Залізобетонні оболонки покриття з поверхнею нової форми: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Л.А. Циганенко, Полтав. держ. техн. ун-т ім. Ю.Кондратюка.

15

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea

Oeeaaiaiei Ethaeieea Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 624.074.4

CAE?CIAAOIII? IAIEIIEE IIE?EOOss

C IIAA?OIATH IIAI? OI?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.01 – aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??,
aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iieoaaa – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiieoey
Eaii?ae Ieeieaeiae/

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e

.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeeiaiei
Oaae?? ?eena?ae/

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e;

.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?oaeaiei
TH??e Ieoaeeiae/

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
cae?ciaaoiiieo oa eai`yieo

eiino?oeoe?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e Aea?aeaaiiai

Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa,
a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai?

iie?oeee, i. Ee?a .

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «16» eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 44.052.02 i?e Iieoaanueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea ca
aae?anith: 314601, i. Iieoaaa, Ia?oio?aaiaaee i?iniaeo, 24, aoae. 234.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea ca
aae?anith: 314601, i. Iieoaaa, Ia?oio?aaiaaee i?iniaeo, 24

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 15 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Naiei
I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Anooi. Oiieino?ii? iaieiiee c o?aineyoe?eiith iiaa?oiath ? iaeiei c
iioe?aieo eean?a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, yeee io?eiaa oe?iea
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ??cieo iaeanoyo aoae?aieoeoaa. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo
iiaa?oiiue ia eaaae?aoiiio oa i?yiieooiiio ieaiao aeicaiey? ia?ae?eaaoe
cia/i? ieiu? aac i?ii?aeieo iii?, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai i?e caaaeaii?
aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae a?iiaaenueeiai oa i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy. Na?aae
ieo iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy io?eiaee iaieiiee aeiaeaoii? aaoniai?
e?eaeie, iiioey?i?noue yeeo iiynith?oueny aaeaeei aieeaii oi?ie iaieiiee
ia ?iciiae?e coneeue ii iiaa?oi? iie?eooy, ui caaacia/o? aeiiii?th
iaoa??aeo. sse iieaco? aeina?ae, a ii??aiyii? c ieineinieie ??oaiiyie
cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao neeaaea? 20-40 %, aeo?ao ia aoae?aieoeoai
10-15 %. I?e aeei?enoaii? iiiie?oiiai aa??aioo caaaeaiiy iaieiiee
cieaeaiiy aeo?ao iaoa??aeo c?inoa? aei 30-50%.

Iaieiiee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy oa
aoae?aieoeoaa, o?aaeeoe?eii iaiaaeothoueny iiaa?oiyie ae?oaiai nooiaith.
Oea iaoiiaeaii i?inoith oi?iith caieno ??aiyiue, ui ?o iienothoue, ?
iino?eiith, /e iaeici?iiith e?eaeiith. Oea aea? oe?eee ?yae ni?iuaiue
i?e ??oaii? nenoai aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue ??aiiaaae, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny o ?ic?aooieao.

Iaeiae, a?aeiii, ui e?eaeia iiaa?oi? ni?aaey? cia/iee aieea ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai iaieiiie. Aeei?enoaiiy e?eaeo, ye?
iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie a?eueo aenieiai nooiaiy, aeicaiey?
noai?thaaoe iiaa?oi?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny e?eaeiith, ui cia/ii
ci?ith?oueny. Oea iiaea caaacia/eoe a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e
ii?iaeueieo coneeue oa coneeue cnoao ? cieceoe iiiaioe caeio. Iai?aaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue a?eueo aenieiai nooiaiy noiniaii aei
i?iaeooaaiiy i?inoi?iaeo iie?eoo?a i?aeoe/ii ia i?iaiaeeeeny. Oiio,
aeioe?eueiei ? aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue aeiaeaoii? e?eaeie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ieoaiiy, yea iia`ycaia c iiooeii iiaeo a?eueo
aoaeoeaieo oi?i iiaa?oiiue aeey i?inoi?iaeo iie?eoo?a aoae?aaeue oa
nii?oae c iaoith cieaeaiiy aeo?ao iaoa??aeo oa nia?aa?oino?
aoae?aieoeoaa, ? aeooaeueiith caaea/ath, ae??oaiith yei? ? i?enay/aia
oey aeena?oaoe?y.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeeiiaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ?
?icae?eii caaaeueii? oaie “I?inoi?ia? iie?eooy aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae”,
ui aeeiio?oueny ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: neioacoaaoe oa aeine?aeeoe aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeio iiaa?oith cae?ciaaoiiii? iaieiiee aeaiyei? e?eaeie aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy i?inoi?iaeo

iie?eoo?a.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

— iaea?aeaoe iia? aaiiao?e/i? oi?ie cae?ciaaoiiieo iaieiiie ia iniia?
ieinei-ia?aeaeueiiai ia?aiino ??aiyiue a?eueo aenieiai nooiaiy, i?ae
ae?oaee. Ii??aiyoe ?o aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e c iaieiieith a oi?i?
ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea, yeo i?eeiyoe ca aoaeii;

— i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio o?ueio
cae?ciaaoiiieo iaieiiie iino?eii? oiaueie c aeaaeeith iiaa?oiath
caniaaie iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi IEA ia i?ia?aiiiio
eiiieaen? “I??aae”;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino? iaoa??aeo ia ?iaioo iaieiiee
iiai? oi?ie; aea?aoe iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaio oi?io aeey iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue;

— i?iaanoe ia o?ce/ieo iiaeaeyo aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iano/i? caeaoiino? iaieiiie iiai? oi?ie ? aiaeiaa oa ii??aiyoe ?o
?acoeueoaoe c oai?aoe/ieie;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ui aei i?iaeooaaiiy iiey oa
ai?oiaeo aeaiaio?a cae?ciaaoiiii? iaieiiee iiai? oi?ie;

— ioe?ieoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue iiai? i?inoi?iai? oi?ie
iie?eooy;

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— ia iniia? ??aiyiiy c?aiooi? a?n? a?eueii iia?oi? aaeee, yea
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ae??th ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
io?eiaia iiaa iiaa?oiy – OIEA (oi?ia i?oaeii? e?i?? aaeee) oa
aeine?aeaeai? ?? aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e;

— io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio cae?ciaaoiiii? iaieiiee OIEA i?e
neiao?e/iiio oa ianeiao?e/iiio iaaaioaaeaiiyo a ii??aiyii? c iaieiieith
– aoaeiiii;

— i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?iaioe iaieiiee OIEA c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino?;

— aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe iiaeaeae iaieiiie
OIEA oa ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea i?e neiao?e/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?;

— iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaeooaaiith iaieiiee iiai? oi?ie i?iaiiii
36 oa 72 i;

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa?oiy
iiai? oi?ie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a yeino? iie?eooy aeey aoae?aaeue oa
nii?oae a?iiaaenueeiai oa i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c ?ici??aie o ieai?
iiiaae 36 i. A ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aiaeiaaie, aeei?enoaiiy oe???
iiaa?oi? aeicaiey? io?eiaoe aeiiii?th iaoa??aeo i?e i?iaeooaaii?
eiino?oeoe?? iie?eooy. Aeey iiey iaieiiee iiaeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy
eaaeiai aaoiio, ui aea? ciiao ciaioeoe aeanio aaao
eiino?oeoe?? oa i?aeaeueoe oaiei?cieyoe?ei? aeanoeaino? iie??ae?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iia`ycaieo c aea/aiiyi
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaieiiee iiai? oi?ie oa i?iiiceoe?? ui
aei ?? eiino?othaaiiy iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaiai?ai? ia
ianooiieo eiioa?aioe?yo:

— o?ueio i?aeia?iaeieo: “?ano?ni — e yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee” a i. A?eai?iae
(1995 ?.), “Eiaeaia?iua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai aaoiia e aeaeaciaaoiia”
a i. I?inuee (1997 ?.), “I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee aeaeaciaaoiia” a i.
Iieoaaa (1997 ?.);

— ia II-e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie no/aniiai cae?ciaaoiio” a i. Ee?a? (1999
?.), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a,
ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? nooaeaio?a Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1996
?.) oa ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo, ani??aio?a ? nooaeaio?a Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (1996-1999?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee o 4 noaooyo iaoeiaeo
aeo?iae?a, o 3 ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o 2 iaoa??aeao ? iaei?e
oac? aeiiia?aeae eiioa?aioe?e. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a , ui
iioae?eoaaeeny, neeaaea? 25 noi??iie.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa oanoe aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 177
noi??ieao, i?noeoue 148 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo, 48 ?enoie?a, 23
oaaeeoe?, 145 iaeiaioaaiue aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ia 12
noi??ieao oa 6 aeiaeaoe?a ia 16 noi??ieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoa, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, a oaeiae aeai? i?i aeei?enoaiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aaiiao?e/ieo oi?i iaieiiie
i?inoi?iaeo iie?eoo?a oa i?iaiae?ciaaii aeina?ae a iaeano? ?o
i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa oa iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy a
i?aeoeoe? aoae?aieoeoaa io?eiaee iaieiiee aeiaeaoii? aaoniai? e?eaeie,
noaoe/i? oiiae ?iaioe yeeo aeicaieythoue noai?thaaoe iie?eooy a?eueo
aeiiii?/i?, i?ae iie?eooy o aeaeyae? iaieiiie ?ioeo oi?i /e o aeaeyae?
ieineinieo eiino?oeoe?e. I?e oeueiio aoei a?aecia/aii, ui aeai?
eiino?oeoe?? iienothoueny, caeaa?eueoiai, ??aiyiiyie ae?oaiai nooiaiy,
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith yeeo ? iino?ei?noue /e iaeici?ii?noue e?eaeie ii
iiaa?oi?, ui cia/ii ni?iuo? ?ic?aooiee ii ciaoiaeaeaiith eiiiiiaio?a
iai?oaeaiiai noaio, ieiu? oa ia’?io iaieiiee. Oiio iiaa?oi?, ui
iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie ae?oaiai nooiaiy, noaee iniiaieie a i?aoeyo A.
C. Aeaniaa, TH. ?. ?aaioiiaa , I.I. O?e?ia, A.E. Aieueaeaiaaeca?a,
A.A.Iiaiaeeeiaa, I.A.Eieeoiiaa, i?enay/aieo ?ic?aooieo iaieiiie ii
aaciiiaioi?e oa iiiaioi?e oai??yo, oa a i?aoeyo I.I. Aaicaeaaa,
A.N. Aieueie?a, A.?. Eo?uea, ?.?. I?eaeeianueeiai, I.I. Iaeaaeiaa,
I.?. ?aeai?oeeia, N.I. Oeiioaiei, A.N. Aeaooy?y, I.I. ?aneaciaa, I.O.
Aa?aaea, A.A. A?iia?aaeiaa, A.I. Oeiaiianueeiai, O.?. Eeeiaiea, I.E.
Oaa?ia, ? ?ioeo a yeino? i?eeeaae?a i?e aeine?aeaeaii? oa io?eiaii?
iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iano/i? caeaoiino? iaieiiie oa aiae?co ?o
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio .

I?ioa, aoei iii?/aii, ui eiino?oeoe?y i?ae ae??th aeanii? aaae caeia?
aeey naaa oaea iieiaeaiiy a i?inoi??, i?e yeiio ?? aioo??oi? coneeey
?iciiae?eythoueny a a?aeiia?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy ?? iaee?aui? ?iaioe.
I?e oeueiio, ??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue ?? iieiaeaiiy, ? ??aiyiiyie a?eueo
aenieiai ii?yaeeo, i?ae ae?oaee. I?eeeaaeii oaeeo eiino?oeoe?e iiaea
aooe aaaeea aio/ea ieoea, yea i?ae aieeaii iaaaioaaeaiiy aeanii?
aaae i?iaena? ca caeiiii eaioethaiai? e?i??, noai?thth/e ??aii
i?oeio eiino?oeoe?th oa a?eueii iia?oa aaeea, c?aiooa a?nue yei?
iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi IV nooiaiy. Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo e?eaeo aeey
noai?aiiy iaieiiie iiaea caaacia/eoe a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e
ii?iaeueieo coneeue oa coneeue cnoao a na?aaeeii?e iiaa?oi?. Aei oiai
ae aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy e?eaeo, ye? iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie
aeuiai nooiaiy aoea iaa?oioiaaia i?iaaaeaiei A.N. Aeaooy?ai ? I.I.
?aneaciaei aiae?cii aieeao oi?ie ia?eae?aia iiaa?oi? ? e?eaeie iaieiiie
iaa?oaiiy ia ?o iano/o caeaoi?noue, yeee i?aeoaa?aeea aoaeoeai?noue
iaieiiee iaa?oaiiy c ia?eae?aiii o aeaeyae? e?eai? Eaia 4-ai
nooiaith.

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui oaeineiiaeaiiy
iiaa?oiiue aeiaeaoii? aaoniai? e?eaeie, c iaoith cieaeaiiy aeo?ao
iaoa??aeo oa nia?aa?oino? aoae?aieoeoaa, ? aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi, aeey
ae??oaiiy yeiai aoee noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa ?ic?aooieai
cae?ciaaoiiieo o?aineyoe?eieo iaieiiie iiai? oi?ie oa iaieiiee
aoaeiia — ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea. Ia iniia? ?icaeyiooeo o ia?oiio
?icae?e? e?eaeo eaioethaiai? e?i?? oa i?oaeiiai i?iaeio aaeee aoee
io?eiai? iia? oi?ie iaieiiie aeiaeaoii? aaoniai? e?eaeie c
o?aineyoe?eiith iiaa?oiath. ??aiyiiy iaieiiie io?eiai? oaeei /eiii, ui
ia/aei nenoaie eii?aeeiao ciaoiaeeoueny a aa?oei? ?o iiaa?oi?, i?e x
=0, y =0 z =0.

??aiyiiy iaieiiee aoaeiia — ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea ia? aeaeyae:
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,

aea f1 oa f2 – no??ee i?aeeiio iaae iii?iei eiioo?ii;

a oa b – ?ici??e o ieai?; i?e eaaae?aoiiio ieai? a = b, f1 = f2.

E?eaeia a eiaei?e oi/oe? iiaa?oi? ciaoiaeeoueny a?aeiia?aeii ae?aco:

picscalex100010009000003ab0100000400150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c026009a00d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbcffffff600d00001c0900000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000100309000000fa02000008000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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(1)

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(2)

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(3)

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Ae?ac aeey e?eaeie caieno?oueny ye:

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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (4)

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(5)

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00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (6)

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000000010000000000000002000200030500000000000002420700000000000000000000
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0000c0ffffffabffffff80060000cb0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
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a002f403050000001302a002730615000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000000402
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9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000800
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0a02080401000000b60008000000320a0003ae02010000003d000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f00101000300000000000002000000000000
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600200010100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
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picscalex101010009000003190100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
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00000b0200000000050000000c02e004c0061200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffabffffff800600008b0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
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a002ef03050000001302a0026e0615000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000000402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000a6040000002d01010008000000320ac503
9a0501000000320008000000320a4a01d80401000000320008000000320a600379010100
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7720526f6d616e0000a6040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8504bf04
01000000780008000000320a00034600010000004e0010000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00102000800
0000320a8504050401000000b60008000000320a0a027d05010000006a0008000000320a
0a02030401000000b60008000000320a0003a902010000003d000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
7374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000
0000000ae5030005010000006e0000000000000ae503000401000000000000000000000a
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picscalex990100090000032901000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000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(9)

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000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02600160011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff2600000020010000860100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000300010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01000008000000320a000134000100000077000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000000320a000346000000
0000000015000000fb0200fe000000000000000000000000040200105469000000000000
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caeiaeueiee noai iaieiiee ia eiioo?? iia`ycaia c iiiaioaie ne?aeoth/eie
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picscalex990100090000030c01000003001500000000000500000009020000000004000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picscalex1010100090000030c0100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c005a0091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffabffffff600900006b0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000400109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
e0027906050000001302e0024b0915000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00009e040000002d01010008000000320a4204
3a0801000000320008000000320a15055c0701000000790008000000320a7b0171070100
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08000000320a40033a00010000004d0010000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a1505
a20601000000b60008000000320a4e02420801000000770008000000320a4e028d060100
0000b60008000000320a40034c04010000002d0008000000320a40031503010000003d00
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02
000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000
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00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000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 (10)

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oai??? i?iaiaeeany ca aeiiiiiaith no/anii? eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee ia
i?ia?aiiiio eiiieaen? “ I??aae”, iaoiaeii e?ioeaaeo aeaiaio?a. Oea
aeaei ciiao ?ic?aooaaoe iaieiieo, ye noi?nii i?aoethth/o c ai?oiaeie
aeaiaioaie, oa a?aeia?aceoe iniaeeaino? iaoa??aeo, c yeiai aiia aoea
cai?iaeoiaaia.

Iaieiiee ?ic?aoiaoaaeenue ia ae?th ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy aaee/eiith 3.83 eI/i2, yea neeaaeaeiny c aeanii? aaae
iaieiiee, aaae ooaiethaa/a oa ni?ao aeey II ee?iaoe/iiai ?aeiio. Iiea
iaieiiie aoei i?eeiyoi c aaaeeiai aaoiio eeano A30 iino?eii? oiaueie
??aii? 6 ni, eiioo?i? aeaiaioe o aeaeyae? aac?ine?nii? oa?ie.
Eiino?oeoe?y iaea ii?? o 4 eooao, iaeiiio c yeeo aoei caai?iiaii aoaeue
yea ia?ai?uaiiy acaeiaae a?nae X,Y,Z, aeaii ae?oaei ia?ai?uaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii a?n? X /e Y, /aoaa?oee iaa a?eueia ia?ai?uaiiy ii
ia?ae?/aiei iai?yieai.

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io?eiaea a?aei?iio a?ae iaieiiee eaioethaiai? e?i?? ? ae?ioe/iiai
ia?aaiei?aea aeaoi?iiaaio noaio, ?enoiie 2.

?en.2. Aeaoi?iiaaia noaia: a) iaieiiee ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea; a)
OIEA.

I?eaaaeai? a?ao?ee ia ?enoieo 3 aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe oa?aeoa? ci?ie
i?iaei?a ii oa?aeoa?iei ia?a??cai oa ioe?ieoe aieea ai?oiaiai aeaiaioa
ia i?iaeie i?e eiioo?ii? /anoeie iiey eiaeii? iaieiiee.

?en. 3. A?ao?ee i?iaeio iaieiiie

OIEA; ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea;

eaioethaiai? e?i??;

Aiae?coth/e a?ao?ee, iiaeeeai c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oa?aeoa?
?iciiae?eo i?iaei?a iaieiiie eaioethaiai? e?i?? oa ae?ioe/iiai
ia?aaiei?aea iiae?aiee, ui iiynith?oueny ?o aeecueeith aaiiao?e/iith
noiae?noth. I?e oeueiio aaee/eie i?iaeio aeayeeo oi/ie ai?oiaiai
aeaiaioo ia?aaeuothoue aaee/eio aeiionoeiiai a?aie/iiai i?iaeio, ??aiiai
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0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050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Iaeneiaeueiee i?iaei i?inoaaeo?oueny a oeaio?aeuei?e oi/oe?
ai?oiaiai aeaiaioo, aaee/eia yeiai neeaaea?
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0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050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)L.

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nooo?ao ??cieoeth i?ae iaieiieaie. Aeyaeeinue, ui iaieiiea OIEA ia?
a?eueo ??aiii??iee oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo ii?iaeueieo iai?oaeaiue a
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e?i??, ui iaaaaeaii ia ?enoieao 4 oa 5. ?e oa?aeoa?ii cieaeaiiy
aaee/ei ii?iaeueieo iai?oaeaiue oa iai?oaeaiue cnoao a na?aaei?e /anoei?
iiey.

?en. 4. Aith?e iai?oaeaiue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 ia?a??cai 1-1 oa 2-2

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iaieiiee ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea;

?en. 5. Aith?e iai?oaeaiue cnoao
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000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a002c0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffff80020000460200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000900015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000083040000002d01000008000000320af301f0000200000078791000
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01
010004000000f001000008000000320a80013a000100000074000a00000026060f000a00
ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379
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ia?a??cai 1-1 oa 3-3.

Ia ?enoieo 6 iaaaaeai? aith?e ?iciiae?eo aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue ?icoyao
oa noeneo ii ae?aaiiae? oa acaeiaae eiioo?o iaieiiee OIEA ? ae?ioe/iiai
ia?aaiei?aea.

Caaaeueiee aiae?c iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio anueiai iiey iaieiiee
iieacaa, ui a?eueoa /anoeia iiaa?oi? aeyaey?oueny noeniooith ii aeaii
iai?yieai aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue , i?e oeueiio i?e ii??ia ciia
eiioeaio?aoe?? aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue ?icoyao aeyaey?oueny nooo?ai
iaioith, i?ae o iaieiiee ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea.

?en. 6.Aith?a aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue iaieiiie.

O ?icae?e? oaeiae aoa i?inoaaeaiee aieea ianeiao?e/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
(iaaaioaaeaiiy iaei??? iieiaeie oa /aa?o? iiey) ia
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai iaieiiie.

Iiia?aaei? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? i?e ?ic?aooieo iaieiiie a i?oaei?e
noaae?? ?o ?iaioe. Aea, iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai iiiie?oii?
iaieiiee iaiaeii??aeiee, oea i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?iiino? iiaeoey
i?oaeiino? oa ia?a?iciiae?eo coneeue. Oiio nooo?aei noa? a?aooaaiiy
o?ce/ii? iae?i?eiino? iaoa??aeo aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoe/ii? iano/i?
caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe??. ?ic?aooiie iaieiiie c aeei?enoaiiyi caeaaeiino?
ia?aoeiiiai iiaeoey i?oaeiino? o aeaeyae?

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000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500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(11)

i?iaiaeeany iaoiaeii ia?ai?iieo ia?aiao??a i?oaeiino? aei 1% ca?aeiino?.
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oeueiio, ??cieoey i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyie, ye? aeceaathoue i?iaeie
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oi/ie iiey iaieiiie i?inoaaeo?oueny, eiee iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae??ciythoueny
eeoa o 1.2 ?ace. Oea aea? ciiao aeneiaeoe, ui iaieiiea OIEA iaio
aeaoi?iaoeaia, i?ae iaieiiea –aoaeii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iienai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae?
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Aeoiaey/e c caaaeueieo i?aaee iiaeaethaaiiy i?inoi?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e,
aoei canoiniaaia ao?iia iiaeaethaaiiy, i?e yeiio ianooaa ?ici??o
aeiaaeeie i?eeia?oueny ia ??aiei ianooaao oiaueie iaieiiee. Aeey
caiia?aaiiy niioai?thaaiiy i?aoe? iiaeaeae, iia’ycaiiai c iaaaeeeith
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00000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005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 ni, aenioa
no??eee i?aeeiio 18 ni. Iiaeae? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ia ae?th ??aiii??ii
?iciiae?eaiiai nooiaiaaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea noai?thaaeinue oeneii
iia?o?yii? iiaeooee, ?icoaoiaaii? aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaa?oi?
iaieiiee. Eiaeia nooiaiue iaaaioaaeaiiy neeaaeaea 10 ni. a. no. = 0.1
eI/i2, aaee/eia eio?i? o?enoaaeanue ca aeiiiiiaith aiaeyiiai iaiiiao?a.

Aeey ioe?iee aeinoia??iino? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaieiiee OIEA oa ae?ioe/iiai
ia?aaiei?aea ii??aithaaeeny c oai?aoe/ieie aeaieie, io?eiaieie ia
i?ia?aiiiio eiiieaen? “I??aae”. Ia ii/aoeiaeo ??aiyo iaaaioaaeaiiy
niinoa??aaany aeia?ee ca?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?aooie?a o i?oaei?e noaae?? ?iaioe iaoa??aeo iaieiiee. Iaeiae,
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?e ii/aoeo i?ioeano o??ueiiooai?aiiy, ui
ii/eia?oueny c ??aiy i?eaeecii c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0,5 a?ae ?oeioth/iai iaaaioaaeaiiy, cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
aeaieo i?oaeiiai oai?aoe/iiai ?ic?aooieo. A?aooaaiiy o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino? o oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao iie?ioeei ca?a
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?iaeio i?e ii??aiyii? c oai?aoe/iei. I?e oeueiio
aoea aeei?enoaia ae??aii-e?i?eia caeaaei?noue E. I. Iaea?aiei —
A.I.Oaiei, o aeaeyae? (11), ui aoea ia?aa??aia i?e ?nieo? a?iniaeo eoa?a
, aeeiiaieo c iaeiiai cai?no i?e oi?ioaaii? c a?aeiia?aeiith iiaeaeeth
oa aei?iaoaaieo a iaeei aeaiue ?c iath. Iaeaea? iaieiiee c?oeioaaeeny
i?e aeecueeeo cia/aiiyo aaee/ei i?iaeio, cao?eniaaieo ia aoai?, ui
ia?aaeo? aoaio ?oeioaaiiy (?en.7), i?ioa aaee/eie ?oei?aieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, a?aei?ii? o 1.3 ?ace. Aeey iaieiiee ae?ioe/iiai
ia?aaiei?aea aiia neeaea ?=120 ni.a.no.=12 eI/i2; aeey iaieiiee OIEA
?=160 ni.a.no.=16 eI/i2.

?en. 7. A?ao?ee i?iaeio oeaio?aeueieo oi/ie iiey iaieiiie:

a) iaieiiea ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea; a) iaieiiea OIEA;

1-oai?aoe/ia e?eaa; 2- aenia?eiaioaeueia e?eaa.

Iaii iiaeaeyi iaieiiie oa?aeoa?ia eieaeueia i?noeaaa ?oeioaaiiy
eooiai? ciie

?enoiie 7 (a) ? (a) yaey? a?ao?e i?iaeio oeaio?aeueii? oi/ee iiey
iaieiiee, aea oai?aoe/i? e?ea? io?eiai? c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ii?
iae?i?eiino? iaoa??aeo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii i?iaeooaaiiy
iaieiiee OIEA ?ici??ii a ieai? 3636 i oa caaaeueiith no??eith i?aeeiio 9
i. I?e i?iaeooaaii? iaieiiee iino?eii? oiaueie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe eaaeee aaoii eeano ia ieae/a ca A20 c u?euei?noth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1400 ea/i3 e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1800 ea/i3, oea aea? ciiao ciaioeoe aeanio aaao iie?eooy oa
i?aeaeueoe eiai oaiei?cieyoe?ei? aeanoeaino?. I?e oeueiio aeinoaoiy
oiaueia iiey neeaaea? 6 ni. O aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiino? aeaioiaeaiiy
iiey iaieiiee c aaaeeiai aaoiio ia? iayai?noue ?aca?a i?oeiino?
iaoa??aeo, ui aeicaiey? ciaioeoe oiaueio iiey iaieiiee ca ?aooiie ??
ia?a?iciiae?eo a iaea?eueo iai?oaeai? i?noey. I?e aeei?enoaii? aaaeeiai
aaoiio eeano A30 aeinoaoiy oiaueia iiey neeaaea? 2 ni ? o?eueee o
eooia?e /anoei? iiey ia ieiu? i?eaeecii 9 i2 iio??aii ?? ca?eueoaiiy aei
6 ni. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeo iaieiiee OIEA
i?inoaaeo?oueny aeey iie?eoo?a i?iaiiii a?eueoeo i?ae 36i, iai?eeeaae
72 i. Aeey iaieiiee oaeiai i?iaiio aeinoaoiy oiaueia na?aaeiuei?
/anoeie iiey neeaaea? 6 ni, eooiaa ciia iio?aao? 13 ni. Aeey iaieiiee
OIEA i?iaiiii 36i aeo?aoe noae? ia 1i2ieiu? neeaee 2.36ea; aeey i?iaiio
72i – 2.69 ea (aac o?aooaaiiy aeo?aoe noae? ia eiioo?i? aeaiaioe). Oiio,
oey iiaa?oiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a yeino? iie?eooy aeey aoae?aaeue oa
nii?oae a?iiaaenueeiai oa i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c ?ici??aie o ieai?
iiiaae 36i.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Aeine?aeaeaia cae?ciaaoiiia iaieiiea, iiaoaeiaaia ca iiaa?oiath iiai?
aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie, ui ooai?aia ieinei-ia?aeaeueiei ia?aiinii i?oaeii?
e?i?? aaeee (OIEA). Iiaa iiaa?oiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/ii ci?iiith
e?eaeiith, iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy yei? niinoa??aa?oueny o oeaio??
iaieiiee. Ii i??? iaaeeaeaiiy aei iii?iiai eiioo?o e?eaeia ciaioo?oueny,
iaaeeaeath/enue aei ioeueiaeo cia/aiue. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo ci?i
a oa?aeoa?? ?iciiae?eo coneeue .

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaieiiee OIEA iaoiaeii
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iieacaee, ui oey iiaa?oiy ia? a?aei?iio a?ae
iaieiiee aoaeiia ( ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea) aeaoi?iiaaio noaio. Aei
oiai ae, ye ? i/eeoaaeinue, oi?ia ?? iiaa?oi? caaacia/o? a?eueo
??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ii?iaeueieo iai?oaeaiue ? iai?oaeaiue cnoao, oa
cieaeaiiy aaee/ei iiiaio?a caeio a i?e eiioo?i?e /anoei? iie?eooy o
ii??aiyii? c a?aeiiith iiaa?oiath ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea. Oea icia/a?,
ui iiaa iiaa?oiy a?eueo aeiiii?/ia.

3. Ii nooiaith aeei?enoaiiy i?oeiinoieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??aeo, c yeiai
aiia aeaioiaey?oueny oa caaacia/aiiy caaaeueii? aei?noeino?
eiino?oeoe??, iiaa iaieiiea ? a?eueo aoaeoeaiith, i?ae iaieiiea —
aoaeii. Cae?ciaaoiiia iaieiiea OIEA iaoo?aeueieo ?ici???a ( 3636 i ),
i?e ??aieo ia?ai?uaiiyo oeaio?a iiey aeo?eio? iaaaioaaeaiiy o 1.2 ?ac
a?eueoa, i?ae ae?ioe/iee ia?aaiei?ae. Aei oiai ae iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye?
i?eaiaeyoue aei iiyae aeiionoeieo a?aie/ieo i?iaei?a, a?ae??ciythoueny
o 1.8 ?ac?a.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae iaieiiie aeaio oei?a:
ae?ioe/iiai ia?aaiei?aea ? iiaa?oi? OIEA, iieacaee, ui i?e ??aieo
oiiaao: ?ici??ao o ieai?, oiauei? iaieiiee, o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoyo iaoa??aeo, no??ee i?aeeiio, caniaao oa iaoiaeao
iaaaioaaeaiiy, a?aie/ieo oiiaao –iiaeaeue OIEA aeo?eio? a 1.3 ?aco
a?eueoa iaaaioaaeaiiy ca ?aooiie iniaeeainoae e?eaeie iiaa?oi?.

5. Aeai? iniaeeaino? aeicaieeee ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii?
iie?eooy ?ici??ii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 i eaaeee aaoii eeano ia ieae/a ca A20 c u?euei?noth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1400 ea/i3 ?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1800 ea/i3 aeey aeaioiaeaiiy iiey aeaaeei? iiiie?oii?
iaieiiee oiaueiith 6 ni , ui aea? ciiao ciaioeoe aeanio aaao iie?eooy oa
i?aeaeueoe eiai oaiei?cieyoe?ei? aeanoeaino?. O aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiino?
aeaioiaeaiiy iiey iaieiiee c aaaeeiai aaoiio, ia? iayai?noue ?aca?a
i?oeiino? iaoa??aeo, ui aeicaiey? ciaioeoe oiaueio iiey iaieiiee ca
?aooiie ?? ia?a?iciiae?eo a iaea?eueo iai?oaeai? i?noey. I?e
aeei?enoaii? aaaeeiai aaoiio eeano A30 aeinoaoiy oiaueia iiey
neeaaea? 3 ni ? o?eueee o eooia?e /anoeie iiey iio??aii ??
ca?eueoaiiy aei 6 ni. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeo
iaieiiee OIEA i?inoaaeo?oueny aeey iie?eoo?a i?iaiiii 72-72 i. Oiio oey
iiaa?oiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a yeino? iie?eooy aeey aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae
a?iiaaenueeiai oa i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c ?ici??aie o ieai? iiiaae 36
i.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1.Oeeaaiaiei E.A. Aiae?c iiaeo oi?i iaieiiie aeiaeaoii? aaoniai?
e?eaeie // Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee iaoeiino?iaiey. I?ia?anneaiua
iaoiaeeee i?aiiaeaaaiey a aoca: Oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae
Noiu: Noineie ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao,1997.-Aui.1.- N.133-136.

2.A?aoouae O.A., Oeeaaiaiei E.A. Iaoiaee iioei?caoe?? eiino?oeoe??
iaieiiie // I?iaeaie oai??? oa i?aeoeee cae?ciaaoiio.-Iieoaaa:
Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,1997.- N.62-64.

3.Oeeaaiaiei E.A. Iia? oi?ie aaiiao??? i?inoi?iaeo iie?eoue // A?niee
Noinueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo, 1997.-?1.- N.101-103.

4.Oeeaaiaiei E.A., A?aoouae O.A. Iiaeaethaaiiy iaieiiie i?inoi?iaeo
iie?eoue // A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
1998.- ?2.- N.136-138.

5.Oeeaaiaiei E.A., Oeeaaiaiei A.I. Iaieiiee aeiaeaoii? aaoniai? e?eaeie
c aeei?enoaiiyi oaiei?cieyoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo // A?niee Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,1998.- N. 60.

6.Oiieoea E.I., Oeuaaiaiei E.A. E aii?ino niaa?oainoaiaaiey
aaiiao?e/aneie oi?iu iaiei/ee iie?uoee // A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, 1998.- ?2(10).- N.129-133.

7. Oeeaaiaiei E.A. Aiaeec aeaeaciaaoiiiie iaiei/ee iiaie oi?iu //
Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? .-1999.- N.250-254.

8. Oeuaaiaiei E.A., Oeuaaiaiei A.I. Nicaeaiea iiauo aieaa yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeiuo i?ino?ainoaaiiuo iaiei/ae // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “ ?ano?ni-e yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee.”.-Aaeai?iae: Ecae.
AaeAOANI,1995.- N.99.

9.Oeuaaiaiei E.A. Iiene iiauo oi?i iaiei/ae iie?uoee // Iaoa?eaeu
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “ Aaoiiaoecaoeey iiaeaioiaee e
i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee a iaoeiino?iaiee”.- Noiu: Noineie
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, 1996.- N.57-58.

10.Oeuaaiaiei E.A., A?aoouae O.A. Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaiei/ee e eo aeeyiea
ia aioo?aiiea oneeey // Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee “ Eiaeaia?iua i?iaeaiu
nia?aiaiiiai aaoiia e aeaeaciaaoiia”. — Ieine ,1997.- N.217-220.

AIIOAOe??

Oeeaaiaiei Ethaeieea Aiaoie??aia “Cae?ciaaoiii? iaieiiee iie?eooy c
iiaa?oiath iiai? oi?ie”.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01.- Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa
nii?oaee. Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y
Eiiae?aothea, Iieoaaa,1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? iiooeo aoaeoeaieo iiaeo oi?i iaieiiie
iie?eoo?a aoae?aaeue oa nii?oae.

Aeine?aeaeaia cae?ciaaoiiia iaieiiea iiaoaeiaaia ca iiaa?oiath
iiai? aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie, ui ooai?aia ia iniia? ieinei-ia?aeaeueiiai
ia?aiino i?oaeii? e?i?? aaeee. C`yniaaii, ui oey iaieiiea, caaaeyee
e?eaie?i?eiiio ?iciiae?eo e?eaeie ii iiaa?oi?, ia? a?eueo ??aiii??iee
?iciiae?e ii?iaeueieo coneeue oa coneeue cnoao. Ii nooiaith aeei?enoaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? iaoa??aeo, c yeiai aiia aeaioiaey?oueny oa
caaacia/aiiy caaaeueii? aei?noeino? eiino?oeoe??, iiaa iaieiiea ?
a?eueo aoaeoeaiith, i?ae iaieiiea — aiaeia (ae?ioe/iee ia?aaiei?ae).I?e
??aieo ia?ai?uaiiyo oeaio?a iiey, cae?ciaaoiiia iaieiiea OIEA ?ici??ii
3636 i aeo?eio? iaaaioaaeaiiy o 1.2 ?ac a?eueoa, i?ae iaieiiea — aiaeia.
Aei oiai ae, iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei iiyae a?aie/ieo
i?iaei?a, a?ae??ciythoueny o 1.8 ?ac?a. Aeai? iniaeeaino? aeicaieeee
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiey aeaaeei? iiiie?oii? iaieiiee
oiaueiith 6 ni eaaeee aaoii eeano ia ieae/a ca A20, ui aea? ciiao
ciaioeoe aeanio aaao iie?eooy oa i?aeaeueoe eiai oaiei?cieyoe?ei?
aeanoeaino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaieiiea, e?eaeia, i?oaeiee i?iaei aaeee,
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, i?inoi?ia? iie?eooy.

Oeuaaiaiei Ethaeieea Aiaoieueaaia “AEaeaciaaoiiiua iaiei/ee iie?uoee n
iiaa?oiinoueth iiaie oi?iu”.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01- no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e
nii?oaeaiey. – Iieoaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie TH?ey Eiiae?aothea, Iieoaaa,1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iienea yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiuo
yooaeoeaiuo iiauo oi?i iaiei/ae iie?uoee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee,
?anniao?eaaaiie ia i?eia?a iiaa?oiinoae iieiaeeoaeueiie aaonniaie
e?eaeciu.

A ia?aie aeaaa aeaia eeanneoeeaoeey aaiiao?e/aneeo oi?i iaiei/ae
i?ino?ainoaaiiuo iie?uoee, i?iaiaeece?iaai iiuo a iaeanoe eo
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa e iaoiaeia ?an/aoa. I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iiaa?oiinoae iieiaeeoaeueiie e?eaeciu a
i?aeoeea no?ieoaeuenoaa iieacae, /oi iie iienuaathony, i?aeiouanoaaiii
o?aaiaieyie 2-ai ii?yaeea. I?e yoii aeaiiua iaiei/ee oa?aeoa?ecothony
iaeieciaiythuaeny eee iinoiyiiie e?eaeciie, a oi?ia caiene o?aaiaiee
eo ia?acothueo iaania/eaaao eaaeinoue eo aeeooa?aioee?iaaiey. Iaeiaei,
ecaanoii, /oi ia ianouoth niiniaiinoue iaiei/ee cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ieacuaaao e?eaecia iiaa?oiinoe. Iaeiieaiiua aeaiiua ii
enneaaeiaaieth iaiei/ae a?auaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua A.I. ?anneaciaui, A.N.
Aeaooy?ai, I.O. Aa?aaeii, I.A. Aeaieaeaoaeee iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi
iiaa?oiinoe, iienuaaaiua ii e?eaie Eaia 3 e 4 noaiaie, eiatho aieueooth
ianouoth niiniaiinoue e iaeaaeatho ?yaeii i?aeiouanoa a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
oneeee.

O/eouaay oi, /oi aeey o?aineyoeeiiiuo iiaa?oiinoae iiaeiaiua
enneaaeiaaiey i?aeoe/anee ia i?iaiaeeeenue, iaie naeaeaia iiiuoea
?anniio?aoue aii?in i aeeyiee aaiiao?ee iiaa?oiinoe ia
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea ia i?eia?a iaiei/ae
iieiaeeoaeueiie aaonniaie e?eaeciu, iienuaaaiuo o?aaiaieyie aunieiai
ii?yaeea.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa auea ?anniio?aia iiaay iiaa?oiinoue, iino?iaiiay ia
iniiaa ieineiia?aeeaeueiiai ia?aiina e?eaie /aoaa?oiai ii?yaeea,
iieo/aiiie i?aia?aciaaieai eeiee oi?oaiai i?iaeaa naiaiaeii iia?oie
aaeee — OOEA (oi?ia oi?oaie eeiee aaeee). Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaiei/ea
oa?aeoa?ii e?eaieeiaeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea e?eaeciu, au?aaeaiea eioi?ie
caienuaaaony o?aaiaieai aoi?iai ii?yaeea. Aeey n?aaiaiey ?aaiou
iaiei/ee OOEA, a ea/anoaa aiaeiaa auea i?eiyoa iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
a i?aeoeea no?ieoaeuenoaa iaiei/ea yeeeioe/aneiai ia?aaieieaea.
Aiaeec iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey aeaaeeie aeaeaciaaoiiiie
iaiei/ee OOEA iieacae, /oi aeaiiay iaiei/ea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieaa
?aaiiia?iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai ii?iaeueiuo e naeaeaathueo oneeee, a oae aea
iacia/eoaeueiuie aaee/eiaie iiiaioia a i?e eiioo?iie ciia. I?e ?aaiuo
i?iaeaao oeaio?aeueiie oi/ee iiey iaiei/ea auaea?aeeaaao iaa?oceo a
1.2 ?aca aieueooth, /ai iaiei/ea yeeeioe/aneiai ia?aaieieaea.

A o?aoueae aeaaa auee i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
iiaeaeae iaiei/ee OOEA e yeeeioe/aneiai ia?aaieieaea ?acia?ii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 e iauae no?aeie iiaeuaia 9 ni. Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey eneaaeaiey ?aaiou
iiaeaeae, naycaiiie n aa iaaieueoie oieueiie, iaoa?eae aue aua?ai
ioee/iui io iaoa?eaea iaoo?iuo eiino?oeoeee, a eiaiii aein. Iaa iaiei/ee
?ac?ooeeenue i?e aeeceeo cia/aieyo aaee/ei i?iaeaia, iaeiaei, cia/aiey
?ac?ooathueo iaa?ocie ioee/aeenue a 1.3 ?aca. Aeey iaiei/ee
yeeeioe/aneiai ia?aaieieaea ?ac?ooathuay iaa?ocea ninoaaeea ?=120
ni.a.no.=12 eI/i2; aeey iaiei/ee OOEA ?=160 ni.a. no.=16 eI/i2.
Iaiei iiaeaeyi iaiei/ae oa?aeoa?ii eieaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea oaeiaie ciiu
iiey.

A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii i?iaeoe?iaaiey
iaiei/ee OOEA ?acia?ii a ieaia 3636 i n iauae no?aeie iiaeuaia 9 i.
I?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iaiei/ee iinoiyiiie oieueiu ?aeiiaiaeoaony
eniieueciaaoue eaaeee aaoii eeanna ia ieaea A 20, /oi iicaieyao
oiaiueoeoue nianoaaiiue aan eiino?oeoeee e iiauneoue aa
oaieiecieyoeeiiiua naienoaa. I?e yoii aeinoaoi/iay oieueia iiey
ninoaaeyao 6 ni. I?eiaiaiea oyaeaeiai aaoiia iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue
oieueio oeaio?aeueiie /anoe iiey iaiei/ee aei 2 ni, n iaaieueoei
ooieuaieai oaeiaie ciiu aei 6 ni. Eniieueciaaiea aeaiiie iiaa?oiinoe
aeey iie?uoee i?ieaoa nauoa 36 i cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao aa
yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ino?ainoaaiiua eiino?oeoeee, iaiei/ea, e?eaecia
iiaa?oiinoe, oi?ia oi?oaiai i?iaeaa aaeee.

Tsyganenko Ludmila Anatolyvna » Reinforce concrete shells of coverings a
surface of the new form». — The manuscript.

Thesis master of Technical Science on speciality 05.23.01- Building
structures, Buildings and Constructions — Poltava State Technical
University named in honour of Yuriy Kondratyuk, Poltava, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to a problem of search of effective shells of
coverings of buildings and structures.

The new surface received on the basis of flat-parallel carry of an
elastic line of a beam is offered. This established, that, thanking
curvilinear to distribution on curvature, them more uniform
distribution normal and moving together effort. On a degree of use
strength of the characteristics of a material and maintenance of common
rigidity new form more effective, those shell elliptical-parabolic. With
equal moving of centre of a field, the shell FELB maintains loading in
1.2 large, that shell-analogue. The loadings causing limiting allowable
deflections, differ in 1.8 time. These features have allowed
recommending easy concrete, with projecting of a field of a smooth
monolithic shell. It enables to reduce own weight of a covering and to
raise it heat-insulating property.

Key words: spatial structure, shells, flexure curvature, and elastic
deflection of a beam.

( I?aeien aaoi?a)

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 04. 10. 99
Oi?iao 60×84/16

Oiiai. – ae?oe. a?e. 1,0
Iae. – aeae. a?e. 1,1

Oe?aae 100 i?ei.
Caiiaeaiiy ? 397

“?ecioeaio?” NoiAeO. 244007, Noie, aoe. ?. – Ei?naeiaa, 2

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