Залізобетонні плити, локально попередньо напружені у двох напрямках: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Регмі Уттар Кумар, Харк. держ. акад. залізн. т

OA?E?ANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

CAE?CIE*IIAI O?AINII?OO

?AAI? OOOA? EOIA?

OAeE 624. 012.46

CAE?CIAAOIII? IEEOE, EIEAEUeII

IIIA?AAeIUeI IAI?OAEAI?

O AeAIO IAI?ssIEAO

05.23.01 — aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??,

aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? cae?ciaaoiiieo ? eai’yieo eiino?oeoe?e
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaa?i Ieaenaiae? Eueaiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee

aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoe-

oaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e cae?-

ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, Oioeea? Aaea??e Naio?eiae/, Oa?e?anueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e,

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Ac?cia Oaeyo Io?aaeeiiae/, aee?aeoi? Noinueeiai oeaio?o iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?iaeooaaiiy i?iieneiaeo aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa —

Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iae??aea.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 4 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.820.02 Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i.
Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo ca aae?anith: 310050, i.
Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Oae??aaoa, 7.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 1 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, e.o.i. , aeioeaio
??iae A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

A e o o a e ue i ? n o ue o a i e

Ieeoe, iia?o? ??ciei niiniaii ii eiioo?o, yaeythoue niaith aoaeoeaiee
eean eiino?oeoe?e, ui ciaeoia aeinoaoiuei oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a
i?aeoeoe? aoae?aieoeoaa aaaaoueio e?a?i. I?e oeueiio a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a, iai?eeeaae, o Iaiae?, aeai? ia?ae?eooy caiaeyoueny a
iiiie?oiiio aeeiiaii?, aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy. Cacia/aia
iiaeeeai i?e i?iaiiao ii??aiyii iaaaeeei? aeiaaeeie. O ?ac? iio?aae
ia?ae?eooy ca?eueoaieo i?iaii?a a iaio iai?yieao iio??aii canoinoaaiiy
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo ieeo.

I?ioa ?aae?caoe?y cacia/aieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue iaaecae/aeii
oneeaaeiaia a?aenooi?noth aoaeoeaieo niinia?a iaoeniaiiy iiiie?oieo
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. ?nioth/? niiniae iio?aaothoue niaoe?aeueii?
inianoee, iaoai?ci?a, ?noioieo aeo?ao aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a.

O oie aea /an aeina?ae aoae?aieoeoaa a ??cieo e?a?iao iieaco?, ui
aeaiiai oeio caaea/? aeieeathoue aeinoaoiuei /anoi i?e caaaeaii?
ia’?eo?a oi?a?ae?, nii?oeaieo cae?a ? ?i.; i?e ?aeiino?oeoe??, aea
iiaeeeaa a iniiaiiio iiiie?oia aeeiiaiiy. ??oaiiy aeaieo caaea/ noaei
?aaeueiei caaaeyee ?ic?iaeaiiio a OAeOOAA niiniao eieaeueiiai
iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e. I?ioa
a?i iiee ciaeoia canoinoaaiiy o?eueee a aeinoaoiuei i?inoeo aeaiaioao
aaeeiaiai oeio. Oiio i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith noai?aiiy
eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo o aeaio iai?yieao iia?oeo ii eiioo?o
aaeeeii?iaiiieo ieeo o aeaiee /an ? ia?niaeoeaiei.

I a o a ? i a i o e — noai?aiiy iiiie?oieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o
ieeo, eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo o aeaio iai?yieao, a oaeiae
?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?oiueiai ?ic?aooieo c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino? ? ci?ie noaie ?iaioe i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi, iaoiiaeaii?
iiyaith o??uei.

I n i i a i ? c a ae a / ? ae i n e ? ae ae a i i y:

1. ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeie eiino?othaaiiy iia?oeo ii eiioo?o iiiie?oieo
cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo, eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo o aeaio
iai?yieao.

2. Noai?eoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iai?oa a aeaiaioao ieeo i?e iaoeniaii?.

3. ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieiaiai
aecia/aiiy ao?ao iai?oa a a?iaoo?? eieaeueii iaoeniooeo aeaiaio?a a?ae
iiaco/ino? oa onaaeee aaoiio.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe aieea noaie a?aeoyaoaaiiy a?iaoo?e, ui
iai?oaeo?oueny, ia ?ici?? ao?ao iai?oa ? ?iaioo eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aeaia?nii eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeaieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ?aa?enoeo ieeo c o?aooaaiiyi
o??ueiiooai?aiiy, o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino? oa iniaeeainoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy
aaoiio a oiiaao aeaia?niiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio.

6. I?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ?aa?enoeo ieeo i?e ??cieo ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy.

7. Ai?iaaaeeoe ?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe.

I a ‘? e o i i ae i n e ? ae ae a i i y ? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeai? iia?o? ii eiioo?o ieeoe, aaeee, ao?aoe iai?oa a a?iaoo??,
caeiiii??iino? ?iaioe ieeo i?e aieea? iaoeniaiiy ? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

A a e o c ue ae i n e ? ae ae a i ue — iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai?
iiiie?oi? cae?ciaaoiii? eiino?oeoe?? ia?ae?eoo?a.

I a o e i a a ? ae a y neeaaea?oueny a ni?yiiaaiiio oi?ioaaii?
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iiiie?oieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ieeo, ui
caaacia/othoue ca aeiiiiiaith eieaeueiiai iaoeniaiiy iiaeeea?noue
ia?ae?eooy i?iaii?a ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeeie, cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ?
aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao.

I a o i ae e ae i n e ? ae ae a i ue: ei?ioei/ani? ? o?eaae? ?nieoe
eiino?oeoe?e, oai?aoe/ia iiaoaeiaa ?ic?aooieiaiai aia?aoo, eiai
/enaeueia ai?iaaoe?y c aeei?enoaiiyi IAAI ? aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea.

I a o e i a o i i a e c i o ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe??, neeaaeathoue:

— cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie eieaeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy iia?oeo
ii eiioo?o iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo ?c i?aee??iethth/eie ?aa?aie a
aeaio iai?yieao;

— io?eiai? a oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeai? i?i
ao?aoe iai?oa a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio ? aieea noai
a?aeoyaoaaiiy a?iaoo?e ia ?iaioo eieaeueii iaoeniooeo aeaiaio?a;

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o cae?ciaaoiiieo
?aa?enoeo ieeo, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo o aeaio iai?yieao.

I ? a e o e / i a c i a / e i ? n o ue iiaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??
?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaai? i?eioeeie eieaeueiiai
iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy, eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
?ic?aooieo caaacia/othoue iiaeeea?noue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ?
caaaeaiiy aaeeeii?ia?iieo iiiie?oieo ia?ae?eoo?a, ui a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeao cieaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao ? iie?ioaiiy
ia’?iii-ieaioaaeueieo ??oaiue o iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??.

? a c o e ue o a o e ? i a i o e ai?iaaaeaeai? a AO “Oa?e?ai?iaeo”
o i?iaeo? nieiaeiai? ?iaainueeiai (Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?) ieacaaiaeo e a
AO “Aoae?aaeueiee oi?aiaee ae?i” i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ei?iono Oa?e?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? ii aoe. Iooe?inuee?e, 27 ?
aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo ? 44 ii aoe. Ie?iiineoeuee?e o i. Oa?eia?; o i?iaeo?
ii?iaoeaiiai aeieoiaioo “AeAI. ?aiiio oa i?aeneeaiiy iano/eo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e oa iniia i?iieneiaeo aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae,
ui aenieoaoothoueny (?aeiino?oththoueny)”, ?icae?e “Eai’yi? oa
a?iieai’yi? eiino?oeoe??”.

I n i a e n o i i ae a ? ae a i ? c ae i a o a a / a i ?acoeueoaoe,
ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— ?ic?iaeai? iiiie?oi? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? a aeaio
iai?yieao iia?o? ii eiioo?o ieeoe ? ia ?o iniia? aoaeoeai? eiino?oeoeai?
??oaiiy ia?ae?eoo?a ca?eueoaieo i?iaii?a;

— cai?iiiiiaai? e iaa?oioiaai? ?ic?aooieia? iiaeae? ?ic?iaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?e;

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo i?aee??ieaii? aeaia?nii eieaeueii
iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaii? iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ieeoe c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino?, ?iaioe aaoiio a oiiaao aeaia?niiai noeneo,
o??ueiiooai?aiiy;

— aeyaeaiee oa?aeoa? ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue o eiino?oeoe??;

— ?ic?iaeaia, aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ? c?noaaeaia c
ii?iaoeaiith iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ao?ao iai?oa a?ae
onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio i?e eieaeueiiio iaoeniaii?;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aieea noai a?aeoyaoaaiiy, ??aiy iaoyao
a?iaoo?e ia ?iaioo eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a;

— cae?eniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo ??oaiue.

A i ? i a a oe ? y ? i a i o e. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia 3-e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Noaeacae?ciaaoiii?
eiino?oeoe??: aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai,
aenieoaoaoe?y” (E?eaee ??a, 1998 ?.), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo OAeOOAA
1997-1998 ??, iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? OAeACO.

I o a e ? e a oe ? ? . Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ? ?acoeueoaoe
iioae?eiaai? a 6 ae?oea?nueeeo ?iaioao.

I a ‘ ? i ? i a i o e. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e c 137 iaeiaioaaiue
? aeiaeaoea. Aiia aeeth/a? 121 noi??ieo iniiaiiai iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, 4 oaaeeoe? ? 75 iaethie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue, aeiaaia?/i?noue
cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e, caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue ia?ae?eooy i?iaii?a
ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeeie.

?ic?iaoe? niinia?a iiia?aaeiueiai iaoeniaiiy, eiino?oeoe?e ia ?o iniia?,
aea/aiith oa?aeoa?o ?o ?iaioe i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi i?enay/ai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy Aa?aee/aanueeiai A.?., Aaicae?aa A.A., Aieeoaaa I.A.,
Aeieo???aa N.A., Ieoaeeiaa A.A., Eaiiaa?aeoa O., O?aeneia A., Iaiue?ey
A. ? ?i.

Ioe?iea ao?ao iai?oa, aieea onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio noaee i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiue Aeaenaiae?ianueeiai N.A., Aaae/a A.I., Aa?aoeeiaa A.ss.,
Aa?aa I.ss.,I?ieiiiae/a ?.?.,Oeeoeueeiai ?.?., Ua?aaeiaa A.I. oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeaii ??ci? oeie iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo eiino?oeoe?e, o oiio
/ene? e iia?o? ii eiioo?o ieeoe, iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? a aeaio
iai?yieao. ?i i?enay/ai? ?iaioe Ea?/ainueeiai I.TH., E?neoeeia A.I.,
Na?oiaa A.A. ? ?i.

?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo
i?enay/ai? ?iaioe Aaicae?aa A.A., Caei?aiei A.N., Ea?iaiei I.?., E?eeiaa
N.I., E?aoeoey ss.Ae., *eoeaaeca A.Ae., Oaa?ia I.E., Oioeea?a A.N.,
ss?aiaiei I.O. ? ?i.

I?ioa aeinoaoiuei oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a i?aeoeoe? ciaeoee eeoa aeaia?nii
iaoenioo? ca??i? ieeoe ?ici??ii ia e?iiaoo. Aeaia?nia iaoeniaiiy
iiiie?oieo ieeo iiee i?aeoe/ii ia aeei?enoiaoaaeiny /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
aoaeoeaieo niinia?a eiai cae?eniaiiy.

Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei o oeeo oe?eyo ? niin?a eieaeueiiai
iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaiee Oaa?iei I.E.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaia ieoaiiy a ? i c ae ? e ? 1
noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? ?iaioe.

? i c ae ? e 2 i?enay/aiee cai?iiiiiaaiei eiino?oeoe?yi iiiie?oieo
aeaia?nii eieaeueii iaoeniooeo ieeo ia?ae?eoo?a ca?eueoaieo i?iaii?a.

Iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiith ? eiino?oeoe?y, iiaeaia ia ?en.1. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny ?c nooe?eueii? cae?ciaaoiiii? iieee oa i?oiaiiaeueii?
nenoaie i?aee??iethth/eo ?? ?aaa? — eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo
aaeie.

Eiino?oeoe?y a oe?eiio ii noaoe/i?e noai? ? iia?oith ii eiioo?o ieeoith,
aiane?aeie /iai ?? iieea i?aoeth? a iniiaiiio a oiiaao aeaia?niiai
noeneo. O oie aea /an eiaeiee ina?aaeie iieee, iaiaaeaiee aeaiia
a?ae??ceaie ?aaa? o eiaeiiio iai?yieo, i?aoeth? ye ia?ic??cia ieanoeia,
iia?oa ii eiioo?o, ?c ?ici??aie noi??i, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue a?aenoaiyi
i?ae ?aa?aie o aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo iai?yieao. I?aaaethth/ith o
oi?ioaaii? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ? ?? ?iaioa a oe?eiio ye
ieeoe, iia?oi? ii eiioo?o. Oiio a?iaoo?a i?aee??iethth/eo aaeie, ui
iai?oaeo?oueny, ? aacia?a?aiith a iaaeao aeiaaeei i?iaii?a eiino?oeoe??
a oe?eiio.

?aa?a yaeythoue niaith i?aee??iethth/o nenoaio ia?ao?anieo aaeie, o
ieaei?o ciiao yeeo aeieea? ?icoya. Cai?iiiiiaaia eieaeueia iiia?aaei?
iai?oaeaiiy ?aaa? aeeeeea? iicaoeaio?iaa iaoeniaiiy an??? iia?oi? ii
eiioo?o ieeoe a oe?eiio.

Iaoeniaiiy cae?enith?oueny a?aeoyaoaaiiyi aiec a?iaoo?e, ui
iai?oaeo?oueny. Aiia ?ici?uo?oueny a niaoe?aeueiiio iac?, yeee
caeeoathoue i?e aaoiioaaii?. Cacia/aia a?aeoyaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny
i?eeeaaeaiiyi aaciina?aaeiuei aei a?iaoo?e iiia?a/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue Fp
i?ney iaai?o aaoiiii eiino?oeoe?? ia?aaeaoi/ii? i?oeiino? Ra?, eiee
e?ioeaa? ae?eyiee a?iaoo?e, ui iai?oaeo?oueny, caeeoathoueny
caaiea?aiith a nooe?eueieo aeecueeeo aei iii? ciiao i?aee??iethth/eo
aaeie. Aeieeath/a i?e a?aeoyaoaaii? coneeey iaoyao a?iaoo?e Nsp
aeeeeea? eieaeueia (o iaaeao aeiaaeeie iaca Lsp) iaoeniaiiy
eiino?oeoe??.

*a?ac oa, ui iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeo?oueny a?iaoo?a iaio iai?yie?a,
ia?oeie a?aeoyaathoueny no?eaei?, ui ?icoaoiaothoueny ieae/a (?en. 1).
I?e oeueiio aeioe?eueii ieae/a ?icoaoiaoaaoe a?iaoo?o ?aaa? ei?ioeiai
iai?yieo, o yeeo ?ici??e caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a a?eueoa ? a?aeiia?aeii a
aeaiiio iai?yieo iiaeiii aooe aeuei ? cia/aiiy ?iai/i? aenioe ia?a??co
h0.

?ici??e i?aeeiao no??eie a?aeoyaoaaiiy i?ae?aoiaothoueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae cia/aiue iaaaioaaeaiue, ui a?aeoyaothoue, Fp, noai a?aeoyaoaaiiy,
aeiaaeei iaieaieo ae?eyiie a?iaoo?e Lsp, ?? ia?aiao??a.

Aeey ciaioaiiy aeeaeie iaca ? a?eueo iecueeiai ?icoaooaaiiy oi/ee
aeoiaeo iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e a iac, ui i?aeaeuo?
aoaeoeai?noue iaoeniaiiy, aeioe?eueii a iaio iai?yieao a?aeoyaoaaiiy
?iaeoe aeaiia neeaie. Aiii cae?enith?oueny iaei?ino?oeie aaeioiaeie
aeiie?aoaie, oiio ui neee a?aeoyaoaaiiy Fp ia ii?yaeie iaio?, i?ae
ooai?thaai? ieie coneeey Nsp. ?oiy aaee/eia eiio?ieth?oueny aei??ii
no??eee a?aeoyaoaaiiy.

I?ney caaa?oaiiy a?aeoyaoaaiiy i?iaaaeeoueny o?enaoe?y iieiaeaiiy
iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e oii?iei aeeaaeeoai aai oii?iei no?eaeiai. C iaoith
caoenoo iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e a?ae ei?ic?? ? aieeao aiaith iac
ca/aeaith?oueny aaoiiii. A?i iiaeiiee iaoe i?aeaeuaio i?oei?noue ?
?icoyaei?noue.

O ?ac? iio?aae iaea?aeaiiy aeaaeei? noae? i?iiiio?oueny ??oaiiy c
?aa?aie iaae iieeith, i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 2. I?ae ?aa?aie oeeaaea?oueny
caoei?cieyoe?eiee (oaiei?cieyoe?eiee) i?ioa?ie, ii yeiio aeaooiao?oueny
noyaeea.

I?e ca?eueoaieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei ? ??oaiiy, iiaeaia
ia ?en. 3, aea ?ieue i?aeaioiaee i?ae i?aeeiao aeeiio? neeiaa iiiie?oia
cae?ciaaoiiia ieeoa, ui aeeaaea?oueny iiaa?o ?aaa? ? ia’?aeio?oueny c
ieie ca aeiiiiiaith aeione?a a?iaoo?e ? oiiiie. I?e oeueiio oiaueia
ieaeiuei? ieeoe iiaea aooe i?i?iaeueiith.

O cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?yo, ye ? cae/aeii i?e aeei?enoaii? niiniao
eieaeueiiai iaoeniaiiy, canoiniao?oueny ci?oaia a?ioaaiiy: aea? o?aoeie
?ic?aooieiai? e?eueeino? a?iaoo?e iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeo?oueny ?
?icoaoiao?oueny a iac?, iaeia o?aoeia ?ici?uo?oueny a no?ieao iaca a
neeaae? ea?ean?a, ui caaacia/othoue i?oei?noue iioeeeo ia?a??c?a
eiino?oeoe??.

??aaiue iaoeniaiiy ? e?euee?noue iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e a eiaeiiio
iai?yieo i?aeae?athoueny, aeoiaey/e c oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo coneeue o
ieeo?, ui iai?/a?oueny. Aecia/aiiy ?ici???a iaaaioaaeaiue, ui
a?aeoyaothoue, Fp aeey noai?aiiy coneeue iaoyao Nsp o eiaei?e
i?aee??iethth/?e aaeoe? i?iaiaeeoueny ia iniia? ?icaeyaeo aeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio iaieaii? a?aeoyaiooi? a?iaoo?e a iac?. Iai?oae a aaoii? aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?? i?e iaoeniaii? aecia/athoueny c ?ic?aooieo iia?oi? ii
eiioo?o ieeoe ia ae?th ia ia? cieco iaaaioaaeaiue Fp ? ai?eciioaeueieo
coneeue iaoyao Nsp, cia/aiiy yeeo i?eeiathoueny aac o?aooaaiiy ae?oaeo
ao?ao. Io?eiai? ?ic?aooieii cia/aiiy iai?oa ia iiaeii? ia?aaeuoaaoe Rbt
o ?icoyaioo?e cii? ? sa? o noeniooiio aaoii?. A iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?aooieao
cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoeny, aeoiaey/e c
iniaeeainoae niiniao eieaeueiiai iaoeniaiiy, ao?aoe a?ae onaaeee ?
iiaco/ino? aaoiio, ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oa a a?iaoo??, yeui aiia ia?
?aieia?/i? aeanoeaino?.

*a?ac oa, ui i?aeo?ae NIeI 2.03.01-84* ?ic?aoiaaiee ia o?aaeeoe?ei?
caniae iaoeniaiiy, ia iiaea aooe iioe?aiee ia eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei
iai?oaeai? eiino?oeoe??, ui i?aoeththoue ii oi?aiaaeuei?e noai?, aoea
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ao?ao iai?oa a?ae aieeao
onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio. Coneeey a aeai?e iaeei ?ac ciai?oiuei
noaoe/ii iaaecia/ai?e nenoai? ?ic?aoiaothoueny iaoiaeii nee.

O yeino? caeaiai iaa?aeiiiai i?eeia?oueny coneeey a no?eoe? (oii?iiio
aeeaaeeo?), ?icoaoiaaii? a na?aaeei? aeiaaeeie iaca Lsp, aai a
oi?aiaaeuei?e /anoei? (iai?oaeai?e a?iaoo??), eiee a?aeoyaoaaiiy e
onoaiiaea oii?ieo aeeaaeeo?a i?iaiaeyoueny a aeaio oi/eao.

Ao?aoe iai?oa a a?iaoo?? aeey aeiaaeeo no?eee a na?aaeei? aeiaaeeie iaca

wmetafile8? ?????????????
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A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??z?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????<&???<(???u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??|??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A-???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?-??E?? ???&? ?MathType??a ???u?????????"????-?????eN???eo???e ???eN ???e¤???ey???e”???e???e/???e????e!??? ec%???ea&???e©+???uLthA????? aea ea - aeaoi?iaoe?? onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio, a - eoo iaoeeo iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e, e - a?aenoaiue a?ae oi/ee aeoiaeo a?iaoo?e a iac aei o?ce/ii? a?n?, Aa, (AA)a, (GA)a - aei?noeino? aaeeiai? /anoeie a?aeiia?aeii ia aeaei, noene ? cnoa. Aeeiiai? /enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ao?aoe iai?oa a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio, i?ae?aoiaai? ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe?, o 1,4...1,65 ?ac? iaioa aiaeia?/ieo, aecia/aieo ca iaoiaeeeith ii?i aeey aeiaaeeo iaoyao ia aaoii. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?oeiino? aaoiio ? e?eueeino? a?iaoo?e ia ?ici?? ao?ao iai?oa o i?e. A ? i c ae ? e ? 3 aeeeaaea?oueny ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? aeaia?nii iaoeniooi? i?aee??ieaii? ieeoe. Aeai?ia? ?ic?aooieiaeo iiaeaeae ia?aaeoaaei /enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, oe?eeth yeiai aoei c?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? ca noaiith iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ?aa?enoi? ieeoe ? nenoaie ia?ao?anieo aaeie oaa?iaiai ia?a??co c i?eeiyoei o i?aeoeoe? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi oiaueie iieee ? aenioe ia?a??co aaeie. ?ic?aooiie i?iaaaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno “I??aae”, iiaoaeiaaiiai ia iaoiae? e?ioeaaeo aeaiaio?a. Ia ?en. 4 iaaaaeai? io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo ?ic?aooie?a aith?e caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a o aaeeao i?e noaiao iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ieeoe ? nenoaie ia?ao?anieo aaeie. sse aeaeii c ?en. 4, i?e aaeeia?e noai? cia/aiiy caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a a?eueoa ia 7...9%. I?ney iiyae o??uei o iieoe? ieeoe cacia/aia ??cieoey aoaea ?noioii iaioith, oiio ui e?ooeeueia aei?noe?noue o ieeoao ?c o??ueiaie iaaea? a cia/ii a?eueoiio nooiai?, i?ae caeiaeueia. E??i oiai, o neaaei a?iiaai?e iieoe? aei?noe?noue aoaea iaaeaoe a?eueo ?ioaineaii, i?ae o ii?iaeueii a?iiaaieo i?aee??iethth/eo aaeeao. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney iiyae o??uei o iieoe? ??cieoey i?ae ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a ii cacia/aiei aeua noaiao aoaea ?noioii iaioith, aei 3...5%. Aaaeeeai, ui aeaia ??cieoey eaea a caian eiino?oeoe??. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee ?icae?eeoe ?ic?aooiie eiino?oeoe?? ia 2 noaae?? c ??cieie ?ic?aooieiaeie noaiaie. Ia ia?o?e noaae??, aei iiyae o??uei o iieoe?, eiino?oeoe?y ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca noaiith i?aee??ieaii? iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ieeoe ia ae?th coneeue iaoeniaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi ae?oaeo ao?ao ? iaaaioaaeaiiy q. I?ney aeinyaiaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy qcrc, ui aeeeeea? iiyao o??uei o iieoe?, cae?enith?oueny ae?oaa noaae?y ?ic?aooieo ia ae?th i?e?inoo iaaaioaaeaiiy Dq = q - qcrc ca noaiith nenoaie ia?ao?anieo aaeie. O yeino? ii/aoeiaiai i?eeia?oueny iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai o eiiiiiaioao ia?a??c?a, ui noi?ioaaeiny ia iiiaio ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy o??u?iiooai?aiiy qcrc. ?ic?aooiie ia ae?oa?e noaae?? i?iaaaeeoueny iaoiaeii iine?aeiaieo iaaaioaaeaiue. IAeN o ia?a??cao aaeie, c iaeyaeo ia iae?i?ei?noue aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaoiio e a?iaoo?, ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? iaaaioaaeaiiy ooi/ith?oueny a ?oa?aoe?eiiio i?ioean?. Oiio ui ?ic?aooiie aaaeaoueny ia ae?th i?e?inoo iaaaioaaeaiiy, aaiaeyoueny cai?iiiiiaai? Oaa?iei I.E. aioo??oiueie?ieia? n?/i? iiaeoe? aeaoi?iaoe?e aaoiio e a?iaoo?, ui a?aeaeaathoue ?oith ?iaioo a?ae cacia/aiiai ii/aoeiaiai noaio aei oaeiai, ui aeeeeea?oueny caaeaiei i?e?inoii iaaaioaaeaiiy Dq. O?aooaaiiy ?iaioe aaoiio iieee a oiiaao aeaia?niiai noeneo i?iaaaeeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith i?oio?iiii? iiaeae?, ui iieno? eiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy o aca?iii ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo iai?yieao aac aeei?enoaiiy eiao?oe??io?a iiia?a/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. Caeiiii??iino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy a eiaeiiio iai?yieo i?e ??cieo ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo iai?oa wmetafile8? ????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??:?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????<@????< ???u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy@??F?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????<????<????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??„??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??/?? ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????ae¬???aeE ???u?????????"????-???????????u?th??????aea ho,a ? mo,a - ia?aiao?e iae?i?eiino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaoiio ocaeiaae a?n? o i?e aeaia?niiio noeneo c? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi a. Cia/aiiy Ro, ? ae?eniei, aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaiei cia/aiiyi i?oeiino? aaoiio aeaiiai eeano i?e aeaia?niiio noeneo c? ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi .. Ioe?iea IAeN ia?a??c?a o iai?yieao a?nae o e o i?iaaaeeoueny ca iaoiaeeeith Aiiaea?aiei A.I. ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy ??aiyiue ??aiiaaae, a?iioace ieineeo ia?a??c?a, cacia/aieo aeua o?ce/ieo caeii?a ? iae?i?eiiai caeiio ?iciiae?eo iai?oa ii aenio? ia?a??c?a. AEi?noeino? ia?a??c?a aecia/athoueny ii Io?aoaao A.?. O i?ioean? iine?aeiaiiai ia?aai?o iaaaioaaeaiue aeyaey?oueny oa, i?e yeiio aeinyaa?oueny iaeei ?c aeae?a a?aie/ieo noai?a. Ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? i?e?inoo iaaaioaaeaiiy a i?ioean? iine?aeiaieo iaaeeaeaiue (ciai?oi?e oeeee ?oa?aoe?e) aeyaey?oueny ?iciiae?e coneeue i?ae iai?yieaie ? ia?a??caie, ui a?aeiia?aea? cia/aiiyi ?o ooi/iaieo aei?noeinoae. Ia ?en. 5 iaaaaeai? aith?e caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a o nenoai? ia?ao?anieo aaeie i?iaiiaie Lx = 13,06 i, Ly = 18,10 i a?ae aenieoaoaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy q = 10 eI/i2 a i?oaei?e iinoaiiaoe? ? c o?aooaaiiyi ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue i?ney iiyae o??uei o aaeeao. sse aeaeii c ?en. 5, aaee/eia iaeneiaeueieo caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a ca ?aooiie ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue ciaioeeanue. Eiino?oeoeaiee ?ic?aooiie iieee i?iaaaeeoueny ie?aii ye ia?ic??cii? ieeoe, iia?oi? ii eiioo?o, ii oai??? Ea?iaiei I.?. C iaoith ia?aa??ee i?eeiyoiino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ioe?iee ao?ao iai?oa a a?iaoo?? a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio, aea/aiiy aieeao noai a?aeoyaoaaiiy iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e ia ?iaioo eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo caeiaeueieo aeaiaio?a aoee i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieno yeeo i?enay/aiee ? i c ae ? e 4. Aei?iaiaoaaeeny 4 na??? ii 3 aaeee a eiaei?e. Ia?a??c aaeie 80 o 140 ii, aeiaaeeia 1200 ii. Aeiaaeeia iaca 600 ii, iiia?a/iee ia?a??c iaca 30 o 60 ii. Eoaeeiaa i?oei?noue aaoiio R = 29,9 IIa. Iai?oaeaia a?iaoo?a 10 ii ?c ci?oeiaiith aeoyaii noae? eeano A-IIIa. No?eaeaiue i?e aaoiioaaii? aaeee ?icoaoiaoaaany a aea?aa'yiiio iaciooai?thaa/?, yeee /a?ac 3 aiaeeie i?ney aaoiioaaiiy aeoyaaany c aaoiio c?acea. O o?ueio na??yo aei?iaiaoaaeeny eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? c?acee, o /aoaa?o?e - aac iaoeniaiiy. C?acee eiino?othaaeenue oae, uia i?ney a?aeoyaoaaiiy a?n? iai?oaeaieo no?eaei?a o na?aaeei? aeiaaeeie iaca ciaoiaeeeeny i?e an?o noaiao a?aeoyaoaaiiy ia oiio naiiio ??ai?, ui ? a?n? a?iaoo?e a na??? 4 aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, o an?o na??yo ?iai/a aenioa ia?a??co c?ace?a h0 o na?aaeei? i?iaiio aoea iaeiaeiaith. O no?ieao iac?a onoaiiaethaaeeny ea?eane c iaiai?oaeaiith a?iaoo?ith 5 ii eeano A?-I, iiia?a/i? no?eaei? oaeiae 5 ii e?ieii 100 ii. C?acee aaoiioaaeeny a iaoaeaaeo iiaeoaieo oi?iao, ?c a?a?iou?eueiaiiyi. O na??? 1 a?aeoyaoaaiiy i?iaaaeeeiny iaei??? neeith, i?eeeaaeaiith a na?aaeei? aeiaaeeie iaca, o na??? 2 - aeaiia neeaie a o?aoeiao aeiaaeeie iaca, o na??? 3 - o /aa?oyo aeiaaeeie iaca. Aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiio aei??thaaeeny ?iaeeeaoi?aie aiaeeiieeiaiai oeio c oe?iith ?iciiae?eo 0,001 ii, a?iaoo?e - aaae?eueieie oaiciiao?aie c oe?iith ?iciiae?eo oaeiae 0,001 ii, i?iaeie - i?iaeiiaei??thaa/aie c oe?iith ?iciiae?eo 0,1 ii. Ia ?en. 6 iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee ?inoo aeaoi?iaoe?e iaoeniaiiy a aaoii?. Ia ia?o?e noaae?? ??no aeaoi?iaoe?e aoa iaoiiaeaiee ?inoii iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui a?aeoyao?. I?ney o?enaoe?? iieiaeaiiy iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaeaaeo oii?ieo aeeaaeeo?a o i??o ciyooy iaaaioaaeaiiy a?aeoyaiooa a?iaoo?a, ui iaeiie/eea aia?a?th, ia?aaeath/e oene ia oii?i? aeeaaeeo?, aeaeiaea aaeeo. Cia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e iaoeniaiiy aaoiio ia ae?oa?e noaae?? neeaee 28 % a?ae aiaeia?/iiai ?ici??o ia ia?o?e noaae??. O iai?oaeai?e a?iaoo?? ia ae?oa?e noaae?? iaei i?noea iacia/ia ciaioaiiy iai?oa (?en. 7). I?ney eieaeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy aaeee i?ioyaii 60 ae?a ciaoiaeeeeny a iaiaaaioaaeaiiio noai?, eiee cae?enithaaeiny niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio ? ao?aoaie iai?oa a a?iaoo??. ?acoeueoaoe aei??o cacia/aieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o aaoii? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe ?ic?aooieiaa aecia/aiiy ao?ao iai?oa ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? ? c?noaaeoe ?o ?c oaeoe/ii iai??thaaieie cia/aiiyie aeaoi?iaoe?e a a?iaoo??. Ia?aeaeueii ?ici?? ao?ao aoa i?ae?aoiaaiee ? ca iaoiaeeeith NIeI 2.03.01-84* aeey niiniao iaoyao ia aaoii. I?ae?aoiaai? ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? cia/aiiy ao?ao aoee ia 4,7...19 % a?eueo?, i?ae oaeoe/i?. ?ici??e ao?ao iai?oa, i?ae?aoiaai? ca iaoiaeeeith ii?i, aoee a 2...2,5 ?ace a?eueo? oaeoe/ieo. Oaeei /eiii, i?eeiyoi?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i/aaeaeia. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aaaeeeaee aeniiaie, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? niiniao eieaeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?ici?? ao?ao iai?oa iiaeia i?eeiaoe ??aiei i?i?iaeueiiio cia/aiith a 100 IIa, anoaiiaeaiiio ii?iaie. Aei?iaoaaiiy c?ace?a ia caei i?iaaaeeeeny ca noaiith oa?i??ii iia?oi? aaeee i?iaiiii 1 i, yea iaaaioaaeoaaeanue a o?aoeiao i?ieueioo a iaoei? O?I-50. Iano/a ni?iiiaei?noue i?e an?o o?ueio noaiao a?aeoyaoaaiiy ? aac iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy aeyaeeany i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith a?ae 2F=45,8 eI aei 2F = 47,7 eI.. Eieaeueia iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy cia/ii (o 2,8...3,2 ?ace) i?aeaeueei ?ici?? iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy (?en. 8) ? cieceei aeaoi?iaoeai?noue eiino?oeoe?? i?e aenieoaoaoe?eiiio iaaaioaaeaii? a 1,9...2,3 ?ace (?en. 8). Ia ?en. 9 iieacai? aith?e i?iaei?a aaeie i?e ??cieo ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy. ??no i?iaei?a iinea iae?i?eiee oa?aeoa? i?e aenieeo ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ia ?icoaooaaiiy o??uei, caeiiii??i?noue ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo noaie a?aeoyaoaaiiy aieeao ia iaee. ?oeioaaiiy o an?o na??yo caaa?ooaaeiny ?icae??aeaiiyi noeniooi? ciie, iiyaith eauaaeie i?e ?ioaineaiiio ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a a?iaoo??. O ? i c ae ? e ? 5 ina?oeai? ieoaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, aecia/ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaeano? canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ieeo o iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??. AENIIAIE 1. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeie aeaia?niiai eieaeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ia?ae?eoo?a ca aeiiiiiaith iaei?ino?oeo iaoai?ci?a, ui ia iio?aaothoue aeo?ao aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a. 2. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeai? eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy iia?oeo ii eiioo?o cae?ciaaoiiieo ieeo ia?ae?eoo?a, i?aee??ieaieo nenoaiaie eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo i?oiaiiaeueii ?icoaoiaaieo aaeie. 3. Cai?iiiiiaaia e?ioeaai-aeaiaioia iiaeaeue ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o i?aee??ieaieo ieeo ia aieea coneeue iaoeniaiiy a aeaio iai?yieao. Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo coneeue a aeaiaioao ieeoe i?e aeaia?niiio iaoeniaii?. 4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee ao?ao iai?oa a a?iaoo?? eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaio?a a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio, ui a?aoiao? ae?enio noaio ?iaioe ye eiino?oeoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai oeio. 5. I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ao?ao iai?oa o eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaioao a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio, ui iieacaee i?eeiyoio a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c ieie ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? ioe?iee cacia/aieo ao?ao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeoe/i? ao?aoe iai?oa a?ae onaaeee ? iiaco/ino? aaoiio a eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo aeaiaioao o 2...2,5 ?ace iaio?, i?ae iaea?aeoaai? ?ic?aooieii ca iaoiaeeeith NIeI 2.03.01-84*, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey eiino?oeoe?e, iaoeniooeo o?aaeeoe?eieie niiniaaie. Caaaeuei? ao?aoe iai?oa i?e aeei?enoaii? niiniao eieaeueiiai iaoeniaiiy iaio? i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy anoaiiaeaiiai ii?iaie 100 IIa. 6. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui aeae noaie a?aeoyaoaaiiy iai?oaeaii? a?iaoo?e ia aieeaa? ia iano/o ni?iiiaei?noue eieaeueii iaoeniooeo aeaiaio?a, eieaeueia iiia?aaeiy iai?oaa ia ca?eueooaaea i?oei?noue eiino?oeoe??. 7. O aenia?eiaioao aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy eieaeueii iaoeniooeo aeaiaio?a ia an?o noaae?yo iaaaioaaeaiiy, oa?aeoa? o??ueiiooai?aiiy ? ae/a?iaiiy iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino?. O aeine?aeaeoaaiiio a aenia?eiaioao ae?aiacii? eieaeueia iiia?aaei? iaoeniaiiy a 2,8...3,2 ?ace i?aeaeueei ?ici?? iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy ? o 1,9...2,3 ?ace ciaioeei cia/aiiy i?iaei?a i?e aenieoaoaoe?eieo ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy. 8. *enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno “I??aae” iieacaei, ui i?e ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo aenioe ia?a??c?a i?aee??iethth/eo aaeie ? oiauei iieeoeue, ui iathoue i?noea o aoae?aaeuei?e i?aeoeoe?, a?aei?ii?noue o ?acoeueoaoao ?ic?aooie?a ca noaiaie iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ieeoe ? nenoaie ia?ao?anieo aaeie oaa?iaiai ia?a??co ia ia?aaeuo? 9%.. I?ney iiyae o??uei o iieoe? aeaia a?aei?ii?noue ?noioii ciaioo?oueny. 9. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aeaia?nii eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ieeo, ui a?aoiao? iae?i?ei? ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy a?iaoo?e ? aeaia?nii noeniooiai aaoiio, o??ueiiooai?aiiy a aeaiaioao eiino?oeoe?e, o?ainoi?iaoe?th ?ic?aooieiai? noaie. Aei iiyae o??uei o iieoe? eiino?oeoe?y ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca noaiith iia?oi? ii eiioo?o ieeoe, i?ney ?oiuei? iiyae - ca noaiith nenoaie ia?ao?anieo aaeie. Ii ia?o?e noai? iine?aeiaieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie c o?aooaaiiyi ao?ao iai?oa aecia/a?oueny ?ici?? iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueiiooai?aiiy. Ii ae?oa?e noai? ?ic?aooiie aaaeaoueny oaeiae iine?aeiaieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie c ooi/iaiiyi o i?ioean? ?oa?aoe?e cia/aiue iai?oa ? aioo??oiueie?ieiaeo n?/ieo iiaeoe?a aeaoi?iaoe?e. 10. Ia iniia? ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo /enaeueii iiaoaeiaaia cai?iiiiiaaia Oaa?iei I.E. i?oio?iiia iiaeaeue iieno ?iaioe aaoiio a oiiaao aeaia?niiai noeneo. 11. Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue i?ae iai?yieaie ? ia?a??caie i?aee??ieaieo aaeeaie aeaia?nii iaoeniooeo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ieeo ia ??cieo noaae?yo iaaaioaaeaiiy. O?aooaaiiy a ?ic?aooieao ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue aeicaiey? ciaioeoe ?ici?? iaeneiaeueieo caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a, iai?eeeaae, i?e aenieoaoaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo ia 7...9 %. 12. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?iaeo? ia?ae?eoo?a nieiaeiai? ?iaainueeiai (Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?) ieacaaiaeo, i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeaiiiaa?oiaiai aoaeeieo iaa/aeueiiai ei?iono Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? ii aoe. Iooe?inuee?e, 27 ? aeeoeiaiai aoaeeieo ii aoe. Ie?iiineoeuee?e, 44 o i. Oa?eia?; o i?iaeo? AeAI c ?aeiino?oeoe?? eai'yieo aoaeeie?a. INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAI? O OAEEO ?IAIOAO: 1. ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Ii?aaeaeaiea oneeee a ?aa?enouo ia?ae?uoeyo, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo // Iaoeiaee ainiee aoaeiaieoeoaa.-Oa?eia: OAeOOAA, 1998.-? 2.-N. 206-208. 2. ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Iioa?e iai?yaeaiee a eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaaeaouo yeaiaioao // Iaoeiaee ainiee aoaeiaieoeoaa.-Oa?eia: OAeOOAA, 1998.-? 4.-N. 41-44. 3. Aiaeueyiiaa E.A., Aa?aiia A.I., Caaei?iaeiue A.A., I?ioeaiei A.I., ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Eniieueciaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey “iie?iai” oi?e?aoe?iaaiey a oneiaeyo ?aeiino?oeoeee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee // Iaoeiaee ainiee aoaeiaieoeoaa.-Oa?eia: OAeOOAA, 1998.-? 2.-N. 26-29. 4. Oaaei A.E., ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Iiiieeoiua ia?ae?uoey, eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia.-Eeaa: Ecae “Oaoiiea”, 1997.-? 12.-N. 55-58. 5. Oaaei A.E., ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Ia?ae?uoey n i?oiaiiaeueiui i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiui iiaee?aieaieai aeey aeeeuo e iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia.-Eeaa: Ecae “Oaoiiea”, 1998.-? 16.-N. 8-10. 6. Oaaei A.E., Aeiiaaaa E.A., ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. Iiaeaaaeaiea iiiieeoiuo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo ia?ae?uoee // Iaoeiaee ainiee aoaeiaieoeoaa.-Aei. 4.-Oa?eia: OAeOOAA, OIOA AAO, 1998.-N.35-38. AIIOAOe?? ?aai? Oooa? Eoia?. Cae?ciaaoiii? ieeoe, eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeai? a aeaio iai?yieao. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe. Oao 05.23.01 - aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee. Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo. Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia noai?aiith aoaeoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e cae?ciaaoiiieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o ieeo ia?ae?eoo?a ca?eueoaieo i?iaii?, ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeei?a ea?oaaiiy ?oi?i iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiei noaiii ca aeiiiiiaith eieaeueiiai aeaia?niiai iiia?aaeiueiai iaoeniaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ao?ao iai?oa o eieaeueii iaoeniooeo aeaiaioao a?ae iiaco/ino? e onaaeee aaoiio. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iia?oeo ii eiioo?o i?aee??ieaieo aeaia?nii eieaeueii iiia?aaeiuei iai?oaeaieo ieeo c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino?, aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaoiio a oiiaao ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio, o?ainoi?iaoe?? noaie ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?? i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Ioe?iaii nooi?iue ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue i?ae iai?yieaie, aeaiaioaie ? ia?a??caie. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaiee aieea noai ? ??aiy eieaeueiiai iiia?aaeiueiai iai?oaeaiiy ia ?ici?? ao?ao iai?oa ? ?iaioo eiino?oeoe?e i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Aecia/aii iaeano? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoe?e o iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a AO “Oa?e?ai?iaeo” ? “Aoae?aaeueiee oi?aiaee ae?i”, i?iaeo? “AeAI. ?aiiio oa i?aeneeaiiy iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e oa iniia i?iieneiaeo nii?oae, ui aenieoaoothoueny (?aeiino?oththoueny)”, ?icae?e “Eai'yi? oa a?iieai'yi? eiino?oeoe??”. Eeth/ia? neiaa: cae?ciaaoiiia ieeoa, i?aee??iethth/? aaeee, eieaeueia iaoeniaiiy, ao?aoe iai?oa, ia?a?iciiae?e coneeue, o??ueiino?ee?noue, aeaoi?iaoeai?noue. Regmi Uttar Kumar. Reinforced concrete slab, locally prestressed in two directions. Thesis for scientific degree, doctor of philosophy in technical sciences, speciality 05.23.01 – construction designs, buildings and structures. Kharkov State academy of Railway Transport. Kharkov - 1999. In this thesises presented monolithic two way supported on four sides reinforced concrete slab, locally prestressed in two directions. Defined different types of orthogonal slab. Given several options to construct smooth ceiling and floor. Proposed upward and downward inverted beam as well as beam between two R.C.C. slabs. Explained about formation of open duct to placed tendons. Given procedure of prestressing which is released after jacking down of tendons by acting force on its with simple mechanical jack. Prestressing force is subjected within the length of open duct. End of the tendon which is transferred prestress force to the structure is anchored in support portion. Due to this, the anchorage length remained without prestress. One third of the total calculated (working) reinforcement bar is placed in the composition of frameworks to provide strength and resist shear forces, remaining two third is used for prestressing of structure. After the jacking down tendon form its original place, released vertical upward force equal to jack (pull) down force Fp and horizontal force projection of stress in the tendon Nsp. Before completion, the open duct should be filled completely with rich concrete, under pressure. Method and process of post tensioning, its calculation and as well as calculation for losses of stress is work out. Experimentally verified, the losses of stress under local post tension is 2...2,5 times less than traditional post tensioning method. For the detail analysis of losses of stress, has been seen different statically diagram of jack (force) down tendon. Experiment shown, that losses of stress does not exceed 20% under different statically diagram. Results of the experiment and calculation have shown that, in the case of local post tension the losses of stress is small and their value can be accepted equal 1000 kg/cm2 - the minimum value, installed by USSR’s code. Work out the method - “two way prestress in monolithic structure” with consideration of non linear strain diagram of steel reinforcement bar and concrete, working in condition of plane stressed state, as well as effect of cracks. Calculation of structure completed in two steps - first, before developing of crack on the slab - structure is designed on diagram of slab rested on four sides, on the effect of post tension force (with consideration of the second losses) and load, second step after developing of crack, it is designed like cross T beam on the effect of incrementation of load. Studies is shown, that deflections between results of the calculation on the both diagram not more than 3...5%. For the calculation used the programme complex “Mirag”, built on the method of finite elements. Accounted physical non linearity, redistribution of forces brings reduction of maximum values of bending moments, for instance, under service load its value decrease about 8...10%. Experimentally analysed the different statically diagram of force down tendon and its effect on the structure. Determined area of rational application the offered designs in the new construction and reconstruction’s of building and as well as in other civil engineering field. Result of dissertation work are introduced in “Kharkovproject”, construction of supermarket and project of DBN (State Building codes of Ukraine) on reconstruction of stone buildings. Keywords: reinforced concrete slab, open duct, jack down force, local post tension, losses of stress, redistribution of forces, crack resistance, strain diagram. ?aaie Oooa? Eoia?. AEaeaciaaoiiiua ieeou, eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiua a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe. Niaoeeaeueiinoue 05.23.01 – no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey. Oa?ueeianeay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa. Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nicaeaieth yooaeoeaiuo eiino?oeoeee aeaeaciaaoiiiuo iia?ouo ii eiioo?o ieeo ia?ae?uoee oaaee/aiiuo i?ieaoia, ?ac?aaioea i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey eo iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiui ninoiyieai n iiiiuueth eieaeueiiai aeaooiniiai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iaaeaoey. A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoiiai ii?aaeaeaiey iioa?ue iai?yaeaiee a eieaeueii iaaeaouo ecaeaaaiuo yeaiaioao io iieco/anoe e onaaeee aaoiia. ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa iia?ouo ii eiioo?o iiaee?aieaiiuo aeaooinii eieaeueii i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iai?yaeaiiuo ieeo n o/aoii oece/aneie iaeeiaeiinoe, aeaoi?ie?iaaiey aaoiia a oneiaeyo ieineiai iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey, o?ainoi?iaoeee noaiu ?aaiou eiino?oeoeee iiae iaa?oceie. Ioeaiaia noaiaiue ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oneeee iaaeaeo iai?aaeaieyie, yeaiaioaie e na/aieyie. Yenia?eiaioaeueii enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea noai e o?iaiy eieaeueiiai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iai?yaeaiey ia aaee/eio iioa?ue iai?yaeaiee e ?aaioo eiino?oeoeee iiae iaa?oceie. Ii?aaeaeaiu iaeanoe ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiuo eiino?oeoeee a iiaii no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?aeiino?oeoeee. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu a AI “Oa?ueeiai?iaeo” e “No?ieoaeueiue oi?aiaue aeii”, i?iaeoa “AeAI. ?aiiio oa i?aeneeaiiy iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e oa iniia i?iieneiaeo nii?oae, ui aenieoaoothoueny (?aeiino?oththoueny)”, ?acaeae “Eai’yi? oa a?iieai’yi? eiino?oeoe??”. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeaciaaoiiiay ieeoa, iiaee?aieythuea aaeee, eieaeueiia iaaeaoea, iioa?e iai?yaeaiee, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oneeee, o?aueiinoieeinoue, aeaoi?iaoeaiinoue. A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione ?iiaiaiei A.A. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.01.99 ?. Oi?iao 60 o 84 1/16 Iai?? ae?oea?nueeee. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oi.-ae?oe.a?e. 1,0. O/.-aeae.a?e. 1,2. Cai. ? 75. Oe?aae 100 i?. Aaceiooiaii. Aeae. Oa?AeACO, 310051, i.Oa?e?a-5, ie. Oae??aaoa,7 Ae?oe. Oa?AeACO, 310051, i.Oa?e?a-5, ie. Oae??aaoa,7

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