?aeiino?oeoe??th aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a ia aeieia?/i?e iniia?, i?ioea?ic?eiith
i?aai?caoe??th oa?eoi??? ia ??ai? ie?aieo n?aici?iieo ianea?a, iie?a ?
?iai/eo ae?eyiie.

Ia oeae /an aeieia?/ii iioei?ciaaii? no?oeoo?e caiaeueieo oa?aeue aeey
Oe?a?ie ia ?ic?iaeaii. Iiaeyaee ia oeth i?iaeaio ia’?aeio? iaeia —
aeciaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ciaioaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? inai?iino?, ?
ia?o ca ana, ?ici?aiino? caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie.

I?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iie
caiaeue ?aeiio, yeee iieacaa, ui aa?iaeieia?/iee noai caiaeueieo
oa?aeue, a ia?oo /a?ao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo, ca inoaii? ?iee a
?aeii? iia??oeany.

Iia??oaiiy aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a (caa?oaeiaiiy i?o?aoaie,
caeeoeaie ianoeoeeae?a oa ?aae?iioee?aeaie) aeoaea oeiaeeoue caei?ia’th
ianaeaiiy, cie?aia i?aoeacaeaoiiai. Niinoa??aa?oueny a?ae’?iiee i?e??no
ianaeaiiy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ca?eueoo?oueny aeao?oeeo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui i?ecaaee aei oaeeo iane?aee?a ?: ?icaeoie
aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a (a?iaeiaaii 9,94% ??ee?) oa i?aeoe/ii
a?aenooi? cae?eniaiiy nenoaie caoiae?a c ioi?iie caiaeue, iaaeinoaoi?
o?iainoaaiiy i?ia?aie caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, iaaeinoaoiuei ii?aoeueiaaia ?
ai?iaaaeaeaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy caiaeueieie ?ano?naie ?aeiio.

Iaoeiai ia??oioiaaia ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a
iiaeeeai caaacia/eoe oeyoii iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiiy,
iaaeaiiy aeieia?/iiio iai?yio i??i?eoaoo o ?ica’ycaii? ainiiaea?nueeeo
i?iaeai ia caie?, aeei?enoaiiy ae?eiaeo aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aa?iaeieia?/iiai noaio oa ie?aieo iieaciee?a ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a.
Iioeaaoe?eiee aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci iiaeiai noeioethaaoe aeaniee?a caie?
oa caieaei?enooaa/?a aei i?aeaeuaiiy aa?iaeieia?/ii? ioe?iee caiaeueieo
oa?aeue, ui iiceoeaii iicia/aoeiaoueny ia i?eaooeiaino? ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeei?enoaiiy, ioi?iio oa a?aeoai?aiiy ?iaeth/ino? caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a
aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe eeoa a i?aai?caoe?ei?e ?aeiino?.

Iniiai? i?iaeaie oa oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy:

1. Iio??aii cai?iaaaeeoe iiao iioei?ciaaio no?oeoo?o eaoaai??e caiaeue,
ia iniia? eeaneo?eaoe?? caiaeue ii ?o i?eaeaoiino? aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, noi?iiaaoe iaiaaeaiiy oa iaoyaeaiiy uiaei ?o
aeei?enoaiiy. Ae??oaiiy oeeo i?iaeai i?iiiio?oueny oeyoii ?ic?iaee
i?iaeo?a aeieiai-eaiaeoaooiiai caieaono?ith oa?eoi??e n?euenueeeo
(naeeuieo, i?nueeeo) ?aae.

2. Aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a c i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oa ioi?iie caiaeue iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe niaoe?aeuei? ?iai/? i?iaeoe
(aa?iiae?i?aoeai?, a?ae?ioaoi?/i?, e?niiae?i?aoeai? oa ?io?) ?
ia?aaeaa/eoe o?iainoaaiiy aeey ?o cae?eniaiiy ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaieo oa
i?noeaaeo eioo?a.

3. Iaiao?aeia aaeineiiaeaiiy a?ioiai? ioe?iee caiaeue oa ?icaeoeo ?eieo
caie?. A ia?niaeoea? iaiao?aeii caaa?oeoe a?ioiao ioe?ieo caiaeue
ianaeaieo ioieo?a, i?iaanoe ooi/iaiiy a?ioiai? ioe?iee caiaeue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy (a ca’yceo ?c ci?iith neeaaeo
oa?aeue oa ?o aenie?eaoe??th a ?ic??c? aa?iae?iaie/eo a?oi a?oio?a),
iineeeoe ?iaioe c aenia?oii? a?ioiai? ioe?iee caiaeueieo ae?eyiie
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy. Oiaoi, an? eaoaai??? caiaeue,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny (? ia ciaoiaeyoueny) o aeaniino? ? ei?enooaaii? iiaeii?
aooe ioe?iai?. I?ioa, uia noi?ioaaany ?aaeueiee ?eiie caie?,
iaiao?aeii oaeiae caeiiiaeaa/i a?aaoethaaoe ieoaiiy ioe?iee caiaeue,
oiaoi aaeineiiaeeoe ?? iaoiaeeeo, ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaiee caiaeueiee
eaaeano?. Oiae? e?aaeeooaaiiy aaieaie i?ae canoaao caie? oa
oeea?e?ciaaiee caiaeueiee ?eiie iaaoaeooue ?aaeueiiai ci?noo. Iaeiae,
aeey oeueiai iio??aii noai?eoe nenoaio ?a?no?aoe?? i?aa ia?ooiiino? c
?aeeiith aea?aeaaiith aacith aeaieo, ?io?ano?oeoo?o ?eieo caie?, aeaeaoe
an?i aeanieeai aea?aeaai? aeoe ia i?aai i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth.
O?eueee a oaeiio ?ac? caiey iiaea noaoe oiaa?ii, caieaaeanieee
iaea?aeaoue ae?eiao nenoaio caoenoo nai?o i?aa, a?aeiia?aeii aoaeooue
noai?ai? ni?eyoeea? oiiae ? noi?iiaaia iaiao?aeia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca.

4. A ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth eioo?a i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo iio??aia
aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea nenoaie oi?aae?iiy caiaeueieie ?ano?naie:
aeae?eaiiy eioo?a ia i?iaeoi? ?iaioe, a?ioiao ioe?ieo caiaeue,
aaeineiiaeaiiy caiaeueii-eaaeano?iai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?io? oe?e?.

5. Iio?aaa o cae?eniaii? iii?oi?eiao a?oio?a coiiaeaia aeeeth/ii
aaaeeea?noth i?aeo?eiee eiiiiiaioe i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, cie?aia
a?oioiaiai iie?eao a noai?, ca yeiai a?i caa??aa? caeaoi?noue aei
?aaoeyoe?? oeeee?a a?io?eueieo aeaiaio?a ye iniiae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie oa a?inoa?e a oe?eiio. A?oioiaee iii?oi?eia ia o?eueee
caaacia/o? eiio?ieue ?icaeoeo aio?iiiaaiieo i?ioean?a, a e caiia?aa?
iaaaoeaiiio ?o aieeao. Iaoa iii?oi?eiao — io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
ae?iaeaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue uiaei noaa?e?caoe?? ? iie?ioaiiy
yeino? a?oio?a, aeieia?caoe?? caiea?ianoaa oa aeinyaiaiiy e?ioeaaiai
?acoeueoaoo — ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ??oioiai? ?iaeth/ino?. Iinoaaeaia
iaoa ia? aooe aeinyaiooa a ?acoeueoao? ae??oaiiy o?ueio iniiaieo caaea/:
?ioi?iaoe?eii?, i?iaiicoth/i? oa oi?aae?inueei?. a?oioiai-aeieia?/iee
iii?oi?eia, ye neeaaeiaa iii?oi?eiao aeiae?eey, aea? ciiao ?noioii
i?aeaeuoaaoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue a?oio?a, a?aeaea/o a?ae cania?a
?iaeono??ae?caoe??, iie?ioeoe ye?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Ioe?iea oaeoe/iiai noaio aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a Oano?anueeiai
?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa ia?niaeoeae iie?ioaiiy aa?iaeieia?/iiai
noaio i?iaeoeoeaieo oa?aeue aeathoue i?aenoaae cacia/eoe, ui ioi?ii? oa
?icoe?aiiio a?aeoai?aiith ?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a i?eae?ey?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae ye ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? oae ? ia i?noeyo.

Iioei?ciaaia no?oeoo?a eaoaai??e caiaeue oa eiiieaen caoiae?a c
i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ioi?iie caiaeue aeicaieeoue iie?aueoe
aeieia?/ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caiaeueieo oa?aeue ? i?aeaeuaoue aeieia?/io
noaa?euei?noue ?aeiio. Oae eiao?oe??io aeieia?/ii? noaa?eueiino?
ca?eueoeoueny c 0,41 aei 0,46 ia ia?niaeoeao, a?aeiia?aeii eiao?oe??io
aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ciaioeoueny c 3,50 aei 3,39. Oe? iieacieee
a na?aaeiueiio ii Ee?anuee?e iaeano? noaiiaeyoue 0,47 ? 3,3. Ioaea
oa?eoi??y Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio a?aeiineoueny aei noaa?eueii iano?eeiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy. Eiiieaen caoiae?a c ioi?iie caiaeue i?aeaeueoue
aeieia?/io noaa?euei?noue oa?eoi??? ?aeiio ia 12%.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui aeai? iieacieee na?ae/aoue i?i aeieia?/io
noaa?euei?noue oa?eoi??? ?aeiio c oi/ee ci?o neeaaeo caiaeueieo oa?aeue
? eiiieaeno i?ioea?ic?eieo caoiae?a ? ia a?aoiaothoue ?io? oaeoi?e:
?aeue?o, ??oioiaee iie?ea, ee?iaoe/i? oiiae, oaoiiaaiia caa?oaeiaiiy oa
?io?. A ii??aiyii? ii oeei iieacieeai oa?eoi??y Oano?anueeiai ?aeiio
a?eueo aeieia?/ii no?eea i?ae ?io? ?aeiie iaeano? (iai?eeeaae
?aaie?anueeee, Eaaa?eeoeueeee oa ?io?).

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