Історія розвитку концептуальних підходів до аудиту

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«?noi??y ?icaeoeo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei aoaeeoo»

Neiai «aoaeeo» aeieeei a eaoeinuee?e iia? iiiaae aea? oeny/? ?ie?a oiio.
Nii/aoeo aiii icia/aei «aeneooiaoth/ee», oiaoi ethaeeia, yea ui-iaaoaeue
aeneooiao?. A na?aaei? a?ee a ?a?ii? a?aiioi? e ienueiaii? ethaee
cono??/aeenue aeineoue ??aeei ? oiio aoaeeoi?ii iaceaaee neoaeaiaoey,
yeee iaa aeneooiaoaaoe ca?oe iinaaeiaeo in?a. Oe?eaai a?aecia/eoe, ui a
o? aeaeae? /ane ethaee ue?i aaaaeaee, ui onia oi?ia ca?oo iaa?oue e?aua
ienueiiai?, ine?eueee aoaeue-yeee aeieoiaio iiaeia i?ae?iaeoe, a neacaoe
iai?aaaeo, eiee ia oaaa aeeaeyoueny noai?? i/? ia/aeueieea-aoaeeoi?a,
iaiiaeeeai /e cia/ii neeaaei?oa.

?ioa cia/aiiy neiai «aoaeeoi?» iaei a ?in??, aea aeiaaee /an aoaeeoi?aie
iaceaaee a?enueeiaeo ne?ae/eo. Aia?oa oea neiai ii/aei aaeeaaoeny o
oaeiio cia/aii? iai?ee?ioe? XVI no. ? cieeei iai?ee?ioe? XIX.

Noaiiaeaiiy aoaeeoi?nueeiai eiio?ieth a no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai
iiiyooy i?eiaaea? ia ii/aoie XIX no. ? iia’ycaia c iae?icaeiai?oith
e?a?iith oiai /ano — Aaeeeia?eoai??th. O Aaeeeia?eoai?? oaeaeeeie
oaiiaie ii/aea ?icaeaaoenue ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea, ?? ?icaeoie
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany ianiaei ?ici?aiiyi ethaeae, ye? aeia??eeai ni?eeiaee
aaca?aeiia?aeaeueio ?aeeaio, ui ia?oeyea aaeee? aeea?aeaiaee ? oaeaeea
caaaa/aiiy. Oiai/ani? aeoe?iia?i? oiaa?enoaa ?ici?eee aaeeeo e?euee?noue
ethaeae. A oiio a?oia ia?aaeiaeo aooaaeoa??a noai?eea a Oioeaiae??
i?ioan?eia ia’?aeiaiiy ? ii?ioi?ioaaea an?o caoe?eaaeaieo in?a i?i oa,
ui aiia aioiaa ia?aa??eoe aoaeue-yeee iaaeaiee ?e o?iainiaee ca?o. I?ney
aoae?thaaiiy eiia??i?noue iiaeeeai? iiaie ciaiooaaeanue.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ia?aa??yth/iai aa?aiooaaei ye?noue aeaieo, iaaaaeaieo o
ca?o?.

?noi??y ?icaeoeo no/aniiai aoaeeoo iia’ycaia c o?ueiia oaeeie aoaiaie:
ia?aa??ea ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy, nenoaiii i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae ?
i???ioaoe?? ia iiaeeeaee ?ecee i?e i?iaaaeaii? aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee
[78, 46].

A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca o?iainiaee ca?o iieeaaea?oueny ianaiia?aae ia
aaei?i?no?aoe?th i?aei?e?inoaa. Aea iacaeaaeiee aoaeeoi? a?ae?a?a?
ae??oaeueio ?ieue o i?ioean? ia?aa??ee o?iainiaiai ca?oo. Ei?enooaa/?
o?iainiaiai ca?oo i/?eothoue a?ae aoaeeoi??a i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioe??,
/aniino?, iacaeaaeiino? e ia’?eoeaiino? a i?aeoaa?aeaeaii?
aeinoia??iino? o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Ei?enooaa/? niiae?aathoueny
oaeiae, ui aoaeeoi?e ooeaoeiooue ? aeyaeyoeiooue nooo?a? iiieeee a
iieacieeao, ye iaaieni?, oae ? iaiaaieni?, ? caiia?aaoeiooue iiya?
o?iainiaiai ca?oo, ui aaiaeeoue a iiaio [72, 41]. Iioeaee o o?iainiaiio
ca?o? /e a ?io?e o?iainia?e ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeiiouai?
iaiaaienii /a?ac iiieeee i?e ia?iaoe? ? ?a?no?aoe?? iia?aoe?e
(iai?eeeaae, a?aenooi?noue caieno i?i caeiiiee i?iaeaae, yeee ni?aaae?
iaa i?noea) /e /a?ac iai?aaeeuei? aeniiaee i?e o?aeooaaii? oaeo?a
ca?aeii c i?eeiyoeie i?eioeeiaie iae?eo (iai?eeeaae, aaei?i?no?aoe?y
iiaea ue?i aaaaeaoe, ui iaaiee aeiaia?? i?aiaee a?aeiineoueny aei
iioi/ii? i?aiaee, oiae? ye eiai ne?ae a?aeianoe aei i?aiaee eai?oaeo).

E??i oiai, iaaeie?ee o?iainiai? ca?oiino? iiaeooue iiynithaaoenue oei,
ui aaei?i?no?aoe?y iaaienii iai?aaeeueii neeaea o?iainiaee ca?o.
I?eeeaaea ie oaeiai ?iaeo iiaieeaeo ae?e iiaeooue aooe: e?aae?aeea
iaeia, iaaieniee caien ia?aaeueiiai i?iaeaaeo, e?aae?aeea ia?aeaco
a?ioae caiiaieeii oa ?i.

Iiaithaaiiy uiaei iaea?aeaiiy c o?iainiaiai ca?oo iai?aaeeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeeeeeai? i?eiouaiiyie, ui a?aeiineiai i?ae oeeaaea/aie ?
ei?enooaa/aie o?iainiaiai ca?oo i?eoaiaiia iioaioe?eia c?oeiaiiy
?ioa?an?a. Oea ia icia/a?, ui eiioe?eo ae?enii ?nio? /e ia? aeieeiooe,
ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny e na?aeiia ianoie?ii?noue aaei?i?no?aoe??. Oea
na?ae/eoue o?eueee i?i oa, ui oeeaaea/? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? o?iainiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeooue a?ae/oaaoe iaaia oia?aaeaeaiiy, ye a?ae/oaathoue
eiai ? ei?enooaa/? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aoaeeoi? cae?enith? no?eioth/ee aieea o
oeueiio ?icoi?ii?, ai ? iacaeaaeiith o?aoueith noi?iiith ? a?ae?a?a?
?ieue iina?aaeieea i?ae oeeaaea/aie ? ei?enooaa/aie o?iainiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Cae?enithth/e ia?aa??eo, aoaeeoi?e nii/aoeo aeeiioaaee eeoa ooieoe?th
aenieieaae?o?eiaaiiai cae?a/a ? ioe?ithaa/a aoaeeoi?nueeeo na?ae/aiue
(aeieac?a) aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iiaiioe, i?aaeeueiino? ? a?eoiaoe/ii?
oi/iino? i?aaenoaaeaii? a o?iainiaiio ca?o? ?ioi?iaoe??. Iai?eeeaae, a
aaeain? iieacaii aeaa?oi?nueeo caai?aiaai?noue ca ?aae?ciaaio
i?iaeoeoe?th. Oea aeaco? ia oa, ui ?aooiee aeaa?oi??a oaeoe/ii
?niothoue, i?aei?e?inoai ieie aieiae?? ? an? iaeaaei? i?aei?e?inoao
?aooiee aeaa?oi??a c ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? aeeth/aii a i?aenoieiao
noio. E??i oiai, a?eoiaoe/i? ae?? i?e aeienoaaii? ?aooie?a-oaeoo?,
ia?aianaii? noi, cacia/aieo o ?aooieao-oaeoo?ao, ia ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?
?aooiee iieoioe?a ? i?aenoiiaoaaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?aooie?a aoei
aeeiiaii i?aaeeueii, ? a noaooth ia aeeth/aii ?acoeueoaoe iia?aoe?e c
aeaa?oi?aie, ui ia iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? ia
noi?iio (iai?eeeaae, c? neoaeaiaoeyie i?aei?e?inoaa). Aoaeeoi? cae?a? ?
ioe?ith? aeieoiaioe aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeeo iieiaeaiue.

Ia noaae?? ia?aa??ee ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiee ui
ia?aaoaa? e aoaeeo a Oe?a?i?.

Ianooiiei aoaiii ?icaeoeo aoaeeoo ? nenoaiii i???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae. C
iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy iiieeie o o?iainia?e ca?oiino? iniiaia oaaaa
aaei?i?no?aoe?? cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii ? ia?o ca ana nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth,
ui caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy oaoi?/ii aeinoia??ii? iae?eiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O oeaio?? oai??? aoaeeoo, aaciaaiiai ia nenoaiii i???ioiaaiiio
i?aeoiae?, ciaoiaeeoueny i?eioeei, ca?aeii c yeei yeui aoaeeoi? ioe?ith?
nenoaio aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ye aoaeoeaio, a. iio?i i?iaaaeeoue
na??th ia?aa??ie ia a?aeiia?aei?noue (oanoe eiio?ieueieo iiiaio?a), ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oeth ioe?ieo, oi iaia? iaiao?aeiino? o aeeiiaii?
aaeeei? e?eueeino? oano?a naii? o?iainiai? ca?oiino? (oiaoi ia?aa??ie ii
noo?), ai aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaae?eii? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??
aoaeeoi? iiaea iieeanoenue ia iae?eiao nenoaio i?aei?e?inoaa. Ioaea,
aoaeeoi?e aaaaeathoue aeioe?euei?oei ia?aa??yoe nenoaio aioo??oiueiai
eiio?ieth, uia iaea?aeaoe na?ae/aiiy ?? aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? ?
?iaioe, ai?ae i?aeaeaaaoe iaaei??iei ia?aa??eai ?ioi?iaoe?th, aeaeaio
oe??th nenoaiith iae?eo ? eiio?ieth.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?aa??ee aoaeeoi?e iaaeathoue ee??ioo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
no?oeoo?o eiai nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth. O i?aeia?iaei?e
i?aeoeoe? aoaeeoi? ciaia’ycaiee ?ioi?ioaaoe aoaeeoi?nueeee eii?oao
i?aei?e?inoaa (/e aiaeia?/iee i?aai) i?i ?noioi? iaaeie?ee i?aai?caoe??
/e ?iaioe nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth, ye? a?i aeyaea i?ae /an
aoaeeoo [72,42]. Ia i?aeoeoe? aoaeeoi?e /anoi ?icoe?ththoue oea
iia?aeiieaiiy, aeeth/ath/e aei iueiai e iaio aaaeeea? iaaeie?ee,
iiaeath/e ?o ?acii c i?iiiceoe?yie c iie?auaiiy no?oeoo?e aioo??oiueiai
eiio?ieth. Oea iia?aeiieaiiy, ye i?aaeei, neeaaea?oueny a ienueiiaiio
aeaeyae? ? ia?o i?ae inoaoi/ii ioi?ieoe oeae aeieoiaio, a?aeiiee ye
«eeno aaei?i?no?aoe??», eiai ci?no iaaiai?th?oueny c aaei?i?no?aoe??th
i?aei?e?inoaa-ee??ioa.

I?e nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? cae?enith?oueny oi?iae?caoe?y aoaeeoi?nueeeo
i?ioeaaeo?, ui aea? ciiao iioei?coaaoe i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aa??ie, ii/eiath/e
c i?aeaioia/eo ?ia?o ? cae?i/oth/e neeaaeaiiyi aoaeeoi?nueeiai aeniiaeo.

Ca inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aioo??oiueiai
eiio?ieth oa iaoiaeieia?? i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo aeicaieeei aoaeeoi?nueeei
o??iai a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eyoe eiinoeueoaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?, i?ae
aaciina?aaeiuei aoaeeoi?nueeei ia?aa??eai. ?icii/aany o?ao?e aoai
?icaeoeo aoaeeoo — oea eiai i???ioaoe?y ia iiaeeeaee ?ecee i?e
i?iaaaeaii? ia?aa??ie /e eiinoeueooaaii?, caiia?aaiiy ? onoiaiiy ?eceeo.

Ei?enooaa/aie o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?ieoea aoaeeo, iae/ano?oa ?
oaeoe/i? /e iioaioe?ei? ?iaanoi?e ? e?aaeeoi?e. A?iiaaenuee?noue, ye
i?aaeei, oaeiae caoe?eaaeaia a iaea?aeaii? ia?aa??aii? o?iainiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, ai no/ani? ? iaeaooi? aeioiaee, aeia?iaoo oaeiae iiaeooue
caeaaeaoe a?ae aeinoia??iino? ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?aeaeuoth/e a??ia?aei?noue o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aoaeeo ciaioo?
?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?ecee ei?enooaa/?a o?iainiaeo ca?o?a. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
?ecee -oea ?ecee, iia’ycaiee c oei, ui ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea i?noeoueny o
o?iainiaiio ca?o?, iai?aaeeueia. C?icoi?ei, aoaeeo ia ?aeeiee niin?a
ciaioaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?eceeo. I?aaie noaiaea?oecaoe?? iae?eo ye o
aea?aeaaiiio, oae ? a i?eaaoiiio naeoi?? i?aaiooue caaacia/eoe
iaeiinoaei?noue i?eioeei?a iae?eo ? iiaiioo ?ice?eooy a?aeiia?aeii?
o?iainiai? ca?oiino?. I?e oeueiio ca inoaii? ?iee c?inee ? e?euee?noue,
? ??aaiue niaoeeo?/iino? noaiaea?o?a iae?eo, a ioaea, i?aeaeueeenue
aeiiae aei aeeiiaiiy aoaeeoi?aie ?ioi? ooieoe?? — ia?aa??ee
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?icoeo?iaie ? ioe?iie o o?iainiaiio ca?o? i?eeiyoei
i?eioeeiai iae?eo. Iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith ae?yeueiino? aoaeeoi?a noa?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oaeo?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeniiaee oeeaaea/a
o?iainiaiai ca?oo, ? ioe?iea c?iaeaieo o iueiio aeniiae?a.

Ianooiiith i?e/eiith ci?uaiiy aeoeaio?a a aoaeeo? a?ae ooieoe?? cai?o
na?ae/aiue aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeinoia??iino? ?ioi?iaoe?? aei ooieoe??
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? e ioe?iee ? e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy neeaaeieo iia?aoe?e,
iia?aoe?e iiaiai oeio oa iaiao?aei?noue ioe?ithaaoe aaeaeaaoi?noue
niiniao iae?eo, aea?aiiai aaei?i?no?aoe??th i?aei?e?inoaa.

?iaanoi?e ? e?aaeeoi?e iaea?aeothoue ?ioi?iaoe?th c o?iainiaeo aeaeaiue
oa a?ae aiae?oee?a uiaei eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ? ea?othoueny iath o nai?o
ae?yo ua aei

— ioae?eaoe?? ??/ieo o?iainiaeo ca?o?a. Aea ca?aeii c iioe?aiith
aeoieith, o?iainiaee ca?o, i?aeaeaiee aoaeeoo, ana ae aieiae??
«ii?ioi?iiaai?noth», ?ioeie neiaaie, i?noeoue iiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?inoi
/a?ac oa, ui aoa i?aeaeaiee aoaeeoo. I?ney aoaeeoo o?iainiaee ca?o ?
caniaii aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy /e aei?aaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ai?oa
iaea?aeaii? ia ?eieo. Ia?aa??aiee o?iainiaee ca?o i?aeaeuo?
aoaeoeai?noue ?eieiai? ae?yeueiino? aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui nei?i/o? no?ie
ae?? iaoi/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? /e i?ecoieiy? ?? iioe?aiiy.

?ioei aniaeoii i?aeaeuaiiy oe?iiino? o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a
?acoeueoao? aoaeeoo, e??i iaaeaiiy ?e a?eueoi? aeinoia??iino? e
?ioa?i?aoaoe??, ? iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca iath. Aeiiiaiaiiyi aei
aoaeeoi?nueei? ooieoe?? ? ooieoe?y yeino? ?ioi?iaoe??, ine?eueee aiia:

— caaacia/o? iacaeaaeio ia?aa??eo iae?eiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia iniia?
anoaiiaeaieo e?eoa???a, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iio?aae ? aaaeaiiy
ei?enooaa/?a;

— niiioea? oeeaaea/a ?ioi?iaoe?? cae?enithaaoe i?ioean iae?eo i?ae nai?i
eiio?ieai, aeiiaaath/enue a?aeiia?aeiino? aeiiaai ei?enooaa/a, ine?eueee
a?i (oeeaaea/) cia?, ui eiai ?iaioa aoaea i?aeeyaaoe iacaeaaei?e
aenia?oec?. Oeae iioeaaoe?eiee aniaeo aoaeeoo aeciaiee aaea aeaaii:
ciaiiy oiai, ui aoaeeoi?nueeo ia?aa??eo aoaea cae?eniaii, ? aaaiiith
ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo iiaeaiiy iiieeeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Noaiiaeaiiy aoaeeoo — i?ioean aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeee, a?i ia cae?i/eany ?
iei?. No/ania aia?eeainueea eiioeaioe?y «aoaeeoii iaceaa? nenoaiaoe/iee
i?ioean ia’?eoeaiiai cai?o ? ioe?ithaaiiy na?ae/aiue i?i aeiiii?/i? ae??
? iiae?? c iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy a?aeiia?aeiino? oeeo oaa?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeaiei e?eoa??yi ? iaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ia?aa??ee caoe?eaaeaiei
ei?enooaa/ai»[ 13,19]. (oi-«Oaeoe, ye? a?aeia?aaeai? o o?iainiaeo
ca?oao, ? i?aaeiaoii aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee. Aoaeeoi? ia? ciaeoe ?
ioe?ieoe aeieace, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue eiai noaeaeaiiy i?i
a?aeiia?aei?noue oaeo?a anoaiiaeaiei e?eoa??yi. Iai?eeeaae, i?e
i?iaaaeaii? o?iainiaiai aoaeeoo aeieacaie, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i ??aaiue
a?aeiia?aeiino? iieaciee?a, ui i?noyoueny o o?iainiaiio ca?o?,
ocae/a?iei i?eioeeiai iae?eo, neoaothoue iae?eia? aeai?, a oaeiae
?ioi?iaoe?y, iaea?aeaia oeyoii iieooaaiiy, niinoa?aaeaiue, oaeoe/iiai
iaeyaeo iaeia oa ?i.

I?ioean cai?o ? ioe?ithaaiiy na?ae/aiue aeiaaa? ia’?eoeaiino?, ui
iieyaa? a caeaoiino? aoaeeoi?a caa??aaoe iaoia?aaeaeai?noue i?e aeai?? e
ioe?ithaaii? aeieac?a. Oey iaoia?aaeaeai?noue iiceoe?? ? neeaaeiaith
iiiyooy «iacaeaaei?noue aoaeeoi?a».

O i?ioean? ia?aa??ee aoaeeoi? ia? ia?aaeon?i noi?ioethaaoe aeoieo i?i
ia?aa??ai? oaeoe. Aeoiea aoaeeoi?a aecia/a?, iane?eueee aiie
a?aeii&?aeathoue e?eoa??yi ? noaiaea?oai, i?eeiyoei e?eoa??yi iae?eo.
E?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii aoaeue-yeiai aoaeeoo ? neeaaeaiiy aeniiaeo /e
ca?oo, a yeiio aoaeeoi? ioe?ith? a?aeiia?aei?noue o?iainiaiai ca?oo
i?eeiyoei i?eioeeiai iae?eoAiae?enueea oai??y aeio?eio?oueny
aiaeia?/iiai aecia/aiiy aoaeeoo — oea «iacaeaaeiee ?icaeyae niaoe?aeueii
i?ecia/aiei aoaeeoi?ii o?iainiaeo ca?o?a i?aei?e?inoaa ? aeneiaeaiiy
aeoiee i?i ieo i?e aeio?eiaii? i?aaee, anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii» [1, 13].
Oaea oe?iea aecia/aiiy aoaeeoo aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aeia?aceoe anth
??ciiiai?oi?noue caaaeaiue, ia yeeo iiaea aooe cina?aaeaeaii oaaao a
i?ioean? eiie?aoii? aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee.

Aia?eeainuee? aoaeeoi?nuee? noaiaea?oe aecia/athoue, ui «iaoith
cae/aeii? ia?aa??ee o?iainiai? ca?oiino? iacaeaaeiei aoaeeoi?ii ?
aeneiaeaiiy aeoiee i?i ??aaiue ia’?eoeaiino?, c yeith ca?oi?noue
oa?aeoa?eco? o?iainiaee noai, ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ?oo
eioo?a a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo i?eioeei?a» [7, 141].

Oe?a?inueea oai??y aoaeeoo ia? aeaye? iaa?aeiia?aeiino? o aecia/aii?
iaoe aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee. Oae, o iaoe?iiaeueiiio ii?iaoea? ? 3
«Iaoa oa caaaeuei? i?eioeeie aoaeeoo o?iainiai? ca?oiino?»
cacia/a?oueny, ui iaoith aoaeeoo o?iainiai? ca?oiino? ? aeneiaeaiiy
aoaeeoi?ii aeniiaeo i?i oa, /e a?aeiia?aea? o?iainiaa ca?oi?noue, o an?o
nooo?aeo aniaeoao, ?ino?oeoe?yi, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue ii?yaeie
i?aeaioiaee ? iiaeaiiy o?iainiaeo ca?o?a. Oaea aecia/aiiy ia
a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei iieiaeaiiyi noaoo? 2 Aee?aeoea ?AN i?i oa, ui
aoaeeoi?nueea ia?aa??ea iiaeiia i?aeoaa?aeeoe aeinoia??i?noue aeaieo i?i
ae?enio aaee/eio aeoea?a ? ianea?a, i?eaooe?a /e caeoe?a oa noai ni?aa
i?aei?e?inoaa. E??i oiai, i?aeia?iaeiee noaiaea?o aoaeeoo ? 1 «Iaoa oa
iniiai? i?eioeeie i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoo» o?aeoo? iaoo aoaeeoo o?iainiaeo
ca?o?a, ye aeneiaeaiiy aeoiee i?i ??aaiue ia’?eoeaiino? o?iainiai?
ca?oiino?.

Aecia/aiiy, iaaaaeaia a oe?a?inueeiio ii?iaoea? ? 3, a?ae??ciy?oueny
oaeiae a?ae iieiaeaiue Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i aoaeeoi?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue»
a?ae 22 ea?oiy 1993 ?., aea cacia/a?oueny, ui aoaeeo — oea ia?aa??ea
ioae?/ii? aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino?, iae?eo, ia?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a oa
?ioi? ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy c iaoith aecia/aiiy aeinoia??iino? ca?oiino?, iae?eo,
eiai iiaiioe ? a?aeiia?aeiino? /eiiiio caeiiiaeaanoao oa anoaiiaeaiei
ii?iaoeaai. Aiii oaeiae ia a?aeiia?aea? ii?iaoeao ? 26 «Aoaeeoi?nueeee
aeniiaie», ine?eueee iniiaiith aeiiaith i?e neeaaeaii? aoaeeoi?nueeiai
aeniiaeo ? aeneiaeaiiy aeoiee i?i aeinoia??i?noue ?ioi?iaoe??.

C?icoi?ei, ui o?aeooaaiiy iaoe aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee — oea aaaeeeaa e
i?eioeeiiaa ieoaiiy, yea coiiaeth? nooue ? iaoiaee ?? i?iaaaeaiiy.
Cie?aia, yeui iaoith aoaeeoo ? aeneiaeaiiy aoaeeoi?ii aeniiaeo i?i oa,
/e a?aeiia?aea? o?iainiaa ca?oi?noue ?ino?oeoe?yi, oi i?e i?iaaaeaii?
aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny ia i?aaeeueiino?
caiiaiaiiy ? nai?/aniino? iiaeaiiy o?iainiaeo ca?o?a. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
ae aeinoia??iino? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeiaaa? ?aoaeueii? ia?aa??ee ca?oiino? oa
iae?eo ia’i?aei?e?inoa? ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaiao?aeieo iaoiae?a, a naia —
cono??/ia ia?aa??ea, ?iaaioa?ecaoe?y oa ?i.

O no/ani?e oai??? aoaeeoo ia’?eoii i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ? o?iainiaa
ca?oi?noue. Aoaeeoi?e cae?athoue na?ae/aiiy, uia ioe?ieoe, /e ia’?eoeaii
aiia neeaaeaia? a?aeia?aceoe naith aeoieo a aoaeeoi?nueeiio aeniiaeo.
sseui c?a?aii aeinoaoiuei na?ae/aiue, ye? aeathoue i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui o?iainiaa ca?oi?noue ia aaaaea a iiaio oaaaeiiai
ei?enooaa/a, oi aoaeeoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i ?? ia’?eoeai?noue. sseui
ae aoaeeoi? aaaaea?, ui ca?oi?noue i?aaenoaaeaia iaia’?eoeaii, aai ae
a?i ia iiaea ae?eoe yeiainue aeniiaeo (/a?ac iaaeinoaoi?noue c?a?aieo
aoaeeoi?nueeeo na?ae/aiue /e iacaeieaii? ia?aoeiaee), a?i ciaia’ycaiee
niia?noeoe i?i oea ei?enooaa/?a oeyoii aoaeeoi?nueeiai aeniiaeo.

O niaoe?aeuei?e ca?oa?aei?e oa a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aee?aneth?oueny,
ui ia aoaeeoi?, a naia aaei?i?no?aoe?y i?aei?e?inoaa-ee??ioa
a?aeiia?aea? ca i?aaeeuei?noue iae?eiai? iie?oeee, ca noai?aiiy e
aeei?enoaiiy a ainiiaea?nuee?e nenoai? aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ? ca
ia’?eoeai?noue neeaaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino? [72, 44.

Inoaii?i /anii o ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe? ca?oi?noue oe?eiai ?yaeo eiiiai?e
aeeth/a? ca?o i?i ciaia’ycaiiy aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? i?i a?aeiineie c
aoaeeoi?nueeith o??iith. A iueiio, ye i?aaeei, aeaco?oueny ia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aaei?i?no?aoe?? ca ia’?eoeai?noue neeaaeaiiy
o?iainiai? ca?oiino? oa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ieue aoaeeoi?nueeiai eii?oaoo
? eiai a?aeiineie c iacaeaaeiei aoaeeoi?ii (iacaeaaeiith aoaeeoi?nueeith
o??iith).

Aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aaei?i?no?aoe?? ca ia’?eoeai?noue o?iainiai?
ca?oiino? iaeaaeeoue oaeiae ? i?a?iaaoeaa o aecia/aii? o??? ?ioi?iaoe??,
yeo eiiiai?y aaaaea? iaiao?aeiith ii?eethaeieoe. ?acii c oei, oi/
aaei?i?no?aoe?y ? oe?eeiaeoi a?aeiia?aea? ca i?aeaioiaeo o?iainiai?
ca?oiino?, iiaeeea? e oae? neooaoe??, eiee aoaeeoi? aeneiaeoue ?io?
i??eoaaiiy uiaei eiie?aoieo ianoaaei o oe?e ainiiaea?nuee?e nenoai?.
sseui ae aaei?i?no?aoe?y iaiieyaa? ia oaeiio oa?aeoa?? ?ice?eooy
?ioi?iaoe?? o o?iainia?e ca?oiino?, yeee aoaeeoi? aaaaea? iai?eeiyoiei,
oi aoaeeoi? ia? i?aai neeanoe iaaaoeaiee aeniiaie, ?c caoaaaeaiiyie, /e
a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iaaeaiiy aoaeeoi?nueeiai aeniiaeo.

Aoaeeo i?iaiaeeoueny oae, uia caaacia/eoe ?icoiio aa?aio?th oiai, ui
nooo?a? iaoi/iino? o o?iainia?e ca?oiino? aoaea aeyaeaii. I?eioeei
?icoiii? aeinoaoiino? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aoaeeoi? ia iiaea aooe
aaniethoiei aa?aioii i?aaeeueiino? o?iainiai? ca?oiino?. sseui a
aoaeeoi? a?aeiia?aeaa ca oa, ui an? aeaiaioe o?iainiai? ca?oiino?
aaniethoii i?aaeeuei?, oi e?euee?noue iaiao?aeieo aoaeeoi?nueeeo
na?ae/aiue ? a?aeiia?aeii aa?o?noue aeeiiaiiy aoaeeoo c?inee a
iano?eueee, ui nai aoaeeo ao?aoea ae naith aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue.
Oiio a ?ac?, eiee a ?acoeueoao? aoaeeoo ia aeyaeaii iaaii? nooo?ai?
iaoi/iino?, aoaeeoi? aeaea? aoaeeoi?nueeee aeniiaie aac caoaaaeaiue ?
aeaco? ia oa, ui a?i ae?ya a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eeiyoeo noaiaea?o?a
aoaeeoo.

O niaoe?aeuei?e ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? ?ic??ciythoue aeaa aeaea
iaoi/iinoae: iiieeee ? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?i [72,44]. A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
ii?i — oea iaaienii iai?aaeeueia a?aeia?aaeaiiy e iiaeaiiy aeaieo iae?eo
oa ca?oiino? iaei??th /e e?eueeiia iniaaie c? neeaaeo ea??aieoeoaa /e
neoaeaiaoe?a i?aei?e?inoaa, yea aeeth/a?: iai?ioeyoe?th iae?eiaeie
caienaie ? oaeueneo?eaoe?th ia?aeiieo aeieoiaio?a, ?a?no??a ? ca?o?a;
iaaaeaeaaoi? caiene a iae?eo, ye? aee?eaeythoue ci?no ainiiaea?nueeeo
iia?aoe?e ? ii?ooothoue i?aaeea, aecia/ai? caeiiiaeaa noaii /e
iae?eiaith iie?oeeith i?aei?e?inoaa; iaaienii iai?aaeeuei? ioe?iee
aeoea?a ? iaoiae?a ?o nienaiiy; cieuaiiy /e i?iione ?acoeueoaoo
ei?eaoth/eo caien?a /e aeieoiaio?a; cieuaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?e.

Iiieeea — iaiaaienia aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?acoeueoao?
a?eoiaoe/ieo /e eia?/ieo iioeaie a iae?eiaeo caienao, iaaeiaeyaeo a
iiaiio? iae?eo /e iai?aaeeueiiai iiaeaiiy oaeo?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, iayaiino? ? noaio iaeia, ?ic?aooie?a oa ?i.

A?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?i /e iiieeee eeaneo?eothoue:

— ii?ooaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— iaaeio?eiaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ui aecia/athoue i?aai?caoe?th
oaiaoiaeieia?th iae?eo;

— iaaeio?eiaiiy i?ioyaii ca?oiiai ?ieo i?eeiyoi? iae?eiai?
iie?oeeea?aeia?aaeaiiy a aooaaeoa?nueeiio iae?eo ie?aieo ainiiaea?nueeeo
iia?aoe?e ?ioe?iee iaeia;

— ii?ooaiiy i?eioeeio a?aeianaiiy aeioiae?a ? aeo?ao aei ca?oieo
ia??iae?a;

— iaaeio?eiaiiy ?aeiino? ? ?iciaaeoaaiiy iae?eo aeo?ao, ye?
a?aeiinyouenyia aeo?aoe ae?iaieoeoaa ? caooo, ia i?eaooie ? niaoe?aeuei?
aeaea?aea iie?eooy;

— iaaeio?eiaiiy oioiaeiino? aeaieo aiae?oe/iiai iae?eo iai?ioai ?
caeeoeai ia ?aooieao neioaoe/iiai iae?eo [189, U.

Aee?eaeaiiy iae?eiaeo caien?a — oea iaaienia aee?eaeaiiy /e i?iio-uaiiy
iae?eiaeo caien?a i?i ainiiaea?nuee? iia?aoe?? aai iaaieo a?aeiiinoae;
aee?eaeaiiy a iae?eo i?aenoieiaeo /e ?ioeo noi; iaaienia aee?eaeaiiy
o?iainiai? ca?oiino?.

Oaeueneo?eaoe?y aooaaeoa?nueeeo aeieoiaio?a ? caien?a — oea ioi?ieaiiy
na?aeiii iai?aaeeueieo /e oaeueoeaeo aooaaeoa?nueeeo aeieoiaio?a
(?aooie?a-oaeoo?, iaeeaaeieo, aaenae?a oiui).

Iaaaeaeaaoi? caiene a iae?eo — oea iaaienia aeei?enoaiiy iai?aaeeueieo
(iaei?aeoieo) aooaaeoa?nueeeo i?iaaaeaiue /e noa?ioth/eo caien?a c
iaoith aee?eaeaiiy aeaieo iae?eo ? ca?oiino?.

Cai?ia oa cieuaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?nueeeo iia?aoe?e — oea
noi?io-th/? caiene, aiaeia?/i? ca ci?noii ? noiaie iniiaiei
aooaaeoa?nueeei i?iaaaeaiiyi.

I?eeeaaeaie a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ii?i ? ?ice?aaeaiiy aeoea?a, cie?aia, eiee
neoaeaiaaoeue i?eeia? aio?aeo ca ?aae?ciaai? oiaa?e (iineoae), ia
ii?eaooeiaoth/e eaniaee aeoi?a; iaaienia ciaioaiiy ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? c
iaoith caieaeaiiy noie i?eaooeo.

Aoaeeoi?ai, ye i?aaeei, neeaaei?oa aeyaeoe a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?i, i?ae
iiieeee. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?i ? ?acoeueoaoii
iiaie, i?aeeiao. Anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aoaeeoi?a ca
aeyaeaiiy a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ii?i iio?aao? iniaeeai? oaaae.

Ii nai?e noo? ceiaaeeaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa oae?, ui ?o
aaaeei aeyaeoe, ai iaeiiio /e aeae?eueeii ea??aieeai aoaa? eaaei ia?eoe
nenoaio aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth. Oiio ia iiaeia /aeaoe a?ae aoaeeoi?a
oaei? ae aeniei? eiia??iino? aeyaeaiiy aeiaaee?a ceiaaeeaaiue
aaei?i?no?aoe??, ye ? aeyaeaiiy nooo?aeo iaiaaienieo iiieeie.

Aoaeeoi?o neeaaei?oa aeyaeoe oaeueoeaeo, ine?eueee, ye i?aaeei,
aaei?i?no?aoe?y i?aei?e?inoaa ?iaeoue ana iiaeeeaa, uia i?eoiaaoe
ceiaaeeaaiiy ? iao?iaoe??, oiio caaacia/aiiy iaeiaeiai? eiia??iino?
aeyaeaiiy iaiaaienii? iiieeee ? iaaieniiai ceiaaeeaaiiy ? iaaeoi
neeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi, uia aooe aeiiii?/ii aea?aeiei ye aeey aoaeeoi??a,
oae ? aeey noni?euenoaa [72, 45]. Aea aoaeeoi?e cia/iith i??ith
a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ca aeyaeaiiy aeiaaee?a nooo?aeo ceiaaeeaaiue
aaei?i?no?aoe??. Inoaii?i /anii o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao ciaia’ycothoue
aoaeeoi?a ?aoaeueii aiae?coaaoe na?ae/aiiy i?i iiaeeea? ceiaaeeaaiiy
aaei?i?no?aoe?? eiiiai??.

O niaoe?aeuei?e e?oa?aoo?? cacia/a?oueny, ui a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
aoaeeoi?a ca iaaeyaeaiiy ceiaaeeaaiue i?aoe?aiee?a iaioa, i?ae eiai
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaaeyaeaiiy iiieeie. sseae aoaeeoi?e aoee
ciaia’ycai? aeyaeoe aoeaaeueii an? aeiaaeee ceiaaeeaaiue i?aoe?aiee?a,
oi ianooaae aoaeeoo aeiaaeiny a ?noioii ?icoe?eoe, ine?eueee aaaaoi
??ciiaeae?a oaeeo ceiaaeeaaiue aeineoue aaaeei, a ?ieiee iaeaea
iaiiaeeeai, aee?eoe. I?ioeaaeo?e, iaiao?aei? aeey aeyaeaiiy an?o
aeiaaee?a ceiaaeeaaiue, iiaeooue iano?eueee aei?iai eioooaaoe, ui
iaea?aeaia a?ae ieo aeaiaea ia ciiaea ?o aei?aaaeaoe. Oae, yeui iathoue
i?noea ?ioaeaeooaeuei? i?ae?iaee ca oa?iiith ciiaith aeae?eueeio
neoaeaiaoe?a c oaeueneo?eaoe??th iaaieo a?aeiieo ?i aeieoiaio?a, oi a
iaaeao cae/aeiiai aoaeeoo oaea ceiaaeeaaiiy ?ice?eoe aeineoue aaaeei.

Aoaeeoi? ia? aecia/eoe eiia??i?noue ?nioaaiiy ceiaaeeaaiue ia ii/aoeo
?iaioe, ye neeaaeiaiai aeaiaioo aoaeeoi?nueeeo i?ioeaaeo? aea/aiiy
nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie ? aecia/aiiy
??aiy ?eceeo, iia’ycaiiai c oeei eiio?ieai. Aoaeeoi? aaa/a?
iaiao?aei?noue ca?eueoaiiy ianyao aoaeeoi?nueeeo na?ae/aiue, yeui
aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui ia i?aei?e?inoa? iaia? aaeaeaaoii? nenoaie
aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth, /e caoaaaeo? aeiaaeee iaaeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaoeyie
eiio?ieueieo i?ioeaaeo?.

O oeueiio ca’yceo aeioe?eueii ?icaeyiooe iaoe?iiaeueiee ii?iaoea aoaeeoo
? 7 «Iiieeee oa oao?aenoai», a yeiio aena?oeththoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— aeaee aee?eaeaiue o?iainiai? ca?oiino?;

— ?ecee oa oaeoi?e aieeao ia eiia??i?noue oeeo aee?eaeaiue;

— a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aoaeeoi?a ca i?aaeeuei?noue ? a?aeiia?aei?noue
aeei?enoaieo i?ae /an aoaeeoo i?ioeaaeo? aeyaeaiiy iaaienieo oa
iaiaaienieo iiieeie;

— ae?? aoaeeoi?a a i?aai?caoe?eiiio ieai? i?ney ?o aeyaeaiiy ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue noi??i aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee.

Iacaa iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoaeeoi?nueeiai ii?iaoeao oa a oe?eiio eiai ci?no
a?aeiia?aeathoue aiaeia?/iiio i?aeia?iaeiiio noaiaea?oo ? 11 «Oao?aenoai
? iiieeea». Iaeiae a oe?a?inueeiio ii?iaoea? cacia/a?oueny, ui iaoith
ii?iaoeao ? caaacia/aiiy i?aaeeueiiai oeoia/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy oa?i?i?a
«oao?aenoai» ? «iiieeea» c iiceoe?e i?aeaioiaee aoaeeoi?nueeiai
aeniiaeo, aecia/aiiy ?eceeo aoaeeoo ? aieeao oao?aenoaa oa iiieeie ia
aeinoia??i?noue o?iainiai? ca?oiino? ee??ioa. I?aeia?iaeiee noaiaea?o
o?aeoo? iaoo, ye aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aoaeeoi?a ca aeyaeaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo aee?eaeaiue, ye? ? ?acoeueoaoii oao?aenoaa /e iiieeee i?e
i?iaaaeaii? aoaeeoo o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, a oaeiae iia?aeiieaiiy
ea??aieoeoaa i?i i?ioeaaeo?e, ye? aoaeeoi? iiaeiai aeeiiaoe ca ianoaaei
aeyaeaiiy iaaienieo /e iaiaaienieo iiieeie.

Aecia/aiiy oa?i?i?a «oao?aenoai» ? «iiieeea» iaa?oue a ?aeo?n?
aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee ia ? i?a?iaaoeaith Aoaeeoi?nueei? iaeaoe,
ine?eueee ca?aeii c Oeea?eueiei eiaeaenii Oe?a?ie oao?aenoai ? iaeiei ?c
aeae?a oeea?eueieo cei/ei?a, o ca’yceo c /ei eaae?o?eoaaoe ae?? ye
oao?aenoai iiaeooue o?eueee noaeiai-ne?ae/? i?aaie. Oiio aoei a
aeioe?eueii iacao ii?iaoeao ci?ieoe ia «Ae?? aoaeeoi?a i?e aeyaeaii?
iaaienieo oa iaiaaienieo iiieeie o o?iainia?e ca?oiino? (aee?eaeaiue
o?iainiai? ca?oiino?)» [65, 48]. I?e oeueiio ca oa?aeoa?ii iioiaeaeaiiy
?aaeuei? aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino? iaiao?aeii iiae?eeoe ia
iaaieni? oa iaiaaieni?, a a ii?iaoea? aecia/eoe ae?? aoaeeoi?nueei?
o??ie /e aoaeeoi?a o ca’yceo c aeyaeaiiyi o oiae? aoaeeoo aee?eaeaiue
o?iainiai? ca?oiino?, ui aieeaathoue ia ?? aeinoia??i?noue.

O aecia/aiiy iaaienieo oa iaiaaienieo aee?eaeaiue o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
iaiao?aeii aaanoe iiiyooy aacae?yeueiino?, ine?eueee ca?aeii c
iieiaeaiiyie oai??? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue aacae?yeuei?noue iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iaeiei ?c aaaaoueio iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a ae?e ia?niiaeo. Oae, aaeaeaaoiei
aoaea oaea aecia/aiiy. Iaaienia aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino? ?
?acoeueoaoii iaaienieo ae?e (aai aacae?yeueiino?) ia?niiaeo aeiiii?/iiai
noa’?eoa, ui ia?aa??y?oueny. Aiie cae?eniththoueny a ei?eneeaeo oe?eyo
aeey aaaaeaiiy a iiaio ei?enooaa/?a o?iainiai? ca?oiino?.

Iaiaaienia aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe ye
?acoeueoao iaiaaienieo ae?e (aai aacae?yeueiino?) ia?niiaeo aeiiii?/iiai
noa’?eoa. Aiii iiaea aooe aiane?aeie a?eoiaoe/ieo /e eia?/ieo iiieeie a
iae?eiaeo caienao, iiieeie a ?ic?aooieao, iaaeiaeyaeo a iiaiio? iae?eo,
iai?aaeeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iae?eo oaeo?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, iayaiino? ? noaio iaeia [65, 48].

Iaeaaeiiai ae??oaiiy iio?aaothoue ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy ae?e aoaeeoi?a a
i?aai?caoe?eiiio ieai? i?ney aeyaeaiiy aee?eaeaiue o?iainiai? ca?oiino?
e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? noi??i aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee. Oea iiynith?oueny
oei, ui ii?iaeueia i?ioeaaeo?a ?aaeaiaioaoe?? oaeiai ?iaeo ieoaiue
ia?aaeaa/a? ?o iiia?aaeith i?eioeeiiao ?ic?iaeo a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao c
iiaeaeueoith aeaoae?caoe??th a ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioao a?eueo iecueeiai
??aiy, o oiio /ene? a noaiaea?oao.

A oe?a?inueeiio ii?iaoea? cacia/a?oueny, ui aei iaia’yce?a aoaeeoi?a ia
aoiaeeoue iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ciaeaeai? iei ii?ooaiiy ua eiainue, e??i
ea??aieoeoaa (aeaniee?a) i?aei?e?inoaa. Aoaeeoi? ia ia? i?aaa iaaeaaaoe
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i oaeoe ii?ooaiue caeiiiaeaanoaa aai iaaeaaaoe aoaeue-ye?
aeieoiaioe noi?iii?i i?aei?e?inoaai /e iniaai.

I?ney aeyaeaiiy aee?eaeaiue iaiao?aeii ioe?ieoe iane?eueee aiie nooo?a?,
nei?eaoaaoe ?ai?oa ?ic?iaeai? aoaeeoi?nuee? i?ioeaaeo?e, i?iaanoe
ioe?ieo iaae?eiino? nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth aeiiii?/iiai
noa’?eoa. I?e oeueiio iaoe?iiaeueiee ii?iaoea cacia/a?, ui aoaeeoi?
iiaeiai yeiiiaa oaeaeoa iia?aeiieoe i?i aeyaeaia oao?aenoai aai iiieeee
ea??aieoeoai i?aei?e?inoaa, iaa?oue eiee a?i o?eueee i?eionea?, ui
iiieeee /e oaeoe oao?aenoaa iiaeooue ?nioaaoe ? iioaioe?eiee aoaeo a?ae
ieo ia?noioiee ? ia aieeaa? ia o?iainiao ca?oi?noue i?aei?e?inoaa.

sseui aoaeeoi? ia aiaaiaiee a iayaiino? aee?eaeaiue ?ioi?iaoe??, oi
i?aoe?aieee aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa iiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe o aecia/aii?
oaeo?a ?o ?nioaaiiy oa i?e/ei, ui ?o coiiaeee. Aea ?ieiee i?e/eie
aee?eaeaiue c?icoi?e? ? aac caa?oaiue aei ea??aieoeoaa /e ia?niiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaa. Ii-ae?oaa, c’ynoaaiiy ?ieiee iiaea ianoi?iaeeoe
ii?ooiee?a ? oneeaaeieoe aaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoi? ia?aa??ee. Ii-o?ao?,
neooaoe?? c aee?eaeaiiyie o?iainiai? ca?oiino? iano?eueee ??cii??aei?,
ui ne?ae caeeoeoe a oeueiio ieoaii? naiaiaeo aeai?o ca aoaeeoi?ii.
Ioaea, aeioe?eueii a ii?iaoea? i?aee?aneeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?
oaeiai caa?iaiiy.

Aeieace i?i aeyaeai? aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino? aoaeeoi?nueea
i?aai?caoe?y iiaeiia aena?oeeoe a aoaeeoi?nueeiio aeniiaeo (aeiiae
ii?iaoeao uiaei neeaaeaiiy aoaeeoi?nueeiai aeniiaeo). O a?eueo
aeaoaeueiiio aeaeyae? oe? na?ae/aiiy aeeth/athoueny aei ienueiiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? aoaeeoi?a ea??aieoeoao aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa (a?aeiia?aeiee
noaiaea?o).

O oeeo aeieoiaioao aoaeeoi?o ne?ae cacia/eoe o?eueee oaeoe aee?eaeaiue
aac aeac?aee ia ?o oa?aeoa? (iaaieni? /e iaiaaieni? aee?eaeaiiy) ?
eiie?aoieo in?a, ui ?o aeiionoeee. C’ynoaaiiy oeeo ianoaaei — ni?aaa
ea??aieoeoaa aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa, eiai aeaniee?a, iiaeeeai,
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, aea ia aoaeeoi?a. sse oaea aoei neacaii, oao?aenoai
? iaeiei ?c aeae?a oeea?eueieo cei/ei?a, o ca’yceo c /ei eaae?o?eoaaoe
aeaye? ae?? ye oao?aenoai iiaea o?eueee noae /e ne?aenoai, aea ia
aoaeeoi?. Oiio, yeui aoaeeoi? na?aeiii /e iaa?oue ciiaeo iacaa eiainue
oao?a?i, oi eiio iiaeooue aenoiooe iicia ca iaeeai. ? naia aoaeeoi?
iiaeiai aoaea caaacia/eoe noia?aenioeia? aeieoiaioaeuei? a?aoiaioe.
Ae??oaiiy oaeeo ieoaiue iaaoaa? i?aeoeee o ca’yceo c ?icaeyaeii ni?aa
aeayeeo iie?oee?a. Iaa?oue ii/eiathoue ae??ooaaoenue i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy
ii?aeueiiai caeoeo a?ae iaeeaio.

? aeaa ??cieo i?aeoiaee aei ieaioaaiiy aoaeeoo. Ca?aeii c ia?oei
aoaeeoi? i?eionea?, ui iiaeeea?noue aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai? ca?oiino?
aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa aeinoaoiuei aaeeea ?, aeoiaey/e c oeueiai
i?eiouaiiy, ieaio? nai? ae??. Ca ae?oaei i?aeoiaeii aoaeeoi? ieaio?
ia?aa??eo, ia ?iaey/e oaeiai i?eiouaiiy; a iiaeaeueoiio a?i aai ia
aeyaeoue aee?eaeaiue o?iainiai? ca?oiino?, aai c?iaeoue c ?o aeyaeaiiy
aeiaaeeiaee oaeo. Eiii?ii?n i?ae oeeie i?aeoiaeaie iaa?yae /e aei?a/iee,
oi/ iiaeeeaa ?o ii?aeiaiiy, eiee aei iaeieo aaeocae aooaaeoa?nueeiai
iae?eo o aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa canoiniao?oueny ia?oee i?aeo?ae, aei
?ioeo — ae?oaee.

?iicaiiee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui aoaeeoi?e a iniiaiiio aeio?eiothoueny
ia?oiai i?aeoiaeo. Cie?aia, a iaeiiio c ii?iaoea?a aoaeeoo i?iiiio?oueny
ia aeoiaoe, ui ii?ooaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoa? iaiiaeeeaa (iaa?oue yeui oea
i?aei?e?inoai ia? aacaeiaaiio ?aiooaoe?th). A no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
oiiaao oaeiae ia? canoiniaoaaoeny a iniiaiiio naia oeae i?aeo?ae,
ine?eueee ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ui ?aaoeththoue aooaaeoa?nueeee iae?eo iao?e
e?a?i?, caieooai?, cia/ii noia?a/eea? e /anoi ci?iththoueny. Aeoaea
iioe?aia ianoie?iia iiaaae?iea i?aei?e?ioe?a, a aee?eaeaiiy o?iainiai?
ca?oiino? a i?aai?caoe?yo iaaoee ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aea ?ieiee iaiao?aeiee ? ae?oaee i?aeo?ae, iai?eeeaae o oeo aeiaaeeao,
eiee aoaeeoi? i?iaiaeeoue ia?aa??eo aeiiii?/iiai noa’?eoa ia aia?oa ?,
oei a?eueoa, yeui a?i i?iaiaeea i?ii?aei? ia?aa??ee i?ioyaii ca?oiiai
ia??iaeo.

A oe?a?inueeiio ii?iaoea? (i. 22) cacia/a?oueny, ui aoaeeoi? iiaeiai
nieaioaaoe oa i?iaanoe aoaeeo, ea?oth/enue i?eioeeiii i?ioan?eiiai
neaioeoeecio. Aea ianooiia ?a/aiiy ni?eeia?oueny aeaui noia?a/eeai, a
naia — oaca i?i oa, ui aoaeeoi? ia iiaea i?eioneaoe, ui ea??aieoeoai
i?aei?e?inoaa ? ia/aniei, aea e ia iiaea i?eioneaoe, ui aiii ? aacoiiaii
/aniei. Oea ? ? ni?iaa eiii?ii?no. Ia iith aeoieo, aeioe?eueii aoei a
caeeoeoe i?aeia?iaeiee aa??aio ?icoi?iiy i?ioan?eiiai neaioeoeecio:
aoaeeoi? iiaeiai ieaioaaoe ? aeeiioaaoe naith ia?aa??eo c i?ioan?eiei
neaioeoeeciii, aeciath/e, ui a?i iiaea a oiae? aea/aiiy c?oeiooeny c
oiiaaie, ye? i?eaaaeooue eiai aei ieoaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy ii?ooaiiy /e
iiieeee. Oaeee i?aeo?ae /?oei a?aeiia?aea? i?eiouaiith i?i iayai?noue
iaaienieo oa iaiaaienieo iiieeie. E??i oiai, ii?ooaiiy iiaea aooe
?acoeueoaoii ae?e ia o?eueee ea??aieoeoaa, a e i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoaa.

I?eioeeiiaei ieoaiiyi aeyaeaiiy iiieeie ? aecia/aiiy iiaeaeueoeo ae?e
aoaeeoi?a. sse cacia/a?oueny a i?aeia?iaeiiio ii?iaoea?, iaoith eiai
noai?aiiy ? aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aoaeeoi?a ca aeyaeaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo aee?eaeaiue oa i?ioeaaeo?, ye? aoaeeoi? iiaeiai aeeiiaoe,
eiee a?i aeyaeoue ianoaaeie, ui o?aeoothoueny ye a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae ii?i
oa iiieeee. Naia oe? ieoaiiy iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeai? a oe?a?inueeiio
ii?iaoea? aiane?aeie iai?aaeeueiiai caaaeueiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo. Oae, o i. 2 cacia/a?oueny, ui iaoe?iiaeueiei ii?iaoeaii
ia?aaeaa/aii iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy oao?aenoaa aai iiieeee o o?iainia?e
ca?oiino? ee??ioa, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aoaeeoi?a, neeaae iaiao?aeieo
aoaeeoi?nueeeo i?ioeaaeo?, ye? iiaeiai aeeiiaoe aoaeeoi? aeey ?o
aeyaeaiiy.

sse a?aeiii, iniiaiith iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy aoaeeoi?nueei? ia?aa??ee ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeinoia??iino? o?iainiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeinoia??i?noue
o?iainiai? ca?oiino? ia?aaeaa/a? a?aenooi?noue nooo?aeo iiieeie oa
aee?eaeaiue ?ioi?iaoe??. Iaoiaeieia?th iiooeo cacia/aieo iaoa??aeueieo
iaaienieo /e iaiaaienieo iiieeie aena?oeaii a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueieo
ii?iaoea?a aoaeeoo. Ioaea, oaco uiaei i?ioeaaeo? aeyaeaiiy iiieeie oa
oao?aenoaa ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe aei?a/iith, ine?eueee ?o iaiiaeeeai
?ice?eoe a iaeiiio ii?iaoea?.

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