Загальноосвітня школа західноукраїнського регіону в контексті суспільно-політичного життя другої половини 40-х — першої половини 60-х років ХХ столітт

3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?NOI??? OE?A?IE

NAI?AE NOAIAI AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 37.01(4OE?) (091)

CAAAEUeIIINA?OIss OEIEA

CAO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEIAI ?AA?IIO

A EIIOAENO? NONI?EUeII-IIE?OE*IIAI AEEOOss

Ae?OAI? IIEIAEIE 40-o — IA?OI? IIEIAEIE 60-o ?IE?A

OO NOIE?OOss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EOCUeI?IAOeUe Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EOEUe*EOeUeEEE Noai?neaa Aeaaeeneaaiae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAI*OE Iae ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei
?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAEAI?IAeA Aaneeue Eaeaieeiae/,

a/aiee nae?aoa? Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia
O?aiea, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, i.Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.235.01 a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a-1, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 27 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Ao?ae?e I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. O iinooiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yeiai
noni?euenoaa /e ia aieiaio ?ieue ii?yae c ?ioeie /eiieeaie a?ae?a?a?
ina?oa. ?? anaioiiethth/ee oa?aeoa?, c a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith
caeeaae?a oa onoaiia, ia o?eueee caaacia/o? caaaeueiee ??aaiue ciaiue o
noni?euenoa?, noeoii?noue ciaiue, caeiaooeo eiaeiei a?iiaaeyieiii o
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy oa i?aeianaiiy ?o ??aiy, a e ia?aaea/o a?ae iieie?iiy
aei iieie?iiy iniiaieo caeiaooe?a eoeueoo?e, aeina?aeo, oi?iue oa
iaaee?a.

Caaaeath/e ia ?ieue ? i?noea ina?oe a aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, oe?eeii
eia?/iei aeaea?oueny aeniiaie, ui iinooiaeueiee ?icaeoie, oae ? c
iaaieie eie?c?yie, caaacia/o?oueny oeie noni?euenoaaie, e?a?iaie, a yeeo
noai?ai? ? iino?eii oaeineiiaeththoueny iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? ina?oi?
nenoaie. O oaeeo e?a?iao ina?oa aenooia? nai???aeiei “eieiiioeaii”
aeiiii?/iiai ? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aiaeii/an a oiiaao iaaii?
ianoaa?eueiino?, a oi e e?eciaeo yaeu, aiia aenooia? ? ye nai???aeiee
nioe?aeueiee “aii?oecaoi?” noni?euenoaa.

?ioaa?oaaiiy ina?oe iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie o na?oiao ina?oith nenoaio, ??
aeaiie?aoecaoe?y oa aoiai?caoe?y iiaeooue aooe cia/ii oneeaaeiai? aac
?aoaeueiiai ? iino?eiiai aiae?co ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa aca?iiae?? ina?oe ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue — caaaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee, aeeaeaeoeee, iaoiaeeee.
Aiaeii/an ae??oaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue aoei a iai?iaeoeoeaiei aac
a?aeiiaeaiiy, caaaa/aiiy ? iinooiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ina?oe a e?a?i? ia
o?aaeeoe?yo iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?ee. ?o oni?oia ae??oaiiy iiaeeeaa ia
i?aenoaa? caa?iaiiy aei aeaniiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo, eiai ia’?eoeaii?
ioe?iee oa a?aooaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo o?ie?a. Eeoa oieeath/e caeai? ye
?aeaae?caoe??, oae ? ae?aiaoecaoe?? oeueiai aeina?aeo o iaai? ?noi?e/i?
ia??iaee, iiaeia ?aaeueii ioe?ieoe iaaeaaiiy oa ao?aoe aeioaia??oiuei?
nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?. Naia c iaeyaeo ia oea o aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?noi?e/iee oa aoiiiie?oe/iee aniaeoe ina?oe o
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o — ia?o?e iieiaei?
60-o ??. OO no.

Aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy a icia/aieo o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao coiiaeaiee
ianaiia?aae oei, ui i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
nenoaie ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? aei oeueiai
/ano caeeoaeany ia aeine?aeaeaiith. ? ia oiio, ui a?aeo? ioae?eaoe?e c
oe??? oaie, a oiio, ui iaoiaeieia?/iith canaaeith i?aoeue ?aaeyinueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a aoea ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea oai??y, a “aea?aeaaia
?aeaieia?y (ia?eneci-eai?i?ci) — ye cacia/aa I.C?iia’?a — i?aoaiaeoth/e
ia ?ieue aeui? iaoee oa caaeiaieueiyth/e iaaiith i??ith iio?aae
?noaae?oiaioo, aeeeth/aea iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae aei ?aaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa. Inoaii?e, c iaeyaeo ?aeaieia?/ii? aeieo?eie, aeaeyaeaa
ce?niei iaeeaiii ia ?aaeyinueeee noni?eueiee eaae, ye aioe?aaeyinueea
ae?yeuei?noue. Iaoeiaee i?aeo?ae noaa caa?iceea?oei aeey nenoaie, i?ae
aoaeue-ye? aoaee c aieo a?aee?eoeo ai?ia?a”. ?aaeyinuee? aaoi?e, a neeo
ianoaaei, ciooai? aoee aeeiioaaoe aiieiaaoe/io uiaei ?nioth/i? nenoaie
ooieoe?th. Iicaaaeai? iiaeeeaino? aeinooio aei iai/ii? /anoeie a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a, aiie ia??aeei ciooai? aoee aaeaaaoeny aei caiia/oaaiue,
aea?aeieo ?aaeeiia? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e, a oi e aei oaeueneo?eaoe?e. Oi ae
iayaia c i?iaeai ?noi??? ina?oe o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?
e?oa?aoo?a (ia neeaaeathoue aeiyoeo ? ioae?eaoe?? aaoi?a aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy) iicia/aia aeacaiith aaaeith.

Aea?? oaie iaoeiaiai aiae?co coiiaeaiee ua e oei, ui a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?, yeee cia/ii i?ci?oa a?ae ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue iio?aiea i?ae aecia/aeueiee aieea oe?iiinoae
?in?enueeiai, a iio?i ? ?aaeyinueeiai niiniao aeeooy, iaoe?iiaeuei?
o?aaeeoe?? ? cae/a?, iii?e anei?eyoi?nuee? iiooae aea?aeaa-iao?iiie?e,
iaee ?noi?e/ii aeeaoa ei??iiy, a ioaea, ?o e?ea?aeaoe?y oa
ianaaeaeoaaiiy iiai? ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie i?ioiaeeee a iniaeeai
neeaaeieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiiaao. Ona oea aeooae?co? i?iaeaio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a a eiioaeno? noaiiaeaiiy iiai? nenoaie ina?oe a
iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? aeina?ae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo oa ?aa?iio iiaea
aooe aaeueie iia/aeueiei. Ioaea, eaeaoueny ia o?eueee i?i iaoeiaa, a e
i?ciaaaeueia oa iie?oe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeoue aei ieaio ?iaioe oa iaoeiai?
oaie eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa “Ina?oa a Oe?a?i? o OIO-OO noie?ooyo”.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aoiieia?/iee, aoiiiie?oe/iee
aniaeo ina?oiuei? nenoaie a ?? ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?. ?icaeyaea?oueny aiia ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
?aaeyinueei? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie a eiioaeno? anueiai
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio
Oe?a?ie, ?? aieiai? neeaaeia? /anoeie, nooi?ni? aeanoeaino? oa iciaee,
aeaoa?i?iiaai? ?aaeyinueeei nioe?ae?noe/iei niiniaii aeeooy o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 40-o — ia?o?e iieiaei? 60-o ??.

Aaia?ao?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue oa?eoi??th oaia??oi?o naie
iaeanoae cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie: Euea?anueei? (1959 ?. aei ??
neeaaeo oa?eoea Ae?iaiaeoeueea iaeanoue), ??aiainueei? (aei 1991 ?.
?iaainueea), ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? (aei 1962 ?. Noai?neaanueea),
Caea?iaonueei?, Aieeinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei? oa *a?i?aaoeueei?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae ae?oaiu iieiaeie
40-o ??., oiaoi c /ano ca?eueiaiiy cao?aeieo iaeanoae O?N? a?ae
i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeeo caaa?aiee?a, aei na?aaeeie 60-o ??., oi?iaeiaae
yeiai a?aeaoeiny noaiiaeaiiy, ooaa?aeaeaiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? O?N?, a c ?? ooaa?aeaeaiiyi — e?ea?aeaoe?y
onoaeaiiai a e?a? oe?eueieoeoaa ? iiaoaeiaa iiai? nenoaie ia?iaeii?
ina?oe.

Iaaaeaea aenia?eiaiooaaiiy c ae?iaie/ei iaa/aiiyi oa
iaeeiaaeoeyoe??/iith caaaeueiiina?oiueith oeieith a N?N?, ui ?icii/aeiny
c 1958 ?., cae?i/eeiny 1964 ?. Iinoaiiaith a?ae 10 na?iiy oiai ?ieo
OeE EI?N oa ?aaea I?i?no??a Nithco ?N? nei?ioeee oa?i?i iaa/aiiy a
na?aaei?o oeieao ia iaeei ??e ? iiaa?ioee caaaeueiiina?oith oeieo aei
aeanyoe??/ee. Ia oeae /an i?eiaaeathoue ? ci?ie o aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? N?N? — e?a?ia anooieea a ia??iae iainoae?i?cio. Ana oea e
iaoiiaeei o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c’ynoaaiiy i?noey ? ?ie?
ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?ath o
/aniaiio aei??? “noae?i?ci — iainoae?i?ci”, ui ni?ey? aeeaoiio
ona?aeiieaiith aeaeea?iaaieo ? ?aaeueieo ci?i o ?aaeyinuee?e iie?oe/i?e
nenoai? a oe?eiio. Aaeaea aieea noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ia nenoaio
ina?oe, ?? e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ia?aiao?e, c iaeiiai aieo, oa cai?ioiee
aieea oe??? nenoaie (?iaioa caaaeueiina?oiuei?, na?aaeiuei?
niaoe?aeueii? ? aeui? oeiee) ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy, c ?ioiai
aieo, iacaia?a/i?. Oiaoi aaoi? i?aaioa aeine?aeeoe ?noi?e/iee oa
aoiiiie?oe/iee aniaeo ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie a eiioaeno?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath.

?aae?caoe?y aeacaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaaea ?ica’ycaiiy ?yaeo
eiie?aoieo, aca?iicoiiaeaieo caaaeaiue:

n iienaoe ?noi?e/ii onoaeaio a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? nenoaio
ina?oe, ?? o?aaeeoe?? oa iniaeeaino?, coiiaeai? aacaea?aeaai?noth
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aoiaeaeaiiyi oeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo
Aano?i-Oai?ueie, a c ?? ?iciaaeii — aei neeaaeo Iieueu?, ?oioi?? oa
*aoineiaa//eie;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a e?a?,
aaciaaii? ia canaaeao ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? iaaeaaia?ee;

n iieacaoe iniaeeaino? aoae?aieoeoaa ?aaeyinueei? oeiee o ia?oa iiai?iia
aeanyoee?ooy, coiiaeai? a?aee?eoei i?ioenoiyiiyi i?aai?a aeaaee oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai i?aei?eey;

n i?inoaaeeoe nooi?nio oa no?oeoo?io o?ainoi?iaoe?th caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee a ?aa?ii? i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo;

n cae?enieoe aiae?c eaae?iai? iie?oeee ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a
noa?? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ?? oa?aeoa?ieo ?en oa iane?aee?a;

n i?inoaaeeoe ina?oith, aeoiaio oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/io ni?yiiaai?noue
ia?iaeii? ina?oe aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo oa ocaaaeueieoe o?iee aeey
no/aniiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

n ia iniia? ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co aecia/aii ?noi?e/ii onoaeaio a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo nenoaio ina?oe ia na?aaeeio OO no.
Neeaaeaeany aiia ai?iaeiaae a?e?a, o oiio /ene? ? a oiiaao, eiee
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? ia?aaoaaee ia noaiiaeu? aioo??oi?o eieii?e
?ioeo e?a?i. Iaeiae ? a aoiinoa?? anei?eyoe?eiiai oeneo
?iiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ioi/aiiy oe?a?ioe? ?aa?iio coi?ee ae?iaeoe, caa?aaoe
? aaeineiiaeeoe ia canaaeao aoiiiaaeaaia?ee naith iaoe?iiaeueio nenoaio
ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy ye neeaaeiao caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei?, aea c ae?acieie
iaoe?iiaeueieie o?aaeeoe?yie, aaaeeea?oeie c yeeo aoee aeniea
iioaioaaiiy ciaiue, eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, iaoe?iiaeueiee iao??ioeci oa
o?enoeyinuee? canaaee, ii?aeiaiiy ?iaeeiiiai e a?iiaaeyinueeiai
aeoiaaiiy;

n aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie
?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe. Ia a?aei?io a?ae Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?
Oe?a?ie, aea ?? ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaei aaea a?eueo ye aeaaaeoeyoe??/io
?noi??th, “?aaeyi?caoe?y” ina?oe a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui
?icii/aeany ua a 1939-1940 ?ieao, cae?enithaaeanue a iniaeeaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo oiiaao, na?e a?aeaeoie ia ye?
iaeeaee e o?aaeeoe?? ai?ioueae oe?a?inoaa ca ??aeio oeieo ?, ui iniaeeai
aaaeeeai, c ??aeiith iiaith iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy ca /an?a
aano?i-oai?nueeiai, iieuenueeiai, ?oioinueeiai, /aoineiaaoeueeiai oa
i?iaoeueeiai iaioaaiiy ooo;

n aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy e ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a e?a?
cae?enith?oueny a ?? aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo oa aeooiaieo
aniaeoao, o eiioaeno? anueiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy;

n ia oii? caaaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
O?N?, c iaeiiai aieo, aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ? io?oe?eieo aea?aeaaieo
ina?oyinueeeo i?aai?a, yeei aeyaeyea aeia??o oa i?aeo?eieo /anoeia
ianaeaiiy, oa I?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a (IOI) ?
Oe?a?inueei? iianoainueei? a?i?? (OIA), ye? ae?aaeaee iiaeyaee oa
?ioa?ane oaeiae cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeothoueny e
ina?oyinuee? eiioeaioe?? noi?ioeaieo nee, ?o nioe?aeuei?, iaoe?iiaeuei?
? iniaeno?ni? i??i?eoaoe;

n aeyaeythoueny ??ciiieaiia? /eiieee, ye? coiiaeee ooaa?aeaeaiiy e
aeii?ioth/a noaiiaeua iiai? nenoaie ina?oe, ?? e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae;

n aiae?co?oueny ina?oiy iie?oeea ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio, i?e/eie
ia?iaiaioiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy oa eiai
iane?aeee;

n o caaaeueiiio ?one? eaae?iai? iie?oeee Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, c Eiioi?noe/iith ia?o??th Oe?a?ie aeeth/ii,
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ia?o?eieo, ?aaeyinueeeo ? ina?oyinueeeo
i?aai?a ye oeaio?aeueieo, oae ? i?noeaaeo uiaei i?aeaioiaee, aeoiaaiiy,
ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? ?icnoaiiaee eaae??a ia?iaeii? ina?oe;

n ?iaioa caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a ?aa?ii? ?icaeyaea?oueny o
ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c eiioeaiooaeueieie i?aeoiaeaie aei iaa/aiiy e
aeoiaaiiy ?aaeyinueei?, ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee,
yea e aecia/aea ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, eiai ?ieue
o aeeoo? noni?euenoaa ? ?icaeoeo iniae;

n caaaeath/e ia i?noea ? ?ieue ina?oe, caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aoaeue-yeiai noni?euenoaa, aiae?c on?o neeaaeiaeo
ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie i?iaaaeeany a ?noi?e/iiio, aoiieia?/iiio oa
aoiiiie?oe/iiio c??cao.

?noi??ia?ao?/ia oa aeaea?aeiciaa/a iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny
?ioaa?oth/ei i?aeoiaeii aaoi?a aei aiae?co iayaieo c oaie /e aeecueeeo
aei oaie aeena?oaoe?? ioae?eaoe?e, i?aeaioiaeaieo a O?N?, Oe?a?i?,
oe?a?inuee?e ae?anii??, oa aaaaeaiiyi aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao cia/ii?
e?eueeino? iiaiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, ui aiaeii/an caaacia/o?
aeinoia??i?noue ioe?iie oa aeniiae?a aeaii? ?iaioe.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?,
?noi?ecio, aeeiai?/iino? oa aeaoa?i?i?cio. Eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee
aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaeniiai oa?aeoa?o a?oioothoueny ia iniiaao ?noi???,
aoiieia?? oa iie?oieia??. Aaoi?, aeio?eioth/enue
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iiai aeeeaaeo iaoa??aeo, aeei?enoiaoaaa iaoiae ye
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai, oae ? nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co. Nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae oa iaoiae ia?ao?aniiai aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a, ?o a??ia?aeiino?
oa ?ai?acaioaoeaiino? aeiiiaithaaany iaoiaeii eiioaio-aiae?co, oe?ieiai
caeo/aiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo. Ana oea, ia iaoo aeoieo, caaacia/o?
iiaiioo oa ia?eoeai?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneaii? i?iaeaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoeia? aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aena?oethaaeenue aaoi?ii o aenooiao oa aeiiia?aeyo ia ?yae?
iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e ??cieo ??ai?a, ui
a?aeaoeenue o 1991-1998 ??. o Ee?a?, Eueaia?, ?aaii-O?aie?anueeo,
Eooeueeo, Ithioai?, Iueth-Ei?eo oa Iueth-A?eo.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa oa
eaoaae?e ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.Noaoaieea ? io?eiaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo. ?? iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee
aeeeaaeai? o 24-o ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a caaaeueiei ianyaii 48 ae?oeiaaieo
a?eoo?a.

Oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
a?aoiaioiaaiith ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th ?noi?e/iiai oa aoiiiie?oe/iiai aniaeo?a
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, cae?eniaiith ia iniia? e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy
oe?iei? ? ??ciiieaiiai? aeaea?aeueii? aace oa ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo
canaaeao, a?eueieo a?ae ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ii? oia?aaeaeaiino?.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ioe?iee e aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue noaoe a
iaaiae? aaoi?ai ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?noi???
eoeueoo?e, aoiieia??, aoiiiie?oeee.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e, i?ei?oie. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 381
noi??iea, c yeeo anooi — 17 noi??iie, aeniiaee — 16 noi??iie, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (332 iaeeieoe?) — 25 noi??iie, aeiaeaoie (oaaeeoe?
aei oaenoo) — 5 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y ? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy” —
c?iaeaia ni?iaa iaoeiaiai ia’?aeiaiiy i?aoeue aeine?aeiee?a Oe?a?inueei?
?N?, iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a ?aeeio oe?a?inueeo
?noi??ia?ao?th. Aeine?aeieee a Oe?a?i? ia a?aei?io a?ae iaoeiaoe?a ca
ei?aeiiii iaee oi/ ? iaiaaeaiee, aea cia/ii oe?oee aeinooi aei ??cieo
aeaea?ae, iaaeoi ae a?o?aieo. Iiaeeeaino? caoe?eaaeaieo oe??th
i?iaeaiith aeine?aeiee?a c ae?anii?e aoee i?i?iaeueieie. Ioaea,
oaeoieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oeo ? oeo aoei ??ciei. ??cieie
aoee e ?o iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ina?oe
ye a Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, oae ? a cao?aeieo ?? iaeanoyo cie?aia. A/ai?
O?N? neeith ianoaaei ciooai? aoee aeio?eioaaoenue i?eioeeio ia?o?eiino?,
eeaniaiai i?aeoiaeo o aena?oeaii? aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a, yaeu oa
oaeo?a, iaoii?noue o i?aaenoaaiee?a ae?anii?e i?e ?o ?icaeyae?
aecia/aeueieie aeyaeyeenue iiceoe?? na?oiaeyaei?. E??i oiai, yeui a
iiaeyaeao aeine?aeiee?a ?c ae?anii?e ia i?iaeaie ina?oe aeii?ioth/eie
aoee aniaeoe iaoe?iiaeuei?, oi o a?o/eciyieo — ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeuei?. Oey
ianoaaeia c iaeyaeo ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ia?oa
aeanyoe??//y yeiai (1944-1954 ??.) iicia/aia aino?ei iie?oe/iei ?
ca?ieiei i?ioeai?noaii, ia? iaaecae/aeii aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a e?a?. ?,
ia?aoo?, ia iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe e oiai oaeoo, ui ?aeaieia?/ia
i?ioenoiyiiy o noa?? noni?eueieo iaoe aenooiaei aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith
aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeai?noaa aeaio na?oiaeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo nenoai.
Oiae niiae?aaiiy ia aca?iio ia?eoeaio ioe?ieo ioae?eaoe?e oeo ? oeo
aaoi??a a oiiaao “oieiaeii? a?eie” aoei ia?iei. Eeoa oaia?, eiee iinoaea
? ci?oeith?oueny iacaeaaeia Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa, noa? iiaeeeaei ye
iai?i e?oa?aoo?ith i?ae iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie oa ie?aieie a/aieie Oe?a?ie
e oe?a?iiciaa/eie oeaio?aie ae?anii?e, oae ? ia?eoeaiee aiae?c ?o
ioae?eaoe?e.

Caaaeath/e ia aeiaie? aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?ia?o, a yeeo, c o??th /e
?ioith i??ith iiaiioe, aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie,
aeioe?eueiei aoaea, ia iaoo aeoieo, cae?enieoe ?o aiae?c ca e?eueeiia
a?oiaie. Aei ia?oi? a?oie ie a?aeiineii aeaaeai?/i?, ocaaaeueithth/?
aeaeaiiy O?N?; aei ae?oai? — ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oa eieaeoeai? iiiia?ao??,
i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeoaai?e i?iaeai?, a oaeiae ie?ai? noaoo? oa a?ioo?e,
ui aeae?eythoueny na?aae ?ioeo nai?th iaoeiaith /e iie?oe/iith
i?ea?iaeuei?noth, aeena?oaoe?ei? ?iaioe; aei o?aouei? — ?iaioe,
iioae?eiaai? i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. C?icoi?ei, ui i?e
aiae?c? ?ia?o on?o a?oi iaoa caoe?eaaeaiiy ianaiia?aae ni?yiiaaia ia
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oa ?aa?ii.

Iii?ae i?aoeue ia?oi? a?oie aeae?eeii ainueieoiiio (o aeanyoueio
eieaao) “?noi??th Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”, i?aeaioiaeaio eieaeoeaii aaoi??a
ia?aaaaeii c ?inoeoooo ?noi??? AI O?N?. O ainueiiio oii? “?aaeyinueea
Oe?a?ia a ia??iae ci?oeiaiiy nioe?ae?cio ? iinooiiaiai ia?aoiaeo aei
eiioi?cio (1945-70-o? ?iee)” iiaeaii oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?i ?icoe?aiiy
ia?aae? oe?e, na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? o/i?a ? nooaeaio?a o ieo, c?inoaiiy o?iainiaeo
aeo?ao ia ina?oo. Ooo aea a?aecia/a?oueny iiceoeaia ?ieue iinoaiiae
?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? “I?i caoiaee ii aeaeueoiio iie?ioaiith ?iaioe oe?e
?ia?oie/i? iieiae?” (1953 ?.) uiaei io?eiaiiy ina?oe thiaeaie ?
ae?a/aoaie aac a?ae?eao a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa oa caeiio Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Nithco ?N? (a?oaeaiue 1958 ?.) “I?i ci?oeiaiiy cayceo oeiee c aeeooyi ?
i?i aeaeueoee ?icaeoie nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe a N?N?”. Ui ae aei
cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie, oi a ia?o?e eiec? oiio o?eno?oueny, ui “…a
1957/58 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? ?c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? 6896 oe?e 6564
(95,2%) aoei c oe?a?inueeith iiaith iaa/aiiy. O 114 oeieao iaa/aiiy
i?iaiaeeeiny ?in?enueeith iiaith, o 100 — oai?nueeith, a 103 —
iieaeaanueeith, a 12 — ?oioinueeith ? o 3 — iieuenueeith”. Oeae oaeo
iiaeaaaany ye ?ica?i/oaaiiy ce?nieo oaa?aeaeaiue “ca?oa?aeii?
i?iiaaaiaee” i?i yeeenue “caiaiaae oe?a?inueeeo oe?e” a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia
a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo ?anioae?ee, i?i ?o “?oneo?eaoe?th”. O ae?oa?e eiec?
oiio oaea a?aenooi?e aiae?c oe?e ca iiaaie iaa/aiiy, iaoii?noue
oaa?aeeoueny, ui “caniaii i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy ia?iae?a N?N?
noaea ?in?enueea iiaa”. ? iiynithaaeiny oea “aeaeaoiith ?ieeth, yeo
a?ae?a?aaaa ? a?ae?a?a? aaeeeee ?in?enueeee ia?iae a … aeiiii?/iiio,
iie?oe/iiio e eoeueoo?iiio i?aeianaii?” e?a?ie, “oaeoe/iith iioe?ai?noth
aeaii? iiae ? ?? ?icaeioo?noth oa aeineiiae?noth”.

Aei ieoaiue ina?oe, cie?aia ?? i?noey ? ?ie? a eiioi?noe/iiio aeoiaaii?
iieiae?, caa?oathoueny e aaoi?e “Ia?en?a ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??
Oe?a?ie”. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeacaiiai oiio “?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?N?”, a
yeiio iaaaaeai? noaoenoe/i? aeai? uiaei ?icaeoeo ina?oe (i?aaaea,
ii/eiath/e c 1951 ?.), a “Ia?enao” ? oaea eiie?aoeea a?aenooiy.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeaeaiue iaeaaeeoue ? ocaaaeueithth/a i?aoey
“Oi?aeanoai ?noi?e/ii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Caeiiii??i?noue aicc?aeiaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a ?aeei?e Oe?a?inuee?e ?aaeyinuee?e
aea?aeaa?”, i?aeaioiaeaia a ?inoeooo? noni?eueieo iaoe Euea?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Inoaii?e ?icae?e eieae ia? i?iiiaenoo iacao: “?icea?o
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ca ci?noii ? iaoe?iiaeueii? ca oi?iith eoeueoo?e ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo”. O iueiio iiaeaii aaaaoee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae uiaei noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a
e?a?, a?aeaoaeiae e c?inoaiiy ia?aae? oe?e, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii?
iaiayceiai? ii/aoeiai?, naie??/ii? oa na?aaeiuei? ina?oe, i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee a/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a. Iaeiae aaoi?e ia ciiaee iiaeaoe
ocaaaeueithth/? aeai?, ca yeeie iiaeia aoei a i?inoaaeeoe caaaeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ina?oe, iiae, eoeueoo?e a oeueiio ?aa?ii?. ?icaeyae
ieoaiue, ui ? i?aaeiaoii iaoiai caoe?eaaeaiiy, i?iaiaeeoueny o a?ae?ea?
a?ae noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, caiia/o?oueny aino?a iie?oe/ia
ai?ioueaa iaaeiei i?iaeai nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a oeueiio
?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie. Oae? ae iaaeie?ee aeanoea? e eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao??
“Ia?iaeia ina?oa ? iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea a Oe?a?inuee?e ?N?(1917-1967)”.

1963 ?ieo iiaa/eea na?o aaeeea ca ianyaii (39,5 ae?oe.a?e.) ?iaioa
A.Iaeai/oea, ye?e noaeeeiny caeiyoe iii?oia i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao??
?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca iaai?ii aiieiaaoe/ieo aeniiae?a ? ioe?iie, ie?aieo
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeeo ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo ee?oa aiia ai?iaeiaae
20-oe ?ie?a, aae aei ia?aaoaeiaieo /an?a na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a,
caeeoaeany nai???aeiei aoaeiiii aeey noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a Oe?a?ie,
iniaeeai ae aeey aeine?aeiee?a ?noi??? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ?aa?iio.

Ia oaeee noai oe?a?inueei? ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, ia ??
?aeaieia?/ii-aiieiaaoe/io caaiaaaeiaai?noue ua 1957 ?. caa?ioa oaaao
i?ioani? ?inoeoooo aea/aiiy N?N? (Ithioai) A.E?oiieoeueeee.
?icaeyaeath/e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?aaeyinueeeie ?noi?eeaie iiae?e ? yaeu a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iniiai? eiioo?e yeeo aecia/aeenue o Iinea?, aaoi? ?iaea
oe?eeii neooiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oe?a?inuee? aaoi?e “iaee ?icaeyiooe
oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee i?ioean ye naiai ?iaeo i?aeaoaeiao /e aeiaoaeiao
aei ?in?enueeiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano”. Ui ae aei OO noie?ooy, ca
ia?aeiiaiiyi A.E?oiieoeueeiai, oi ?noi??y Oe?a?ie “ia?aaa?oa?oueny” a
?noi??th a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? ia oii? ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeeo
a?aeiinei. “Nia?onueei-oe?a?inueea ?noi??ia?ao?y ao?aoeea aeania
iaee//y, — ienaa a?i, — ? oae caeeoeeiny ii nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue”.
Oe?eeii iiae?eyth/e oaeee aeniiaie, iiaeaii eeoa aeiaeaoe, ui oae
caeeoaeinue aae aei oae caaieo ia?aaoaeiaieo /an?a na?aaeeie 80-o ??.

Na?aae aeaeaiue, ye? ie a?aeiineii aei ae?oai? a?oie, aeae?ey?oueny ?yae
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ? eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e oa ca??iee?a noaoae. ??ci?
aiaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie ye a ?noi?e/iiio, oae ? a
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiio ieai? ii?oooaaee, cie?aia, Aa?aciye ?.N.,
Aiiaea? A.N., A?euaiei I.I., A?eoeaiei I.N., Aooyinueeee N.E.,
Caaaaenueea I.ss., Eieiniaa E.A., Eioa?iee ?.ss., Iioi?ithe I.I.,
I?enyaeithe E.O., O?e?iiia I.I., Oaoei O.I. oa ?io? aaoi?e. Caeaei,
iaaii, aoaea iaaaaeoaaiiy, ui i?aoe? an?o iacaaieo aaoi??a aeo?eiai? a
aeon? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? iaoiaeieia??, a, ioaea, iathoue /?oeo
aiieiaaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue. Na?aae ieo, c iaeyaeo ia o?iiieia?/i? oa
aaia?ao?/i? ?aiee iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ne?ae aeae?eeoe ie?ai?
ioae?eaoe?? ?.ss.Eioa?iiai oa eiai ae aeena?oaoe?th ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, caoeuaio a 1972 ?ioe?. Aaoi?
aeine?aeaeoaaa i?iaeaio eoeueoo?iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
O?N? o 1939-1958 ?ieao, oi ae ia aeeaii, ui aniaeoe ina?oe aena?oeai? a
eiai ioae?eaoe?yo eeoa ye neeaaeiaa cia/ii oe?oi? i?iaeaie. Aei oiai ae,
Eioa?iee ?.ss. iaiaaeea nai? aeine?aeaeaiiy 1939-1958 ?ieaie.

Aei i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ina?oe a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? ia
anaoe?a?inueeiio oii? caa?oaeeny oaeiae E.O.I?enyaeithe oa
I.ss.Caaaaenueea.

Ni?eueiei aeey ?aoa?iaaieo ?ia?o ? oa, ui ?o aaoi?e ia eeoa
iaiaaeothoueny /eneaiiei iaaaaeaiiyi e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a (oea
iniaeeai oa?aeoa?ii aeey i?aoe? I.ss.Caaaaenueei?) ?icaeoeo nenoaie
ina?oe, ?? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy, i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee a/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a, a e aaeathoueny aei c’ynoaaiiy
nooi iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ioean?a, aiae?cothoue iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie oa ieaie
c oeo /e ?ioeo i?aaeiao?a aeey ie?aieo eean?a, a?aoiaioothoue
aeioe?euei?noue ?o /anoeo ci?i oa ooi/iaiue. Iaeiae aeeoe ca iaae?
onoaeaiiai a oie /an iiaeyaeo ia ?ieue oeiee a noni?euenoa? oa a/eoaey a
i?e aaoi?e ia ciiaee. Iniaeeaith caiie?oeciaai?noth iicia/aia eieaeoeaia
iiiia?ao?y “?icea?o ia?iaeii? ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie”,
aeaeaiiy yei? i?eo?i/aia aei ni?iea??//y i?e?aeiaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo O?N?. ?? oaeaeoa iiaeia aoei a
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye iin?aiee aeey i?iiaaaiaeenoa, i?ae ye iaoeiaa
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O oe?eiio ae aiae?c ye ?noi?e/ii?, oae ? iaaeaaia?/ii?
(?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii?) e?oa?aoo?e noiniaii oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa eiai o?iiieia?/ieo ? aaia?ao?/ieo ?aiie na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?ioean
ocaaaeueiaiiy iaaooiai aeina?aeo, eiai ia?ainieneaiiy ana ua iiia?aaeo,
ui a oeueiio ieai? c?iaeaii eeoa ia?o? e?iee. O cayceo c oeei aa?oi
iacaaoe i?aoe? A.I.Aeaenthea, A.E.Iaeai?iaee, I.I.Eiiiiaiea,
I.A.Noaeueiaoiae/a, A.I.Nooia?eea ? A.Ae.Iioethea, A.A.Eocy,
TH.O.?oaeaiea ? C.I.Na?a?e/oea, A.O.Iaeaia?/oea. I?aoey A.E.Iaeai?iaee
noaiiaeoue iaaiee ?ioa?an ? aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oei, ui a i?e c
oe?e?nii? no?oeoo?e iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe aeie?aieth?oueny iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaa ?? neeaaeiaa — i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a iia?oi?e oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?aeo?
?ia?o, o yeeo aaciina?aaeiuei ?icaeyaeaeany a i?iaeaia ina?oe a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ana ae c
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a, eiee a?aeaoany oe?eeii caeiiii??iee ?ic?ea c?
noa?ith iaoiaeieia??th, aeyaeeeny ye?nii iia? iiaeyaee aeine?aeiee?a ia
?noi??th Oe?a?ie. Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an, cie?aia, noaiiaeyoue i?aoe?
A.E.Aa?aia, ianaiia?aae eiai iiiia?ao?y “Oe?a?ia 1950-1960-o ??.”, oa
ci?noiaia ioae?eaoe?y A.I.ss?ioa “Oioae?oa?iee ?aaeei ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo 30-50-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy”. Ni?eueiith
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iiiia?ao?e A.E.Aa?aia ? A.I.ss?ioa ? i?aaiaiiy
aaoi??a aei oai?aoe/iiai c’ynoaaiiy aaiace ? noo? oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a,
aeeth/ath/e e ?aaeyinueeee.

Ie?ai? nthaeaoe oa oaeoe ia?aii? iaie i?iaeaie ina?oe a eiioaeno?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ?aa?iio o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo A.?.TH?/oea,
?.A.A?eana, TH.?.Oaiiaaea, ?.?.Aeiie/aiea, TH.I.Eo?iiniaa, I.N.?oaeueiaa
? TH.A.*a?/aiea, A.A.Eanueyiiaa.

Na?aae aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ia?o, ie??i caaaeaii? aaea aeena?oaoe??
?.ss.Eioa?iiai, a yeeo ii?ooai? ieoaiiy ina?oe a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio
?aa?ii? a ie?ai? ia??iaee, ui iiai?noth /e /anoeiai aoiaeyoue aei
o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ne?ae iacaaoe eaiaeeaeaonuee?
aeena?oaoe?? A.A.E?oyinueeiai, ?.ss.Caaie?eoeueeiai, I.I.Iioi?ithea,
A.I.?aiaoaiea, A.N.?aeiaa oa N.Ae.Nai?aea. *anoeia oeeo aeena?oaoe?eieo
?ia?o, cie?aia ?.ss.Caaie?eoeueeiai, A.A.E?oyinueeiai oa A.I.?aiaoaiea,
aeoiaeyoue ca o?iiieia?/i? iaae? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aei oiai ae,
/ioe?e c ieo (ie??i ?ia?o A.A.E?oyinueeiai oa N.Ae.Nai?aea)
i?aeaioiaeai? a ?one? eieeoiuei? ?noi?eei-ia?o?eii? iaoee, ui a oiiaao
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a?ae?a?aaaea eeth/iao ?ieue a onueiio
noni?euenoaiciaa/iio oeeee? aeenoeeie?i. O oaeeo ?iaioao ia no?eueee
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ?nioth/? a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo? i?ioeane oa yaeua,
ne?eueee c oeueiai aaaaoiaei??iiai aeeooy aeae?aeenue oaeoe aeey
“i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy” ia?aoai?thth/i? ?ie? ia?o??, oi?aeanoaa ??
“?noi?e/ieo iae?aneaiue”, aeeth/ath/e e nenoaio ia?iaeii? ina?oe. A
?noi??ia?ao?/iiio nain? oe? ?iaioe iaei ui aeaaaee aeey ia?iuoaaiiy
ciaiue, a iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?o i?aeaioiaee ?aaeaiaiooaaeenue
iniiaiiieiaeiei a o? /ane i?eioeeiii ia?o?eiino? iaoee. Aeey oeeo ?ia?o
oa?aeoa?iee ni?iuaiee i?aeo?ae, iaeiiiai?oi?noue aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
o o?aeooaaii? yeeo aecia/aeueieie aoee eeaniaee i?aeo?ae oa ?aeaieia?/ia
oia?aaeaeai?noue. Oae? iaaeie?ee aeanoea? e eaiaeeaeaonuee?e
aeena?oaoe?? N.Ae.Nai?aea. Naia oey ianoaaeia ? iaei??th ?c
niiioeaeueieo i?e/ei iiaa?iaiiy aaoi?a aei oe??? oaie o iiaeo /aniaeo ?
iie?oe/ieo aei??ao oa ia iiaeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaaeao.

E??i caaaeaieo ?ia?o oa aeena?oaoe?e, aei ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aiae?co
iaie caeo/ai? e ioae?eaoe?? aeaio i?ia?aeieo aeo?iae?a Oe?a?ie
?noi?e/iiai oa ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui aeoiaeeee a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaie ia??iae. C ioae?eaoe?e “Oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?e/iiai
aeo?iaeo” 1957-1964 ??. aeecueeeie aei

oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeiny aeecueei 30 noaoae, iia?aeiieaiue
oa ?aoeaic?e. Ai?oth/a a?aaeaiiy ni?aaey? aiae?c aeo?iaeo “?aaeyinueea
oeiea” (iaie i?iaiae?ciaaii iiiaae 100 eiai iiia??a). O aeine?aeaeoaai?
iaie ?iee a?i oaeoe/ii aoa ia?aoai?aiee o iie?oe/iee aeia?aeiee aeey
i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe. Iioae?eiaai? a aeo?iaeao noaoo?, eeoa iaaiith
i??ith aena?oethth/e e i?iaeaie ina?oe a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?,
ia aiineee nooo?aeo aeiiiaiaiue aei iayaiiai ia oie /an ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo.

Na?aae i?aoeue o?aouei? a?oie iaoo oaaao i?eaa?ioee o?, aaoi?e yeeo
?ai?acaioothoue oe?a?inueeo ae?anii?o ? aaciina?aaeiuei /e aeioe/ii
ii?ooothoue ieoaiiy ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aai ae o oe?eiio ii O?N?. Iii?ae ieo
aeae?eeii ?iaioe A.Einothea, Ae.Eiaay, ?.Niaeue-Noioeueeiai, N.Aaeaiay,
?.Eieynee oa iaoeiai-iiioey?iee ca??iee “?in?euaiiy Oe?a?ie”. Ii?ooai? a
iacaaieo i?aoeyo i?iaeaie ?noi??? ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, iiae, o oiio /ene?
e ia??iaee/ieo aeeneon?e iaaeiei ia? ye aeiai?iieo, oae ? iiai?iieo,
aeey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaie ?aa?iio oa ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo caaaeaee
aoee aaeueie aeooaeueieie, ia ao?aoeee aiie naiai cia/aiiy e nueiaiaei?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae on?o i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a, o
yeeo ieoaiiy ina?oe ?icaeyaeaeeny ye neeaaeia? a?eueo oe?oeo i?iaeai,
?iaioa ?.Eieynee (?aaia Eieyanueeiai) iiai?noth i?enay/aia aiae?co
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy e o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe.
Cae/aeii, nueiaiaei?, eiee aeine?aeieeai noaee aeinooiieie a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee, ioe?iee e aeniiaee ?.Eieynee iiaeooue aeaeaoeny
iaeicia/oueie, aea a?aoo?ii, ui aei ieo aaoi? ae?eoia a?eueo ye 30 ?ie?a
oiio. Eiai oiai/ani? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, oi/ ? aacoaaeeny ia iaiaaeaiiio
eie? aeaea?ae, ianaiia?aae a?o?aieo, aoee iiaei neiaii a ?noi??ia?ao??
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Oaeei /eiii, cae?eniaiee iaie ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c aea? i?aenoaae
aeey iaaieo aeniiae?a. Aieiaiee c ieo iieyaa? a oiio, ui e aei oeueiai
/ano i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe
a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? ia noaea i?aaeiaoii ni?aaae? iaoeiaiai
ia?eoeaiiai aiae?co. Iayai? i?aoe?, aaoi?e yeeo aaeaaaeeny aei ni?ia ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oeaothoue nooo?aeie iaaeie?eaie ye oaeoieia?/iiai, oae ?
iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Ui ae aei i?aoeue aaoi??a oe?a?inueei?
ae?anii?e, oi aiaaea? a i/? ianaiia?aae ?o ae?ae iaiaaeaia, a neeo
ianoaaei, aeaea?aeueia aaca. Aiie ciooai? aoee caaeiaieueiyoenue eeoa
iioae?eiaaieie aeaea?aeaie oa io?oe?eiith noaoenoeeith.

Iao /an, a yeiio, c iaeiiai aieo, noaee aeinooiieie aeey aiae?co ? a
Oe?a?i? i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo oe?a?iiciaaoe?a, a, c ?ioiai aieo, c’yaeeanue
iiaeeea?noue e?eoe/iiai aiae?co ioae?eaoe?e ?aaeyinueeeo a/aieo,
noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey nai???aeii? ?ioaa?aoe?? eiioeaioe?e oa
ioe?iie ca?oa?aeii?, ?aaeyinueei? oa iino?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, ?o e?eoe/iiai aiae?co, iia?oiai ia oe?ieee
aeinooi aei a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oa a?eueiiai c?noaaeaiiy na?oiaeyaeieo
iiceoe?e aaoi??a iayaieo o iaoiio ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aoeue.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue: 1) aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee
aaaaoueio oiiae?a oeaio?aeueieo ? iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a; 2) aeai?
noaoenoe/ieo aeaeaiue; 3) iaoa??aee oiai/anii? ia??iaeeee.

Iniiaio aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee
iaoa??aee oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie (aeae? — OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), eio?? i?noyoue
aeieoiaioe, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue niaoeeo?oe? iaoi? ?iaioe ? aeaee ciiao
aaoi?ia? c?iaeoe ni?iao ia’?eoeaii aena?oeeoe o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane
ina?oiuei? nenoaie ia oe? noia?a/eeaiai oa neeaaeiiai ?noi?e/iiai
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio
?aa?ii?. Oea ianaiia?aae i?ioieiee can?aeaiue Iie?oath?i ? Nae?aoa??aoo
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? (a?eueoiaee?a) Oe?a?ie (c
aeiaoiy 1952 ?. — Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Oe?a?ie — Aao.) oa i?aeaioia/?
iaoa??aee aei ieo, a?eueo?noue yeeo aeiiaaeaaia caa??aaeany a oae caaieo
“ie?aieo iaieao”. Aeania, oe? aeieoiaioe ? aecia/athoue nooue iie?oeee
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo. O i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie i?iaiae?ciaai? iaoa??aee a?aeae?e?a OeE EI Oe?a?ie,
aeieoiaioe OeE EENIO, ye? oaae caa??aathoueny o OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie. Cia/ia
/anoeia ni?aa ii?aoeueiaaia iaie aia?oa.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy
(aeae? -OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) iaie i?iaiae?ciaai? aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee, ui
aena?oeththoue ae?yeuei?noue I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe O?N? (aei 25 aa?aciy
1946 ?. — Ia?iaeiee Eii?na??ao ina?oe O?N?). Eiai ea??aieoeoao
i?aeeyaaee an? iaaeaaia?/i? oa a/eoaeuenuee? ?inoeoooe, iaaeaaia?/i?
o/eeeua oa caaaeueiiina?oi? oeiee, oi ae iayai? ooo aeieoiaioe anaa?/ii
aena?oeththoue noaiiaeaiiy ? o?ainoi?iaoe?th ina?oiuei? nenoaie a O?N? a
oe?eiio ? a ?? cao?aeieo iaeanoyo cie?aia.

Eiie?aoiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui cia/ii caaaaoea aeaea?aeueio aaco
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?ae?a?aii iaie oaeiae c ?yaeo oiiae?a aea?aeaaieo
a?o?a?a cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

O i?ioean? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aaeaaaany aei aiae?co
iaoa??ae?a ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue — aacao ? aeo?iae?a, ye? aeoiaeeee a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? (Oe?a?i?) oa ca ?? iaaeaie. Oea, cie?aia, aeo?iaee
“?aaeyinueea oeiea”, “Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae”, “Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?ee”, “Aecaieueiee oeyo”, “No/ani?noue”, “Aaee/eia”, “Aaiaca” oa
?i., aacaoe — “?aaeyinueea ina?oa”, “?aaeyinueea Aieeiue”, “Euea?anueea
i?aaaea”, “A?eueia aeeooy”, “I?eea?iaonueea i?aaaea”, “Eiiniiieuenueeee
i?aii?” oa ?i. E??i iaoa??ae?a, ui caa??aathoueny a a?o?aao oa
a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe?? iaie aoee
ii?aoeueiaai? iaoa??aee a?ae?ioae oa a?o?a?a Oe?a?inueeiai A?eueiiai
Oi?aa?neoaoo (i.Ithioai, I?ia//eia), Iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa ?iai?
O.A.Oaa/aiea (i.Iueth-Ei?e), Oe?a?inueei? A?eueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe oa
Public Library, ui a Iueth-Ei?eo, a?ae?ioae oe?a?i?ee o Aaaiae A?oeo
(ooao Iueth-Aeaea?n?) oa Ni?o Eieaaeaeo (ooao Iana/onao) Niieo/aieo
Ooao?a Aia?eee.

Aea/aiiy ? e?eoe/iee aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ie?aneaieo iaie a?oi
aeaea?aeueii? aace aeicaieeee ae?iaeoe aeania aa/aiiy i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy, noo?, no?oeoo?e oa ni?yiiaaiino? ina?oiuei? nenoaie a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?, o e?euee?nieo oa ye?nieo, ?noi?e/ieo oa
aoiiiie?oe/ieo aei??ao i?inoaaeeoe ?? ?icaeoie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o —
ia?o?e iieiaei? 60-o ??. OO no.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a
?aa?ii?: o?aaeeoe?? oa i?iaeaie” — iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie, ui iino?eia ?
iine?aeiaia ai?ioueaa cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? ae?oe ca iaoe?iiaeueio ca
ci?noii ? oi?iith ina?oo noaea aecia/aeueiith o?aaeeoe??th aoooy
oe?a?ioe?a e?ath. Oey o?aaeeoe?y ai?iaeiaae noie?oue aeeaeeany
iaia?aai?iei i?aaiaiiyi cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, iii?e
aeaiaoe?iiae?caoi?nuee? oa anei?eyoeai? aeiiaaaiiy i?aai?a aeaaee
?iiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ioi/aiiy, caa?aaoe naith eoeueoo?o oa iiaio
?aeaioe/i?noue, caeeoaeany iaeaaaeeea?oith nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iith
aa?aio??th naiicaa?aaeaiiy oe?a?inoaa. I?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie oey
o?aaeeoe?y, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ii/aea ao?a/aoe nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee
a?oio. Iaeiae ? a iiaeo oiiaao, ye na?ae/eoue iao aiae?c, aiia aeyaeeany
aeeao/ith, aeeoo?aeaeiith aeey oe?a?inoaa, oi/a i?iyae ?? ? aoee
aeaoa?i?iiaai? ?aaeyinueeith ae?eni?noth.

E?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e ? aea?aeaaiiai, ? i?eaaoiiai oe?eueieoeoaa a
?aa?ii? aei?aaeyinueeiai /ano, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c, aoee aeineoue
ne?iii?, i?ioa ye?ni? eiai iieacieee, iniaeeai a oea?ei? aeoiaaiiy,
?icoe?ithaaeenue ? ?iaeeiith, ? a/eoaeyie, ? a?iiaaenuee?noth aeoaea
aeniei. Oa?aeoa?iith o?aaeeoe?eiith ?enith nenoaie ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy a
?aa?ii? aoei ii?aeiaiiy coneeue ?iaeeie, oeiee oa a?iiaaenueeino?.
Iio?aaa oaeiai ii?aeiaiiy ? eiai iiceoeai? iane?aeee iaa?oioiaoaaeenue o
i?aoeyo a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo iaaeaaia?a oaeeo, ye I.A?eaithe,
A.Aauaiei, TH.Aeca?iae/, A.Ia/ianueeee, N.?oniaa oa ?ioeo. Aiie
a?aeeeaeaee aocueeieeaniaee i?aeo?ae aei aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, aaaaeaee,
ui “aeoiaaiiy ia iiaea aooe i?eioniaei”, a aeoiaoaaoe ethaeeio — “oea
cia/eoue ?iaeoe ?? a?eueiith”. Aoaeo/e iao??ioaie Oe?a?ie, aiie
ianoithaaee canaaee ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, c
o?aooaaiiyi ?noi???, eoeueoo?e, o?aaeeoe?e ? cae/a?a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo. Aieiaiei noa’?eoii o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy i?ia?aei? oe?a?inuee?
iaaeaaiae aaaaeaee iniao o/iy, oaiiaaio a/eoaeai, yeee, o naith /a?ao,
iaa aooe a?eueiei o aeai?? i?ia?ai, oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy e
aeoiaaiiy, o aeiai?? i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a.

A ?iaio? iaaieioo?oueny, ui c a?aeiiaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ooo ciiao ooaa?aeaeo?oueny e ?aaeyinueea
nenoaia ina?oe, yea caa?aaeany a e?a? aae aei i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie. Oiae? ae, ia aeiaoaiue 1944 ?., a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie
a?aeiiaeee ?iaioo a?eueo?noue oe?e, ooai?aieo ooo ua a 1939-1941 ?ieao.
Iniiaia /anoeia ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo oe?a?inueei?, iieuenueei? oa
?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae iaea?aeaee iiaeeea?noue a?aea?aeoaaoe oeieo.
Iaeiae noaiiaeaiiy ina?oiuei? nenoaie a e?a? aeaoa?i?ioaaeinue ?yaeii
oaeoi??a. Ii-ia?oa, iano?ee? o?aaeeoe?? ?aaeyinueei? oeiee,
cai?iaaaeaeai? a e?a? o 1939-1941 ??., oi/ ? ii?ooeee iie?oe/i? canaaee
iieii?caoe?? oeiee, ca ia??iae i?iaoeueei? ieoiaoe?? ao?aoeee aoaeue-yea
cia/aiiy. Ii-ae?oaa, o ca?ieiiio i?ioenoiyii? naia ia a/eoaeuenoai, c
iaeyaeo ia eiai ?ieue ? ooieoe?? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?,
iniaeeao noaaeo ?iaeee ye i?aaie ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, oae ? neee iii?o,
i?aaenoaaeai? I?aai?caoe??th oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a ? Oe?a?inueeith
iianoainueeith a?i??th.

Anoaiiaeaiiy iiai? ina?oiuei? nenoaie a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo O?N?
cai?iaaaeeei a oe?eueieoeoai ? iiao, aeaeaeo a?ae o?aaeeoe?eii? ?
iaoe?iiaeueii?, ciai?oith ao?eaooeeo oaeo, ye ii?o?aoe, aa?a, i?aii?e,
i?ni?, ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ia ni?yioaaiiy an??? iaa/aeueii? oa aeoiaii?
?iaioe, e?oa?aoo?o aeey /eoaiiy oa i?ae?o/ieee, ui ia ni?eeiaeeny
a?ae?aco i? i?noeaaeie a/eoaeyie, i? o/i?anueeeie eieaeoeaaie. Aiae?c
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a aeiaiaeeoue, ui naia oeiea aenooiaea
ae??aei ?ino?oiaioii ?oneo?eaoi?nueei? iie?oeee eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? oa
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. ?ioith aiia aooe ia iiaea. “Iaoe?iiaeueia” ca
oi?iith, nioe?ae?noe/ia ca ci?noii oeiea a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii?
?anioae?ee, ye ? an??? Oe?a?ie, ca an? ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee i?eiee
ia aoea oe?a?inueeith.

O ?icae?e? cacia/a?oueny, ui i?iaeaie, ii?iaeaeai? eiieith o?aaeeoe?eii?
aeey e?ath ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueei?
nenoaie, aeanyoee?ooyie caeeoaeeny ia ?ica’ycaieie, a?aeaeaaeeny ia
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?. I?ae aieeaii aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai oa?aeoa?o (e?eoeea eoeueoo iniae, caaaeoaaia
caienea E.Aa??? uiaei noaiiaeua a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, aee?eooy
aioeia?o?eii? a?oie A.Iaeaieiaa, A.Iieioiaa, E.Eaaaiiae/a, ci?uaiiy
I.O?ouiaa oa ?i.), ye ? ciai?oi?o (ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
ca?oa?aeieo i?aai?caoe?e, iineeaiiy eiioaeo?a oe?a?ioe?a O?N? ?
ca?oa?aeii? ae?anii?e, iiae?? a Oai?uei? oa Iieueu? e ?i.), oe? i?iaeaie
oi caaino?ithaaeenue, oi i?eaanaee, aea oae ? ia aoee ae??oai?. Eeoa
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, ?? ci?oeiaiiy ye naiino?eii?,
aeaiie?aoe/ii? e i?aaiai? aea?aeaae caaacia/o? iaeaaei? oiiae aeey
a?eueiiai aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo — a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie
an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “O?ainoi?iaoe?y caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee:
?noi?e/iee, nioe?aeueiee oa iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeoe” — iaaieioo?oueny, ui
caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea a ?aa?ii? ?icaeaaeany o niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao, i?ae
aieeaii e?eueeio oaeoi??a. Oea, ii-ia?oa, aaee/aci? caeoee oa
?oeioaaiiy, ui aoee caaaeai? on?i noa?ai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa N?N?
oa O?N?, cie?aia o ?iee a?eie. Ii-ae?oaa, ?icaeoie caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee coiiaethaaany ?ic?iaeaieie eiioi?noe/iith ia?o??th ieaiaie
?icai?iooiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ii-o?ao?, noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a ?aa?ii? i?ioiaeeee a oiiaao
a?aee?eoiai o ia?oa iiai?iia aeanyoe??//y oa i?eoiaaiiai iaaeae?
iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy. Ii-/aoaa?oa, iania? ?ai?an?? i?aaiaie aeaaee
i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, ianeeueieoeueea aeaii?oaoe?y aaaaoueio aeanyoe?a
oeny/ o/aniee?a ? i?eoeeueiee?a iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aei?eey,
nayuaiiineoaeeoae?a oa a??oth/eo Oe?a?inueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?
oea?eae, ?o /anoeiaa iiaa?iaiiy a ??aei? e?a? oa iiaoi?ia aenaeaiiy. ?,
ia?aoo?, o caeeaaee ina?oe e?ath, ye ? a on? ?io? noa?e aeeooy, c ia?oeo
aei?a aecaieaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo iaeanoae a?ae oaoenonueeeo
caaa?aiee?a ii/aee aeeaaoeny a/eoaeuenuee? eaae?e, a?ae?yaeaeai? nthaee
c ?ioeo ?aeii?a O?N? (N?N?), aea na?aaeiaeua ?oiuei? i?aoe? ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeiny a?ae noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiia aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio.
I?ae ae??th oeeo oaeoi??a a?aeaoaaeeny, c iaeiiai aieo, e?euee?ni? oa
ye?ni? c?ooaiiy naii? nenoaie ina?oe, a c ?ioiai aieo, ci?ithaaeiny e
naia noni?euenoai, eiai ina?oiy, i?ioan?eia, nioe?aeueia e iaoe?iiaeueia
no?aoeo?eaoe?y, coiiaethth/e, a naith /a?ao, o?ainoi?iaoe?th nenoaie
ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c oa c?noaaeaiiy aeaea?ae aeiaiaeeoue, ui iaei??th
c aieiaieo i?iaeai o ae?yeueiino? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a cao?aeiiio
?aa?ii? O?N? aoea i?iaeaia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace caeeaae?a ina?oe.
Ia ?? ae??oaiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? nioi? iinoaiia ?anioae?eainueeeo,
iaeanieo, i?nueeeo oa ?aeiiieo i?aai?a ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.
Aei?iaoaaieie iaoiaeaie ae??oaiiy oe??? “anaia?iaeii? ni?aae” noaaaee
“noaioieee”, “iaae?eueieee”, “i?ny/ieee” aeiiiiiae oeie?, nioe?ae?noe/ia
ciaaaiiy ca e?auo ? ae??a?oo i?aai?caoe?th aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?aiiioo oe?e,
iaa/aeueieo eaa?iao?a oa iaenoa?aiue, iniauaiiy ?o a?aeiia?aeiei
i?eeaaeaeyi. I?ioa oe? caoiaee, ia i?aee??ieai? o?iainiai oa
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie caniaaie, ia aeaaaee, oa e ia iiaee aeaoe
niiae?aaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea ianeeueieoeueei?
“i?ioan?iiae?caoe??”, i?ioeane iia?e?caoe?? iieiae? aei o/eeeu ? oe?e
i?e i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo i?no aai aea?c
i?noeaai? iieiae? aei oaeeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ca iaae? ?aa?iio. ?
oi/ c ii/aoeii 50-o ?ie?a “iia?e?caoe??” oa “i?eciae”, ye oi?ie
eiiieaeooaaiiy caeeaae?a i?iooaoina?oe, iinooieeeny i?noeai a?aee?eoiio
aeia?ia?eueiiio iaai?o o/i?a, aiie aeeeeeaee aai a?aee?eoee ni?ioea, aai
caoathaaiiy iacaaeiaieaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e iai’yo? iieiae?, ui a
iaeaooiueiio noaei iaeiei c iie?oe/ieo iioea?a aeeneaeaionoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Oi?niaai?, aea ia caaacia/ai? aea?aeaaith aeiiii?/ii, oaiie oe?eueiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, ianeeueieoeueea i?enei?aiiy i?ioean?a o?aai?caoe?? a
?aa?ii?, o oiio /ene? e oeyoii noai?aiiy ia?aae? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
i?iooaoina?oe oa iia?e?caoe?? aei ieo thiae?a ? ae?a/ao oe?eueiiai a?eo,
iaaieioo?oueny o ?icae?e?, i?ecaiaeeee aei a?ae/oaeaiiy
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a?ae noni?euenoaa, ii?iaeaeoaaee aaeaeoae?noue
aaouee?a oa ae?oae aei iiaeieaiiy iaienueiaiiino? ? io?eiaiiy
iaia’yceiai? naie??/ii? (ainueie??/ii?), a iio?i — ? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe.
Aeaea?aeaie oe??? aaeaeoaeino? aoee, c iaeiiai aieo, nioe?aeueia ?
iie?oe/ia ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy o caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?
oa, c ?ioiai aieo, iacaaeia?eueiee iaoa??aeueiee noai a?eueoino? ?iaeei
e?ath ? niia?aeoaai? ieie ii?aeueii-iie?oe/i? canaaee. Oea e noaei
iaei??th c iiaaaeieo i?e/ei oiai, ui aeaeaei ia an? ?iaeeie e?ath
nei?enoaeeny i?aaii ia caaaeueiiiaia’yceiao naie??/io (c 1949 ?.) ?
ainueie??/io (c 1959 ?.) ina?oo ae?oae. I?i oea na?ae/aoue aeai? i?i
e?euee?noue iaienueiaiiiai n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy O?N? ia e?iaoeue 1951
?. O n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? Oe?a?ie ia oie /an iae?/oaaeiny 560 847
iaienueiaiieo, c ieo 211 293 (27,7 a?aenioea) i?eiaaeaei ia cao?aei?
iaeano?. Ia?ane?aeoth/e iie?oe/i?, i?iiaaaiaeenonuee? oe?e?, ia?o?ei?
i?aaie an?o ??ai?a ia??aeei aeaeaaaee aaaeaia o ieaiiaaieo
nioe?ae?noe/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo ca ae?enia, aaeaaaeeny aei
oaeueneo?eaoe??. Cie?aia, a iaei?e c iinoaiia OeE EIO a?ae 11 ea?oiy
1955 ?. o ia?ae?eo “cia/ieo oni?o?a” o?oaeyueo cao?aeieo iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie a?aecia/aeinue: “Ia iniia? iaooeeueiiai ?icaeoeo nioe?ae?noe/ii?
aeiiii?ee aeinyaiooi cia/iiai i?aeianaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo,
eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy o?oaeyueo, e?ea?aeiaaii iaienueiaii?noue”. Oei /anii,
ca aeaieie Oeaio?aeueiiai noaoenoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy O?N?, a ?anioae?oe?
ia 1960 ?. 587,5 oen. thiae?a ? ae?a/ao a?eii 16-29 ?ie?a ia iaee
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, a 38 oen. aoee iaienueiaiieie. O cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
O?N? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia iaee 183 oen. /ie., a 10,6 oen. caeeoeeenue
iaienueiaiieie. Ieoaiiy anaiao/o, ui cai?iaaaeaeoaaany o cao?aeieo
iaeanoyo ?anioae?ee, iacaaaeath/e ia aaee/aci? coneeey, o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaie ia??iae i?aaiai ia?iaeii? ina?oe oae ? ia aaeaeiny
ae??oeoe. O /eneaiieo iinoaiiaao oa ??oaiiyo ia?o?eieo ? ?aaeyinueeeo
i?aai?a ??cieo ??ai?a ia?aaeaa/aeenue caoiaee uiaei anaiao/o,
aecia/aeenue oa?i?ie ?o aeeiiaiiy. I?ioa a ieo aiae? aoei e ooeaoe
i?e/eie o?oaeiiu?a o cae?eniaii? anaiao/o. Aea naia a?aei?noue naeyi,
i?eiaeii? aei e?ioey 50-o ?ie?a, oa aoiinoa?a ?ai?an?e caeeoaeenue
aieiaieie i?e/eiaie iaa?aea?aeoaaiiy oeiee aaaaoueia ae?oueie. Ua ? a
1952/1953 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? o Aieeinuee?e iaeano? iica oeieith
caeeoaeinue 7700 ae?oae, o Ae?iaiaeoeuee?e — 5000, o Euea?anuee?e —
12000. O 1955 ?. a oe?eiio ii O?N? ia iaa/aeinue 55 567 ae?oae
oe?eueiiai a?eo, o oiio /ene? 16904 ae?oae (iiiaae 30 a?aenioe?a) — a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo iaeanoyo.

Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii iaie i?iaeai? iie?oaoi?caoe?? oeiee, aiae?co
a?aeiia?aeiiai caeiio i?i oeieo 1958 ?. O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny,
ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aiiuei? i?ioan?iiae?caoe??, iiiioaoi?/iiai iaa/aiiy
ni?e/eithaaeinue aei iinooiiaiai aeo?niaiiy iiaii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe.
Niiae?aaiiy ia oeiee i?aoethth/i? iieiae? (aa/??i?, ci?ii?, cai/i?) ia
aei?aaaeiaoaaeinue. ?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? aa/??i?o oa cai/ieo oe?e
i?aoethth/i? iieiae? ?aaeyinueeeie noni?euenoaiciaaoeyie o?aeooaaeiny
iaeiicia/ii ye i?iya i?eeoaaiiy ia?o?? i?i i?aeianaiiy ina?oiueiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy e?a?ie. ? aeey oaei? ioe?iee, c iaeyaeo ia cia/i? o?iainia?
cao?aoe aea?aeaae ia ?o oo?eiaiiy, ni?aaae? aoee i?aenoaae. Aiaeii/an ia
ne?ae cae?eaaoe i/? e ia oa, ui i?e/eiith ?icoe?aiiy ia?aae? aa/??i?o ?
cai/ieo oe?e noaea iacaeaoi?noue aeaiii? oeiee aeeiioaaoe iieeaaeai? ia
ia? ooieoe??. Iino?eieie noiooieeaie aa/??i?o ? cai/ieo oe?e aoee
oi?iaeueia eiiieaeooaaiiy, iacaaeia?eueia a?aea?aeoaaiiy o/iyie caiyoue,
iecueeee ??aaiue ciaiue oa iino?eiee a?aen?a o/i?a. O Ae?iaiaeoeuee?e
iaeano?, iai?eeeaae, ai?iaeiaae 1956/1957 iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo oeiee
i?aoethth/i? iieiae? caeeoeei 1670 thiae?a ? ae?a/ao. O Naia??nuee?e
oeie? ?ia?oie/i? iieiae?, cie?aia, i?eieieee iaa/aiiy 135 o/i?a c 322. O
Noaeiai-Aeoiyinueeiio ?aeii? oeiee n?euenueei? iieiae? iieeioei 80
a?aenioe?a o/i?a, AEo?aai?anueeiio — 45, Iinoenueeiio — 44,
Noa?i-Naia??nueeiio — 36 a?aenioe?a.

Ieaie iaa/aiiy thiae?a oa ae?a/ao aac a?ae?eao a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa ??e o
??e ia aeeiioaaeenue. Ia 1955/1956 iaa/aeueiee ??e o Oa?iii?euenuee?e
iaeano?, iai?eeeaae, ieaioaaeiny caeo/eoe aei oe?e n?euenueei? iieiae? 7
oen. thiae?a ? ae?a/ao. Oaeoe/ii ae iaa/aeueiee ??e ?icii/aei 3945
o/i?a, oiaoi 56 a?aenioe?a a?ae ieaio. C ieo aei I-IY eean?a oiae? aoei
ca?aoiaaii 63 o/i? ? aei Y-YII eean?a — 3882. Oiaoi, eaeaoueny i?i o/i?a
ia YIII-X eean?a, a I-YII, i?i ae?oae, ye? ca?aeii ?c caeiiii i?i
caaaeueio iaia’yceiao naie??/io ina?oo iaee io?eiaoe ?? o aeaiieo
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao. Iaeiae an?ia caniaaie ?aeaieia?/iiai aieeao ia
iane, iniaeeai i?ney i?eeiyooy caeiio i?i oeieo 1958 ?., a?iiaaenueeino?
iaa’ycoaaeanue aeoiea i?i ia?niaeoeai?noue naia aa/??iuei? ? cai/ii?
oi?i ina?oe. Ai?iaeiaae 1959-1964 ??. e?euee?noue o/i?a o oeieao
i?aoethth/i? iieiae? c?inea a?eueo, i?ae o 3 ?ace. sseui o 1958/1959
iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? o aeaiieo oeieao O?N? iaa/aeiny 74,5 a?aenioea an?o
o/i?a, a o aa/??i?o ? cai/ieo — 25,5, oi o 1963/1964 iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe?
o aeaiieo na?aaei?o oeieao iaa/aeiny aaea 48,5 a?aenioea o/i?a, a o
aa/??i?o ? cai/ieo — 51,5 a?aenioea. I???ioaoe?y ia aa/??i? ? cai/i?
oeiee, ye aea?aeaaia iie?oeea, oneeaaeithaaea oeyo iieiae? aei caeiaoooy
iath na?aaeiuei?, a oei a?eueoa aeui? ina?oe. Oaea ni?yiiaai?noue
ina?oiuei? nenoaie N?N? aoea aacia?niaeoeaiith, aaea ?? aei e?ece. I?i
oea ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue aeai? i?i ??aaiue ina?oe iieiae? Oe?a?ie
a?eii 16-29 ?ie?a ca 1960 ??e. C 10 iei. 506 oen. thiae?a ? ae?a/ao O?N?
aeacaiiai a?eo oiai ?ieo ina?oo aeuo ca 7 eean?a, oiaoi ca 8,9 /e 10
eean?a, iaee eeoa 3 iei. 135 oen. /ie. (29,8 a?aenioea). O cao?aeieo
iaeanoyo O?N? oeae iieaciee aoa ua ieae/ee — 24 a?aenioee. Aei oiai ae,
iaa/aiiyi ia aoei ioiieaii 63 oen. ae?oae oa i?aee?oe?a 7-15 ?ie?a, a
a?aen?a o/i?a c? oe?e i?aoethth/i? iieiae? noaiiaea o na?aaeiueiio 30
a?aenioe?a.

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ianiai? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a oeieao ia
i?aee??iethaaeinue iaoa??aeueii, ui iicaaaeyei o/i?a i?aaa ia aea??
iaeaooiuei? i?ioan?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iaoee?a oa
?ioa?an?a. O eiaei?e eiie?aoi?e oeie? i?aai?ciaoaaeanue i?aeaioiaea o
e?auiio aeiaaeeo c aeaio-o?ueio niaoe?aeueiinoae, ? coiiaethaaeinue oea
caeaa?eueoiai ia iio?aaaie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a iayai?noth o???
/e ?ioi?, ae?ae iaiaaeaii?, iaoa??aeueii? aace aai e /enoi aeiaaeeiaeie
ianoaaeiaie. A oea ni?e/eithaaeinue aei oiai, ui c /enea o/i?a, ye?
cae?i/oaaee oeieo c ae?iaie/ei iaa/aiiyi, ia a?eueoa 5-7 a?aenioe?a
i?aoethaaee ca iaea?aeaiith a oeie? niaoe?aeuei?noth, ?aooa ae i?e
ca?aooaaii? ia ?iaioo caiiai iaieiae?aaee a?aeiia?aeieie i?ioan?yie.

Ia oe?ieiio oii? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio o
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ni?yiiaaia ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa,
ianaiia?aae, ae?iaieoeoaa, caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea iieeeeaia aoea
aiaeii/an caaacia/eoe i?aeianaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ? aaia?ao?/ii?
iia?eueiino? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie a oe?eiio ? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio
cie?aia. Aeiiii?/ieie iioeaaie i?aeianaiiy oe??? iia?eueiino? aenooiaee
ia’?eoeai? iio?aae iiaea?i?caoe?? e?a?ie — ?icaeoie, oi/ ? aenoaineaiee,
on?o aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. O cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?
oaiie ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aoee
aeueie, i?ae o na?aaeiueiio ii O?N?. Oi ae eaae?iaa caaacia/aiiy oaeeo
oaii?a ?icaeoeo cae?enithaaeinue o oiio /ene? e ca ?aooiie aeioneiee?a
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. Iie?oe/ieie ae iioeaaie i?aeianaiiy oe???
iia?eueiino? aenooiaee aeaeea?iaai? ia?o??th iinooeaoe
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? anueiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?a?ie,
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiino? — ?aaeyinueeee ia?iae. Ia
aeinyaiaiiy oeeo oe?eae ? ni?yiiaoaaeany ?ai?aai?caoe?y
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. O aeai?? ae cania?a aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueea ea??aieoeoai naaa ia iaiaaeoaaei, aa?o i?e
oeueiio a?aee ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae.

O aeniiaeao aei ?icae?eo eiinoaoo?oueny, ui iaaeeaiei iaa?oioiaaia
iaoeiai ? iaaeinoaoiuei caaacia/aia iaoa??aeueii ia?aaoaeiaa
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee o ianooaaao e?a?ie a?aeaeaeyea oeieo a?ae
caieo?a /ano, oneeaaeithaaea ?iaioo i?aai?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa oe?e.
Iaa/aeuei? ieaie aoee ia?aaaioaaeai? canoa??eei iaoa??aeii ? aanue /an
ei?eaoaaeenue, oeiea ia a?aeiia?aeaea aaaaoia?aiiei iio?aaai no/aniiai
aenieiiaoai?ciaaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ana oea cioneei i?aaie ia?iaeii?
ina?oe ia na?aaeeio 60-o ??. aaeeaaoe iaa?aeeeaaeieo caoiae?a
iinooiiaiai iiaa?iaiiy iieiae? aei caaaeueiiina?oiuei? na?aaeiuei?
oeiee, ui aoei caeiiii??iith iaiao?aei?noth, iano?eiith aeiiaith
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa eiai ina?oe.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee — “I?aeaioiaea eaae??a: noaoenoe/i? oa iie?oe/i?
ia?aiao?e” — i?enay/aiee aiae?co eaae?iai? iie?oeee ia?o?eieo oa
?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a o noa?? ina?oe. Ia iaoe?iiio a?o?aiiio iaoa??ae?
?ice?eo? aeaea?aea, oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa
?ici?uaiiy eaae??a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, iieacaii iniaeeaino?,
i?eoaiaii? eeoa cao?aeiei iaeanoyi ?anioae?ee, i?iaiae?ciaai? e?euee?ni?
oa ye?ni? ci?ie o neeaae? iaaeaaia?/iiai ei?iono, ni?yiiaai? ia
oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai ?aaeyinueeiai a/eoaey a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?.

Iniaeeao oaaao a ?iaio? i?eae?eaii ia?ai?uaiith iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a
aei ?aa?iio. Oa?aeoa?iei o oeueiio ieai? ? i?eeeaae Aieeinueei? iaeano?.
Aaea noaiii ia 5 aa?aciy 1944 ?. nthaee aoa a?ae?yaeaeaiee iaeaea aanue
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iaaeaaia?/iee ia?niiae iaeaniiai, i?nueeeo oa ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?e?a ina?oe — 12 i?aoe?aiee?a aia?aoo iaeaniiai a?aeae?eo, 27 —
i?nueeeo oa ?aeiiieo a?aeae?e?a oa 1292 a/eoae?, c yeeo aeiae?aeeny
i?aoe?aieee a?aeae?e?a ina?oe oa ea??aieee oe?e. Anueiai ae oi?iaeiaae
eeoa 1944 ?. aei cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie aoei a?ae?yaeaeaii ia
ea??aio ?iaioo a aia?aoe a?aeae?e?a ina?oe 303 i?aoe?aieee, na?aae yeeo
29 — c Ai?ioeeiaa?aaenueei? iaeano?, 24 — Ee?anueei?, 42 — Iieoaanueei?,
51 — Oa?e?anueei?, 16 — *a?i?a?anueei? oa 73 — c ia?eiiaoo ina?oe O?N?.
A?ae?yaeaeaiiy a/eoae?a aei ?aa?iio i?aeoeeoaaeiny aae aei na?aaeeie
50-o ?ie?a.

Aiae?c aeaea?ae iieaco?, ui iaeiie ia?o?? oa iaeani? a?aeae?ee ina?oe
no?aeiiai ?aa?iio O?N?, aeeiioth/e ?icia?yaeee ia a?ae?yaeaeaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe aei cao?aeieo iaeanoae, cono??/aee na?eici?
o?oaeiiu? ianaiia?aae iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiie, ye ? o?, eiio
aeiaiaeeeinue a?ae’?aeaeaeaoe, ia ciaee ?aaeueieo oiia cao?aeieo
iaeanoae O?N?, a cia/ia /anoeia a?ae?yaeaeaieo — ? oe?a?inueei? iiae.
Oea aeeeeeaei iaaaeiaieaiiy i?noeaai? ?ioae?aaioe??, nooaeaio?a oa o/i?a
e?ath. sseui ae a?aooaaoe, ui a/eoaeuenuee? eieaeoeae oe?e, iaaeaaia?/i?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee aae aei ii/aoeo 50-o ??. ia?aaoaaee i?ae iniaeeai
ieeueiith oaaaith iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aei?eey, oi noaia c?icoi?eith
aoiinoa?a a caeeaaeao ina?oe. O/eoae?, a?eueoa i?ae aoaeue-yea ?ioa
aa?noaa noni?euenoaa, aeyaeeenue ca?o/ieeaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a e?a?. Ooo i?iaiaeeeenue ??ciiiai?oi? ? oe?ieiianooaai?
caoiaee ?aeaieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ni?yiiaai? ia ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea
aeoiaaiiy ? ia?aaeoiaaiiy ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio, oi?ioaaiiy i?noeaaiai
aeoeao, cae?enithaaeanue ??oo/a, ianeeueieoeueea eiiea anueiai
o?aaeeoe?eiiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath. Oeueiio ??oo/a
i?ioenoiyei i?aei?eey IOI-OIA. Oeaio?aeueiee i?ia?ae IOI, iai?eeeaae,
aiae?coth/e noaiiaeua a ?aa?ii?, eoaee eeoa a 1945 ?. c ?ioeo ?aeii?a
O?N? (N?N?) i?eaoei 86 oen. niaoe?ae?no?a, aeacoaaa ia ?oneo?eaoi?nueeo
i?n?th “oao?aoe?a-iineae?a”. A iaeiiio ?c caa?iaiue aei a/eoae?a
ioi?aoe? caeeeeaee ?o: “Naaiooeoa ?oneo?eaoe?ei? caoiaee nia?onueei?
oeiee. Ia i?eeeaaeaeoa ?oe aei oe??? aeaeei? ?iaioe!”, aaeaea
?aaeyinueea oeiea “ia? caaaeaiiy aeoiaoaaoe yie/a??a-c?aaeiee?a
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”.

Ana oea iaei aaciina?aaei?e aeo?ae ia a/eoaeuenoai. Aiii neeith ianoaaei
ciooaia aoei aenooiaoe ? ye ia’?eo aieeao c aieo i?aaenoaaiee?a
ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio oa iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aei?eey, ? ye
noa’?eo ae??, oiaoi aeeiioaaoe aee?aeoeae noi?ioeaieo nee uiaei iaa/aiiy
e aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a, ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai /e iaoe?iiaeueiiai,
ianaiia?aae uiaei ni?yiiaaiino? oa ia?niaeoea nioe?ae?noe/iiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a e?a?, iniaeeai a ooai?aii? eieainiiiai eaaeo; uiaei ?ie?
? i?noey Oe?a?inueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae a aeeoo? ianaeaiiy
e?ath, uiaei noo? e oi?ie aea?aeaaiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ui,
aeania, e aoei iaeaieiai?oith i?iaeaiith iie?oe/iiai noi?ioeaieoeoaa a
?aa?ii?. Naia oeei ? aoa coiiaeaiee iino?eiee iie?oe/iee iaaeyae ca
iniaith a/eoaey, eiai na?oini?eeiyooyi, iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiith ?iaioith a
oeie?, e?i??th iiaaae?iee iica iath. Nioe?ae?noe/ia ia?aaoaeiaa e?ath, c
?? oi?niaaiith ?iaeono??ae?caoe??th, ianeeueieoeueeith
eieaeoea?caoe??th, iaoyaeaiith aieiaeii 1946-1947 ??., ianooiii ia
?ae?a?th oa e?ea?aeaoe??th Oe?a?inueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae,
ianiaeie aeaii?oaoe?yie i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy — ana oea, a oiiaao iii?o
iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aei?eey i?aaiai ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, aecia/aei,
i?yii aai ae iiina?aaeeiai, ia o?eueee e?i?th iiaaae?iee a/eoae?a,
nooaeaio?a, o/i?a, aea e ?oith aeieth.O ai?iouea? i?ioe ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee i?aei?eueieee IOI-OIA a/eieee 14,5 oen. aeeaa?n?e ? oa?i?enoe/ieo
aeo?a, aea?oaaie yeeo noaei ia iaio ye 30 oen. ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeeo
aeoea?no?a, o oiio /ene? e o/eoae?a. Aiaeii/an eeoa i?ioyaii 1944 ?. a
oiae? aieiaeo iia?aoe?e c ?aaoey?ieie a?enueeaie caaeioei iiiaae 57 oen.
o/aniee?a ?ooo iii?o,a ai?iaeiaae 1944-1952 ??. aoei caa?aooiaaii 104
oen. o/aniee?a IOI-OIA. Ca o? ae ?iee o a?aeaeaeai? ?aeiie N?N? aoei
aenaeaii 171566 /ie., o oiio /ene? iiiaae 40 oen. ae?oae. O an? oe? ?iee
iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy a e?a? a/eoae? ciooai? aoee aeoiaoaaoe a o/i?a
ethaia aei nioe?ae?noe/ii? Aaouee?aueie oa iaiaaenoue aei ?? ai?ia?a.
Cia/ia /anoeia a/eoae?a ia aeo?eioaaea iie?oe/iiai oeneo, caeeoaea
?aa?ii aai ae noaaaea aea?oaaie ?ai?an?e noi?ioeaieo nee.

C ii/aoeii 50-o ?ie?a iino?eia, aea ana ae aea??eiaa, iie?oe/ia
o?eueo?oaaiiy a/eoae?a, ?o “ia?aa??ea” ia a??i?noue ?aaeyinuee?e aeaae?
noa? ianiaith, anaioiiethth/ith. I?ae eooii ci?o iie?oe/ii? iaae?eiino?
a on?o cao?aeieo iaeanoyo o ea?oi?-o?aai? 1950 ?. aoea i?iaaaeaia
ia?aa??ea iniaiaiai neeaaeo a/eoae?a niaoe?aeueieie eii?n?yie.
A?aeiia?aeio ?ioi?iaoe?th oeei eii?n?yi iaaeaaaee e i?noeaa?
niaoei?aaie. Ca iane?aeeaie oeeo ia?aa??ie aei ca?eueiaiiy aoei
i?aaenoaaeaii 1529 a/eoae?a, c ieo 1129 i?noeaaeo ? 400 — oeo, ui
i?eaoee a cao?aeiee ?aa?ii c? no?aeieo iaeanoae O?N?. Aei ii/aoeo
1951/1952 iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo ieaioaaeiny a?ae?yaeeoe aei ?aa?iio 8345
aeioneiee?a aoc?a oa a/eoae?a c? no?aeieo iaeanoae, o oiio /ene? 310
/eai?a ia?o?? oa 5560 eiiniiieueoe?a. Aiie iaee caeiyoe i?noey oeo
a/eoae?a, yeeo ca?eueieee c ?iaioe aiane?aeie /enoee 1950 ?., oa
ci?oeieoe ia?o?eii-eiiniiieuenueeee i?ioa?ie iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a.
I?ioa 976 aeioneiee?a aoc?a, o oiio /ene? 19 c Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
7 — Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 50 — Ee?anueeiai, 22 — Caii??cueeiai, 11 —
AEeoiie?nueeiai iaae?inoeooo?a oa ?ioeo, ca i?ecia/aiiyi ia i?eaoee.
Iaei??th c aieiaieo i?e/ei iayaee aeioneiee?a ca i?ecia/aiiyi caeeoaeany
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a e?a?.

“Aeii/euaiiy” a/eoaeuenueeiai ei?iono a?ae oeo, ooi ia aeeeeeaa iiaii?
iie?oe/ii? aeia??e, i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue ? a ianooii? ?iee. O
Noai?neaanuee?e iaeano?, iai?eeeaae, ai?iaeiaae 1952/1953 iaa/aeueiiai
?ieo ?c 7656 a/eoae?a 2620 (iaeaea 35 a?aenioe?a) aoee iicaaaeai?
iiaeeeaino? i?aoethaaoe a oeieao. O Oeniaieoeueeiio ?aeii? o??? ae
iaeano? a 1951 ?. c 19 ea??aiee?a oe?e aoei ci?uaii 10, o 1952 ?. — ua
10 ? a 1953 ?. — 7. Iiae?aiith aoea ieeii?noue eaae??a ? a ?ioeo
cao?aeieo iaeanoyo O?N?. O ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? oe?e ?aa?iio
ai?iaeiaae 1950-1953 ??. iaaeaaia?/i? eieaeoeae aoee cai?iai? ia 50-100
a?aenioe?a, cia/ia /anoeia a/eoae?a aoea ?ai?aniaaia, aeaii?oiaaia a
??ci? ?aeiie N?N?.

E?ea?aeaoe?y i?aai?ciaaiiai ?ooo iii?o, i?eoeeuei?noue aei yeiai
aeyaeyea cia/ia /anoeia a/eoae?a, nooaeaionueei? oa o/i?anueei? iieiae?,
ci?oeiaiiy ?aaeyinueei? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie a e?a? coiiaeee ci?io
iie?oe/ieo iano?i?a a/eoaeuenoaa. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue eiai
ia?aoiaeeoue ia iiceoe?? eiioi?i?cio. Iaeiae ? ca oaeeo oiia ai?iaeiaae
anueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c aeieoiaio?a,
i?inoaaeo?oueny aeoeai?noue o/eoae?a o ae?yeueiino? i?aei?eueieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, o oiio /ene? e oe?eueieo.
O/eoae? oa nooaeaioe neeaaeaee iaeaea 19 a?aenioe?a o/aniee?a
aeeneaeaionueeiai ?ooo. *eiaei c ieo i?ieoei /a?ac noaeia? i?ioeane
1965-1966 oa ianooiieo ?ie?a. ? oi/ oe?, caeaa?eueoiai cae?eo?, noaeia?
i?ioeane a?aeaoaaeeny aaea ca o?iiieia?/ieie ?aieaie iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiie na?ae/aoue, ui a/eoaeuenoai cao?aeieo iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie, ia?aaaaeia eiai a?eueo?noue c /enea i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy
i?ioyaii onueiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo caeeoaeanue a??iith ?aeayi
ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaeio oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Oeiea, iaaeaaia?ea oa iie?oeea: o?iee ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo” -?icaeyaeathoueny iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae
?aaeyinueei? oeiee a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie, ?aeaieia?/ia
caaacia/aiiy ina?oe ? eiio?ieue ca iei, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
?aaeyinueeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e oa ?aeae, ui /anoi anooiaee o
i?ioe??//y c iaaeaaia?/ieie iiaeyaeaie i?ia?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo
iaaeaaia?a OO noie?ooy, ia i?aoeyo yeeo aeoiaoaaeeny ? iaa/aeeny a
ia?iaeieo oeieao iieie?iiy cao?aeieo oe?a?ioe?a.

O ?iaio? iaaieioo?oueny, ui, cae?enithth/e ina?oiuei-aeoiaio iie?oeeo
ia?o??, aea?aeaai? i?aaie ina?oe noai?thaaee oiiae aeey oiai, uia on?
ae?oe, i?aee?oee, thiaee ? ae?a/aoa a?aea?aeoaaee oeieo, a ioaea, uia
on? aiie c ?aiiueiai a?eo i?ieiaeeny ia?o?eii-eiioi?noe/ieie ?aeayie.
Oaea iaeaieiai?oa “iaaecaaaeaiiy” ?aae?ciaoaaeiny ??ciiiai?oieie
oeyoaie: ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi caeiio i?i anaiao/, /?oei ie?aneaieie ?
aeo?eiaieie a aeon? eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaeiino? iaa/aeueieie ieaiaie,
iino?eiei ?icoe?aiiyi ia?aae? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a, caeo/aiiyi
ae?oae oa o/i?anueei? iieiae? aei i?iia?nueeeo ? eiiniiieuenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ??ciiiai?oieie caoiaeaie iicaeeaniiai aieeao ia o/i?a.
Iinoaaeaia caaaeaiiy ae??ooaaeiny ia?aaeon?i /a?ac ci?no ina?oe, yeee
?aae?ciaoaaany a iniiaieo oe?eueieo aeieoiaioao — iaa/aeueieo ieaiao,
i?ia?aiao, i?ae?o/ieeao. Aiie oi?o?eoaaeeny, ?o ?ic?iaea ia?aaoaaea i?ae
iino?eiei eiio?ieai ia?o?eieo i?aai?a.

Aiae?c cia/ii? e?eueeino? iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue, iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
ca??iee?a, ii?aae oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, aeac?aie aeey a/eoae?a oe?e
aeicaieea eiinoaooaaoe, ui oeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ina?oith,
oi?o?eaoe?y iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, a ioaea, ? i?ae?o/iee?a,
ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy aecia/aee nooue ina?oe a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Noai?a
aeio?eioaaiiy aecia/aieo e?eoa???a ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey
?aaeaiaiooaaeinue ??cieie iaoiaee/ieie aeac?aeaie oa ii?aaeaie, ui
aacoaaeenue ia iinoaiiaao ia?o?eieo i?aai?a ? aeiaiaeeeenue aei
iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a oe?e. Aiie ae iaa?oioiaoaaeenue
a/aieie-iaaeaaiaaie, a a?aeoae — neeaaeaee iniiao ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee a e?a?i?.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, aeina?aeo ?iaioe oe?e
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue, ui ?aaeyinueea nenoaia ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, ??
ia?o?eii-eiioi?noe/ia ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue ? iie?oecaoe?y, iaoooaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeooiaieie o?aaeeoe?yie ni?e/eiyee aaeueioaaiiy oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue, oi?ioaaiiy a ieo aaeaeoaeino? aei
??aeii? iiae ? eoeueoo?e, aeai?ooieoeoai ? eeoeai??noai, i?eooieaiiy
aoiaiieo yeinoae. O oeieao ia?inoaee oaiaeaioe?? “cai?aai?ciaaiino?”
iniaenoino?, caoeneoaaiiy ?? ath?ie?aoe/ii-/eiiaieoeueeeie oi?iaie
?iaioe, a?iiaaenueeiai eiio?ieth.

Iniaeeaa i?noea o ?icae?e? a?aeaiaeeoueny aecia/aiith ?ie?
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio o iie?oe/iiio i?ioecoiyii?
40-o — 50-o ??., eio?a ia iaieioei oa e ia iiaei iaieiooe ina?oi?
caeeaaee. C iaeiiai aieo, ina?oyinuee? i?aaie ia i?noeyo, ea??aieee oe?e
oa a/eoae? ciaia’ycai? aoee ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe a aeeooy ?aaeyinueeo nenoaio
ina?oe, ?? iaa/aeueiee ci?no oa iaoiaee/ia ni?yioaaiiy, a, c ?ioiai
aieo, o/anieee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ??oo/a aenooiaee i?ioe
?aaeyi?caoe?? ina?oiuei-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Oea i?ioenoiyiiy i?iiecoaaei
oe?euei? eieaeoeae, o/eoaeuenuee? ? o/i?anuee?, a ?o na?aaeiaeu? iaei
nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a. sse na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, i?noeaa? i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? aaciaee i?iaiaeeee iino?eio ?iaioo c iaoith aee?eooy oa
?cieyoe?? o/aniee?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ? eiai i?eoeeueiee?a
na?aae o/i?a oa a/eoae?a. Aiaeii/an o/anieee iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai
i?aei?eey, aeneiaethth/e nai? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei ?aaeyinueei?
nenoaie ina?oe, ia o?eueee ianoithaaee, a e iaiaaaeeny, eiee aeey
oeueiai aeieeaee ni?eyoeea? oiiae, ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
oe?e i?ia?aiia? canaaee IOI uiaei ina?oe. Iniiaieie c ieo aoee:
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy ye ca oi?iith, oae ? ca
ci?noii; ?aei?noue oeiee ? ?iaeeie a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?;
naiaiaea oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey oa ?i?oe?aoeaa o/i?a;
o?enoeyinuee? oe?iiino? aeooiaiiai aeeooy oa ii?ae?; oai?/ee iiooe
o/aieo-iaaeaaia?a. Oae? iaiaaaiiy ??oo/a iiai?thaaeenue oioae?oa?iei
?aaeeiii. Iaeiae i?ioenoiyiiy ? a noa?? ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue aae aei na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a. Eeoa iiaeieaaoe
i?aai?ciaaiee ni?ioea i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, ia?o?eii-?aaeyinuee? i?aaie
iaieiae?ee neooaoe??th a ?aa?ii? oa caaacia/eee iianthaeia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o eiioeaio?iaaiiio aeaeyae?
aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? eiai ?acoeueoaoe, ye? e aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1) ia /an i?e?aeiaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei Oe?a?inueei? ?N?
a ?aa?ii? ae?yea nenoaia ina?oe, caniiaaia ia iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?yo
? aeinyaiaiiyo oe?a?inueei? aoiiiaaeaaia?ee. Aiia ciaeoea nai?
iaa?oiooaaiiy o i?aoeyo a?aeiieo iaoeiaoe?a-iaaeaaia?a I.A?eaithea,
A.Aauaiea, A.Ia/ianueeiai, N.?oniai?, ?.THueoeia oa ?i. ? aoea
ai?iaiaaia ia i?aeoeoe? aaaaoueia a/eoaeyie aea?aeaaieo oa i?eaaoieo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie ?
Caea?iaooy. A oiiaao eieii?caoi?nueei?, anei?eyoi?nueei? iie?oeee
Iieueu?, ?oioi?? ? *aoineiaa//eie uiaei cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy
ia?aaea aea?aeaaieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o ?aa?ii? iino?eii
ciaiooaaeanue, a a?aeoae — oe?a?inueea oe?eueieoeoai naiicaa??aaeinue ia
i?eaaoieo canaaeao. Ia noi?iae? i?eaaoiiai oe?eueieoeoaa noiyee /eneaii?
iie?oe/i? e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ia’?aeiaiiy ? oiaa?enoaa oa Oe?a?inueea
a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa. Ooai?aiiy ? iino?eia i?aeo?eiea oe?ieith
a?iiaaenuee?noth i?eaaoieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ui neeaaeaei nooi?nio
iniaeea?noue ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie ? aiaeii/an na?ae/eei i?i
iioaioaaiiy oe?a?inueeith noni?euei?noth ina?/aiino? i?ae?inoath/eo
iieie?iue, aenooiaei aaaeeea?oei /eiieeii caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?,
eoeueoo?ii? oa iiaii? ?aeaioe/iino? oe?a?ioe?a e?ath o ?o ai?iouea? ca
aea?aeaaio naiino?ei?noue. Iaoe?iiaeueia nenoaia ina?oe a ?aa?ii?
?icaeaaeanue o ?one? caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei? iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee
(oai???th aeoiaaiiy, aeeaeaeoeeith, oeieiciaanoaii), o i?e oe?eueia
aeoiaaiiy ia?ic?eaii ii?aeioaaeinue c a?iiaaenueeei,
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iei, ?ae?a?eiei oa ?iaeeiiei. Oaea nenoaia ina?oe
e aeoiaaiiy ?icai?oaeany ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, caaaa/aiiio
aeinyaiaiiyie na?oiai? eoeueoo?e, oa caaacia/oaaea oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii
?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?, yea aeeea aeeooyi naiai ia?iaeo;

2) ?c ca?eueiaiiyi cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a?ae
i?iaoeueei-oaoenonueeeo ieoiaio?a ooo a?aeiiaeth?oueny (Euea?anueea
(1959 ?. aei ?? neeaaeo oa?eoea Ae?iaiaeoeueea iaeanoue), Noai?neaanueea
(c 1962 ?. — ?aaii-O?aie?anueea), Oa?iii?euenueea, ?iaainueea (c 1991 ?.
— ??aiainueea), Aieeinueea, Ae?iaiaeoeueea oa *a?i?aaoeueea iaeano?) oa
anoaiiaeth?oueny (Caea?iaonueea iaeanoue) oi?o?eiaaia ?aaeyinueea
ina?oiy nenoaia — aea?aeaai? ii/aoeia?, iaiiai? na?aaei? ? na?aaei?
oeiee. Caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea, ye ? na?aaei? niaoe?aeuei? oa aeu?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee N?N?, a ioaea, e aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio O?N?,
ea?oaaeany a nai?e ae?yeueiino? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeith
iaaeaaia?eith, ia?aae yeith eiioi?noe/iith ia?o??th, a naith /a?ao,
noaaeeinue caaaeaiiy iaa?oioiaoaaoe i?iaeaie eiioi?noe/iiai aeoiaaiiy,
ina?oe ? iaa/aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy anaa?/ii ?icaeiooi? iniae. Oeaio?ii
?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee a onueiio N?N? aenooiaea Aeaaeai?y
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??. ?? e?au? aeinyaiaiiy ia
iniia? iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae eeanee?a ia?enecio-eai?i?cio iia’ycoaaeenue c
?iaiaie I.E.E?oinueei?, A.A.Eoia/a?nueeiai, I.?.Eae?i?ia oa
A.N.Iaea?aiea. Naia a AII ??ON? ?ic?iaeyeenue iaoeia? e iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy, aiooaaeenue i?ae?o/ieee oa iin?aieee,
i?ecia/ai? aeey iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a onueiai ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.
Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??, ye ?
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a O?N?, a ?icaeoeo
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee /a?ac ?? ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeo caaiaaaeiaai?noue,
a?ae?a?aaaee ae?oai?yaeio ?ieue;

3) iacaia?a/iei aeinyaiaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a e?a?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ? ?? cia/ia e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy. Ooo aoea
ooai?aia oe?iea ia?aaea ii/aoeiaeo, iaiiaieo na?aaei?o ? na?aaei?o oe?e
c oe?a?inueeith, ?in?enueeith, iieuenueeith, oai?nueeith, ?oioinueeith
oa ?ioeie iiaaie iaa/aiiy, aeinooi aei yeeo aoei a?aee?eoi aeey an?o
ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo, i?iaaaeeeanue cia/ia ?iaioa c e?ea?aeaoe??
iaienueiaiiino? aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy. C ??cieo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaeinue
nii?oaeaeaiiy ? ?aiiio oe?eueieo i?ei?uaiue, oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith
oe?eueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa noaei c?inoaiiy a caaaeuei?e ia?aae? na?aaei?o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
iaia’yceiaiai naie??/iiai (ainueie??/iiai) iaa/aiiy;

4) aiae?c /eneaiieo iinoaiia, ??oaiue oa ?icii?yaeaeaiue
ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a ye ?anioae?eainueeeo, oae ? i?noeaaeo,
yeeie aecia/aeenue nooue oa ni?yiiaai?noue ina?oiuei? nenoaie
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, aea? i?aenoaae aeey aeniiae?a, ui:

a) aeeiiaiiy caeiio i?i iaia’yceiao naie??/io (ainueie??/io) ina?oo
iieiae? oneeaaeithaaeinue i?e/eiaie iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai ?
iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a a?aeoae — cia/ia e?euee?noue ae?oae oe?eueiiai
a?eo ia iaa/aeanue;

a) iino?eia “oaeineiiaeaiiy” iie?oaoi?/iiai iaa/aiiy ni?e/eieei i?aei?io
eiai iaa/aiiyi ae?iaie/ei, oiaoi, i???ioaoe??th caaaeueiiina?oiuei?
oeiee ia i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a aeey ??cieo noa? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
ui, a naith /a?ao, i?ecaiaeeei aei ciaoe?iaiiy na?aaeiuei? ina?oe.
Ai?iaeiaae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ciaiooaaeanue e?euee?noue oeo
o/i?a, ye? i?aaioee io?eiaoe caaaeueio na?aaeith ina?oo o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao, iaoii?noue c?inoaea e?euee?noue oe?e ? o/i?a o
ieo, ?ia?oie/i? ? n?euenueei? iieiae? oa cai/ieo (c 1954 ?ieo) oe?e.
??aaiue ciaiue, caeiaooeo o/iyie o cacia/aieo oeieao, aoa iaaeoi
iecueeei aeey i?iaeiaaeaiiy ina?oe o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.
E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a-oe?a?ioe?a o aocao Oe?a?ie a aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae iino?eii ciaiooaaeanue, a e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a-?in?yi o oeo
aea aocao c?inoaea;

a) /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ?oneo?eaoe??
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee ? aiaeii/an aei aeoea?caoe?? aaia?ao?/ii?
iia?eueiino? ?in?yi o an?o noa?ao noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy O?N?;

5) ieaie aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo oa ?aiiioo ?nioth/eo oe?eueieo i?ei?uaiue
ca ?aooiie aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia aeeiioaaeenue, iaoii?noue oo?aioa
i?i caaacia/aiiy oe?eueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia?aeeaaeaeanue ia i?noeaa?
i?iieneia? i?aei?e?inoaa oa eieainie ? ?aaeainie, ye?, a naith /a?ao, o
aeioneieeao oe?e aaa/aee iaae?eia aeaea?aei iiiiaiaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?aca?a?a aeey oeeo aea i?iieneiaeo oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
ae?iaieoeoa;

6) i?aaeiaoii iino?eii? oaaae ia?o?eieo, ?aaeyinueeeo ? ina?oyinueeeo
i?aai?a aoea i?iaeaia o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a. Aei i?aoe? a oeieao
caeo/aeeny i?noeaa? a/eoae?, i?aeaioiaea eaae??a cae?enithaaeanue ia
??cieo eo?nao, o a?aee?eoeo ooo iaaeaaia?/ieo o/eeeuao, o/eoaeuenueeeo ?
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeoooao oa a oi?aa?neoaoao, aeey ?iaioe a caeeaaeao
ina?oe cao?aeieo iaeanoae a?ae?yaeaeaeeny aeanyoee oeny/ aeioneiee?a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ? a/eoae?a c? no?aeieo iaeanoae O?N? oa c ?aeii?a
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??;

7) noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? ina?oiuei? nenoaie, ye ? aanue i?ioean
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ia?aaoaeiae e?ath, cono??ee i?ioeae?th c aieo cia/ii?
/anoeie ianaeaiiy, o oiio /ene? e i?noeaaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ina?oe.

Oea i?ioenoiyiiy coiiaethaaeinue ??oo/ei ceaiii o?aaeeoe?eieo onoi?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, iie?oe/iiai e aeooiaiiai aeeooy ianaeaiiy
e?ath, ianoi?ni?noth o?aaeeoe?eii onoaeaii? ooo ina?oiuei-aeoiaii?
nenoaie ? ?aaeyinueei?, ui i?eoiaeeea ?e ia ci?io. I?ioenoiyiiy
i?iyaeyeiny, cie?aia, a oiio, ui:

a) nioe?ae?noe/ia ia?aaoaeiaa e?ath cae?enithaaeanue iaoiaeaie
aei?noieiai oeneo ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeiai oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ?
ianaiia?aae a ?ioa?anao aea?aeaae, i?ae aaneaie “iuaneeaeaiiy”
i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy a iaeaooiueiio. ? oi/ iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa
aenooiaea ia’?eoeaiith iio?aaith /ano, oaiie ? iaoiaee ?? cae?eniaiiy ia
ni?eeiaeeny cia/iith /anoeiith o/aniee?a iiaea?i?caoe??,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? iie?oe/i? iane?aeee yei? ciaoe?ithaaee ?aaeuei?
e eiie?aoi? ?ioa?ane iniae. Ianeeueieoeueea eieaeoea?caoe?y n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, o?aa?/i? iane?aeee yei? aeey naeyi O?N?, iniaeeai c /an?a
aieiaeiii?o 1932-1933 ?ie?a, aoee ua aeea? ? a iai’yo? ianaeaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ?aa?iio, 1946-1947 ?ie?a ciiao i?iyaeeeny aieiaeii
o no?aeieo, a /anoeiai ? a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie, a?ae/oaeoaaea
caieth a?ae naeyieia, iicaaaeyea eiai noeioe?a aei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aeooiaia aeeooy eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia noaei
i?aeeiio?ieueiei ?aaeeio, ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea ?aeaieia?y, aac
aoaeue-yeeo nooi?nieo, a ia oi?iaeueii aeaeea?iaaieo iciae ieth?ae?cio
aeoiie oa iie?oe/ieo naiaiae, i?iiecoaaea ana noni?eueia aeeooy, a
iaeiaio? i?iyae ?iaeiieneaiiy, a?eueii? aeoiee aei?noiei i?en?eaeenue
oe?iei ?icaaeoaeaiei ?ai?aneaiei aia?aoii;

a) o o?aaeeoe?eio ina?oiuei-aeoiaio nenoaio, iaeiei c aieiaieo nooi?nieo
caaaeaiue yei? ai?iaeiaae noie?oue aoei iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia
aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue, cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/i? canaaee ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie. O ieo iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiia a?iiaaenuee?noue ni?aaaaeeeai aaa/aea caa?ico
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiio aeoiaaiith. Iaoeiaee aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo? neooi?noue iiaithaaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo nee, ui i?ae aaneaie ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?cio
iine?aeiaii cae?enithaaeanue ?oneo?eaoe?y cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo iaeanoae.
I?e/iio c?oneo?eiaaia oeiea aenooiaea anaioiiethth/ei ?ino?oiaioii
?oneo?eaoe?? anueiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath, yea, o naith
/a?ao, aeeeooaaei iio?aao iiaeaeueoi? ?oneo?eaoe?? naii? oeiee. Oey
aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue ?oneo?eaoe?? ina?oiuei-aeoiaii? nenoaie ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, iii?e a?aeiini? niaaee ?? aeeiai?ee ca
iaaieo oiia, noaiiaeea aecia/aeueio oaiaeaioe?th “?aaeyi?caoe??”
?aa?iio;

a) aoa?noe/ia ni?yiiaai?noue ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy
anooiaea a eiioe?eo ?c canaaeaie aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue o
aeon? o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?, ye? ianoithaaee iie?oe/i? oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ia’?aeiaiiy, ca aeiyoeii eiioi?noe/ieo ?
i?ieiioi?noe/ieo c /ano ?o ooai?aiiy, a oaeiae oea?eaa, a?iiaaenuee?noue
a oe?eiio. Oe?ii?ni? i???ioe?e ?ae?a?eiiai aeoiaaiiy cae??iethaaeenue ?
iiaeeaethaaeenue o ?iaeeiao, /ei caaacia/oaaeanue oe?e?ni?noue ?
iine?aeiai?noue aeoiaiiai i?ioeano. Aieiaie/ee aoa?ci ?aaeyinueei? oeiee
i?ecaiaeea aei ?ic?eao oe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy oa ?iaeeiiiai, aei
iiaea?eii? ii?ae? oeiey??a;

a) iie?oe/ia nenoaia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ui
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ae?yeuei?noth ??cieo iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oa ?ioeo ia’?aeiaiue ??cieo nioe?aeueieo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo ? a?eiaeo eaoaai??e a?iiaaeyi, iinooiaeany i?noeai
nenoai? iaeiiia?o?ei?e. Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y cina?aaeaeoaaea a nai?o
?oeao anth iiaiioo aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa iaiaiaaeaiee eiio?ieue ca
aeiiii?/iei, ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iei oa eoeueoo?iei aeeooyi noni?euenoaa.
I?aaie i?noeaai? caeiiiaeaa/i? oa aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee — iaeani?, i?nuee?,
?aeiii?, naeeui? oa n?euenuee? ?aaee aeaiooao?a o?oaeyueo — iae?aeeny
aac aeueoa?iaoeaiiai aeai?o ? eeoa ianeoaaee anaaeaaeaey ia?o??,
oi?o?eiaai? i?ioni?eeia?, eiiniiieuenuee?, eiiia?aoeai? oa ?io?
i?aai?caoe??, ye “i?eaiaei? iane” ia?o?? aei ian, iieeeeai? aoee
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe a aeeooy aee?aeoeae ia?o??. O nenoai? ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy
nai???aeieie /enoeeeuaie, /a?ac ye? iaee i?ieoe, ai ?ioiai aeai?o ia
aoei, an? ae?oe ? i?aee?oee, thiaee oa ae?a/aoa, noaee i?aai?caoe??
aeiaoaiyo, i?iia??a oa eiiniiieueoe?a. ?oi? eiioi?noe/ia aeoiaaiiy, ui
ia??aeei anooiaei a i?ioe??//y c aeoiaiei ?aeaaeii noa?oeo iieie?iue, o
oiio /ene? e aaouee?a, aeinyaaeinue ia o?eueee
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeith ?aeaieia?/iith ni?yiiaai?noth, a e
a?aeiia?aeieie ao?eaooeeith oa ?eooaeaie, oae caaieie iiaeie
?aaeyinueeeie o?aaeeoe?yie;

ae) ca?aeii c i??ith ni?eeiyooy aai ae iani?eeiyooy ?aaeyinueeeo
oe?ii?nieo i??i?eoao?a ae??ooaaeanue ? i?iaeaia eaae??a o
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?. Aecia/aeueiith ?enith eaae?iai? iie?oeee
ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a aoea iaaeia??a aei i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a ye
oaeeo, ui i?inyeioo? aeooii i?eaaoiiaeanieoeueei? ao?aeoacii? ii?ae?,
ao?aeoacii-iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??. Oey iaaeia??a aoea
anaioiiethth/ith, iioe?thaaeanue ia an? noa?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy. Ca oaeeo ianoaaei ia?o?eii-?aaeyinuee? i?aaie iaiaaaeeny
ae??ooaaoe eaae?iao i?iaeaio ca ?aooiie a?ae?yaeaeaiiy a cao?aei?
iaeano? O?N? ea??aieo i?aoe?aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a c ?ioeo ?aeii?a N?N?
(O?N?), aeey a?eueoino? yeeo oiiae oa ?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe?? e?ath aoee
/oaeeie aai e ai?iaeeie. Oey ianoaaeia, ii?o/ c iaiaa?oioiaaiith, ie??i
iie?oe/ii? “aeioe?eueiino?”, i?a?aoe??th ianaeaiiy, aeeth/ath/e e
ia?aaeeneieaoe?th a?enueeiaeo /anoei, iaiaaeoaaea nioe?aeueio
iia?euei?noue i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, ni?e/eiyea nioe?aeueio,
iaoe?iiaeueio e iie?oe/io iai?oao a e?a?. O noa?? ina?oe, cie?aia
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee, nenoaiaoe/i? “ia?ao?oooaaiiy” eaae??a ia
i?aenoaa? ia?aa??ee ?o ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ii? “c??eino?” i?ecaiaeeee aei
aaee/acii? ieeiiino? eaae??a. O a?eueoino? caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e
?aa?iio a/eoaeuenuee? eieaeoeae ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aoee ci?iai?
ia noi a?aenioe?a, a a aaaaoueio c ieo — ? iaiaeii?aciai. O/eoae?a
iicaaaeyee i?aaa i?aoe? a oeie? ca ca’ycee c iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iei
i?aei?eeyi oa eiai i?eoeeueieeaie, c “eo?eoeuenueeeie” aeaiaioaie, ca
i?iyae ?ae?a?eiino? oa c ?ioeo iioea?a. Oe? “iioeae” aeey i?eeiyooy
??oaiiy i?i ca?eueiaiiy caaacia/oaaee i?noeaa? a?aeae?ee i?aai?a
aaciaee, ye?, a naith /a?ao, ei?enooaaeeny “iineoaaie” oe?iei
?icaaeoaeaii? ? anaioiiethth/i? ia?aae? eiio?aeaio?a;

8) oea i?ioenoiyiiy ciaeoei na?e aeya: 1) o a?aee?eo?e ca?iei?e
ai?iouea? i?ioe ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee aaaaoioeny/ii? Oe?a?inueei?
iianoainueei? a?i?? oa i?aei?eueii? ae?yeueiino? I?aai?caoe??
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a aei na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a; 2) o
aioe?aaeyinuee?e ae?yeueiino? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, i?ney ?ica?iio
i?aei?eey IOI-OIA, aaaaoueio iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ooai?aieo o
oiio /ene? ? a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao oa ca o/anoth a/eoae?a (a?oia
Ia’?aeiaiiy, Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee eii?oao, Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ia?o?y, Oiaei??anueea a?oia ia Euea?auei?, Oe?a?inueea
?ia?oie/i-naeyinueea ni?eea, Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee o?iio oa ?i.);
3) o ae?yeueiino? o?noaeanyoiee?a, aeeneaeaio?a, na?aae yeeo a/eoae?
noaiiaeee ae?oao ca e?euee?noth an?o o/aniee?a ie?aio a?oio; 4) o
aeiooaiiio ia?aoiae? cia/ii? /anoeie naiiae?yeueiiai ianaeaiiy,
ianaiia?aae i?aoe?aiee?a ?ioaeaeooaeueii? noa?e, o oiio /ene? e
a/eoae?a, ia iiceoe?? eiioi?i?cio, c yeeo iaeiaeiaith i??ith aoa
iiaeeeaee ia?ao?ae ye ia i?i?aaeyinuee?, oae ? ia aioe?aaeyinuee?
iiceoe??.

Oaeei /eiii, a?ae?a?aiee c ??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae, e?eoe/ii
i?iaiae?ciaaiee oa nenoaiaoeciaaiee o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, c?iaeai? ia eiai i?aenoaa? ioe?iee ? aeniiaee ?noi?e/iiai oa
aoiiiie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ia’?eoeaii ?ice?eaathoue i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
oa ?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o — ia?o?e iieiaei?
60-o ??. a eiinoaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath oa aeathoue
i?aenoaae aeey aeianaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo o?ie?a c iaeyaeo ia no/ani?
i?ioeane o noa?? ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Ia?iaeia ina?oa o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?: ?noi??y oa
aoiiiie?oeea (1944-1964 ??.). — E.: “I?aaaea ss?ineaae/?a”, 1998. — 238
n.

A?ioo?e

2. Noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe a cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie:
o?aaeeoe?? oa i?iaeaie. — E.: “I?aaaea ss?ineaae/?a”, 1998. — 44 n.

3. Ina?oa o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii? a 1944-1964 ??. — E.:“I?aaaea
ss?ineaae/?a”,1998. — 40 n.

4. Oeiea a iai? ?noi??? (1944-1953 ??.) — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Aeueiaiao
“A?ae?ioaea /aniieno “Aia?aae”, 1996. — 90 n.

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

5. Ina?oa ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o iiai?iiee ia??iae
//Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 28-42.

6. Nenoaia ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o —
ia?o?e iieiaei? 50-o ?ie?a //?noi??y a oeieao Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ? 3. —
N. 15-21.

7. Iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e a eiioaeno? aoiiiie?oeee OeE EI(a)O a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo iai?ee?ioe? 40-o — ii/aoeo 50-o ??. “Ni?aaa
a/eoae?a” //?noi??y a oeieao Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 2. — N. 11-17.

8. Iieiae?aeiee iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?oo o oeieao oa aocao cao?aeieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie (1944-1953 ??.) //Aaee/eia. — 1998. — ? 1. — N.
144-150.

9. Aeieoiaioe oa?iieo a?o?a?a OeE EI(a)O i?i ina?oith iie?oeeo IOI — OIA
ia?oeo iiai?iieo ?ie?a (1944-1950 ??.) //Oe?a?iiciaanoai: aeieoiaioe,
iaoa??aee, ?a??oaoe. — Aei. I. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998. — N. 134-155.

10. Ina?oiy iie?oeea a eiioaeno? aoiiiie?oeee OeE EI(a)O a
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o ia?o? iiai?ii? ?iee (1944-1953 ??.)
//Iaoeia? caienee /Ca??iee. — E.: ?IA?I, 1997. — (Na?. “Iie?oieia?y ?
aoiieia?y”, Aei.2). — N. 90-97.

11. Oi?ioaaiiy a/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e cao?aeieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie a oiiaao caaino?aiiy iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae (1944-1946
??.) //Iaoeia? caienee c oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. Aei.II. Eoeueoo?a ?
ina?oa a Oe?a?i?. — Ee?a-Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee. — 1994.-N.44-54.

12. Caeii i?i oeieo 1958 ?. oa eiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ina?oith nenoaio
Oe?a?ie //Iaoeia? caienee. — E.: IIO ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — 1998. —
Aei.3. — N. 77-85.

13. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oiiae noaiiaeaiiy ? o?ainoi?iaoe??
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee cao?aeieo iaeanoae O?N? o ia?o? iiai?ii? ?iee
//Iaoeia? caienee: E., IIO ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — 1999. — *. IY. — N.
225-229.

14. Aoiin, oeiea, iie?oeea (ia?iaeia ina?oa o eiioaeno?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae IOI a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo 40-o —
ii/aoeo 50-o ??. Ca iaoa??aeaie oa?iieo a?o?a?a OeE EI(a)O) //A?niee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiaee aeo?iae. — 1997. — ? 12.
— N. 51. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c TH.TH.Aeioeaiei, A.C.Ooa/ai).

15. Ina?oa cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo iaeanoae ae?oai? iieiaeie 40-o — ia?oi?
iieiaeie 60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy a ?noi??ia?ao?? //A?niee
I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?noi??y. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: “Ieae”,
1998. — Aei.1. — N. 147-166. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c N.I.Aea?aa’yieii).

16. Oe?eueieoeoai a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o OO noi??//?: aniaeoe
?noi??? oa aaiiie?oeee //??aeia oeiea (Iueth-Ei?e). — 1997. — *.3. — N.
11-15.

17. AE?iee-a/eoae? a iieoi’? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? a?eie ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo (ae?oaa iieiaeia 40-o ?ie?a) //Iaoa aeeooy
(Iueth-Ei?e). — 1998. — ? 9. — N. 1-4.

18. Oe?eueieoeoai cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o eiioaeno?
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy
//Iacaeaaeiee atheaoaiue (Springfield, NOA). — 1997. — *. 2. — N. 7-9.

19. Oa?i? i?ioe oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? /e ?ioae?aaioe?y cao?aeieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie o ae?? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? a?eie ae?oai? iieiaeie
40-o — ii/aoeo 50-o ?ie?a //Iacaeaaeiee atheaoaiue (Springfield, NOA). —
1997. — *.4. — N. 7-11.

20. Oeiea. Aoiin. Iie?oeea //Aecaieueiee oeyo (Eiiaeii), Ei.1. — 1999. —
N. 42-52. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c Aeioeaiei TH.).

21. Iieiaeue a aaaiaa?ae? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae a
cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie (1944-1953 ??.) //Aecaieueiee oeyo (Eiiaeii),
1998. — Ei. 9. — N. 1058-1064.

22. “Ni?aaa a/eoae?a” cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie 1949-1951 ??.
//Aecaieueiee oeyo (Eiiaeii). — 1999. — Ei. 4. — N. 440-448.

23. Ei?enia aeaeaiiy //?aaeyinueea oeiea. — 1990. — ? 5. — N. 59.

24. I?eea?iaooy i?ae i?aii?ii ?aae /TH.I.Aieia/ainueeee, I.TH.Ea?iaiei,
I.A.Eoaooye ? ?i. — Oaeai?iae: Ea?iaoe, 1989. — 208 n.

Iaoa??aee oa oace iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e

25. Ia?iaeia ina?oa Aaee/eie a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei
(1944-1950 ??.) //Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO no.:
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (21-22
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.). — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: “Ieae”. — N. 395-398. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c TH.I.Eocuei?iaoeue).

26. I?iaeaie oe?eueii? ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe?
Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie //Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“50-??//y ia?aiiae iaae oaoeciii: iane?aeee oa o?iee” 4-5 o?aaiy 1995 ?.
— E.,1995. — *.II. — N. 108-113. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.A. Eocuei?ioeai).

27. Iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy a aeieoiaioao oa iaoa??aeao IOI
(1944-1953 ??.) //Ca??iee noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (?aaii-O?aie?anuee). — Eieiiey: “A?E”,
1997. — N. 224-227.

28. Iie?oe/iee oene oa ii/aoie ?ai?an?e i?ioe oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??
a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o ??. //Euea?a: ?noi??y, ianaeaiiy, eoeueoo?a:
iaoa??aee oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a, 1994.
— N. 15-17. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.A. A?aaiaaoeueeei).

29. Iie?oe/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a cao?aeieo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie o 1944-1946 ??. //Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
nooaeaio?a aoc?a ? o/i?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e: iaoa??aee Anaoe?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — E., 1994. — N. 25-26.

30. Iie?oe/i? ?ai?an?? i?ioe oeiee I.A?ooaanueeiai o iiai?ii? ?iee
//Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia (aeiiia?ae? e iia?ae. iaoe.
eiio. Aei 100-??//y a?ae ii/aoeo ae?yeuei. I.A?ooaanueeiai o
Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?). — Euea?a, 1995. — N. 65-68. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c I.I.Iaai?iyeii).

31. Eiioeaioe?y aeeeaaeaiiy oe?a?iiciaanoaa o aeu?e oeie? a i?aoeyo
I.A?ooaanueeiai //Oace aeiiia?aeae oa iia?aeiieaiue iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio.
i?ena. 125-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?. I.A?ooaanueeiai. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee. —
1991. — N.66-68. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.?.Oeaiaiaeith).

32. Ci?oeiaiiy iaa/aeueii-iaoa??aeueii? aace caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e
cao?aeiiai Iiae?eey (1956-1961 ?iee) //YIII Iiae?euenueea
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a eiioa?aioe?y. Oace aeiiia?aeae. —
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee. — 1990. — N. 48-49.

Nai?ae N.Ae. Caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ?aa?iio a
eiioaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ae?oai? iieiaeie 40-o — ia?oi?
iieiaeie 60-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O eiioaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ?aa?iio aeine?aeaeo?oueny
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. A?i a?aeaoany
a oiiaao ceaio o?aaeeoe?eii onoaeaii? a e?a? nenoaie ina?oe oa
coiiaeaiiai oeei i?ioenoiyiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai i?aei?eey IOI-OIA ?
i?aai?a ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Ca oaeeo oiia o/eoaeuenuee? eieaeoeae oe?e
oi?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano, i?eiaeii? a ia?oa iiai?iia aeanyoe??//y, aoee
ca?o/ieeaie noi?ioeaieo nee, ciooai? aoee ?aooaaoenue c ?oi?ie aeiiaaie
uiaei ci?noo ? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aiiy. Aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea i?aai?a
ia?o?eii-?aaeyinueei? aeaaee uiaei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace oe?e, oi?i, ci?noo ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy e
aeoiaaiiy, eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy nenoaie ina?oe, ?? ?ai?aai?caoe?e oa
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: caaaeueiiina?oiy oeiea, cao?aeiee ?aa?ii Oe?a?ie,
iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e, nenoaia ia?iaeii? ina?oe, iaaeaaia?ea.

Nai?ae N.Ae. Iauaia?aciaaoaeueiay oeiea caiaaeiioe?aeineiai ?aaeiia a
eiioaenoa iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie aoi?ie iieiaeiu 40-o — ia?aie
iieiaeiu 60-o aiaeia OO aaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Einoeooo enoi?ee Oe?aeiu IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca iioaeeeiaaiiuo ?aaio iauanoaiaaaeia Oe?aeiu niaaoneiai
e iinoniaaoneiai ia?eiaeia, ioaeeeaoeee o/aiuo oe?aeineie aeeanii?u
Aa?iiu e Aia?eee e iiiai/eneaiiuo a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia, aia?aua aaiaeeiuo
a iao/iue iai?io, aaoi? enneaaeoao enoi?e/aneee e yoiiiieeoe/aneee
aniaeou noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu a
caiaaeiioe?aeineii ?aaeiia a ia?aia iineaaiaiiia aeaaaeoeaoeeaoea.
Noaiiaeaiea niaaoneie nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey enneaaeoaony a eiioaenoa
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie e?ay, nooue eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyeanue,
aieioue aei na?aaeeiu 50-o aiaeia, ino?ui iieeoe/aneei i?ioeainoiyieai
i?aaiia ia?oeeii-niaaoneie aeanoe e iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai iiaeiieuey
IOI-OIA. A yoii i?ioeainoiyiee, ioyaiuaiiii cia/eoaeueiuie aea?oaaie
i?ioeaiai?noaothueo nee, iniaay noaaea aeaeaeanue ia nenoaio ia?iaeiiai
i?inaauaiey, a iniaaiiinoe ia o/eoaeae. Iie oaeoe/anee auee i?aa?auaiu a
caeiaeieeia iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee.

Eiiea o?aaeeoeeiiiie a ?aaeiia iaoeeiiaeueiie ii oi?ia e niaea?aeaieth
oeieu, caiaia a? niaaoneie eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie nenoaiie i?inaauaiey
nii?iaiaeaeaeanue iieeoe/aneei iaaeiaa?eai aeanoae e ianoiui
iaaeaaiae/aneei eaae?ai, ianniaui iai?aaeaieai nthaea o/eoaeae ec
ae?oaeo ?aeiiia ONN? (NNN?). Iiiaea ec i?eauaoeo ?aaioieeia i?inaauaiey,
ia ciathuea ia oieueei oneiaee ?aaiou a caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo ONN?, ii e
oe?aeineiai ycuea, ia niiaee aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iiaui ianoiyoaeuenoaai,
ia auaea?aeeaaee iieeoe/aneiai iaaeeia e auioaeaeaiu auee inoaaeyoue
?aaioo eeai iiaeaa?aaeenue ?ai?anneyi ni noi?iiu ia?oeeii-niaaoneeo
i?aaiia eee iiaeiieuey IOI-OIA. Oaeo/anoue eaae?ia, eae iieacuaaao
aiaeec, iiiaea aiaeu inoaaaeanue aaceiio?ieueiie. A aeenna?oaoeee
enneaaeothony ana neaaaaiua eaae?iaie iieeoeee — iiaeaioiaea,
ia?aiiaeaioiaea e ?annoaiiaea o/eoaeae, iniaaiiinoe oaeie ?aaiou a
caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo Oe?aeiu.

A ?aaioa aiaeece?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oeeiuo e niaaoneeo i?aaiia ii
?anoe?aieth naoe iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie, oe?aieaieth eo
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu, ?ane?uaathony enoi/ieee a?
oeiaine?iaaiey. Ai acaeiinayce iieeoeee, eaeaieiaee e oeieu
?anniao?eaathony oeaee e caaea/e ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia?aciaaoaeueiie
nenoaiu, i?iaeaiu anaiauaai naieeaoiaai ( ainueieeaoiaai) e n?aaeiaai
ia?aciaaiey, niioiioaiey noaoeeiia?iiai (aeiaaiiai) e aa/a?iaai
(cai/iiai) iao/aiey, eeeaeaeaoeee iaa?aiioiinoe ac?ineiai ianaeaiey.
?acaeoea iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu enneaaeoaony n auoiaeaie ia nenoaio
i?ioaneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai, n?aaeiaai niaoeeaeueiiai e aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey. Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a aeenna?oaoeee ioaaaeaii aiaeeco
iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo e iaoiaee/aneeo iniia aeayoaeueiinoe niaaoneie
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu, a? oieoeeaoeee, i?ioanneiiaeecaoeee e
iieeoecaoeee.

Aiaeec iieacuaaao, /oi, oieueei i?aiaeieaa i?aaieciaaiiia iieeoe/aneia
nii?ioeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai iiaeiieuey, ia?oeeii-niaaoneee ?aaeei
noiae aeiaeoueny eciaiaiey neooaoeee a naith iieueco. Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu
50-o aiaeia cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iaaeaaiae/aneeo eaae?ia caiaaeiuo
iaeanoae ONN?, a ec ianoiiai ianaeaiey — a aieueoeinoaa naiai,
ia?aoiaeeo ia iiceoeee eiioi?iecia, /oi e iaania/eei ooaa?aeaeaiea a
e?aa niaaoneie nenoaiu iao/aiey e ainieoaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iauaia?aciaaoaeueiay oeiea, caiaaeiue ?aaeii Oe?aeiu,
iaaeaaiae/aneea eaae?u, nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, iaaeaaiaeea.

Svorak S.D. General Educational School of West Ukrainian Region in the
Context of Social and Political Life of the II Half of the 40s — the I
Half of the 60s of the XXth Century. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the Doctor’s degree in historical Sciences, speciality
07.00.01 — history of Ukraine. Institute of Ukraine’s History, NAS
(National Academy of Sciences) of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation presents a research of the formation and development of
the general educational school in the context of social and political
life of the region. The process took place in the conditions of breaking
with the educational system, traditionally settled in Western Ukraine,
which caused an opposition between the national underground movement OUN
(Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists)-UIA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army)
and the Soviet power organs. Under such circumstances school-teachers’
collective bodies were, for a long time (at least during the first
post-war decade), hostages of the opposition forces and had to reckon
with their demands on the content and direction of education. The
dissertation contains analysis of the Party and Soviet organs’ policy in
the solution of the problems concerning material and technical plant of
schools, forms, content and methods of teaching and education, personnel
supply in the system of education, its reorganization, as well as its
scientific and pedagogical grounding.

Key words: general educational school, West Ukrainian region, teaching
personnel, system of public education, pedagogics.

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