Заплавні ліси Лівобережної України та наукові основи господарювання в них: Автореф. дис… д-ра с.-г. наук / В.П. Ткач, Укр. держ. лісотехн. ун-т. — Л

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OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?NIOAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OEA*

A?eoi? Iao?iae/

OAeE 630*263

CAIEAAI? E?NE E?AIAA?AAEII? OE?A?IE OA

IAOEIA? INIIAE AINIIAeA?THAAIIss A IEO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.03.03 – e?niciaanoai ? e?n?aieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyaeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?? ?i. A.I.Aenioeueeiai
Aea?aeeiie?nainio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e OAAI Iaoeae ?ai? Ieeieaeiae/, Oe?a?inueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe??, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? naeaeoe??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aain??oe Noaiai Aioiiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?n?aieoeoaa;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Eae?i?i Ieoaeei
?aaiiae/, Ieeiea?anueea o?e?y Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”, i?ioani? aeaia?oaiaioo aeieia??;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Inoaiaiei Ai?en
Oaaei?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e e?n?aieoeoaa, iae?i?aoe?? ? aeieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, e?niainiiaea?nueeee oaeoeueoao,i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1300 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.072.02 a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?nioaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 290057, i. Euea?a, aoe.
Aaia?aea *oi?eiee, 103.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: 290057, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Aaia?aea *oi?eiee, 101.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” __aa?aniy____ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Caeainueeee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caieaai? e?nia? o?oioeaiice Oe?a?ie
a?ae??ciythoueny nai???aei?noth ? oi?eaeuei?noth. Aiie c?inoathoue a
oiiaao iino?eiiai aieeao aetha?aeueieo ? ?oneiaeo i?ioean?a.

Oe? e?ne oi/a ? caeiathoue a?aeiinii iaaaeeeo ieiuo (aeecueei 400
oen.aa), i?ioa aeeiiothoue iaaecae/aeii aaaeeea? aeieia?/i? ooieoe?? ?
iathoue aaeeea ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy. Iaea?eueo? ieiu?
caieaaieo e?n?a neiioeaio?iaai? a e?aiaa?aaei?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie.

Aiane?aeie noai?aiiy ia ??eao eaneaae?a aiaeinoiaeu, aenieoaoaoe?? a
aeieeiao ??e aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae, ca?aaoethaaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai noieo oa
i?iaaaeaiiy aeieia?/ii iaiaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a ia ??cieo eaieao
??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a a inoaii? aeae?eueea aeanyoee?oue a caieaaao
niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea o?ainoi?iaoe?y e?ni?ineeiieo oiia, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ineaaeaiiy ? iaa?oue aeaa?aaeaoe?? caieaaieo e?n?a.

I?ioa e?niainiiaea?nuee? caoiaee, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a oeeo e?nao, ia
a?aoiaothoue ia o?eueee ?o oi?eaeuei? aaaaoia?aii? aeieiai-caoeni?
(?oneinoaa?e?coth/?, eieueiaooth/?, a?oioicaoeni?, aiaeiioi?iii?,
?ae?aaoe?ei? oa ?io?) ooieoe??, a e iniaeeaino? oiia c?inoaiiy oa ?o
aio?iiiaaiio ii?ooai?noue. Iaoeia? iniiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo
e?nao Oe?a?ie ?ic?iaeai? aeoaea neaai. Ca nai?i ci?noii aiie a?eueoith
i??ith a?aeiia?aeathoue i?e?iae? e?n?a, ye? c?inoathoue ia aa?oi?o
eaieao aiaeicai?o.

Oiio i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iniia ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo e?nao
Oe?a?ie ? ae?ae aino?ith ? aeooaeueiith. Aiia aeiaaa? aaca?aeeeaaeiiai
ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie. ?iaioa
i?iaiaeeeanue ca?aeii aea?aecaiiaeaiiy I?ie?nainio Oe?a?ie a i?ioean?
aeeiiaiiy oaeeo oai oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?? (Oe?IAe?EAA): “?ic?iaeoe caoiaee a caieaaao ??e
Oe?a?ie, ui caaacia/othoue iioei?caoe?th no?oeoo?e caieaaiiai
eaiaeoaooo, noai?aiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy caoenieo e?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo ianaaeaeaiue c iaoith iie?auaiiy noaio ??e”
(1988-1995 ??.), “?ic?iaeoe oe?eueia? i?ia?aie ae?iuoaaiiy oe?iieo
aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue a e?ninoaiia?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie” (1991-1995 ??.),
“?ic?iaeoe iia? canaaee e?n?aieoeoaa, ui caaacia/aoue iaae/a?ii?noue,
noaa?euei?noue oa caaeainiaai?noue aaaaoioe?eueiaiai e?niei?enooaaiiy a
no/anieo oiiaao” (c 1996 ?.) oa ?ioeo oai.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa ?iaioe – ?ic?iaeoe iaoeia? iniiae
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo e?nao E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie c a?aooaaiiyi
?o no/aniiai noaio oa c?inoath/i? iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? a nenoai?
??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue
ia?aaeaa/aeinue ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

1.Aecia/eoe i?eioeeie oa e?eoa??? iioei?caoe?? e?nenoino? ? no?oeoo?e
caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a aiaeicai??a ??e.

2.?ic?iaeoe caoiaee uiaei iineeaiiy aeieiai-caoenieo oa ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ooieoe?e caieaaieo e?n?a.

3.Aeaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio oa eiai aio?iiiaaiii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a caieaaao ye iniiao aeey i?eeiyooy e?n?aie/eo ??oaiue oa
ia?niaeoeaieo ieai?a ?icaeoeo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

4.?ic?iaeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th oa ae?aaiice caieaaieo oei?a e?no aiaeicai??a
??e ??cieo i?e?iaeieo cii ye iniiae aeey aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa ia
ciiaeueii-oeiieia?/ieo i?eioeeiao.

5.Aeaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aeeiai?ee noaio caieaaieo e?n?a oa ?ic?iaeoe
caoiaee uiaei caaeainiaaiiai oa noaeiai e?niei?enooaaiiy a caieaaao ??e.

6.?ic?iaeoe ia aii?oaoii-oeiieia?/i?e iniia? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo c aenieeie aeieiai-caoenieie ooieoe?yie
i?e?iaeieo oa ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a caieaaao
ii??ae, iaa?oiooaaoe ?o iioeiaeuei? a?ee noeaeino?.

7.Ooi/ieoe ii?iaoeae uiaei oaenaoe?? ia?aaaaeath/eo a caieaaao
ii?ineaaeo oa ooo/ieo aeoaiaeo aea?aainoai?a.

8.Aaeineiiaeeoe nenoaie ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy oa ?oaie,
iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa, a oaeiae oaoiieia??
e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy a caieaaao ??e.

9.?ic?iaeoe iaoeia? iniiae oa no?aoaa?th e?n?aie/eo caoiae?a o caieaaao
??e c a?aooaaiiyi iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a oa
aiaeicai??a ??e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey oiia E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie iaa?oioiaaia ?aeay nenoaiiiai ? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
e?niae?iuoaaiiy ia aiaeica??i?e iniia?, iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie oa
?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? iioei?caoe?? e?nenoino? ? no?oeoo?e caieaaieo
eaiaeoaoo?a aeey iaeieo c iaea?eueoeo ??e E?aiaa?aaeaey — N?a.Ae?ioey,
Ai?neee ? Inea. Iaaoei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a/aiiy A.I.Aenioeueeiai i?i
“e?niao ia?oeiaioe?th”, ooi/iai? ia iiaiio oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? e?eoa???
oa iaa?oioiaai? ii?iaoeae oe?eie aa?aaicaoenieo e?niaeo nioa a caieaaao
??e. Oaeineiiaeaii e?n?aie/? caoiaee uiaei iineeaiiy aeieiai-caoenieo oa
?ae?aaoe?eieo ooieoe?e caieaaieo e?n?a. Aia?oa ia nenoaiiiio ??ai?
iaea?aeaii e?euee?nio ioe?ieo a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio a caieaaao ??e oa
aaee/eie eiai aio?iiiaaiiiai ii?ooaiiy. ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
caieaaieo e?ni?ineeiieo oiia, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? neeaaeai?
ae?aaiinoe/i? oaaeeoe? caieaaieo oei?a e?no E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei caaeainiaaiiai oa noaeiai
e?niei?enooaaiiy a caieaaao oa iaaaaeaiee ia?ae?e ia?oi/a?aiaeo ?
aaca?aeeeaaeieo caoiae?a a ieo.

Aia?oa ia aii?oaoii-oeiieia?/i?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ooo/ieo oa i?e?iaeieo aeoaiaeo
aea?aainoai?a, ooi/iai? ii?iaoeae uiaei ?o oaenaoe??. Iaa?oioiaai?
iioeiaeuei? a?ee noeaeino? ianaaeaeaiue ia?aaaaeath/eo a caieaaao
ii??ae.

Aeey caieaaieo oiia ?ic?iaeai? iioei?ciaai? oa aca?iiocaiaeaeai?
nenoaie ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy oa ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa (?oaie aeiaeyaeo, e?nia?aeiiaieo,
?aeiino?oeoeaieo oa nai?oa?ieo ?oaie), ooi/iai? oaoiieia??
e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi oe?ieiai ani?oeiaioo aea?aaieo oa
/aaa?ieeiaeo ii??ae.

Ia i?eioeeiiai iiaiio oai?aoe/iiio oa iaoiaee/iiio ??aiyo ?ic?iaeai?
iaoeia? canaaee oa cai?iiiiiaaia no?aoaa?y e?n?aie/eo caoiae?a o
caieaaao ??e c a?aooaaiiyi iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie
nenoaiiiai ? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai e?niae?iuoaaiiy a caieaaieo
eaiaeoaooao iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? ia
?ioeo eaieao ??/eiaeo aiaeicai??a. ?o aeioe?eueii a?aoiaoaaoe a i?ioean?
?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a noai?aiiy e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue, ia?niaeoeaieo
eiiieaenieo ieai?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia aiaeicai?ao ??e, i?iaiicoaaiiy
iiaeeeaeo ci?i i?e aaaaeaii? a aenieoaoaoe?th a aeieeiao ??e ??ciiai
?iaeo a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae, aeieia?/i?e aenia?oec? iiaeeeaeo
iane?aee?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

?ic?iaeai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean?
i?aai?caoe?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa, e?niaii?yaeeoaaeueieo ?
e?nioeiieia?/ieo ?iaioao a caieaaao ??e, i?e noai?aii? ia
ciiaeueii-oeiieia?/ieo i?eioeeiao e?niaeo eoeueoo?, i?iaaaeaii? ia
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueia?e iniia? ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy. I?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aea? ciiao ae?iuoaaoe a caieaaao ??e aenieii?iaeoeoeai?
e?nia? o?oioeaiice c aenieeie aeieiai-caoenieie ooieoe?yie.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ii?iaoea?a uiaei oaenaoe?? ii?ineaaeo oa
ooo/ieo aeoaiaeo aea?aainoai?a i?aeaeueoue oi/i?noue ?o e?niiae?eiaeo
?ia?o, ui ni?eyoeia i?eeiyooth iaa?oioiaaieo e?niainiiaea?nueeeo ?
e?nioi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a caieaaao ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? “?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aaaeaiiy
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa a caieaaao ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie”, ye?
ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a caieaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo aea?aee?naini?a ia’?aeiaiue
“Oa?e?ae?n”, “Eoaainueee?n”, “*a?i?a?ae?n” ia caaaeuei?e ieiu? aeecueei
20 oen.aa.

C?iaeai? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo
e?nao ocaaaeueiai? oaeiae a ae?th/eo “I?aaeeao ?oaie aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy a ??aieiieo e?nao Oe?a?ie” (1995 ?.), a “Ianoaiiaeaiiyo
uiaei ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa a e?nao
Oe?a?ie” (i?iaeo), a “Oe?eueiaeo i?ia?aiao ae?iuoaaiiy oe?iieo aeoaiaeo
ianaaeaeaiue o e?ninoaiia?e /anoei? Oe?a?ie” (1995 ?.).

Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeniiioaaeenue ia AAeIA Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoeiaa eiioeaioe?y, ?aea?
?iaioe oa ?o iaa?oiooaaiiy iaeaaeaoue aaoi?ia?. Ca?? iaoeiaeo iaoa??ae?a
i?iaiaeeany i?ae ea??aieoeoaii oa i?e aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? aaoi?a.
Aaoi?ii oaeiae ?ic?iaeaia caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue, ca eiai
ea??aieoeoaii oa o/anoth caeeaaeaii na??th oei/aniaeo oa noaoe?iia?ieo
aeine?aeieo ia’?eo?a, aeoeaieo aenia?eiaio?a ii ia?aoi?ioaaiith
ineaaeaieo iaeioe?iieo e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ananithcieo oa
?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao, eiioa?aioe?yo (Euea?a,
1986; Neeoeaea?, 1987; I?inuee, 1987; Iineaa, 1988; A?yinuee, 1990;
Naaanoiiieue, 1990; Eioea?-Iea, 1990; Eai?ia?aae, 1990; Ai?iiaae, 1991;
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1991,1992; Ooa, 1991; Oa?e?a, 1994), a oaeiae ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, neiiic?oiao (A?eueithn, 1987;
Oeueyiianuee, 1992; Eaoeeaae?, 1993; E?eaee ??a, 1993; Iaeana, 1994;
Euea?a, 1995; Ee?a, 1997; E?ae?a, 1998) ? ia O? Anana?oiueiio e?niaiio
eiia?an? (Aioae?y, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 56 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a
oiio /ene? iaeio iiiia?ao?th, iaeio a?ioo?o, 29 noaoae, 25 iaoa??ae?a ?
oac eiioa?aioe?e, ia?aae, neiiic?oi?a, c’?cae?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia
503 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, a o./. iniiaiee oaeno – ia 256 noi??ieao.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c 9 ?icae?e?a, anooio, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno ?ethno?iaaiee 80 oaaeeoeyie,
25 ?enoieaie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 334 aeaea?aea, c ieo 27 —
?iicaiieo. Aeiaeaoie i?noeoue 42 oaaeeoe?, a?aeiia?aei? aeia?aeee oa
aeoe uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

INIIAIA *ANOEIA

NO*ANI? I?IAEAIE CAIEAAIIAI E?N?AIEOeOAA

C?iaeaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo uiaei ?icaeoeo oai??? i?i caieaae ??e, iie?ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie?
caieaaieo e?n?a ? ?o aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, e?ni?ineeiieo oiia a
caieaaao ??e, aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa a caieaaieo e?nao oa iioei?caoe??
no?oeoo?e caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a. Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui a iaaeao iaaiiai
aiaeicai?o caieaaa ??/ee ooai?th? nai???aeio aeieia?/io nenoaio.
Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ??/eiaiai noieo /anoi noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iia??oaiiyi noaio ? aeaa?aaeaoe??th e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a. Oea a naith
/a?ao aeoea?co? i?ioeane iiaeaeueoiai iia??oaiiy noaio ??e. Oiio
e?niiae?i?aoeai? oa e?niainiiaea?nuee? caoiaee a caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao
iiaeii? i?iaiaeeoenue ia i?ia?aiii-oe?eueia?e ? ciiaeueii-oeiieia?/i?e
iniia? c a?aooaaiiyi no/aniiai noaio ? ?ie? caieaaieo e?n?a,
iaiao?aeiino? iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a oa
aeinyaiaiiy a ieo iioeiaeueii? e?nenoino?. Oe? caoiaee iiaeii? aooe
iia’ycai? ? iiaiaeaeai? c ?ioeie nenoaiaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui
cae?eniththoueny ye a iaaeao caieaaii? /anoeie aiaeicai?o, oae ? caaaeii
ia anueiio aiaeicai??.

INIIAI? IAOIAeE*I? IIEIAEAIIss

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue aaco?oueny ia nenoaiiiio oa eiiieaeniiio
i?aeoiae? i?e aea/aii? caieaaieo e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue, ye
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo aeieia?/ieo nenoai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a caieaaieo e?nao E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie,
ui c?inoathoue acaeiaae iaea?eueoeo ??e – Aei?i?a, Aeanie, Naeio,
Ai?neee, Inea, N?a. Ae?ioey, Naia?e oa ?o i?eoie. Aeey ae??oaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aaoi?ii aai i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii aoei
caeeaaeaii aeecueei 500 noaoe?iia?ieo ? oei/aniaeo i?iaieo ieiu oa 16
aeieia?/ieo i?io?e?a iiia?ae oa acaeiaae caieaae caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith
iiiaae 25 ei. Aeei?enoiaoth/e caaaeueiii?eeiyo? a e?n?aieoeoa?, e?nia?e
oaenaoe??, a?oioiciaanoa?, a?ae?ieia?? (Iia?aaiye, 1955; Ai?iaeia, 1967;
Aio/?i, 1982 oa ?i.) iaoiaee, ia aeine?aeieo ia’?eoao i?iaiaeeeenue
eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aeieia?/ieo oiia oa oi?ioaaiiy
e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a o caieaaao ??e. Aiaeii-o?ce/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oio?a i?iaaaeaii ia 32 i?iaieo ieiuao, aeeiai?ea ??ai?a a?oioiaeo aiae
aea/aia ia 47 i?iaieo ieiuao, iaoai?/iee aiae?c a?oio?a ia 82 i?iaieo
ieiuao, o?i?/iee aiae?c a?oio?a ? a?oioiaeo aiae – ia 72 i?iaieo ieiuao.
I?e?iaeia iiiiaeaiiy e?niaeo ii??ae ia c?oaao aea/aii ia 40 i?iaieo
ieiuao, aeeiai?ea ?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo ??cieo ii??ae – ia aeecueei 2,5
oen. iiaeaeueieo aea?aaao. Iioeiaeueia aiaeiioi?iiia e?neno?noue
iiaeaeueieo aiaeicai??a aecia/aia ca iaoiaeeeith A.A.I?oiae/a (1969).
No?oeoo?a caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a oa aieea e?nenoino? caieaa ia
ii?oiiao?e/i? iieacieee ?onae aecia/aeenue ia 57 ea?oao i??eeii 1:10
000, 1:25 000 c aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiieo iaoiaee/ieo i?eeii?a (Iiiia,
1961).

C iaoith aeai?o iioeiaeueieo oaoiieia?e ia?aoi?ioaaiiy ineaaeaieo
aeoaiaeo o?oioeaiic?a o ieo caeeaaeaeenue aeoeai? aeine?aee, ui
ia?aaeaa/aee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?oaie oa noai?aiiy
aeine?aeieo eoeueoo?. Iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy ooo/ieo aeoaiye?a
?ic?iaethaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoo i?ia?ai eaoaae?e oaenaoe?? IAO
(i. Ee?a).

E?NENO?NOUe CAIEAA OA ?IEUe E?N?A O IEO

O ieioeiio (2-4 noi??//y oiio) caieaai? e?ne Oe?a?ie c?inoaee ia cia/ii
a?eueoeo (o aeae?eueea ?ac?a) ieiuao ii??aiyii c oaia??oi?i /anii.
E?neno?noue caieaa a?eueoino? ??e aoea aenieith, iaa?oue a noaiia?e
cii?. ?ioaineaia, aacnenoaiia o?eaaea ?oaea e?n?a, ui i?iaiaeeeanue c
iaoith caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ainiiaea?noaa oa ianaeaiiy o aea?aaei?
(Aain??oe, 1992, 1995) i?ecaaea aei ??ceiai ciaioaiiy ieiu? caieaaieo
e?n?a. ?ioaineaia nei?i/aiiy ieiu? oeeo e?n?a a?aeaoaaeinue ? a iiai?ii?
?iee o ca’yceo c? noai?aiiyi ia ??eao aiaeinoiaeu ? oe?ieiianooaaiei
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei inai?iiyi caieaaieo caiaeue oiui.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui o oaia??oi?e /an iaea?eueo?
ieiu? e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue a caieaaao neiioeaio?iaai? a E?ninoaio oa
Noaio, acaeiaae ??e N?a.Ae?iaoeue, Ai?neea, Inae. Na?aaeiy e?neno?noue
caieaa oeeo ??e neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 52,5%; 26,5%; 19,9%. E?neno?noue
caieaa aiaeicai??a ??e Iie?nny ia ia?aaeuo? 5%. Iaaeinoaoiy e?neno?noue
caieaa oa aaeeeee nooi?iue ?ici?aiino? caieaaieo caiaeue, ui ia aeayeeo
ae?eyieao nyaa? 50%, ? iaei??th c i?e/ei iia??oaiiy caaaeueiiai noaio
??/eiaeo nenoai E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

A no/anieo oiiaao iniaeeai iineeth?oueny ?ae?aaoe?eia oa aiaeiioi?iiia
?ieue ianaaeaeaiue (Oaoaeia, 1986; I?eiea?iei, 1981), ui iaoiiaeaii
aenieith o?aai?ciaai?noth aiaeicai??a a?eueoino? ??e (Onothaeai?i,
1990).

?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia caieaai? a?ioeaiice ? aeoaea aenieei ? ia
aaaaoueio ae?eyieao ia?aaeuo? a?aie/ii aeiionoei? aaee/eie.

Iaea?eueoiio aio?iiiaaiiiio oeneo i?aeaeaoi? ianaaeaeaiiy i?e?oneiaeo
ae?eyiie iacaeaaeii a?ae aaee/eie e?nenoino? caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a
(Oea/, Cyoueeia, 1990). Oae, a ?aeii? Ia/ai?cueeiai aiaeinoiaeua
(Oa?e?anueea iae.) ?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia oae? ianaaeaeaiiy nyaa?
60 ethae./aa, a i?eaa?aaeieo ciiao Aei?i?a, Naia?e, Aia/i?, I?ae?, a
?aeii? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aac a?aeii/eieo ? naiaoi???a – 70-80 ethae./aa
(Aei?i?iiao?ianueea iae.), a a Eoaainuee?e iae. ia aeayeeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ae?eyieao i?e?oneiai? caieaae N?a.Ae?ioey – aei 100 ethae./aa ? 10-15
aaoiiaoei ia 1 aa. Oea aeiaaa? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo i?e
?ae?aaoe?eiiio aeaoooaaii? e?n?a, ui c?inoathoue o ??cieo ciiao caieaae
(i?e?oneia?e, oeaio?aeuei?e, i?eoa?ani?e).

O i?ioean? ?ic?iaee aeiaaino?ieiaeo aaia?aeueieo ieai?a uiaei
?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy caieaaieo e?niaeo caiaeue iaiao?aeii
iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? ii?iaoeae aeiionoeiiai
?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?nia? a?ioeaiice oa cai?iiiiiaai? iaie
iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iineeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ooieoe?e e?n?a.

Caieaai? e?nia? a?ioeaiice nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane iaaiae?oaaiiy
??e oa ?oeioaaiiy aa?aaiaeo e?i?e. I?ioa ni?yiiaai?noue oa
?ioaineai?noue oeueiai aieeao iaoiiaeth?oueny aaiii?oieia?/ieie
iniaeeainoyie aeieeie, aaee/eiith ?oneioi?ioth/eo aeo?ao aiaee (?oaoeia,
1981), aaee/eiith e?nenoino? caieaae, a oaeiae ii?iaeiei neeaaeii
ianaaeaeaiue, ui c?inoathoue ia aa?aaao ??e. Oiio a iaeieo aeiaaeeao
e?nia? a?ioeaiice nooo?ai caaaeueiiaothoue i?ioeane aa?aai?oeioaaiiy, a
a ?ioeo ?o aa?aaioe??iethth/a ?ieue aeyaey?oueny ia oae /?oei.

O E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ii??ae, ia?aaaaeath/eo o
neeaae? i?e?oneiaeo ianaaeaeaiue (aeoa, ynai, eeia, eeai iieueiaee,
oiiiey), iaoiiaeththoue aeeaieee ?icaeoie ?o ei?aiaaeo nenoai, ui ni?ey?
iaae?eiiio “ne??ieaiith” aa?oiueiai 2-o-iao?iaiai oa?o a?oioo. Oae, ia
noaoe?iia?i?e aeine?aei?e ae?eyioe? a caieaa? Aeanie o oa?? a?oioo
50-100 ni e?euee?noue ei??iiy aeoaa noaiiaeoue 24% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?, o oa?? 100-130 ni – 11%. E?euee?noue ei??iiy eeaia
iieueiaiai, /anoea yeiai a neeaae? caieaaieo ianaaeaeaiue ? aenieith, o
ieaei?o oa?ao a?oioo ? ua aeuith. Oiio oae? ii?iaee ia i?ioeaaao oei, ui
?icaeaathoue iiaa?oiaao ei?aiaao nenoaio, caaaeueiiaothoue i?ioeane
a?ic??, iaaiae?oaaiiy ??e oa ?oeioaaiiy aa?aa?a.

C? ca?eueoaiiyi e?nenoino? caieaa ciaioo?oueny oe?eia nioae
iaaiae?oaaiiy ??e (A), eiao?oe??io ?icaeoeo (S/), eoo ?icai?ioo caeaei
() (oaae.1). Ca’ycie i?ae e?neno?noth caieaae N?a.Ae?ioey (ln) ?
oe?eiith nioae iaaiae?oaaiiy ??/ee (A) aeineoue aeia?a ai?ieneio?oueny
??aiyiiyi:

A = 852,6 – 6,273lc (r = -0,77).

Oaaeeoey 1

Ii?oiiao?e/i? iieacieee ?onae Ai?neee, Inea ? N?aa?nueeiai Ae?ioeya
caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o cae?naiiy aa?aa?a

Oa?aeoa? cae?naiiy aa?aa?aS/A, i, a?aae.Ai?neeaIa
cae?nai?1.440.05508381447Cae?nai? c iaeiiai aieo
?onea1.130.033384011314Cae?nai? c iaio aie?a
?onea1.130.043246210913InaeIa cae?nai?1.870.11804611525Cae?nai? c
iaeiiai aieo ?onea1.450.09613771496Cae?nai? c iaio aie?a
?onea1.390.0658848 1327N?aa?nueeee AeiiaoeueIa
cae?nai?1.710.2761310715614Cae?nai? c iaeiiai aieo
?onea1.600.215157014611Cae?nai? c iaio aie?a
?onea1.460.174464013710Anoaiiaeaii, ui a caieaaao iaea?eueo e?oiieo ??e
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie i?ioeiaaiae?oth/? ? ?oneinoaa?e?coth/? ooieoe??
a?ae?a?athoue ia o?eueee o? e?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
eiioaeoothoue c ?oneii, a e o?, ui c?inoathoue ia a?aeaeaeaieo a?ae
??/ee ae?eyieao caieaae. E?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy nooo?ai ciaioothoue
oaeaee?noue ?icieao aa?aa?a ? ia non?aei?o aace?nieo ae?eyieao ??e. Oae,
yeui i?e nooe?eueiiio cae?naii? i?e?oneiai? /anoeie caieaae, aea ia
iiaiiio cae?naii? an??? caieaae ?ic?aooieiaa oe?eia nioae iaaiae?oaaiiy
N?a.Ae?ioey neeaaea? 446 i, oi i?e oiia? nooe?eueiiai cae?naiiy an???
caieaae aiia ciaioo?oueny aei 229 i. O oeueiio aeyaey?oueny iiaee aeae
iicaiaaeiiai aieeao e?no (iicaiaaeia “e?niaa ia?oaiaioe?y” ca
A.I.Aenioeueeei).

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, e?ne e?aiaa?aaeii? /anoeie
caieaae ?noioi?oa aieeaathoue ia ii?oiiao?e/i? iieacieee caeaei ?
i?ioeane iaaiae?oaaiiy ii??aiyii c e?naie i?aaiaa?aaeii? caieaae. Oiio
no?aoaa?y e?ni?icaaaeaiiy a caieaaao iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe noai?aiiy
nenoaie caoenieo e?niaeo nioa iaaiiai oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy a ia?oo
/a?ao ia e?aeo aa?aaao ??e, o ae?oao – ia i?aaeo.

Ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue o caieaaao iaiao?aeii ni?yiiaoaaoe ia
iaeneiaeueia cae?naiiy nioae iaaiae?oaaiiy. Na?aaeiy oe?eia oe??? nioae
aecia/aoeia oe?eio aa?aaicaoenieo e?niaeo nioa, ui aoiaeyoue a /enei
iniaeeai oe?iieo caiaeueieo ae?eyiie e?niaiai oiiaeo. Aeey Ai?neee
oe?eia oaeeo nioa iiaeiia neeaaeaoe 150 i, N?a.Ae?ioey – 200 i, Inea –
250 i.

N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea /anoeia caieaa iiaeiia neeaaeaoenue aeeeth/ii c
eoe?a, n?iiaeaoae ? ianiaeu.

Iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?aooiee na?ae/aoue, ui iioeiaeueia
e?neno?noue caieaae N?a.Ae?ioey noaiiaeoue 60,3%, Inea – 35,4%, Ai?neee
– 40,4%, a i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeia e?neno?noue aace?nieo ae?eyiie caieaa
– 15-20%%. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oaei? e?nenoino? iaiao?aeii nooe?eueii
cae?neoe nioao iaaiae?oaaiiy ??/ie, noai?eoe e?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy ia
i?e?oneiaeo iai?eeiao, noa?eoeyo, iiaa?aaeae? ica?, a oaeiae ia ieiuao c
/aaa?ieeiaei ??aeeie?nnyi, ui ia aeaiee /an aeeth/ai? aei
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? /anoeie caieaa.

E?niainiiaea?nuee? oa e?niiae?i?aoeai? caoiaee, ui i?iaeoothoueny oa
i?iaiaeyoueny a caieaaao ??e, iiaeii? aooe aca?iiiia’ycai? ?c caoiaeaie,
ui cae?eniththoueny ia ?ioeo eaieao aiaeicai?o. Oiio a i?ioean?
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai uiaei iioei?caoe?? e?nenoino? caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a
iaiao?aeii oaeiae a?aoiaoaaoe iieacieee iioeiaeueii? e?nenoino?,
anoaiiaeai? iaie aeey eiie?aoieo ?aa?ii?a, a a iaaeao ?aa?ii?a – aeey
eiie?aoieo aiaeicai??a.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co io?eiaieo aeaieo na?ae/aoue, ui a?ae?ieia?/ia ?ieue
e?n?a ia aiaeicai?ao, o o./. oeo, ui c?inoathoue o caieaaao ??e, o
??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao ? ??ciith. I?e iioeiaeuei?e aiaeiioi?iii?e
e?nenoino? iaeneiaeueia i?eaaaea a?oioiaiai noieo aiaeicai??a ??e
E?ninoaio ? ieae/ith ii??aiyii c aiaeicai?aie ??e Iie?nny, a a Noaio oey
i?eaaaea ? ua iaioith. A Noaio niinoa??aa?oueny iaea?eueoa c?inoaiiy
aeia?iaoaaiiy ia aiaeicai?ao ??e aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy ?o e?nenoino?.

C i?inoaaiiyi ?c I?aii/? ia I?aaeaiue a?aeiioaiiy iioeiaeueii?
e?nenoino? caieaaii? /anoeie aiaeicai??a ??e aei iioeiaeueii?
aiaeiioi?iiii? e?nenoino? aiaeicai??a a oe?eiio c?inoa?. Aeey
aiaeicai??a ??e Aei?i?a a oiiaao Iie?nny oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaiiaeoue
0,5, o E?ninoaio aeey aiaeicai??a ??e Inea ? Ai?neee – a?aeiia?aeii 1,8
? 2,1, aeey aiaeicai?o N?a.Ae?ioey a oiiaao Noaio – 3,5. Oiio oeae
iieaciee iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? /a?aiaino? ?ia?o,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iioei?caoe?th e?nenoino? caieaaieo /anoei aiaeicai??a ??e
o ??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao, a oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaoaiieo
aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?ia?ai uiaei ca?eueoaiiy e?nenoino? aiaeicai??a ??e aei
iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy.

A?Ae?IEIA?*I? OIIAE A CAIEAAAO ??E

A?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeei caieaa cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny iieacieeaie
??/eiaiai noieo o aaniyiee ia??iae. Aiane?aeie ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/eiaiai
noieo, i?iaaaeaiiy iae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a ia ??cieo eaieao aiaeicai??a a
inoaii? 3-4 aeanyoe??//y i?inoaaeo?oueny ?ioaineaia ciaioaiiy ??cieoeue
a ia’?iao noieo ??e a ia??iae iaaiaeeo ? a iaaeaiue. Oae,
na?aaeiueiaaniyia aeo?aoa aiaee N?a.Ae?ioey i?ney 1960 ?ie?a
nei?ioeeanue ia 20-40%. I?e oeueiio nooo?ai ciaioeany aaniyiee ??aaiue
??/ee. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui oae? ci?ie noieo
iathoue i?noea ia a?eueoino? ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Oae, a?aeiioaiiy
na?aaeiuei??/ieo aei na?aaeiueiaaniyieo aeo?ao Ai?neee c?inei c 0,38 aei
0,50; a?aeiioaiiy na?aaeiuei??/iiai aei na?aaeiueiaaniyiiai ??aiy Naia?e
– c 0,56-0,71 aei 0,85. Aaee/eia ca?aaoeueiaaiino? ??e c?inoa? c I?aii/?
ia I?aaeaiue.

Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ??/eiaiai noieo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai
nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? caoiieaiiy caieaa. Oae, yeui a 1928-1946 ??.
na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue caoiieaiiy caieaae N?a.Ae?ioey neeaaeaea 16,1-21,7
aei?a, Ai?neee – 11,4 aei?, oi i?ney 1970 ?ieo – a?aeiia?aeii 5,7-12,5
aei?a, 3,8 aei?a. Oea coiiaeth? ena?io?oecaoe?th oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy.

Nooo?ao ?ieue o aiaeiiio aeeaeaii? e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a a?ae?a?athoue
oaeiae aeeaeia caeyaaiiy ??ai?a a?oioiaeo aiae, iaoai?/iee neeaae
a?oio?a, ui aieeaa? ia caiane aieiae a a?oio?.

Ia ??cieo ae?eyieao caieaae aeeaeia caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae ia i?ioyc?
aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo eieeaa?oueny a aeineoue oe?ieeo ae?aiaciiao.
Iaeaeeae/a a?ae iiaa?oi? a?oioia? aiaee caeyaathoue a i?eoa?ani?e
caieaa?, a iaeaeeaoa – a i?e?oneia?e caieaa?. C iaaeeaeaiiyi aei ?onea
??/ee aeeaeia caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae c?inoa?. Oae, aeey caieaaieo oiia
N?a.Ae?ioey oeth caeiiii??i?noue aeineoue aeia?a iiaeaeth? ?aa?an?eia
??aiyiiy:

O = 0,726(o1-o2)-0,154 o 10-2 o3+0,512 (R = 0,827),

aea O – ??aaiue a?oioiaeo aiae o caieaa? ia a?aeaeae? aei 1 ei a?ae
??/ee (i), o1 – aenioa iaae ??aiai ii?y ae?eyiee (i), o2 – ??aaiue aiaee
??/ee (i), o3 – a?aeaeaeue a?ae ??/ee aei ae?eyiee (i).

Ae?aioth/ee aieea ??/ee ia ??aaiue a?oioiaeo aiae coiiaeth? caaaeueiee
aenieee nooi?iue i?ioi/iino? a?oioiaeo aiae o caieaa?.

I?e aecia/aii? aaee/eie caieiaeaiino? oeio oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy
iaiao?aeii ei?enooaaoeny cai?iiiiiaaiith oeaeith ca’yceo a?a?ioii?a c
??aiyie a?oioiaeo aiae, aai ae ?ic?aoiaaiei ??aiyiiyi:

O = ao? (7,311-0,6918o) (R = 0,852),

aea O – ??aaiue a?oioiaeo aiae (i), o – aae a?a?ioiio.

Aiaeii?iieeiai?noue ia?aaaaeath/eo o caieaaao ??e eo/ii-e?niaeo
noaeeienoeo a?oio?a ? aeineoue aenieith (aei 300 ii/oa), ui noai?th?
caaeia?euei? oiiae aeey c?inoaiiy e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?aeaeaeaiino? a?ae ?onea ??/ee aieia?noue noaeeienoeo
a?oio?a c?inoa? ? aeinyaa? iaea?eueoeo aaee/ei a i?eoa?ani?e caieaa?.
?iciiae?e aieiae ii a?oioiaiio i?io?eth cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny
iaoai?/iei neeaaeii a?oio?a.

O a?oioia?e oiau?, ?icoaoiaai?e iaae eai?ey?iith nioaith, c?
ca?eueoaiiyi i?ioeaioo o?ce/ii? aeeie aieia?noue a?oioo c?inoa?.

Io?eiai? iaie ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeiaaio?eaaeeo niinoa?aaeaiue /eneaii?
ca’ycee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeeiai?eo caian?a aieiae oa aieiaino?
a?oio?a ??ciiai iaoai?/iiai neeaaeo ia ??cieo ae?eyieao caieaae
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? oei?a oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy, a
oaeiae a i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei caoeniiai e?ni?icaaaeaiiy a
caieaaao ??e.

Ia e?ni?ineeii? oiiae a caieaaao ??e nooo?ai aieeaa? a?ae?io?i?/iee
?aaeei a?oio?a.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a a?oio?a oa a?oioiaeo aiae na?ae/aoue, ui c
i?inoaaiiyi c I?aii/? ia I?aaeaiue canieai?noue a?oio?a c?inoa?.
Iaea?eueoa /anoea canieaieo a?oio?a a noaiia?e cii? Oe?a?ie. I?e
aecia/aii? oei?a oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy, a oaeiae i?e noai?aii? e?niaeo
eoeueoo? a caieaaao ??e iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ??aaiue canieaiino?
a?oio?a.

Noai?aiiy e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue ia aace?nieo ae?eyieao caieaa iie?auo?
a?ae?ieia?/iee oa a?ae?io?i?/iee ?aaeei caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a.
Oa?aeoa?ii, ui iae?i?aoeaia ae?y i?e?oneiaeo e?niaeo nioa
i?inoaaeo?oueny ia o?eueee ia caeiai?e ieie ieiu?, aea e ia iaaeoth/eo c
ieie aace?nieo ae?eyieao. Oae, i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei nioae aenioa
ni?aiaiai iie?eao oa caiane aiaee a iueiio c?inoathoue a 1,5-2,0 ?ace.
Oiio a oiiaao ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/eiaiai noieo, iniaeeai a Noaio,
cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno caoiae?a uiaei iae?naiiy caieaa ni?eyoeia
iie?auaiith a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a.

Nooo?ai ci?ith? a?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeei aetha?aeueieo e?niaeo a?oio?a
aenieoaoaoe?y aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae. Aiane?aeie aieeao aiaeicaa??ieo
nii?oae ??cei cieaeo?oueny ??aaiue caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae (c 2-5 i aei
10-12 i), ciaioo?oueny aieia?noue a?oio?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o iaea?eueo?e
i??? i?ioeanai ena?io?oecaoe?? i?aeaeaoi? noaeeieno? oa aeeieno? a?oioe,
ui i?aenoeeathoueny i?neaie oa noi?neaie. Aei nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy
a?oioiaeo aiae i?ecaiaeeoue oaeiae inooaiiy caieaaieo e?niaeo caiaeue.

Eaoano?io?/i? ci?ie a?ae?ieia?/iiai oa a?ae?io?i?/iiai ?aaeeio
aetha?aeueieo e?niaeo a?oio?a a?aeaoaathoueny a Aeiiaan?, a ?aeiiao
i?aecaiiiai aeiaoaaiiy aoa?eey. O Cao?aeiiio Aeiiaan? i?ae aieeaii
oaooieo ?ia?o, aea niinoa??aa?oueny in?aeaiiy a?oioo ia 5-8 i, /?oei
i?inoaaeo?oueny cnoa aaeaoiio: ae?eyiee c iao?eaaeei caoiieaiiyi aac
iciae neeueiiai canieaiiy a?oio?a o?ainoi?iothoueny o na?aaeiuei- oa
neeueiicanieai? c o?eaaeei ia??iaeii caoiieaiiy (Oea/, 1988).

Ia oaeeo ae?eyieao i?ia?ae?ciaai?noue a?oioiaeo aiae nyaa? 8-13 a/e,
noia nieae o aa?oiueiio iao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo /anoi ia?aaeuo? 0,2-0,3%,
a o ieaei?o oa?ao – 1%, o o./. ai?no aeoaea oiene/iiai aeey e?niaeo
ii??ae oei?o – 0,05%.

Iiaeeo?eaoe?y a?ae?ieia?/ieo oa a?ae?io?i?/ieo oiia a caieaaao ??e
coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iiaoi?iiai oeiieia?/iiai
aii?yaeeoaaiiy caieaaieo e?n?a. Oea aoaea ni?eyoe i?iaaaeaiith
ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a a caieaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo c a?aooaaiiyi
??ciiiai?oieo i?iya?a aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeieia?/ieo oiia.

INIAEEAINO? OI?IOAAIIss CAIEAAIEO OEI?A E?NO

I?e?iaeiee aaiacen e?niai? ?ineeiiino? a caieaaao iaoiiaeth?oueny
iniiaieie aca?iiiia’ycaieie i?ioeanaie – aetha?aeuei?noth, caieaai?noth,
a oaeiae iaaiae?oaaiiyi ??/ee.

??ee E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ia?aaaaeii a?aeiinyoueny aei iaaiae?oth/eo ?
iathoue aeia?a ?icaeiooo caieaao. Iniaeeaino? aeoioeyoe?? aetha?th ia
iiaa?oi? caieaae caeaa?eueoiai aecia/athoue iaai? caeiiii??iino? o
oi?ioaaii? oei?a e?ni?ineeiieo oiia ? a?aeiia?aeieo ?i oei?a e?no a
??cieo ciiao caieaae – i?e?oneia?e, oeaio?aeuei?e ? i?eoa?ani?e.

Ii?iaeiee neeaae oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue a
caieaaao o?nii iia’ycai? c aa??aioaie caieaaiino?. I?e oeueiio
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeae?eyoe cai?iiiiiaai? iaie oae? aa??aioe caieaaiino?:
C? — aeia?a ae?aiiaai? c o?eaae?noth caoiieaiiy aei 15 aei?a; C?? —
aeia?a ae?aiiaai? c o?eaae?noth caoiieaiiy aei 30 aei?a; C??? — aeia?a
ae?aiiaai? c o?eaae?noth caoiieaiiy aei 60 aei?a; CIV — iiaaii
ae?aiiaai? c o?eaae?noth caoiieaiiy aei 60 aei?a; CV — iiaaii
ae?aiiaai? c o?eaae?noth caoiieaiiy a?eueoa 60 aei?a.

O aaiacen? oa aaiethoe?? caieaaieo oei?a e?no i?inoaaeothoueny ye
ciiaeuei?, oae ? aciiaeuei? iniaeeaino?. Ca oeeie iniaeeainoyie caieaai?
oeie e?no nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oei?a e?no, ui oi?iothoueny a
iaa??ieo oiiaao.

A caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao aiaeicai??a ??e ??cieo i?e?iaeieo cii
aeiaeueiaothoueny oa?aeoa?i? eiiieaene caieaaieo oei?a e?no.
??ciiiai?ooy oei?a e?no iaa?oue ia a?aeiinii iaaaeee?e ieiu? caieaae
coiiaeth?oueny aaeeeei ??ciiiai?ooyi aeieia?/ieo oiia. Oae a caieaaao
??e Noaio iaie aeae?eaii 13 iniiaieo oei?a e?no c a?aeiia?aeieie
aa??aioaie aaeaoiio, a E?ninoaio – 16, o Iie?nn? – 14.

Aeey eiaeiiai c oei?a e?no ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaaaaeaii aeaoaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?aeue?oo, a?oio?a, ??aiy caeyaaiiy
a?oioiaeo aiae, o?aa’yiiai iie?eao, /aaa?ieeiaiai oa aea?aaiiai y?ono
ianaaeaeaiue. O neioaciaai?e oi?i? oea a?aeia?aaeaii a ae?aaiinoe/ieo
oaaeeoeyo caieaaieo oei?a e?no, ye? neeaaeaii c a?aooaaiiyi iaea?eueoi?
?ioi?iaoeaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo iciae.

O noaiia?e oa e?ninoaiia?e ciiao a?aei?/aia iaie aeiaaeaiiy a’yciaeo
ae?a?ia ?c caieaaiiai eiiieaeno oei?a e?no iaoiiaeaii ii?ooaiiyi
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ye cie?aia caieaaieo
eaiaeoaoo?a, oae ? aiaeicai??a ??e acaaae?. Ca?aeiaiiy a?ieia?/iiai
??ciiiai?ooy iiaea i?ecaanoe aei eaoano?io?/iiai ii?ooaiiy iiioeyoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a, i?e?iaeiiai iaoai?cio ?o naii?aaoeyoe??.

Caieaai? e?ne i?e i?aai?caoe?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? iae?eo e?niaiai
oiiaeo iaiao?aeii i?aai?coaaoe a naiino?eio ainiiaea?nueeo /anoeio. Oea
ni?eyoeia i?iaaaeaiith e?niainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a ia
a?oioiai-oeiieia?/i?e iniia?, c a?aooaaiiyi aeieia?/ii? niaoeeo?ee
caieaa.

NO*ANIEE NOAI CAIEAAIEO E?N?A

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co noi?iiaaii? iaie e?nioaenaoe?eii? aace aeaieo, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeeiai?eo iieaciee?a e?noiiaeo iiaeaeueieo ainiiaea?noa
(e?nieoeoa, aea?aee?naini?a) o ??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie, na?ae/aoue, ui ia no/aniee noai caieaaieo e?n?a nooo?ai aieeaa?
iecueeee ??aaiue ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ieo, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiuei
aeineiiaea aeey caieaaieo oiia ii?iaoeaia aaca uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oa
aaaeaiiy e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa. Iayai?noue aaeeei? /anoee e?n?a,
aeeeth/aieo c ei?enooaaiiy (iniaeeai a caieaaao ??e Noaio), neaaea
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a?e?a ?oaie ? ?o iaa?aeiia?aei?noue a?ieia?/iei
iniaeeainoyi ii??ae, iaiaa?oioiaaia ia’?aeiaiiy a ni?euei?
ainiiaea?nuee? naeoe?? ii?ineaaeo ? ian?ii?aeo aeoaiye?a, a oaeiae
ianaaeaeaiue oiiieue a?ei? ? /i?ii?, aaeeea e?euee?noue ooai?aieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo /anoei a?aeiia?aeii eaoaai??yi caoeniino?,
?icaaeainiaaia no?oeoo?a ianaaeaeaiue ca a?eiaeie a?oiaie
oneeaaeiththoue aaeineiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a ia
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueia?e iniia?, ia ni?eythoue aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith
e?ni?ineeiiiai iioaioe?aeo caieaaieo oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy.

I?e caa?aaeaii? ?nioth/iai ianeaiiai ?aaeeio ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
caieaaieo e?nao, iniaeeai oeo, ui aeeeth/ai? c ?aaeeio aenieoaoaoe??,
aaea a iaeaeeae/? ?iee iiaeooue aeoea?coaaoeny i?ioeane ?o ineaaeaiiy ?
aneoaiiy. Oea aeiaaa? aaca?aeeeaaeiiai i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a.

Aeey ianaaeaeaiue ia?aaaaeath/eo o caieaaao ??e Iie?nny, E?ninoaio ?
Noaio ii??ae – aeoaa cae/aeiiai ii?ineaaiai ? ian?ii?aiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
oiiieue /i?ii?, a?ei? ? eaiaaenueei?, aa?a a?ei? ? eaiei?, a?eueoe
/i?ii? iiaoaeiaai? ?aa?an?ei? iiaeae?, ui ai?ieneiothoue aeeiai?eo
iniiaieo oaenaoe?eieo iieaciee?a (caian, ae?aiao?, aenioa). Oa?aeoa?ii,
ui a aeeiai?oe? caian?a ianaaeaeaiue oeeo ii??ae a ianaaeaeaiiyo,
a?aeianaieo aei ??cieo eaoaai??e caoeniino?, i?eioeeiiaeo a?aei?i ia
anoaiiaeaii.

Aiae?c iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae na?ae/eoue, ui iniaeeai iecueeith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth a?ae??ciythoueny aea?aainoaie oiiie? /i?ii?. O caieaaao
N?a.Ae?ioey oa Inea na?aaei?e ?o caian o a?oe? 30 ?ie?a neeaaea? eeoa
133 i3/aa. Iiaeaeuei? ianaaeaeaiiy oiiie? a?ei? iathoue aeaui e?au?
oaenaoe?ei? iieacieee; a?ieia?/i? ?? iniaeeaino? aecia/athoue o a?oe?
noeaeino? a?eueo aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue (ia 25-35%) ii??aiyii c
aea?aainoaiaie oiiie? /i?ii?. O an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie a inoaii? 20 ?ie?a c?inoa? na?aaei?e a?e oiiieaaeo ianaaeaeaiue.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaa/ania i?iaaaeaiiy nooe?eueieo ?oaie, ui ?
i?e/eiith iaeiie/aiiy ia?ano?eieo iecueeiiiaiioieo aea?aainoai?a, aeey
yeeo oa?aeoa?ia iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Oaenaoe?ei? iieacieee aea?aee?noiiaeo aa?aiaeo ianaaeaeaiue oa ?o
aeeiai?ea ? aeecueeeie aei oiiieaaeo. Aeey ianaaeaeaiue aa?a a?ei?
(ia?aaaaeii) oa eaiei? oaeiae oa?aeoa?iith ? iecueea i?iaeoeoeai?noue,
iayai?noue aeineoue aaeeei? /anoee iecueeiiiaiioieo oa ia?anoeaeeo
aea?aainoai?a.

Iaea?eueo oe?iieie a caieaaao ??e ? aeoaia? ianaaeaeaiiy. O
aea?aee?noiiae? ia?aaaaeathoue ii?ineaa? aeoaiyee a?eii 50 ? aeua ?ie?a.
I?e?iaei? aeoaia? ianaaeaeaiiy iieiaeoiai a?eo a caieaaao ??e
cono??/athoueny aeoaea ??aeei. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ii?ooaiiy oiaeo
i?e?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo a?ioeaiic?a.

O caieaaao N?aa?nueeiai Ae?ioey, Ai?neee oa Inea, aea neiioeaio?iaai?
aaeee? ieiu? ae?a?ia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y noa??iiy oa ineaaeaiiy aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue. Iniaeeai
caa?iceeaa neooaoe?y neeaeanue a noaiia?e cii?, a caieaa? N?aa?nueeiai
Ae?ioey.

Eoeueoo?e aeoaa ii??aiyii c ii?ineaaeie ianaaeaeaiiyie iathoue cia/ii
e?au? oaenaoe?ei? iieacieee: ?o na?aaei? iiaiioa oa caian ? aeueie. Oae,
a caieaa? Ai?neee ii?ineaa? aeoaiyee ia 76,9% a?ae caaaeueii? ?o ieiu?
c?inoathoue ca ?? aii?oaoii, ? ia 23,1% — ca ??? ? ?V. Eoeueoo?e aeoaa
ia 66,3% ieiu? oi?iothoueny ca ? ? ?a aii?oaoaie, ia 14,5% — ca ??
aii?oaoii ? eeoa ia 19,2% — ca ???. Caian iiaeaeueieo ooo/ieo aeoaiye?a
o a?oe? 60 ?ie?a neeaaea? 257 i3/aa, a ii?ineaaeo – eeoa 172 i3/aa. Oiio
oeyoii iinooiiaiai ia?aaaaeaiiy ii?ineaaeo ianaaeaeaiue a ian?ii?a?
iiaeia i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa oe?ii?noue ianaaeaeaiue.

Iac??ea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue a ?icoe?aii? i?iaaaeaiiy e?nia?aeiiaieo oa
nooe?eueieo nai?oa?ieo ?oaie aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue, aeeeth/aieo c
aenieoaoaoe??. A nenoai? ?aciaeo caoiae?a uiaei iioei?caoe?? a?eiai?
no?oeoo?e e?noiiaeo aeioe?eueii oaeiae i?iaanoe nooe?euei? ?oaee
ii?ineaaeo 80-100 ??/ieo iecueeiiiaiioieo aeoaiye?a ?? aii?oaoo, ui
a?aeianai? aei eaoaai??e caoeniino?, a yeeo ?aaeaiaioo?oueny i?iaaaeaiiy
aieiaieo ?oaie.

A?eueoia? ianaaeaeaiiy a?aecia/athoueny aeaui e?auei noaiii ii??aiyii c
oiiieaaeie oa aeoaiaeie. I?ioa caiane oeeo ianaaeaeaiue ? oaeiae
iaaeinoaoiuei aenieeie, ieoiia /anoea iecueeiiiaiioieo ianaaeaeaiue ua
a?aeiinii aaeeea. Oi/a ? aeii?iothoue a?eueoaiieee c iiaiioith 0,7-1,0
(72,1-79,7%), /anoea ianaaeaeaiue c iiaiioith ieae/a 0,5 ? ieae/a ?ieiee
nyaa? 25% (Eiiioiinueeee AeEA, caieaaa Naeio). ?iciiae?e ieiu
ianaaeaeaiue ca eeanaie a?eo ia??aiii??iee. Caian ianaaeaeaiue i?ney
50-60-??/iiai a?eo a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ciaioo?oueny (Iieoaanueeee AeEA
– caieaaa Ai?neee, Aaeaeeaenueeee AeEA – caieaaa N?a.Ae?ioey). Ia
anoaiiaeaii ?noioii? ??cieoe? a i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?e?iaeieo oa ooo/ieo
a?eueoaiiee?a, iaioeie caianaie (ia 10-30%) a?ae??ciythoueny
ianaaeaeaiiy, ui c?inoathoue a iae?i?iaaieo caieaaao (Aooyinueeee AeEA –
caieaaa Ia?ee). Ia i?inoaaeothoueny oaeiae ciiaeuei? iniaeeaino? a
aeeiai?oe? caian?a iiaeaeueieo a?eueoaiiee?a.

Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y e?ni?ineeiieo oiia o caieaaao ??e nooo?ai
aieeaa? ia aeeiai?eo ?inoo oa noai e?n?a. Caieaai? e?ne ii??aiyii c
e?naie, ui c?inoathoue o iaa??ieo oiiaao, cia/ii /ano?oa oa ?ioaineai?oa
aneoathoue (?iaeeia, Eicae, 1989). ?aaeoe?th ianaaeaeaiue ia ci?ie
aeieia?/ieo oiia, iia’ycaieo c aio?iiiaaiiei aieeaii, aeineoue aeia?a
?ethno?o? aeeiai?ea ?o ??/iiai ?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iie?ieiaee aaaaoioaeoi?iee ?aa?an?eiee aiae?c, io?eiaii
nenoaio iaoaiaoe/ieo ??aiyiue, ui iiaeaeththoue aieea ee?iaoe/ieo,
a?ae?ieia?/ieo oa oaenaoe?eieo iieaciee?a ia aeeiai?eo eieeaaiue ??/iiai
?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo ianaaeaeaiue. I?ieea?noue caeeoe?a ??/iiai
?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo aeoaa ia 50-52% aecia/a?oueny eieeaaiiyie
ee?iaoe/ieo oaeoi??a oa ??aiy aiaee a ??/oe?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaea?eueoee aieea ?c 35 oaeoi??a, ui aiae?coaaeenue, ia? ??aaiue ??/ee,
iniaeeai a ea?oi?-/a?ai?, oiaoi a ia??iae caoiieaiiy caieaae ? iaea?eueo
aeoeaiiai ?inoo ianaaeaeaiue. Oiio cieaeaiiy ??ai?a ??/ee a ia?o?e
iieiaei? aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, ui iianthaeii i?inoaaeo?oueny
aiane?aeie ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/eiaiai noieo, i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaae?iiy
i?e?inoo caieaaieo a?ioeaiic?a, ii?ooaiiy ?o no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe??.

?acii c oeei, ca aeiiiiiaith aaoiei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co /aniaeo ?yae?a
caeeoe?a ??/iiai ?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo aeoaa, anoaiiaeaii, ui a
aio?iiiaaiii ii?ooaieo oiiaao cia/ii neeaaei?oa i?iaiicoaaoe ??no
aea?aainoai?a.

Ia aeeiai?eo i?e?inoo oa noai ianaaeaeaiue iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue
aiaeicaa??i? nii?oaee, ui ooieoe?iiothoue a caieaaao ??e Noaio. A cii?
aieeao aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae ia aaeeeeo ieiuao niinoa??aa?oueny
aeaa?aaeaoe?y e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a. Iniaeeai aeoeaii i?io?ea? i?ioean
ineaaeaiiy ii?ineaaeo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue, ye? c?inoathoue ia a?oioao,
ui i?aenoeeathoueny i?uaiei oa noi?uaiei aetha??i. sse iieacaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia a?oioao, ui i?aenoeeathoueny noaeeieaie oa aeeiaie,
noai aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue cia/ii e?auee, a ??no ?ioaineai?oee. Oea
iio?aao? aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo a ainiiaea?thaaii?.

O caieaaao ??e Aeiiaano aoaeaaeiaoaia ae?yeuei?noue i?ecaiaeeoue aei
??ceeo ci?i e?ni?ineeiieo oiia ? ianiaiai aneoaiiy e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a.
Iniaeeai caa?iceeaa neooaoe?y neeaeany a caieaa? Naia?e, aea ia cia/ieo
ieiuao c?inoathoue oe?ii? e?nia? a?ioeaiice. Ooo i?ae aieeaii
i?aecaiiiai aeiaoaaiiy aoa?eey ? in?aeaiiy ae?eyiie a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa
oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy a iai?yieo
D1,2,3?,h1D2,3,3???,h??D2,3,3?Y,h?ID3,4,5,3Y,h???. O ?acoeueoao? oeueiai
i?e??no aea?aainoai?a ciaioo?oueny a 1,5-2,0 ?ace ? a?aeaoaa?oueny
neeueia iia??oaiiy ?o noaio: ?iaeaen noaio c?inoa? c 1,0-1,5 aei 4,0. O
oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ??aaiue a?oioiaeo aiae o iaaeaiue i?aeaeuo?oueny aei
1 i, a ?o i?ia?ae?ciaai?noue oa e?euee?noue oei?-eiio a a?oioao
ia?aaeuo? a?aeiia?aeii 10 a/e ? 0,05-0,06% aeoaia? ianaaeaeaiiy
aneoathoue.

A i?ioean? e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy e?n?aie/eo caoiae?a
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe anoaiiaeai? iaie a?aie/ii-aeiionoei? aaee/eie
i?ia?ae?ciaaiino? oa ??ai?a a?oioiaeo aiae, canieaiino? a?oio?a. C oeeo
ieoaiue cai?iiiiiaaia iecea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?iiiceoe?e.

Ii?ooaiiy i?e?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo caieaaieo e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae aiane?aeie iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aacoieiii
c?inoath/iai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?iieneiaiai caa?oaeiaiiy
na?aaeiaeua, i?ioean?a o?aai?caoe?? oiui.

AeEIAI?EA ?INOO, I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe OA AE?IUOAAIIss I?E?IAeIEO
IANAAeAEAIUe O CAIEAAAO ??E

O caieaaao ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie /?oei noi?ioaaeenue /ioe?e
i?e?iaei? e?nia? oi?iaoe?? – oiiieaa?, aa?aia?, i?oai? aeoaia?,
a?eueoia?. Eiaeia c oeeo oi?iaoe?e caeia? a caieaaao iaaio aeieia?/io
i?oo, a ye?e aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaee?auith i?enoiniaai?noth aei
oiia, iaeaeuith eiieo?aioiith caeaoi?noth oa oeaiioe/iith no?ee?noth.

Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy, i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa noai e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a a
??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao Oe?a?ie iathoue iaai? a?aei?ie ? a cia/i?e i???
caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a ieo.

I?e?iaei? oiiieaa? ianaaeaeaiiy oi?iothoueny ia?aaaaeii a i?e?oneia?e oa
oeaio?aeuei?e caieaa?, ia aaaaoeo ? aeia?a ae?aiiaaieo a?oioao c
aeecueeei caeyaaiiyi a?oioiaeo aiae (aa??aioe caieaaiino? – 3?, 3??,
3???).

O an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao i?e?iaeiei oeyoii aeia?a a?aeiiaeth?oueny oiiiey
a?ea. Iaa?oue i?ney ?oaee ia?anoeaeiai 70-??/iiai iaoa?einueeiai
aea?aainoaio ia c?oa? ia?aoiao?oueny aei 30 oen. ii?ineaaeo aecaiiey??a
oiiie? a?ei? (caieaaa Inea, E?aiai/ooeueeee AeEA). Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiee
?oaea i?iaiaeeoueny o ceiiai-aaniyiee ia??iae, ia?inoue oiiie? a?ei?
anoeaa? iaea?aa’yi?oe ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae ? iaa?oue a oiiaao
Iie?nny aeo?eio? nooo?a? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ceiith.

Aeineoue aeia?a a?aeiiaeth?oueny i?e?iaeiei oeyoii ? oiiiey /i?ia
(inie??). O caieaaao ??e E?ninoaio oa Noaio i?ney ?oaee iaoa?einueeiai
aea?aainoaio a ceiiaee ia??iae ia c?oaao aeieea? aeeoo?caeaoia iniei?aaa
iiiiaeaiiy ia?aaaaeii ii?ineaaiai oa ian?ii?aiai iioiaeaeaiiy (aei 15
oen.oo/aa). I?ioa aeia?a a?aeiiaeththoueny iniei?ia? aea?aainoaie
o?eueee aei 30-35 ?ie?a, a iio?i ia a?aei?io a?ae oiiie? a?ei?
iiiiaeaiiy ??cei iia??oo?oueny. Oiio e?nia? eoeueoo?e oiiieue a?ei? oa
/i?ii? iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe o?eueee o aeiaaeeo iacaaeia?eueiiai
i?e?iaeiiai iiiiaeaiiy ia neeueii caaea?i?eeo c?oaao, ye? ooai?eeenue
ia?aaaaeii i?ney nooe?eueieo nai?oa?ieo ?oaie ia?ano?eieo
iecueeiiiaiioieo aea?aainoai?a.

Aeia?a a?aeiiaeth?oueny i?e?iaeiei oeyoii ? oiiiey eaiaaenueea. I?ioa ??
ia?inoue ia c?oaao ia aeo?eio? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ? aeia.

Aeeiai?ea ?inoo oa iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oiiieaaeo ianaaeaeaiue ??cieo
aeae?a o caieaaao ??e iathoue iaai? oa?aeoa?i? a?aei?ie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aea?aainoaie oiiie? a?ei?
a?ae??ciythoueny e?auei caaaeueiei noaiii oa a?eueo aenieith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ii??aiyii c aea?aainoaiaie oiiie? /i?ii? oa
eaiaaenueei?. Oea iaoiiaeaii a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie oiiie? a?ei?, ??
caeaoi?noth ?ioaineaii ?inoe iaa?oue i?ney 40-??/iiai a?eo.

Ii??aiyii aenieith aeiaaia?/i?noth a?ae??ciy?oueny oaeiae ? ineea.
I?e?iaei? ine/ieee a caieaaao ??e c?inoathoue ca ?a ? iaa?oue ?a
aii?oaoaie. Oey ii?iaea aeineoue aeia?a a?aeiiaeth?oueny i?e?iaeiei
oeyoii ? iaa?oue /anoi aeo?niy? c? neeaaeo i?oaieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue
aieiai? ii?iaee. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ?aeiino?oeoe?? ??cieo ca
noaiii iio?aeieo ine/iee?a ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e.

?acoeueoaoe ocaaaeueiaiiy iayaieo iaoa??ae?a oa i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a
na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue anoaiiaeaiiy a?e?a aieiaieo ?oaie
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii uiaei aeae?a oiiie?. Aeey oiiie? a?ei? iioeiaeueiei
a?eii ?oaee aoaea 36-40 ?ie?a, aeey oiiie? /i?ii? – 26-30 ?ie?a (o an?o
i?e?iaeieo ciiao).

I?e?iaei? aa?aia? ianaaeaeaiiy, a yeeo aeii?iothoue aa?ae a?ea oa eaiea,
c?inoathoue a i?e?oneia?e oa oeaio?aeuei?e /anoeiao caieaa ia aaaeeeo
iaaeinoaoiuei ae?aiiaaieo a?oioao c aeecueeei caeyaaiiyi a?oioiaeo aiae
(aa??aioe caieaaiino? – 3?V, 3V). I?e?iaeia aaaaoaoeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy
aa?aiaeo ianaaeaeaiue i?io?ea? oni?oii o?eueee ca oiiae nai?/aniiai
i?iaaaeaiiy aieiaii? ?oaee. Ia?ano?ei? iecueeiiiaiioi? aea?aainoaie
aa?ae i?e?iaeiei oeyoii ia a?aeiiaeythoueny. A caieaaao ??e
ia?aaaaeathoue iecueeiiiaiioi? aea?aainoaie, caian yeeo ia ia?aaeuo? 200
i3/aa. Oea iiynith?oueny aenieei a?eii oaeeo ianaaeaeaiue (50-60 ?ie?a),
i?e yeiio ?ioaineaii i?io?ea? i?ioean a?aeiaaeo aea?aa.

Iaea?eueo oe?ii? i?oai? aeoaia? ianaaeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy a
caieaaao ??e aeii?iothoue ca ieiuath. Oae? ianaaeaeaiiy a iniiaiiio ?
ii?ineaaeie ? ian?ii?ai-ii?ineaaeie. Aiie c?inoathoue ia iaea?eueo
?iaeth/eo aeia?a ino?oeoo?aieo eo/ii-e?niaeo noaeeienoeo a?oioao
ia?aaaaeii a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? caieaae (aa??aioe caieaaiino? – 3?,
3??).

Iaie aea/ai? iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeiiai (ii?ineaaiai oa ian?ii?aiai)
iiiiaeaiiy aeoaa oa eiai noiooiee?a (aa?ano, a’yc, ynai cae/aeiee, eeaie
iieueiaee ? oaoa?nueeee, eeia ae??aiieenoa) o caieaaao ??e Iie?nny,
E?ninoaio ? Noaio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e?iaeia iiiiaeaiiy aeoaa ia c?oaao
? i?ae iaiaoii e?no o an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao i?io?ea? iacaaeia?eueii.
Aeniea ii?ineaaa caeaoi?noue aeoaa caa??aa?oueny o?eueee aei 50 ?ie?a.
Oae, ia ianoaaeaieo c?oaao o caieaa? N?a.Ae?ioey (Neaa’yiina?anueea
e-ai) ii? a?ae aea?aa aeoaa a?eii 40-50 ?ie?a a?aeiiaeeenue ia 100%,
a?eii 50-75 ?ie?a – o?eueee ia 50% a?ae caaaeueii? ?o e?eueeino?, a
a?eii 75-100 ?ie?a – o?eueee ia 22%.

C eiaeiei ?ieii /anoea aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy
ciaioo?oueny. I?e?iaei? aeoaia? o?oioeaiice a?eii aei 40 ?ie?a a
caieaaao ??e Oe?a?ie ca?ac ia cono??/athoueny. Ii?ooaiiy iaoai?cio
i?e?iaeii? naii?aaoeyoe?? ianaaeaeaiue i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?aeiaiiy
iiioeyoe?eiiai ? aeaeiaiai ??ciiiai?ooy ianaaeaeaiue.

Ca a?aei?iaie o a?eia?e no?oeoo?? i?e?iaei? aeoaia? a?ioeaiice a
caieaaao ??e ?iciiae?eythoueny ia oiiaii-??ciia?eia?, ui ia?aaaaeathoue
ii ieiu?, ? aaniethoii-??ciia?eia?. Iieaciee aenoeano ?iciiae?eo aea?aa
aeoaa ca ae?aiao?ii a oiiaii??ciia?eiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo eieeaa?oueny a
iaaeao a?ae –0,7 aei +0,7, a aaniethoii ??ciia?eiaeo – a?ae +0,5 aei
+1,6.

A aaniethoii-??ciia?eiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo aeioe?eueii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe
iinooiia? oa aea??eia? nenoaie ?oaie.

?c c?inoaiiyi a ian?ii?ai-ii?ineaaeo 80-100-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo /anoee
aeoaa ii?ineaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy ?o noai iia??oo?oueny. C? ca?eueoaiiyi
a?eo ii?ineaaeo aeoaiye?a ?o noai oaeiae iia??oo?oueny. ?iaeaen noaio
80-100-??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue a Noaio noaiiaeoue 2,3-3,0, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iayai?noue cia/ii? /anoee neeueii ineaaeaieo aea?aa. Ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c noaio ianaaeaeaiue ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa ??cieo aeioei?a aeoaa
iieacaa, ui a iaeiii?ooaieo oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy i?ioean ineaaeaiiy
caieaaieo aeoaiye?a i?io?ea? iaio ?ioaineaii, i?ae a iaa??ieo aeoaiyeao,
iniaeeai oeo, ui c?inoathoue ia aeioeeeo aeaiaioao ?aeue?oo a noo?oeo
oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy. *anoea aea?aa aac iciae ineaaeaiiy a caieaaieo
aeoaiaeo o?oioeaiicao ? o 3-4 ?ace a?eueoith, i?ae a iaa??ieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo. I?ioa a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?ae?ieia?/iiai ?aaeeio
noai caieaaieo aeoaiaeo e?n?a ??cei iia??oo?oueny. Aio?iiiaaiia ci?ia
?aaeeio caieaaiino? a inoaii? aeae?eueea aeanyoe??/ ? iaei??th c i?e/ei
oiai, ui a Noaio c? neeaaeo ci?oaieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue a?eii a?eueoa
70-80 ?ie?a aeiaaeathoue aa?ano oa a’yc. Oea coiiaeth? ca?aeiaiiy
aeaeiaiai ??ciiiai?ooy oa ni?iuaiiy no?oeoo?e oe?iieo aeoaiaeo
a?ioeaiic?a.

Aeeiai?ea ?inoo i?e?iaeieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue a caieaaao ??e ?
nai???aeiith. Oeth nai???aei?noue aeia?a ?ethno?othoue ?ic?iaeai?
iiaeae? aeeiai?ee oaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo
aea?aainoai?a aeaio ??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?: aeuith c aaciaith aenioith o
a?oe? 50 ?ie?a 22 i (?,1 aii?oao) oa ieae/ith – c aaciaith aenioith 17 i
(??,6 aii?oao).

A iniiao iiaeaeae ?inoo caieaaieo i?oaieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue ??cieo
??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? iieeaaeaii nenoaio ?ic?aoiaaieo ?aa?an?eieo
??aiyiue oeio:

GAeiio=Iae2,7495 ao?(-2,5365-0,16989Iae+0,177 10-2 Iae2+1,5016/Iae2);

Gssiio=Iy0,10026 ao?(2,1444+0,19833 10-2 Iy-12,828(Iy+13,177/Iy2),

aea GAeiio, Gssiio – iioeiaeueia noia ieiu ia?a??c?a a?aeiia?aeii aeoaa
oa ynaia (i2/aa); Iae,Iy – na?aaeiy aenioa a?aeiia?aeii aeoaa oa ynaia
(i).

O?aaiaio iaei??? c oeeo iiaeaeae iaaaaeaii a oaae. 2. I?aeoe/ia
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeaeae aea? ciiao ia?aaanoe ?oaee aeiaeyaeo a aeoaiaeo
o?oioeaiicao ia iaoi?iaeueio i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiao iniiao, a neeaaeai?
iaie oaaeeoe? aeaeiaeo /enae oa ia’?i?a noiaao??a aeoaa aeicaieyoue
ia’?eoeaii ioe?ithaaoe ne?iaeii? ?ano?ne caieaaieo ii?ineaaeo aeoaiaeo
e?n?a.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeaeae oa oaaeeoe? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??iieo
aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeeiai?ee ?o ni?oeiaioii? oa
oiaa?ii? no?oeoo?e ? aecia/aii a?ee ?o oaoi?/ii? noeaeino? (oaae.3 ? 4)
oa a?ee ?oaie. A?e ?oaee caieaaieo ii?ineaaeo aeoaiye?a ?? ? aeua
aii?oaoo a E?ninoaio ? Iie?nn? iiaeiai noaiiaeoe 101-110 ?ie?a, a Noaio
– 91-100 ?ie?a, a ii?ineaaeo aeoaiye?a ??? ? ieae/a aii?oao?a – 71-80
?ie?a (o an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao). Aaaeeeai uia ii?ineaa? oa ian?ii?a?
aea?aainoaie aeoaa a?aeiineeenue aei ??cieo ainiiaea?nueeeo naeoe?e.

O i?eoa?ani?e caieaa? ia eo/ii-aieioieo, aieioieo oa oi?o’yienoeo
a?oioao c aeecueeei caeyaaiiyi a?oioiaeo aiae ? iaa?oue aeoiaeii ?o ia
iiaa?oith (aa??aio caieaaiino? – 3???, 3?V, 3V) iaea?eueoith
eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noth a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueoa /i?ia, yea ooai?th? a oeeo
oiiaao aenieii?iaeoeoeai? a?ioeaiice. Aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue,
ui a?eueoa oni?oii a?aeiiaeth?oueny ye ian?ii?aei, oae ?
ii?ineaaei oeyoii, iniaeeai oiae?, eiee ?oaee i?iaiaeyoueny a
aea?aainoaiao a?eii aei 60 ?ie?a ?c iiaiioith ia ieae/a 0,6. Iaie
i?iaiae?ciaaia aeeiai?ea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ian?ii?aeo oa
ian?ii?ai-ii?ineaaeo a?eueoiaeo a?ioeaiic?a o caieaaao ??e ??cieo
i?e?iaeieo cii Oe?a?ie oa neeaaeaia oaaeeoey aeeiai?ee oiaa?iino?
noiaao??a a?eueoe.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ney 50-oe ? iniaeeai 60-??/iiai a?eo ianaaeaeaiiy
a?eueoe neeueii o?aaeathoueny na?oeaaeiiith aieeeth o an?o i?e?iaeieo
ciiao. O a?oe? 50 ?ie?a ia’?i o?aaeaii? aieeeth /anoeie
noiaao??a a?eueoe noaiiaeoue 8-20%,

Oaaeeoey 3

A?e noeaeino? ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo caieaaieo i?e?iaeieo aeoaiaeo
aea?aainoai?a ??cieo ??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? (?iee)

Aii?oao I,1Aii?oao II,6Noeae?noueEean oiaa?iino?Eean
oiaa?iino???????????E?euee?nia: ca caianii30304040ca caaaeueiith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth50507070Oaoi?/ia: ca ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith40404040ca
e?oiiith ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith9090110 ? >110 ? >ca e?oiiith ?
na?aaeiueith ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith50507070Oaoi?/ia ca iaeneiaeueiei
aeoiaeii ni?oeiaio?a ae?eiaeo noiaao??a:ca ieeiaieeii50507070ca oaia?iei
e?yaeai9090>110>110ca ieeiaieeii ? oaia?iei e?yaeai60608080Oaoi?/ia: ca
ieeiaieeii70708080ca ieeiaieeii, noaeiiaoae?aaeueiei, oaia?iei ?
eeaieiaei e?yaeai60508080Ca ii?ineaaith
caeaoi?noth40-5040-5040-5040-50Oaaeeoey 4

A?e noeaeino? ei??iieo i?e?iaeieo caieaaieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue ??
aii?oaoo a na?aeeo oa aieiaeo aa?anoiai-iaeeaiiaeo ae?a?iaao a Noaio
(?iee)

Noeae?noueD2D3Eean oiaa?iino?Eean oiaa?iino?IIIIIIIIIIE?euee?nia ca
caianii50505050Oaoi?/ia: ca ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith70806060ca e?oiiith
ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith>100>100>100>100 ca e?oiiith ? na?aaeiueith
ae?eiaith aea?aaeiith80907070Oaoi?/ia: ca ieeiaieeii1001009090ca
ieeiaieeii, noaeiiaoae?aaeueiei, oaia?iei ? eeaieiaei
e?yaeai80909090Ca ii?ineaaith caeaoi?noth40-5040-5040-5040-50o 55 ?ie?a
– 16-24%, o 60 ?ie?a – 16-27%, a o a?oe? 70 ?ie?a – 24-27%. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy oiaa?iino? aea?aainoai?a, cia/iiai cieaeaiiy
oaeoe/iiai aeoiaeo oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a, cie?aia oaia?iiai e?yaeo.

I?iaaaeaiiy aieiaieo ?oaie o a?oe? 51-60 ?ie?a (aei iaea?aeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue oeae a?e noaiiaea 61-70 ?ie?a) aoaea
ni?eyoe oni?oiiio oi?ioaaiith i?e?iaeieo a?eueoiaeo ianaaeaeaiue,
iaeneiaeueiiio io?eiaiith oe?iii? aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
aea?aaeie.

AeEIAI?EA ?INOO, I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe OA AE?IUOAAIIss

OOO*IEO IANAAeAEAIUe A CAIEAAAO ??E

Iie?aueoe no/aniee noai caieaaieo e?n?a, i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue,
oe?ii?noue, a oaeiae iineeeoe ?o aaaaoia?aii? aeieia?/i? ooieoe??
iaiiaeeeai aac oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy e?nieoeueoo?ieo iaoiae?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O caieaaao ??e noai?ththoueny iaee?au? oiiae aeey oni?oiiai ae?iuoaaiiy
oaeaeei?inoo/eo ii??ae, iniaeeai oaeeo ye oiiiey, a oaeiae aa?aa ?
a?eueoa.

Aea/aia aeeiai?ea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ??cieo ca neeaaeii, niiniaaie ?
oaoiieia?yie noai?aiiy ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, ui c?inoathoue a caieaaao
??e Aei?i?a, Aeanie, Naeio, Inea, N?a.Ae?ioey, Aei?no?a oa ?o i?eoie.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iioeiaeueieo oiiaao c?inoaiiy eoeueoo?e oiiieue a?ei?,
eaiaaenueei?, /i?ii? oa ??cieo a?a?eaeieo ?o aeae?a, a oaeiae aa?ae
a?ei? oa a?eueoe /i?ii?, a yeeo i?iaiaeeeenue iaiao?aei? aa?ioaoi?/i? oa
e?n?aie/? aeiaeyaee, a?ae??ciythoueny caeaoi?noth iaeiie/oaaoe aaeeeo
e?euee?noue aea?aaeie ca a?aeiinii ei?ioeee i?ii?aeie /ano. Oae, a
caieaa? iiieccy Inea (Eiiniiieuenueea e-ai) c?inoathoue iniei?aa?
ianaaeaeaiiy, caian yeeo nyaa? aei 600 i3/aa. I?ioa caaaeueiee noai
ianaaeaeaiue ia cia/ieo ieiuao ? iacaaeia?eueiee, a ?o caiane –
iaaeinoaoiuei aenie?.

I?iaiae?ciaai? i?e/eie iecueei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oiiieaaeo eoeueoo?. Oe?
ianaaeaeaiiy a ieioe? ?iee /anoi noai?thaaeenue o a?aeiinii a?aeieo ?
iaaeinoaoiuei caieiaeaieo a?oioao (a A1,A2,N1), noaie naae?iiy (2o0,7,
2o1, 3o0,5, 3o0,7 (i)) ? ci?ooaaiiy ii??ae (oiiiey c aeoaii) ia
a?aoiaoaaee a?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oiiie?. Aa?ioaoi?/i? ? e?n?aie/?
aeiaeyaee a eoeueoo?ao i?iaiaeeeenue ia nai?/anii.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aenieeie caianaie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeiae eoeueoo?e
aa?ae a?ei?, iaea?eueo? ieiu? yeeo neiioeaio?iaai? a caieaa? iiieccy
Aei?i?a. ?oaee aeiaeyaeo, nai?oa?i? ?oaee ? ?oaee aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy
a ieo i?iaiaeyoueny ia nai?/anii. A iniiaiiio ooo aeii?iothoue eoeueoo?e
aa?ae a?eii 50-60 ?ie?a, caian yeeo ??aeei ia?aaeuo? 250 i3/aa.

Cia/ii e?auei noaiii a?ae??ciythoueny eoeueoo?e a?eueoe /i?ii?, ye?
c?inoathoue ye a i?eoa?ani?e, oae ? a i?e?oneia?e caieaa? o neeaae?
e?niaeo nioa (Eiiioiinueeee AeEA, caieaaa Naeio). Oe? aea?aainoaie
oi?iothoueny ooo ia?aaaaeii ca ?a ? aeua aii?oaoaie.

O i?e?oneia?e caieaa? aaaaoueio ??e aenie? caiane aea?aaeie iathoue
eoeueoo?e ninie cae/aeii?. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui oae?
ianaaeaeaiiy aei a?eo 30 ?ie?a ?inoooue iaa?oue ?ioaineai?oa, i?ae iiai?
ooo/i? aea?aainoaie ninie ?a aii?oaoo Ee?anueeiai Iie?nny.

Eoeueoo?e aeoaa a caieaaao ??e iaeaeui? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeinyaathoue a
e?ninoaiia?e cii?. Ia ?iaeth/eo caieaaieo a?oioao a oiiaao iao?eaaeiai
caoiieaiiy ooo c?inoathoue aea?aainoaie ia?aaaaeii ? aii?oaoo. A
caieaaao ??e Iie?nny i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue ? aeaui
ieae/ith, a a caieaaao ??e Noaio – ua ieae/ith. Eoeueoo?e aeoaa, ui
noai?ai? iin?aii aeieoae?a, ?inoooue ?ioaineai?oa, i?ae eoeueoo?e aeoaa,
noai?ai? naae?iiyi. Oiio ia cia/ii a?eueoeo ieiuao iaiao?aeii
noai?thaaoe eoeueoo?e oeyoii iin?ao aeieoae?a.

??no /enoeo ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue aeoaa a caieaaao ??e E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie ioe?iaii ca o?ueiia ??aiyie i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Iaie ?ic?iaeai?
iiaeae? aeeiai?ee oaenaoe?eieo iieaciee?a ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo
ooo/ieo aeoaiye?a ??cieo ??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? (oaae. 5), ye?
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e aecia/aii? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a
ae?iuoaaiiy ianaaeaeaiue o a?aeiia?aeieo oeiao oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy.

Nai???aei?noue ?inoo eoeueoo? aeoaa a caieaaao ??e coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy a i?ioean? e?niiae?eiaeo ? e?nioaenaoe?eieo
?ia?o neeaaeaieo iaie oaaeeoeue aeaeiaeo /enae oa ia’?i?a noiaao??a
aeoaa.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iayaieo
iaoa??ae?a a ?iaio? iaa?oioiaai? iioeiaeuei? aa??aioe oa oaoiieia??
noai?aiiy eoeueoo? ??cieo ii??ae a caieaaao ??e.

Aecia/aii ani?oeiaio aea?aaieo ii??ae, yeee ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ooo/iiai e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy oa caoeniiai
e?ni?icaaaeaiiy a caieaaao ??e, i?e oeueiio aeacai? aaeaoiie oa
cai?iiiiiaai? ?o aa??aioe, a yeeo ianaaeaeaiiy oeeo ii??ae iaea?eueo
aeioe?eueii noai?thaaoe (aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii ca i?e?iaeieie ciiaie). Oeae
ani?oeiaio ia?aoiao? 102 aea?aai? ? /aaa?ieeia? ii?iaee.

?acoeueoaoe aeiaaio?eaaeeo (a?eueoa 20 ?ie?a) niinoa?aaeaiue ia
noaoe?iia?ieo aeine?aeieo ia’?eoao c i?aeai?o ii??ae o caieaa? Aeanie
na?ae/aoue, ui ie??i o?aaeeoe?eieo ii??ae i?e noai?aii? eoeueoo? iiaeia
oni?oii oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaoe ii?iaee-?io?iaeooeaioe, cie?aia oae? ye
ai??oe /i?iee, iaiue/aeo?nueeee, C?aieueaea, n??ee, eeai n??aeynoee,
ooth cao?aeio, iiae?eio nea??nueeo, aa?oao aio?nueeee, yeeoeth cae/aeio
oa ?i. Iniaeeai a?aaeathoue aenieeie oaenaoe?eieie iieacieeaie ai??oe,
ui a oiiaao Iie?nny oni?oii ia?aiinyoue caoiieaiiy aei 20 aei?a, a a
ie?ai? ?iee – aei 40 aei?a, a oaeiae eeai n??aeynoee, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeoaea ?ioaineaiei ?inoii iaa?oue ia ae?eyieao c
o?eaaeei caoiieaiiyi (aei 60-70 aei?a).

Aeey ciaioaiiy e?niaeao?oeeoo oa ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a e?niei?enooaaiiy a
Oe?a?i? a caieaaao ??e aeioe?eueii noai?thaaoe naiino?ei? ainiiaea?noaa
oaeaeei?inoo/eo ii??ae, iniiaia iaoa yeeo – caaeiaieueiyoe iio?aae a
ne?iaei? i?noeaaeo aea?aaiia?a?iaieo eiiieaen?a. Iniiaiith ii?iaeith i?e
oeueiio iiaeii? noaoe oiiie? iaea?eueo oe?iieo ia?niaeoeaieo
a?a?eae?a. Aaaeeeaa i?noea a oaeeo ainiiaea?noaao caeiooue oaeiae
a?eueoa /i?ia oa ??ci? aeaee aa?a. O a?aei?oeo oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ninio cae/aeio oa iiae?eio, noai?thth/e
ieaioaoe?? oeeo ii??ae c? nei?i/aiei iai?ioii ?oaee.

*?eueia i?noea i?e noai?aii? e?nine?iaeiieo aac a caieaaao iinyaeooue
oaeiae ai??oe, eeai n??aeynoee oa ?io? ii?iaee.

Oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ii??ae i?e i?aai?caoe??
e?nine?iaeiieo aac aeanoue ciiao iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
e?ni?ineeiiee iioaioe?ae caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a.

Ca aeiiiiiaith e?nieoeueoo?ieo iaoiae?a iiaeia oni?oii ia?aoi?iiaoaaoe
ineaaeai? ii?ineaa? aeoaia? ianaaeaeaiiy (ui c?inoathoue o caieaaao ??e
ia cia/ieo ieiuao) o aenieii?iaeoeoeai? ian?ii?a? aea?aainoaie.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo niinia?a oa oaoiieia?e ia?aoi?ioaaiiy oaeeo
ianaaeaeaiue aoei caeeaaeaii na??th ??cieo aeoeaieo aeine?ae?a, ui
ia?aaeaa/aee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?oaie oa noai?aiiy
aeine?aeieo eoeueoo? (o o./. e?oiiii??iei naaeeaiei iaoa??aeii aeoaa). A
?acoeueoao? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a ia?aoi?ioaaiiy, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?
?oaeo aaeeeia?eiaeo ineaaeaieo aeoaiye?a nioaaie oe?eiith 25 i c
ianooiiei noai?aiiyi eoeueoo? aeoaa oa eiai noiooiee?a. Iiaeooue oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ? ?io? niiniae (o caeaaeiino? a?ae no?oeoo?e
ianaaeaeaiiy oa oa?aeoa?o ?ici?uaiiy ii ieiu? ineaaeaieo aea?aa),
cie?aia noai?aiiy eoeueoo? aeoaa o ooo/ii ooai?aieo a?eiao i?ney
aea??eiai? nai?oa?ii? ?oaee.

A ?iaio? aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaai? oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe oeeo niinia?a, a
oaeiae ?o ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee. Canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo niinia?a oa
oaoiieia?e ia?aoi?ioaaiiy ineaaeaieo iecueeiiiaiioieo i?enoeaath/eo,
noeaeeo ? ia?ano?eieo aeoaiyeao, aeicaieeoue ia o?eueee io?eioaaoe
oe?iio aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa aeoaiao aea?aaeio, a e, ui ?
iaeaieiai?oei, ia?aaanoe ii?ineaa? ianaaeaeaiiy o ian?ii?a? ? cia/ii
i?aeaeueoe iie?ooieoe?iiaeueio ?ieue caieaaieo a?ioeaiic?a.

NO?AOAA?ss E?N?AIE*EO CAOIAe?A O CAIEAAAO ??E

Iaei??th c iaaaeueieo e?n?aie/eo i?iaeai, ?ica’ycaiiy yei? iaiao?aeii
ia?aaeaa/eoe a iaeaeeae/? aeanyoe??//y ? aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa a
caieaaieo e?nao c a?aooaaiiy oei?a oa ???a?o?/ii? noi?ae?yaeiino?
aiaeicai??a ??e. Aeaiaioa?iee aiaeica?? iiaeiai noaoe ia?aeiiith
oa?eoi??aeueiith iaeeieoeath, a ?aieao yeiai iaiao?aeia i?aai?caoe?y
e?niei?enooaaiiy (Oea/, 1999).

A ?iaio? iaaiaeyoueny aoaie ia?aaaaeaiiy ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
aiaeica??iee ??aaiue oa ?ice?eaa?oueny ?o ci?no.

Nenoaie e?niainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaao ??e iiaeii? aooe ocaiaeaeaieie
ye c nenoaiaie e?niainiiaea?thaaiiy ia ?ioeo eaieao aiaeicai??a, oae ? c
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiith no?aoaa??th i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. A caieaaao c
??ciith e?neno?noth, a oaeiae caeaaeii a?ae caaaeueiiai ??aiy e?nenoino?
aiaeicai??a oe? nenoaie iiaeooue ?noioii a?ae??ciyoenue.

Aeoiaey/e c i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeii? e?nenoino? caieaa (15%) oa
no?aoaa?? e?niainiiaea?thaaiiy, aeioe?eueii aeae?eyoe aa?a?i? caieaai?
eaiaeoaooe – c e?neno?noth aei 15%, e?niaa?a?i? – 15-40%%, e?nia? – aeua
40%, a iaaeao yeeo iiaeii? oi?ioaaoenue aca?iiiiaiaeaeai? i?ae niaith
iaai? nenoaie oe?eueiaeo caoenieo nioa oa oe?eueiaeo ianeaieo e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiue. I?e oeueiio aecia/aeueieie ? oae? nenoaie ianeaieo e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiue: 1) ?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoeni?, 2)
aenieoaoaoe?eii-?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoeni?, 3)
?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoenii-aenieoaoaoe?ei?.

Eiaeia ?c nenoai aeeth/a? 4 oeie oe?eueiaeo ianaaeaeaiue: 1)
caiia?aeii-aaiaoe/i?; 2) ?ae?aaoe?ei?; 3) na?aaeiaeuiicaoeni?; 4)
aenieoaoaoe?ei?.

A ?iaio? iaaiaeeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?eueiaeo ianaaeaeaiue oa nenoai
ianeaieo ianaaeaeaiue. Oae, o ?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoeni?e nenoai?
ianaaeaeaiue iaea?eueoith aoaea /anoea na?aaeiaeuiicaoenieo oa
?ae?aaoe?eieo oe?eueiaeo ianaaeaeaiue, a aenieoaoaoe?ei? oe?eueia?
ianaaeaeaiiy aeii?ioaaoeiooue ia iaaaeeeeo ieiuao. Oey nenoaia
ianaaeaeaiue aoaea aecia/aeueiith a aa?a?ieo caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao
iacaeaaeii a?ae na?aaeiuei? e?nenoino? anueiai aiaeicai?o, a oaeiae a
e?niaa?a?ieo caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao, ui iaeaaeaoue aei aiaeicai??a c
iecueeith e?neno?noth.

Aieiaiith iaoith e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? noai?aiiy ia ??/eiaeo
aiaeicai?ao, a o./. a ?o caieaaao, iioeiaeueii? e?nenoino? oa no?oeoo?e
e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue c aenieith i?iaeoeoeai?noth oa na?aaeiaeuaoa??iith
aoaeoeai?noth.

I?e oeueiio aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa iaiao?aeii iinooiiai ia?aaiaeeoe ia
iaoi?iaeueio i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiao iniiao, i?e ye?e ?aaeei ae?iuoaaiiy
aea?aainoai?a ?aaeaiaiooaaoeiaoueny ii?iaoeaaie aeiionoeiiai aa??thaaiiy
e?eueeino? aea?aa, na?aaei?o ae?aiao??a ii??ae oa neeaaeo ianaaeaeaiue
aei ? i?ney ?oaee. C iaoith i?ecoieiaiiy ni?iuaiiy iiioeyoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e oa ca?aeiaiiy aaiioiiaeo no?aoaa?y ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiia
ia?aaeaa/aoe i?iaaaeaiiy oi/a a ia iaaaeeeeo ieiuao aea??eiaeo oa
iinooiiaeo nenoai aieiaieo ?oaie, a oaeiae eiia?iiaaieo ?oaie.

O iaeaeeae/? iaeia-aeaa aeanyoe??//y c?inoa ?ieue e?nia?aeiiaieo ?oaie,
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy iiaeii? iaaooe cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia??
ia?aoi?ioaaiiy ineaaeaieo aea?aainoai?a.

Iac??ea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue a ?ic?iaoe? aeiaaino?ieiai? aaeocaai?
i?ia?aie uiaei caaeainiaaiiai oa noaeiai e?niei?enooaaiiy a caieaaao
??e, yea ia?aaeaa/aea a iiaoaiia ia?aaaaeaiiy /anoeie ii?ineaaeo
ianaaeaeaiue a ian?ii?, ae??aithaaiiy a?eiai? no?oeoo?e aea?aee?noiiaeo,
i?aeaeuaiiy caiano noeaeeo ianaaeaeaiue, inai?iiy ?aeiino?oeoeaiiai
oiiaeo, iniaeeai a neeueii ii?ooaieo oiiaao.

I?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?thaaiiy ni?eyoeia i?eeiyooy
cai?iiiiiaaieo a?e?a noeaeino? oa a?e?a ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, a
oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo e?nao.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE ? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. Oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a o?nii iia’ycaii c ?oneiaeie oa
aetha?aeueieie i?ioeanaie. Oe? i?ioeane iaoiiaeththoue aaeeeo
oeiieia?/io ??ciiiai?oi?noue ? niaoeeo?/i?noue e?ni?ineeiieo oiia ?
nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia aeeiai?eo ?inoo caieaaieo e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a.
I?ioa e?niainiiaea?nuee? caoiaee a caieaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?iaiaeyoueny
aac a?aooaaiiy ?o i?e?iaeieo iniaeeainoae, no/aniiai noaio oa
aio?iiiaaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ? ia iiaiaeaeothoueny c ?ioeie nenoaiaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui cae?eniththoueny ye a iaaeao caieaaii? /anoeie
aiaeicai?o, oae ? caaaeii ia anueiio aiaeicai??.

2. Aiaeiioi?iiii-caoeni? ooieoe?? caieaaieo e?n?a iineeththoueny c
i?inoaaiiyi c I?aii/? ia I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. I?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeia
e?neno?noue aace?nieo ae?eyiie caieaa noaiiaeoue 15-20%. ?ic?aoiaai?
iaie iieacieee iioeiaeueii? e?nenoino? caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a iaea?eueo
e?oiieo aiaeicai??a ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii a?aoe aei oaaae
i?e ?ic?iaoe? aeiaaino?ieiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai uiaei ca?eueoaiiy
e?nenoino? Oe?a?ie aei iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy, a oaeiae a i?ioean?
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

3. Caieaai? e?nia? a?ioeaiice nooo?ai caaaeueiiaothoue i?ioeane
iaaiae?oaaiiy ??/ie oa ?oeioaaiiy ?o aa?aa?a, iiceoeaii aieeaathoue ? ia
non?aei? aace?ni? ae?eyiee caieaa.

Io?eiai? ii?iaoeae aieeao e?niaeo o?oioeaiic?a ia ii?oiiao??th caeaei
??e ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a?aoiaoaaoe ye a i?ioean? caoeniiai e?ni?icaaaeaiiy
a caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao, oae ? i?e iiaeaethaaii? ?oneiaeo i?ioean?a,
?ic?iaoe? i?iaiicieo noeaia???a aeaoi?iaoe?? ?onae, a a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo
?ic?aooieao oiui.

4. No?aoaa?y caoeniiai e?ni?icaaaeaiiy a caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao iiaeiia
ia?aaeaa/aoe noai?aiiy nenoaie caoenieo e?niaeo nioa a ia?oo /a?ao ia
e?aeo aa?aaao ??e. I?e oeueiio cae?niaiiy ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe o anueiio
iiyn? iaaiae?oaaiiy ??e. Oe?eia aa?aaicaoenieo e?niaeo nioa iiaeiia
a?aeiia?aeaoe oe?ei? iiyno iaaiae?oaaiiy ??e.

5. I?ia?anoth/? i?ioeane o?aai?caoe?? aiaeicai??a ??e iaoiiaeththoue
iineeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy caieaaieo e?n?a.

Aeey ?o caa?aaeaiiy iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aeiionoei? ii?ie
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?ne oa i?aai?ciaoaaoe e?niei?enooaaiiy a caieaaao ??e
a?aeiia?aeii ?c cai?iiiiiaaieie iaie iaoeiaeie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie uiaei
iineeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ooieoe?e ianaaeaeaiue.

6. Ca?aaoethaaiiy ??/eiaiai noieo, yea c?inoa? c I?aii/? ia I?aaeaiue,
i?ecaaei aei iianthaeiiai nei?i/aiiy o?eaaeino? caoiieaiiy. A inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y caieaae ??e e?ninoaiiai? ? iniaeeai noaiiai? ciie
caoiieththoueny ??aeei. Oea coiiaeth? ciaioaiiy aieiaino? aa?oiueiai
oa?o a?oioo a ia?o?e iieiaei? aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, eiee
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiee ??no ianaaeaeaiiy.

Aeyaeai? iaie e?euee?ni? aca?iica’ycee i?ae ??aiyie ??/ee, o?eaae?noth
caoiieaiiy caieaa, ??aiyie a?oioiaeo aiae, caianaie aieiae a a?oio?,
a?aeiiniith aieia?noth a?oioo, a?ae?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie a?oio?a a
??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e e?nia?aeiiaeaii? oa
caoeniiio e?ni?icaaaeaii?, a i?ioean? aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a caieaaao ??e oa eiio?ieth ca iath, i?e
?ic?iaoe? ??ciiai ?iaeo i?iaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c iiaeeeaeie ci?iaie
neeaaeiaeo /anoei i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, a o./. ??/eiaiai noieo.

7. O iaeiii?ooaieo a?oioiai-a?ae?ieia?/ieo oiiaao a?oioia? aiaee a
caieaaao ae?aiothoueny ?oneii ??/ee ? caeyaathoue ia ei?aiaaeinooii?e
aeeaei?. I?ioa a Aeiiaan? aiane?aeie ?ioaineaii? aenieoaoaoe??
aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae a?oioia? aiaee iioneathoueny aeeaoa ciie iioe?aiiy
ei?aiaaeo nenoai aea?aaieo ii??ae, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ena?io?oecaoe??
e?ni?ineeiieo oiia ? aeeeeea? iaa?oue aneoaiiy ianaaeaeaiue. Ia ie?aieo
ae?eyieao caieaa i?ae oaoiiaaiiei aieeaii a?aeaoaa?oueny i?in?aeaiiy
a?oioo, ui ni?e/eiy? i?ioeeaaei? iane?aeee – cia/ia i?aeiyooy ??ai?a
a?oioiaeo aiae, ca?eueoaiiy o?eaaeino? caoiieaiiy caieaa aei e?eoe/iiai
??aiy. Eieaeueia aio?iiiaaiia ena?io?oecaoe?y oa a?a?io?oecaoe?y
e?ni?ineeiieo oiia nooo?ai ii?ooo? a?ae?io?i?/iee ?aaeei aetha?aeueieo
e?niaeo a?oio?a.

?ic?iaeaio iaie iiaeaeue aeeiai?ee ??ai?a a?oioiaeo aiae o ??cieo oiiaao
i?noeac?inoaiiy, aecia/ai? e?eoe/i? iaae? oa iiaeeea? aeiionoei?
ae?aiaciie aa??thaaiiy iieaciee?a a?ae?ieia?/iiai ? a?ae?io?i?/iiai
?aaeeio caieaaieo oiia i?noeac?inoaiue oa nooiaiy ?o ii?ooaiiy ne?ae
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e cae?eniaii? e?niainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a ? i?e
e?niaii?yaeeoaaii? a caieaaao ??e.

8. Aaiaceno oa aaiethoe?? caieaaieo oei?a e?no a ??cieo i?e?iaeieo ciiao
aeanoea? ye ciiaeuei?, oae ? ?io?aciiaeuei? iniaeeaino?. Oiio caieaai?
oeie e?no nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?n?a, ui c?inoathoue ia aa?oi?o
eaieao aiaeicai??a ??e.

Aio?iiiaaiia o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeieia?/ieo oiia i?ecaaea iaeaea aei
iiaiiai aeiaaeaiiy ?c caieaaiiai eiiieaeno oei?a e?no Noaio a’yciaeo
ae?a?ia, nei?i/aiiy /anoee aieiaeo, ne?eo oa iie?eo aaeaoii?a.

O i?ioean? oeiieia?/iiai aeaoooaaiiy caieaaieo e?n?a oa i?iaaaeaiiy a
ieo e?niainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a ne?ae ea?oaaoeny ?ic?iaeaieie
ae?aaiinoe/ieie oaaeeoeyie caieaaieo oei?a e?no E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie,
iaia’yceiai a?aoiaoaaoe i?e oeueiio anoaiiaeai? aa??aioe caieaaiino?.

9. A?eiaa no?oeoo?a aea?aee?noiiaeo caieaaieo e?n?a ? ?icaaeainiaaiith.
*anoea i?enoeaath/eo ? noeaeeo ianaaeaeaiue aeoaa, oiiie?, aa?ae oa
a?eueoe a aaaaoueio ?aeiiao ? aeoaea aenieith. ?o ieiu? iinooiiai
c?inoathoue. C eiaeiei ?ieii c?inoa? ? na?aaei?e a?e caieaaieo e?n?a.
Oea ? iaei??th c i?e/ei ca?eueoaiiy ieiu iecueeiiiaiioieo ? ineaaeaieo
aea?aainoai?a. Iniaeeai caa?iceeaa neooaoe?y neeaeany a caieaaieo
aeoaiaeo e?nao Noaio.

Caiane iiaeaeueieo ianaaeaeaiue iniiaieo e?niooai?thth/eo ii??ae ?
a?aeiinii iecueeeie ? na?ae/aoue i?i iacaaeia?eueia aeei?enoaiiy
e?ni?ineeiiiai iioaioe?aeo ?iaeth/eo caieaaieo e?niaeo caiaeue.

Aac aianaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ci?i o no?aoaa?th ainiiaea?thaaiiy aaea a
iaeaeeae/? 2-3 aeanyoe??//y ieiua aneoath/eo oa iio?aeieo aea?aainoai?a
iiaea ??cei ca?eueoeoeny. Oea i?ecaaaea aei c?inoaiiy ianya?a
nooe?eueieo nai?oa?ieo ?oaie, ui a naith /a?ao coiiaeoue c?inoaiiy
ianya?a aeoaea o?oaeii?noeeo e?nieoeueoo?ieo caoiae?a, ye? nai?/anii
i?iaanoe aoaea iaiiaeeeai.

Aeey ea?aeeiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ne?ae aeae?eeoe caieaai? e?ne a
ie?aio eaoaai??th ? aeoea?coaaoe ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue a ieo.

O aeeeth/aieo c aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy e?nao iaiao?aeii ?icoe?eoe
ianyae i?iaaaeaiiy e?nia?aeiiaieo, ?aeiino?oeoeaieo ? nooe?eueieo
nai?oa?ieo ?oaie, a o e?nao, iiaeeeaeo aeey aenieoaoaoe??, c iaoith
iie?auaiiy a?eiai? no?oeoo?e aea?aee?noiiaeo – i?iaanoe nooe?euei? ?oaee
i?enoeaath/eo ianaaeaeaiue, ui a?ae??ciythoueny iecueeith iiaiioith ?
ineaaeai?noth.

10. Aeeiai?ea ?inoo (a o./. ?aae?aeueiiai i?e?inoo) e?niaeo o?oioeaiic?a
o caieaaao ??e o?nii iia’ycaia c eieeaaiiyi ??ai?a ??/ie, a?oioiaeo aiae
? o?eaaeino? caoiieaiiy caieaae. Oiio ?ici??e aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao a
caieaaieo eaiaeoaooao aiaeicai??a ??e Iie?nny, E?ninoaio ? Noaio ?noioii
caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy ii?ooaiiy a?ae?ieia?/ieo oiia, a oaeiae a?ae
aaaaoueio ?ioeo oaeoi??a: ii?iaeiiai neeaaeo, a?eo oa aeeiai?ee ?inoo
ianaaeaeaiue a ieioe? ?iee, ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a ieo, oeio
a?oio?a, oiui.

Io?eiai? ca’ycee i?ae aaee/eiith ci?ie aaeaoiio, noaiii oa ?inoii
ianaaeaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e ieaioaaii? oa i?iaaaeaii?
e?niainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae a i?ioean? iii?oi?eiao ca
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi e?niaeo aeinenoai a oiiaao aio?iiiaaiiiai ii?ooaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

11. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? noai e?niaeo a?ioeaiic?a
i?e?iaeiiai oa ooo/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue iaai? a?aei?ie ? a cia/i?e
i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a ieo.

E?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy oiiieue, aa?a, a?eueoe /i?ii?, a yeeo
ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue cae?enith?oueny c a?aooaaiiyi a?ieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae ii??ae, aeia?a a?aeiiaeththoueny i?e?iaeiei niiniaii o an?o
i?e?iaeieo ciiao. I?ioa o ia?ano?eieo ? iecueeiiiaiioieo aea?aainoaiao
a?aeiiaethaaeueia caeaoi?noue ianaaeaeaiue ??cei iaaea?. Oeyoii
i?iaaaeaiiy aieiaieo ?oaie a ceiiaee ia??iae a ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiio a?oe?
aeinyaa?oueny oni?oia i?e?iaeia a?aeiiaeaiiy ianaaeaeaiue oeeo ii??ae.

I?e?iaeia iiiiaeaiiy aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue o an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao
i?io?ea? iacaaeia?eueii. ?ioaineaii nei?i/o?oueny /anoea i?e?iaeieo
aeoaiaeo e?n?a. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aaiaoe/ii? oe?iiino?
e?n?a. Aeey i?ecoieiaiiy iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a a ian?ii?ai-ii?ineaaeo
??ciia?eiaeo aeoaiaeo o?oioeaiicao iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iinooiia?
? aea??eia? nenoaie ?oaie.

12. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? ?inoo i?e?iaeieo oa ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue
iniiaieo e?niooai?thth/eo ii??ae a ??cieo oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy ne?ae
iieeanoe a iniiao ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?e e?niaii?yaeeoaaii? oa ae?iuoaaii? ianaaeaeaiue ia
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueia?e iniia? aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? iaie
iiaeae? oaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo i?oaieo
ii?ineaaeo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue aeaio ??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aeoaiaeo
eoeueoo? o?ueio ??ai?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?, a oaeiae oaaeeoe? aeaeiaeo /enae
? ia’?i?a noiaao??a ian?ii?aiai ? ii?ineaaiai aeoaa.

O i?ioean? ainiiaea?thaaiiy a caieaaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?ic?aoiaai? aeey ieo a?ee noeaeino? oa a?ee ?oaie. I?e
oeueiio ii?ineaa? oa ian?ii?a? aea?aainoaie aeoaa iiaeii? ooai?thaaoe
??ci? ainiiaea?nuee? naeoe??, eiaeia c yeeo iia’yco?oueny c
?aeiiaiaeiaaiei a?eii ?oaee.

13. Cai?iiiiiaaii ani?oeiaio aea?aaieo ? /aaa?ieeiaeo ii??ae (a o./.
?io?iaeooeaio?a ? aecio?a), oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy ? ae?iuoaaiiy e?niaeo
eoeueoo? i?e ooo/iiio e?nia?aeiiaeaii? oa caoeniiio e?ni?icaaaeaii?, ye?
ni?eyoeiooue nooo?aiio iie?auaiith aeei?enoaiiy e?ni?ineeiiiai
iioaioe?aeo caieaaieo caiaeue, iineeaiith aaaaoia?aiii? ?ie? e?niaeo
a?ioeaiic?a. Iaiao?aeii ?icoe?eoe ianyae noai?aiiy eoeueoo? aeoaa oeyoii
iin?ao aeieoae?a.

Aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa a aea?aaei? i?noeaaeo aea?aaiia?a?iaieo
eiiieaen?a oa ciaioaiiy a Oe?a?i? e?niaeao?oeeoo a caieaaao ??e
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny noai?thaaoe naiino?ei? ainiiaea?noaa oaeaeei?inoo/eo
ii??ae c? nei?i/aiei iai?ioii ?oaee. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ii?iaeaie
a oaeeo ainiiaea?noaao noaiooue ??ci? aeaee a?a?eaeieo oiiieue, a oaeiae
aa?a oa a?eueoe /i?ii?. I?e oeueiio o a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ? ?io? ii?iaee, cie?aia ninio cae/aeio, iiae?eio
?a?iiaenueeo, yeeio cae/aeio, a oaeiae eeai n??aeynoee ?, iniaeeai,
??ci? aeaee ai??o?a.

14. Iaiao?aeii i?enooieoe aei iinooiiai? (iiaoaiii?) cai?ie ineaaeaieo
iecueeiiiaiioieo ii?ineaaeo aeoaiye?a ian?ii?aeie aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie
aea?aainoaiaie. Oni?oiiio ae??oaiith oeueiai caaaeaiiy aoaea ni?eyoe
aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaoaaieo iaie iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?aeiino?oeoe?e oa
ia?aoi?ioaaiiy ianaaeaeaiiy oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo e?n?aie/eo
caoiae?a, ye? ii?aeiothoue aeaiaioe nooe?eueieo ?oaie, e?nieoeueoo?ieo
?ia?o oa ?oaie aeiaeyaeo.

15. No/ani? iiaeyaee ia e?n ye ia aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueio i?e?iaeio
nenoaio, aeiaaathoue ye?nii iiaiai i?aeoiaeo a i?aai?caoe?? oa aaaeaii?
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa. O ia?niaeoea? iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe iinooiiaee
ia?ao?ae ia nenoaiia ? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa i?iaaaeaiiy
e?niainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a c a?aooaaiiyi oei?a aiaeicai??a ? ?o
noi?ae?yaeiino?.

Ca?aeii c cai?iiiiiaaiith eiioeaioe??th ia?aaaaeaiiy
e?niainiiaea?thaaiiy ia aiaeica??io iniiao an? e?n?aie/? caoiaee a
caieaaieo e?nao ca nai?i ci?noii oa ia?aaaaeath/ith oe?eueiaith
ni?yiiaai?noth ia’?aeiothoueny a 3 nenoaie:
?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoenio,
aenieoaoaoe?eii-?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuii-caoenio,
?ae?aaoe?eii-na?aaeiaeuiicaoenii-aenieoaoaoe?eio. Eiaeia ?c nenoai
ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy 4 oei?a oe?eueiaeo ianaaeaeaiue, c iaaiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ieiu oeeo ianaaeaeaiue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii oeiai
caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a. Oea ianaaeaeaiiy caiia?aeii-aaiaoe/i?,
?ae?aaoe?ei?, na?aaeiaeuiicaoeni? ? aenieoaoaoe?ei?, a yeeo ?noioii
a?ae??ciythoueny iaoa ? iaoiaee ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Nienie iniiaieo i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iiiia?ao??, a?ioo?e

1. Oea/ A.I. Caieaai? e?ne Oe?a?ie. – Oa?e?a: I?aai, 1999. – 368 n.

2. Oea/ A.I. Iieiaiiua eana e aaaeaiea oicyenoaa a ieo. – I.:
AIEOeeano?n, 1995. – Aui.1 (Eaniaiaenoai e eani?acaaaeaiea). – 36 n.

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

3. Oea/ A.I., Aiaiueaa I.I., Oa?ai I.Ae. Onoie/eainoue iieiaiiuo eaniuo
ianaaeaeaiee a ciia ai?iuo au?aaioie// Eaniaiaenoai e
aa?ieaniiaeei?aoeey. – E.: O?iaeae. — 1987. – Aui.75. – N.22-27.
Caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeeoue iniiaia /anoeia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iei
oaeiae iaienaia noaooy.

4. Aiaiueaa I.I., Oea/ A.I. Eciaiaiea aeae?ieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia
iieiaiiuo eaniuo ianaaeaeaiee Aeiiaanna iiae aeeyieai iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo
?ac?aaioie// Eaniaiaenoai e aa?ieaniiaeei?aoeey. – E.: O?iaeae. — 1988.
– Aui.77. – N.15-20. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia aeena?oaioii.
Caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeeoue a?eueo?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

5. Oea/ A.I. Yeieiaey iieiaiiuo aeoa?aa Aeiiaanna// Iaaeaoc. oaiao.na. –
Oa?ueeia: ONOE. — 1988. – N.89-96.

6. Oea/ A.I. E oeiieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee iieiaiiuo eania
eaaiaa?aaeuey Oe?aeiu// Oeiieiae/aneea iniiau eaaeano?iaie ioeaiee
eania. – Na.iao/.o?. Oa?ueeia. ain. aa?. oi-oa. – Oa?ueeia. – 1991. –
N.70-79.

7. Oea/ A.I., Aieyineee A.I., Cyoueeia E.E. Noai e?n?a o caieaaao ??e
Inueie ? Ai?neea// E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. –
1991. – Aei.82. –N.14-18. Caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaienaia noaooy. Eiio ae iaeaaeeoue iniiaia /anoeia
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

8. Oea/ A.I. Ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau oiiieaaiaenoaa a iieiao ?ae
Oe?aeiu// Eanioicyenoaaiiay eioi?iaoeey. – I.: AIEEOeean?ano?n, 1993. —
?6. – N.25-29.

9. Oea/ A.I., Eiaaaiei I.A., Cyoueeia E.E. Noai caieaaieo aeoaiaeo e?n?a
o noaiia?e /anoei? E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie// E?n?aieoeoai ?
aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1994. – Aei.89. – N.19-24. Noaooy
iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ca iaoa??aeaie ni?eueii i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

10. Oaaeaoeue ?.I., Oea/ A.I., Aaaeiaaeue I.I. Noai ae?a?ia Oa?e?aueie//
E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1994. – Aei.89. –
N.9-13. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Eiio ae iaeaaeaoue iaoa??aee noaoo?
noiniaii caieaaieo e?n?a.

11. Aae?a I.A., Oea/ A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii i?aeai?o ii??ae aeey
caoeniiai e?ni?icaaaeaiiy o caieaa? ?.Aeanie// E?n?aieoeoai ?
aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1995. – Aei.91. – N.31-35. Noaooy
iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Caeiaoaa/ a?aa o/anoue o cae?aii? iieueiaeo
iaoa??ae?a.

12. Iaoeae ?.I., Oea/ A.I., Oi?inia A.N. ?noeia aei?iae/a, yeui aiia ia
iai?ai?aaaea// E?niaee aeo?iae. – 1995. — ?1. – N.2-5. Noaooy iaienaia
caeiaoaa/ai. Eiio ae iaeaaeaoue ?aea? noiniaii aaaeaiiy e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

13. Oea/ A.I. Aieea caieaaieo e?n?a ia aeaoi?iaoe?th ?onea ?.
N?aa?nueeiai Ae?ioey// E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.:
O?iaeae. – 1995. – Aei.91. – N.36-40.

14. Iaoeae ?.I., Oi?inia A.N., Oea/ A.I. E?niaa ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a
oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy// E?niaee ? ieneeanueeee aeo?iae. – 1995. –
Aa?anaiue-aeiaoaiue. – N.4-5. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ni?eueii c
ni?aaaoi?aie. Aeeeaaeai? ?aea? noiniaii aaeineiiaeaiiy e?n?aie/eo
caoiae?a iaeaaeaoue caeiaoaa/aa?.

15. Iaoeae ?.I., Iaaeaaae?a E.I., Oea/ A.I. Oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy e?nenoino?
oa ?icoe?aiiy e?nine?iaeiiiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie// E?n?aieoeoai ?
aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1996. – Aei.92. – N.3-8. Noaooy
iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ni?eueii c ni?aaaoi?aie. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei
?icoe?aiiy e?nine?iaeiiiai iioaioe?aeo iaa?oioiaai? caeiaoaa/ai.

16. Oea/ A.I., Ao?iin I.I., Aae?a I.A., Cyoueeia E.E. I?e?iaeia
iiiiaeaiiy caieaaieo e?n?a oa eiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e e?niae?iuoaaii?//
E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1996. – Aei.92. –
N.27-31. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ca iaoa??aeaie ni?eueii i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

17. Oea/ A.I., ?iiaoia I.A., Eiaaaiei I.A. Ii?iaoeae aeaeiaeo /enae ?
ia’?i?a noiaao??a aeoaa ii?ineaaiai aeey caieaaieo oiia E?aiaa?aaeiiai
Noaio// E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1996. –
Aei.93. – N.8-10. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Eiio ae iaeaaeaoue
a?eueo?noue aeei?enoaieo o noaoo? iaoa??ae?a.

18. Oea/ A.I., Aieyineee A.A. ?oneinoaaeeece?othuay ?ieue eania e
ia?niaeoeau eani?acaaaeaiey a iieiao ?ae Oe?aeiu//Eaniia oicyenoai. –
1997. — ?3. – N.24-26. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue aeei?enoaieo o noaoo? iaoa??ae?a oa iniiai? ?aea? iaeaaeaoue
caeiaoaa/aa?.

19. Oea/ A.I., Ieoaeeea A.I., Eoi?eia I.O. I?e?iaeiio?aiiua eana Oe?aeiu
e ia?niaeoeau eo oicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey// Eaniay iaoea ia ?oaaaea
OO? aaea: Na.iao/.o?. Ei-oa eana IAI Aaea?one. – Aiiaeue. – 1997. –
Aui.46. – N.37-40. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ni?eueii c ni?aaaoi?aie.
Caeiaoaa/ai iaa?oioiaaia ?aeay iaiao?aeiino? ?icoe?aiiy i?iaaaeaiiy
aea??eiaeo oa iinooiiaeo ?oaie o aiaeiioi?iiieo e?nao.

20. Iaoeae ?.I., Oea/ A.I., Onoeueeee ?.I., Aoeoa ?.O. E?nia? aeinenoaie
Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? ?? noaeiai ?icaeoeo// I?iaeaie noaeiai ?icaeoeo. –
E.: AIO, 1998. – N.268-280. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai ni?eueii c
ni?aaaoi?aie. Caeiaoaa/ai iaa?oioiaaia ?aeay aiaeica??iiai e?n?aieoeoaa.

21. Iaoeae ?.I., Oea/ A.I., Iaaeaaae?a E.I., Oi?inia A.N. I?iaeaia
noaa?eueiino? ?icaeoeo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa// A?niee OAeAO:
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue aea?ae.aa?a?.oi-oo. – Oa?e?a. – 1998. — ?2. – N.159-165.
Caeiaoaa/ i?eeiaa o/anoue o iaienaii? noaoo?. Iei aeeeaaeai? no/ani?
i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a o e?nao Oe?a?ie.

22. Oea/ E.E., Oea/ A.I. I?iaeaiu caueoiiai eani?acaaaeaiey e
eaniainnoaiiaeaiey a iieiao ?ae Oe?aeiu// A?niee OAeAO: Ca.
iaoe.i?.aea?ae.aa?a?.oi-oo. – Oa?e?a. – 1998. — ?2. — N. 166-173. Noaooy
iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Eiio ae iaeaaeeoue a?eueo?noue aeei?enoaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

23. Oea/ A.I. Iieiaiiua aeoa?aau Oe?aeiu e niaa?oainoaiaaiea
oicyenoaiaaiey a ieo// Aeoa – ii?iaea o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey: Na.iao/.o?.
Ei-oa eana AI Aaea?one. – Aiiaeue. – 1998. – Aui.48. – N.361-366.

24. Oea/ A.I., Aieiaaoe?i A.A. ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa no?eeino?
caieaaieo i?e?iaeieo aeoaiaeo e?n?a e?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie// E?n?aieoeoai
? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – Oa?e?a: ??I “I?ea?iae”. – 1999. – Aei.94 –
N.57-65. Noaooy iaienaia caeiaoaa/ai. Eiio ae iaeaaeaoue aeei?enoai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee.

25. Oea/ A.I. Iiaeae? ?inoo ooo/ieo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue a caieaaao
??/ie e?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie// A?niee OAeAO. – Oa?e?a. – 1999. – Aei.2
“A?oioiciaanoai, aa?io?i?y, caiea?ianoai ? e?niaa ainiiaea?noai”. –
N.264-268.

26. Oea/ A.I. Iiaeae? ?inoo ? i?iaeoeoeaiino? caieaaieo ii?inoaaeo
aea?aainoai?a aeoaa a oiiaao E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie// Iaoeiaee a?niee:
E?n?aieoeuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?: — Euea?a: Oe?AeEOO. – 1999. – N.
204-209.

27. Oea/ A.I., Aieiaaoe?i A.A., O?aioianueeee A.A. E?niaeieia?/i?
canaaee i?ia?aiiiai ae?iuoaaiiy aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue Oe?a?ie//
E?n?aieoeoai ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?y. – Oa?e?a: ??I “I?ea?iae”. – 1999. –
Aei.95. – N.78-85. Caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeaoue iaoa??aee noiniaii caieaaieo
aeoaiye?a, a oaeiae ?aeay i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai e?niae?iuoaaiiy.

Iaoa??aee eiioa?aioe?e, nai?ia??a, neiiic?oi?a.

28. Ianoa?iae I.N., Ai?ii A.I., Oea/ A.I. Yeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia
eaniuo yeinenoai ONN? a oneiaeyo oaoiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey// Iaoa?.
Iaaeaeoia?. Oeieu-naieia?a “Aeiiiieoi?eia eaniuo yeinenoai”. –
Aeeueithn. – 1987. – N.53-58.

29. Oea/ A.I. Iioeiecaoeey no?oeoo?u iieiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia Oe?aeiu e
?ieue eaniuo aeioeaiicia a eo noaaeeecaoeee// Iaoa?. iaae?aaeii.
iao/.-i?ae. eiio. “Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa”.
Neiiiceoi 2. – Aeiai?iiao?iane. – 1992. – N.96.

30. Oea/ A.I., Oea/ E.?. ?ieue e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue a ioi?ii?
?iaeth/ino? a?oio?a oa i?aai?caoe?y e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa ii
aiaeicai?ai// Iaoa?. iaaeain. iao/. nai. “Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu io?aiu e
aini?iecaiaenoaa ii/aaiiiai ieiaei?iaeey: yeieiaey, yeiiiieea, i?aai. –
Iaeanna. – 1994. – N.237-238.

31. Tkach W.P., Kuprina N.Ph., Mihalkiv V.M. Wodochronne pokrycie les’ne
zlewni malych rzek ukrainskich oraz sposoby poprawy ich za pomoca metod
stosowanych w lesnictwie // Las i woda. – Referaty i materialy
pokonferencyjne. – Krakow. – 1998. – S.213-222.

Oace aeiiia?aeae

32. Oea/ A.I., Aiaiueaa I.I. Aeeyiea iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo ?ac?aaioie ia
aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei e onoie/eainoue iieiaiiuo aeiaaioeaiicia
Aeiiaanna// Oac. aeiee. Anan. niaau. “Aeeyiea aeae?ieiae/aneiai ?aaeeia
ia no?oeoo?o e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aeiaaioeaiicia”. – Nueouaea?. – 1987. –
N.15-17.

33. Oea/ A.I., Aiaiueaa I.I., Cyoueeia E.E. Iooe ainnoaiiaeaiey
iieiaiiuo eania Aeiiaanna, iiaeaa?aeaiiuo aeeyieth iiaecaiiuo ai?iuo
?iaio// Oac. aeiee. Anan. eiio. “I?iaeaiu ?aeoeueoeaaoeee ia?ooaiiuo
caiaeue”. – Naa?aeeiane. – 1988. – N.80-81.

34. Oea/ A.I. Aeeyiea aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei
aeethaeaeueiuo eaniuo ii/a Eaaiaa?aaeuey Oe?aeiu// Oac. aeiee. Anan.
niaau. “Eani?anoeoaeueiua naienoaa e aio?iiiaaiiay aeeiaieea eaniuo
ii/a”. – A?yine. – 1990. – N.68-69.

35. Oea/ A.I. Ninoiyiea iieiaiiuo eania eaaiaa?aaeuey Oe?aeiu e aaaeaiea
oicyenoaa a ieo// Oac.aeiee. Anan.iao/.-oao.niaau. “Aaaeaiea oicyenoaa a
aiaeiio?aiiuo eanao”. – Eioea?-Iea. – 1990. – N.152-154.

36. Oea/ A.I., Cyoueeia E.E. ?ae?aaoeeiiiay ?ieue iieiaiiuo eania
Aeiiaanna// Oac. aeiee. Anan. niaau. “Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e
ia?niaeoeau ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai eaniiieueciaaiey”. – Eaieia?aae. – 1990. –
N.81-82.

37. Oea/ A.I. E oeiieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee iieiaiiuo eania Oe?aeiu//
Oac. aeiee. Anan. eiio. “Eaniay oeiieiaey a eaaeano?iaie ioeaiea eaniuo
?ano?nia”. – Aeiai?iiao?iane. – 1991. – N.77-78.

38. Oea/ A.I. I?e?oneiaua eaniua aeioeaiicu Oe?aeiu e eo aio?iiiaaiiay
o?ainoi?iaoeey// Oac. aeiee. iaaeae. iao/. eiio. “I?iiuoeaiiay aioaieea:
ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey”. – E?eaie ?ia. – 1993. – N.63-64.

39. Tkach V.P., Mikhalkiv V.M., Golovashkin V.A., Kuprina N.Ph.
Scientific grounds of forestry in Ukraine: purposes and principles.
Proceedings of the XI World Forestry Congress. – Antalya. – 1997. – V.6.
– p. 175.

40. Patlaj I.M., Tkach V.P., Medvedev L.A., Torosov A.S. Problem of
sustainable development of forest managementin Ukraine. Proceedings of
the XI World Forestry Congress. – Antalya. – 1997. – V.6. – p.176.

Anueiai ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 56 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Oea/ A.I. Caieaai? e?ne E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie oa iaoeia? iniiae
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ieo. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.03.03 –
e?niciaanoai ? e?n?aieoeoai. – Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Euea?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa aeey oiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie aena?oeai?
iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieo e?n?a, iieacai? ?o aaaaoia?aii?
aeieiaicaoeni? ooieoe??; iaa?oioiaaia ?aeay nenoaiiiai ?
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai e?niae?iuoaaiiy ianaaeaeaiue ia aiaeica??i?e
iniia?, aecia/ai? i?eioeeie oa e?eoa??? iioei?caoe?? e?nenoino? ?
no?oeoo?e caieaaieo eaiaeoaoo?a. ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy oe?iieo aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ooo/ieo oa i?e?iaeieo aeoaiaeo
aea?aainoai?a, aecia/ai? a?ee noeaeino? ianaaeaeaiue ia?aaaaeath/eo
ii??ae. Aia?oa neeaaeai? ae?aaiinoe/i? oaaeeoe? caieaaieo oei?a e?no,
cai?iiiiiaaii ani?oeiaio aea?aaieo oa /aaa?ieeiaeo ii??ae aeey ooo/iiai
e?nia?aeiiaeaiiy ? e?ni?icaaaeaiiy a caieaaao. ?ic?iaeai? iioei?ciaai?
nenoaie ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy oa ?oaie, iia’ycaieo c aaaeaiiyi
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa no?aoaa?y e?n?aie/eo caoiae?a
o caieaaao ??e c a?aooaaiiyi iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e caieaaieo
eaiaeoaoo?a oa aiaeicai??a ??e. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ai?iaaaeaeai? a e?niainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? i?e noai?aii? oa
ae?iuoaaii? ianaaeaeaiue a caieaaao ??e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: caieaae ??e, a?ae?ieia?/iee ?aaeei, caoeni? ooieoe??,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, no?ee?noue, aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa.

Oea/ A.I. Iieiaiiua eana Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu e iao/iua iniiau
oicyenoaiaaiey a ieo. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.03.03 – eaniaaaeaiea e eaniaiaenoai. –
Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue eanioaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua aeey oneiaee Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu inaauaiu
iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey iieiaiiuo eania, iieacaiu eo iiiaiia?aciua
yeieiaicaueoiua ooieoeee; iainiiaaia eaeay nenoaiiiai e
i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaiai eaniau?aueaaiey; ii?aaeaeaiu i?eioeeiu e e?eoa?ee
iioeiecaoeee eanenoinoe e no?oeoo?u iieiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia aiaeinai?ia
?ae Naaa?neee Aeiiaoe, Ai?neea e Inae. Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee
i?ioeaiiaaiae?e?othueo ooieoeee iieiaiiuo eania iieo/eei aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea o/aiea A.I.Aunioeeiai i “eaniie ia?oeiaioeee”, ia iiaii
oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia iainiiaaiu ii?iaoeau oe?eiu aa?aaicaueoiuo eaniuo
iiein. Inaauathony eaniaiaenoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey ii oneeaieth
yeieiaicaueoiuo e ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ooieoeee iieiaiiuo eania.

Ia nenoaiiii o?iaia aeaia eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea aeae?ieiae/aneiai
?aaeeia a iieiao ?ae e ?acia?u aai aio?iiiaaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee.
Ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u, eeieoe?othuea ?ino e ?acaeoea eaniuo ianaaeaeaiee a
iieiao ?ae, onoaiiaeaiu aeiionoeiua aeeaiaciiu aa?uee?iaaiey yoeo
oaeoi?ia. ?ac?aaioaiu i?iaiiciua iiaeaee eciaiaiey eani?anoeoaeueiuo
oneiaee iiae aicaeaenoaeai aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey. Ia iniiaa
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee iieiaiiuo eani?anoeoaeueiuo oneiaee ?ac?aaioaia
eo eeanneoeeaoeey e ninoaaeaiu aeeaaiinoe/aneea oaaeeoeu iieiaiiuo oeiia
eana Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu. I?aaeeiaeai anni?oeiaio ae?aaaniuo e
eonoa?ieeiauo ii?iae aeey eneonnoaaiiiai eaniainnoaiiaeaiey e caueoiiai
eani?acaaaeaiey a iieiao ?ae.

Eiinoaoe?oaony, /oi i?e nio?aiaiee nouanoaothuaai ?aaeeia oicyenoaiaaiey
a iieiaiiuo eanao oaea a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu aeoeeaece?othony i?ioeannu eo
ineaaeaiey e oiaiueoaiey aeaeiaiai ?aciiia?acey.

Ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo aeeiaieeo
aineanoiiaea iieiaiiuo eania, a oaeaea iiaeaee?iaaiey i?ioeanna
aio?iiiaaiiiai aeeyiey ia ieo, ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
naaeaine?iaaiiiio e noaaeeueiiio eaniiieueciaaieth a iieiao, i?eaaaeai
ia?a/aiue ia?aii/a?aaeiuo eanioicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue a aeeaeaeoea iaeei-aeaa aeanyoeeaoey.

Ia aiieoaoii-oeiieiae/aneie iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiu iiaeaee oi?ie?iaaiey e
au?aueaaiey eneonnoaaiiuo aeoaiauo ae?aainoiaa aeey o?ao o?iaiae
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea anoanoaaiiuo niaoaiiuo aeoaiauo
ae?aainoiaa aeey aeaoo o?iaiae i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

Aeey iieiaiiuo oneiaee i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua oaaeeoeu aeaeiauo /enae e
iauaiia noaieia aeoaa naiaiiiai e ii?ineaaiai.

Ia iniiaa eco/aiey aeeiaieee oiaa?iie e ni?oeiaioiie no?oeoo?u ?acee/iuo
ii ninoaao ianaaeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiu aic?anou niaeinoe e aic?anou ?oaie
aeaaiiai iieueciaaiey aeoaa iaueiiaaiiiai naiaiiiai e ii?ineaaiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ieueoe /a?iie, oiiieae /a?iiai e aaeiai, eau aaeie.

Eco/aiu iniaaiiinoe anoanoaaiiiai aiciaiiaeaiey ianaaeaeaiee ?aciiai
ninoaaa, i?iec?anoathueo a ?acee/iuo oeiao eana. I?eaaaeaiu
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nio?aiaieth aeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey e
iiioeyoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u iieiaiiuo aeioeaiicia.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniaaiiinoe ?inoa ?aciuo ii ninoaao e oaoiieiaeyi
nicaeaiey e au?aueaaiey eneonnoaaiiuo ae?aainoiaa e ii?aaeaeaiu i?e/eiu
eo iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ninoiyiey.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaiee ia noaoeeiia?iuo iiuoiuo
iauaeoao a iieia Aeaniu ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiua aeey
iieiaiiiai eani?acaaaeaiey ii?iaeu-eio?iaeooeaiou. Iainiiaaia eaeay
nicaeaiey eaninu?ueaauo aac ec auno?i?anooueo ii?iae aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a ae?aaaneia.

Aeey iieiaiiuo oneiaee ?ac?aaioaiu iioeiece?iaaiiua e
acaeiiniaeaniaaiiua nenoaiu ?oaie aeaaiiai iieueciaaiey e ?oaie,
naycaiiuo n aaaeaieai eaniiai oicyenoaa (?oaie ooiaea,
eaniainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo, ?aeiino?oeoeaiuo e naieoa?iuo ?oaie), ooi/iaiu
oaoiieiaee eaniainnoaiiaeaiey n eniieueciaaieai oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa
ae?aaaniuo e eonoa?ieeiauo ii?iae. Eceiaeaiu iiaua oaoiieiaee
ia?aoi?ie?iaaiey ineaaeaiiuo ii?ineaauo niaeuo aeoaiyeia, ni/aoathueo
yeaiaiou aeaaiuo ?oaie (nieioiuo eee a?oiiiai-auai?i/iuo) e
eneonnoaaiiiai eaniainnoaiiaeaiey (a o./. n eniieueciaaieai
e?oiiiia?iiai iinaaei/iiai iaoa?eaea aeoaa).

Ia iiaii oai?aoe/aneii e iaoiaee/aneii o?iaia ?ac?aaioaia no?aoaaey
eaniaiaenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee a iieiao ?ae n o/aoii iioeiecaoeee
eanenoinoe e no?oeoo?u iieiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia. I?aaeeiaeaii auaeaeyoue 3
nenoaiu oeaeaauo ianneaiuo ianaaeaeaiee, eioi?ua a caaeneiinoe io oeiia
iieiaiiuo eaiaeoaooia e aiaeinai?ia ?ae ninoiyo ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai
niioiioaiey 4 oeiia oeaeaauo ae?aainoiaa.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a eanioicyenoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey e au?aueaaiey ianaaeaeaiee a iieiao
?ae Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieiu ?ae, aeae?ieiae/aneee ?aaeei, caueoiua ooieoeee,
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue, onoie/eainoue, aaaeaiea oicyenoaa.

Tkach V.P. Floodplain forests of the left-bank part of Ukraine and
scientific basis of management in them. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for obtaining scientific degree of Doctor of Agricultural
Sciences, speciality 06.03.03 — forest science and forestry. — Ukrainian
State Forest & Technical University, Lviv, 1999.

In dissertation, firstly for conditions of the left-bank part of
Ukraine, the peculiarities of floodplain forests forming are lightened;
their multiform ecological & protective functions are showed; the idea
of system and program & purpose forest growing on the river basin base
is grounded; the principles and criteria of forest coverage and
floodplain forests structure optimisation are determined. The models of
forming and growing of the valuable and high productive artificial and
natural oak stands are developed; the ages of stands maturity for
dominant species are determined. First the diagnostic tables of
floodplain forest types are composed; the assortment of tree and bush
species for artificial forest renewal and forest cultivation is proposed
for floodplains. Optimised systems of the main fellings and fellings
connected with forest management are developed. The new strategy of
forest management in the floodplains is proposed taking into account the
optimisation of floodplain landscapes and river basins. The main results
of investigations are introduced in the forest practice of stands
planting and growing in the river floodplains of the left-bank part of
Ukraine.

Key words: floodplains of the rivers, hydrological regime, protective
functions, productivity, stability, forest management

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Iiaeae? aeeiai?ee oaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo
ii?ineaaeo aeoaiaeo ianaaeaeaiue(H(50)-22 i, aii?oao – I,1)

A?e,

?ie?aNeeaae ca caia-Aea?aainoai*anoeia, ui aeae?a?ouenyNoia i?ii?ae-
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niiaenioa, i

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/eneicaian noia-ao??a, i3ci?ia caiano, i3na?aaeiy aeni-oa, na?aaei?e
ae?a-iao?, /enei noia-ao??a, oo.caian noia-ao??a, i3iiai
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Iiaeae? aeeiai?ee oaenaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a ?aaoey?ii c??aeaeoaaieo
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ooo/ieo aea?aainoai?a aeoaa

A?e,

?ie?aAea?aainoai*anoeia, ui aeae?a?ouenyCaaaeueiaCaaaeueiee i?e??no,
i3na?aaeiy aeni-na?aaei?e ae?a-/enei noia-

ao??a, noia ieiu ia?a-aeaei-aa /en-

eicaian noia-ao??a, ci?ia caiano, i3/enei noia-ao??a,ca-ian, i3noia
caia-n?a, i?i-aeoeoea-i?noue,na-?aae-i?eii-oi/-ieeoa, iiao?,
nioooei?a,i2i3na?aae-iyiioi/-iaooi3i3Iaac=22.0 i. I=1.1323·Iaac
(1-1.083a-0,053A)1,645105.23.948985.90708222.23.6457288303.06.02012.010.
8176616.18485944.78.4110824461407.013.23016.917.2101023.474731886.39.426
622912799.313.84020.121.875628.214702666.77.2102181283949.910.85022.024.
963731.014693206.44.845121564769.57.2Iaac=18.0 i. I=1.3628·Iaac
(1-1.047a-0,036A)1,615103.02.361132.541508111.12.0553744151.53.0207.87.8
20869.97520412.13.812551021623.15.83012.113.2120016.42481953.26.03341243
1384.68.44015.517.985421.494731584.06.413312672255.68.85018.021.569425.1
94712154.35.46310893046.17.46019.924.360428.004702624.44.23691083706.26.
07021.326.554530.074693014.33.82681254266.15.4Iaac=14.0 i.
I=1.5728·Iaac
(1-0.987a-0,035A)2,393101.370536280204.44.826914.87702160.81.6132635211.
12.2308.09.4149610.38509421.43.2436615571.94.44011.413.9102115.50482852.
14.41777291142.95.85014.017.679619.374751292.64.6938451743.56.06016.220.
767322.644721732.94.2507602333.95.67017.823.159725.014712103.03.63677428
44.15.0

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