Ядерна енергетика як предмет соціо-екологічного діалогу (соціо-технологічний підхід): Автореф. дис… д-ра соціол. наук / М.М. Саппа, Харк. нац. ун-т

2

OA?E?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

ii. A.I.EA?ACIIA

NAIIA Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/

?iaeaen OAeE 316.485.6

ssAeA?IA AIA?AAOEEA ssE I?AAeIAO NIOe?I-AEIEIA?*IIAI Ae?AEIAO
(nioe?i-oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.07 — nioe?ieia?y oi?aae?iiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a nioeiieiai/ieo iaoe

Oa?eia — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?eianueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oiiaa?neoaoi
ii.A.I.Ea?aciia, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? nioeiieiai/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? AAEI?IA Aieue Naaaaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ii. A.I.Ea?aciia,

?aeoi?, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? nioeiieiai?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? nioeiieiai/ieo
iaoe,

i?ioani? AA*?I?I Aeaaeeneaa A?eaaeieiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i.ss?inea-

aa Ioae?iai, i.Oa?eia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio??

aeieoi? oieinionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?ENA*AIEI Aaeaioei Naiaiiae/,

?inoeooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo

o?einionueeeo ieoaiue i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oa aeieia??

aeieoi? nioeiieiai/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IIAeIEUeNUeEA ?eecaaaoa Aiaii?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueia oa?iaoeaaoe/ia aeaaeai?y, i.Oa?eia,

i?i?aeoi?, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith noni?eueieo iaoe.

Ipiaiaeia ipaaiicaoeiy: ?inoeooo nioe?ieia??? IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii? aenia?oece, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny 25 ni/iy 2000 p. o 13.00 aiaeei? ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? paaee Ae 64.051.15. Oapeianueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiiaapneoaoo ii. A.I.Ea?aciia ca aae?anith: 310002,
i.Oapeia, aoe. Iepiiineoeueea, 1, aoae. 2-13.

C aeenapoaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaiopaeueiie iaoeiaie
aiaeiioaoei Oapeianueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiiaapneoaoo ii. A.I.Ea?aciia
ca aaepanith: 310077, i. Oapeia, ie. Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoipaoapao picineaiee 21 a?oaeiy 1999 p.

A/aiee naepaoap

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? paaee
I.I. Oapaiao

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOeI?

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Ia no/aniiio aoai? oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai a
oiiaao aaeeeiianooaaieo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo ci?i ia? aino?o iio?aao a
nioeiaeueieo i?ioeaaeo?ao i oaoiieiaiyo aca?iiaei? eiai ?iciiiaiioieo
naaiaio?a. A oe?e nioe?i-oaoiieia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? /?eueia i?noea
caeiathoue ?ic?iaea e ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e ?ica’ycaiiy
neeaaeieo nioeiaeueieo eiioeieoia, ui aiaeaoaathoueny ia iiaenoaai
?iciiiaiioieo oe?ii?nieo iiceoeie noi??i eiioeieoo (aai ?o i?ioe??/ ye
ia?aaeeiioe?eoieo noaiia). ?ica’ycaiiy nioeiaeueieo eiioeieoia
oe?iiinoae ? aaeueie aaaeeeaith ? iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiith ae?yeuei?noth,
i?ioa aei oeueiai /ano ia cai?iiiiiaaii aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieo caniaia
?o ae?ioaiiy.

Aei oeueiai oeio eiioe?eo?a aiaeiineoueny ? aeiaaeueiee nioeiaeueiee
eiioeieo, ui aeiee o noniieuenoai a ca’yceo ?c no?eeeie aio?iiiaaieie
ciiiaie noaio a?inoa?e, oiaoi eiioeieo, a iniiai yeiai eaaeaoue
?iciiiaiioii i aca?iii i?ioeeaaei? oyaeaiiy ethaeae i?i iai?yiee
iiaeaeueoiai noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeia ic ieo, yea ?iiae? iaceaathoue
«oaoiie?aoe/iei» ? ui ia? ia iao? aeniiiaioe?eia i?aeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai
?iaiy ethaeae, nie?a?oueny ia iaeath iaiaiaaeiiai aeiiiii/iiai c?inoaiiy
? ia iia’ycaia ic iei iioaineaia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. C iiceoe?e ?ioiai
— iiaae?iiiaioaeueiiai — i?aeoiaeo aaaaea?oueny, ui aeey aeia?iaooo
aieueoinoi ethaeae ?iaaiue iniaenoiai niiaeeaaiiy ? iaiaoiaeiith, aea
ua ia aeinoaoiueith oiiaith. C oeeo iiceoe?e aieiaiei ? iaiaaeeoe
iaaei??iee aio?iiiaaiee oene ia a?inoa?o, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??
aeaa?aaeaoei? i caa?iaeo? iiaeaeueoiio inioaaiith ethaenoaa. Iiae
aieeaii aeacaieo iiaeyaeia a no/aniiio noniieuenoai neeaeeny aea?
nai???aei?, i?ioeeaaeii i?i?ioiaaii nioeiaeueii a?oie, ui iiaeieythoue
?icii oe?ii?ni? i?aeoiaee uiaei iaiao?aeiiai oa?aeoa?o
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy e iia’ycaiiai c iei iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
noniieuenoaa. Iniaeea?noth oeeo a?oi ? oa, ui aiie ooai?eeeny ia ia
i?aenoaa? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a, i?eoaiaieo ?iaeono??aeueiiio
noni?euenoao, a ia i?aenoaa? /eiiee?a nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ye?
cia/ii iineeththoueny i?e ia?aoiae? aei iino?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa. Eiioe?eoi? noia?a/iinoi, ui aeieeathoue iiae ieie a ?icieo
iinoeyo i ca ?icieie i?eaiaeaie, ? aiaeaeoeii aeiaaeueiiai aeieiai/iiai
eiioeieoo, iaoiiaeaiiai ?icieie oe?ii?nieie iiceoe?yie eiai o/aniee?a.
I?e/iio noia?a/iinoi i eiioe?eoi? neooaoei? a noniieuenoai, ui coiiaeai?
aeiyeueiinoth yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee, caeiathoue na?aae ieo i?iaiaeia
iinoea, ai iieaiiea iiae ?? i?eai/ieeaie i noi?ioeaieeaie /anii aeinyaa?
iaaecae/aeii? aino?ioe i a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao caeaoia ia?a?inoaoe a
iai?eie?aii? nioe?aeueii eiioeieoe. Oaeei /eiii i?iaeaia nioeiaeueiiai
ni?eeiyooy yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee i iioeo yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie noaea
aino?ith nioeiaeueiith i?iaeaiith, aea ae?ioaiiy ?? a iaaeao cae/aeieo
iaoiaeieiai/ieo i?aeoiae?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoue iioi?iaoeieii, ina?oi?
oaoiieiai? e i?iiaaaiaeenonueei caniae, ia i?eiineoue iiiioiiai oniioo.

Oaiith aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ? nioe?i-aeieiai/iee aeiaeia, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny a noniieuenoai c i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?.
Oey nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia iaaoea aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ca?ac a 30
e?a?iao naioo aeaeo?iaia?aith ae?iaeythoue a?eueo i?ae 430 aia?aiaeie?a
ia yaea?iiio iaeeai. Aeiyeueiinoue yaea?ii-aia?aaoe/ieo ia’?eoia
ioiieth? i?aeoe/ii ani nioeiaeueii aa?noae noni?euenoaa, aiia ?
aeaea?aeii ye ii?iaiyii aeaoaai? aia?ai?, oae ? iaaaoeaieo ciii noaio
aiinoa?e, ui caa?iaeothoue iiaeaeueoiio ?nioaaiith ethaenoaa ?
noai?ththoue aenieo nioeiaeueio iai?oaeai?noue o noniieuenoai. Oey
i?iaeaia ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiith aeey caaacia/aiiy nioeiaeueii?
noaaieueiinoi a Oe?a?ii, yea ia?aaeeea yaea?io eaoano?ioo, aea ae?thoue
14 yaea?ieo ?aaeoi??a, ia yeeo ae?iaey?oueny a?eueoa 40% ani??
aeaeo?iaia?ai? e?a?ie, i aea i?aoeththoue a?eueoa 3 oeny/ i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?aai?caoe?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoue o ae?iaieoeoa?, iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e
ae?yeueiino? e iaaee/i?e i?aeoeoe? ??ciiiai?oi? ?aae?iaeoeai? i?aia?aoe
oa i?iaeoeothoue cia/io e?euee?noue ?aae?iaeoeaieo a?aeoiae?a.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaia ae?yeueiino? ? ?icaeoeo yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee ?
aaeueie aeooaeueiith nioeiaeueiith i?iaeaiith, eio?o, ye iieaco?
i?aeoeea, iaiiaeeeai ae?ioeoe oieueee oaoii/ieie /e i?aaiicaoeieieie
caniaaie. Iaeaieueo aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii ?ica’ycaiiy cacia/aii?
eiioe?eoii? i?iaeaie ia iaoo aeoieo ? i?aai?caoe?y ? cae?eniaiiy
aacia?a?aii? ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae?? eiioe?eooth/eo noi??i ?acii c
iaaiai?aiiyi eiioe?eoii? i?iaeaie a noni?euenoa?. O ca’yceo ?c
ia?ic?iaeai?noth oaeiai oeio ae?aeiao, ?icaeoie yeiai iaaiith i??ith
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeiai?ee a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (aeae? ie iaceaa?ii oeae
ae?aeia nioe?aeueiei aai, o aeiaaeeo ?ica’ycaiiy aeieia?/ieo eiioe?eo?a,
— ae?aeiaii nioe?i-aeieia?/iei) iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue cina?aaeeoenue
ianaiia?aae ia ae??oaii? eiioeaiooaeueieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie.
Ii?aoethaaiiy i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o nioeiaeueio aeieniinoue eiie?aoieo noai
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao aeicaieeoue cieceoe nioeiaeueio
iai?oaeai?noue o noniieuenoai, iaoiiaeaio ooieoe?thaaiiyi yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee, i aecia/eoe iiaeaeueoi oeyoe ?? ?icaeoeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeieia
?iaioa aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
nioe?ieiai/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?eianueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oiiaa?neoaoo
ii. A.I.Ea?aciia ca oaiith “O?ainoi?iaoe?y nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
iiaaae?iee a iinooioae?oa?iiio noni?euenoa?: nioe?i-oaoiieia?/iee
aniaeo”, o yeeo iiooeoaa/ a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue. Oaia
caoaa?aeaeaia I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai aeiaeiao ye ooiaeaiaioaeueii? nioe?aeueii?
oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieia?/ieo eiioe?eo?a aeey
cieaeaiiy nioeiaeueii? iai?oaeaiinoi a noniieuenoai, iaoiiaeaii?
ooieoeithaaiiyi yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee, i aecia/aiiy iiaeaeueoeo oeyo?a ??
?icaeoeo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe iaiaoiaeii aoei ae?ioeoe oae? iniiai?
caaea/?:

· iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiae nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao ye ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
nioe?aeueii? oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy i iiia?aaeaeaiiy eiioeieoia
oe?iiinoae ? aeaeieeoe nioe?i-aeieiai/iee aeiaeia ye niaoe?oe/iee oei
nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao;

· i?iaanoe nenoaiiee aiae?c i?iaeaie c?oeiaiiy iaeae iiaae?iiiaioaeicio
i oaoiie?aoecio c iiceoe?e ?icaeyaeo i?ioeeaaeieo oyaeaiue i?i
iiaeaeueoee i?iaeieiai/iee ?icaeoie noniieuenoaa;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe aeieiai/ii i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? ye
i?aaeiao nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao;

· aea/eoe i?e?iaeicaoeniee ?oo i i?eai/ieeia aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii?
aia?ai? ye ia?oia??a nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao, a a?iiaaenueeinoue —
ye aoaeeoi?ith ae?aeiao;

· ?ice?eoe oa?aeoa? ianiaiai i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo ye ?ooo
nioeiaeueiiai;

· aeine?aeeoe i?ioean ? noai ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?? ae?yeuei?no? c
aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?;

· i?iaanoe aiaeic nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie, ye? aeei?enoothoueny o
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiio aeiaeici, ? ?ic?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi
cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/ia aaca, ia ye?e a?oioo?oueny aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icaeiaia a iaaeao iiaae?iiiaioaeueii? nioe?ieia?/ii?
ia?aaeeaie ( ?.Aeaieai, O.Eaooii, Ae.Iaaeioc oa ii.), nioe?aeueii?
aeieia?? (Ae.Ia?eiae/, A.Aa?iaaenueeee, A.E?ena/aiei, TH.Ia?eia,
I.ssieoeueeee oa ?i.), oai?i? eiioeieoia (E.Eica?, ?.Eieeiic, AE.Iaaean,
A.Cae?aaiieneia oa ii.), aeiaeiaeee (A.Aoaaa?, A.Aoo oa ii.),
nioeiaeueii? ?iaeaia?i? (E.Iaiaaei, E.Iiiia?, E.Aeyo/aiei, A.Caeoe?a,
A.Iaaiia, A.Iiaeoeaaeeiia oa ii.), ?eceeieiai? (A.Eaiea, N.Eoia,
A.Aeueaii, ?. Eaaania, A. Ia/eoia, N.I?eioii, E.Oaioaiia oa ii.), a
?iaioao I.Aa?aa?a, I.Aeao, I.Aaaa?a, O.Eoeiaia, TH.Oaaa?iana, I.Ooiiiee,
A.Aaei?iaa, A.Ae/aieiaa, ?.Iiaeieuenueei?, TH.*a?iaoeueeiai, I.sseoae oa
ii., aea ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy oe?ii?nii? naiaeiiinoi i nioeiaeueii?
iiaaae?iee, oi?ioaaiiy i aeiyeueiinoi nioeiaeueieo iinoeoooia oa
nioe?aeueieo ?oo?a, i?e?iaee a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee oa ?? aeeiaiiee, a
oaeiae iioi ieoaiiy, ye? oi?th /e iioith ii?ith iia’ycai? ?c cacia/aiith
iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith.

Aiii?e/iith aacith aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe ? ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo o 1990-1992 ??. iiae ea?iaieoeoaii aaoi?a
a?oiith aeine?aeiee?a i/iethaaiiai iei ?aaiiiaeueiiai oeaio?o ca’yce?a c
a?iiaaeneinoth uiaei ieoaiue yaea?ii? aia?ai? Iaoeiiiaeueiiai Iaoeiaiai
Oeaio?o «Oa?eianueeee oiceei-oaoii/iee iinoeooo», nioeiieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue 1993-1999 ??., i?iaaaeaieo iniaenoi aaoi?ii ia eaoaae??
i?eeeaaeii? nioe?ieia?? OAeO. Oei ?iaioe aeeth/aee aeineiaeaeaiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?
?iciiiaiioieo a?oi ianaeaiiy: iaoeaioe?a aaeeeeo iino Oe?a?ie,
iino-noiooieeia AAN i iaaeieeoi?o nie, ?iaioieeia AAN, naiinaeueoe?a
o?eaeoeaoeeieiiao?iai? *i?iiaeeuenueei? ciie, iiaeeioeia, nooaeaioia, a
oaeiae aiaeic i?ane i aeieoiaioia ca i?iaeaiith.

Inoioiei aeey aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao noaee
aaciina?aaei? niinoa?aaeaiiy aaoi?a iaae aeiyie ia?oia?ia aeiaeiao, ui
aoee iaea?aeaii iei ye /eaiii Iiaeia?iaeiiai ssaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa oa
/eaiii i?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueeiai ssaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa, c iaeiiai aieo, i
ye ea?iaieea iaaea?aeaaii? nioe?i-iiaae?iiiaioaeueii? a?oie “Ii?i??”,
?ioaa?iaaii? a iiaeia?iaeiee aeieiai/iee ?oo, c ?ioiai aieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?ii:

· aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ? ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioeiy nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao
ye aeaio??aiaai? nenoaie aca?iiae?? «ia?oia? aeiaeiao — ia?oia?
aeiaeiao» i «ia?oia?e aeiaeiao — aoaeeoi?iy aeiaeiao», ui
naiii?aai?co?oueny ? naiiaaeineiiaeth?oueny a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo;

· aia?oa iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aacia?a?aiiai
nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao aeey ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieia?/ieo
eiioe?eo?a ? aecia/ai? o/anieee ae?aeiaiai? aca?iiae??;

· aia?oa ia a?oio? aii??e/ieo aeaieo anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeaii aeieeiaiiy ?
?icaeoie nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao c yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee a Oe?a?i?,
yea noaea i?aaeiaoii eiioe?eoo oe?iiinoae, ? aeeo/ai? oa?aeoa?i?
iniaeeaino? i?ioeano nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao;

· aia?oa i?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiaeic aeiyeueiino? c nioe?aeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? ye nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooo, ui ia?aaoaa? a
oaci noaiiaeaiiy, aeyaeai? /eiieee, ye? iiaeooue i?enei?eoe eiai
?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?th, ?icaeyiooee oa?aeoa? eiai ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae??
?c nioe?aeueiei ?ooii a nioe?i-aeieia?/iiio ae?aeic? c i?eaiaeo
aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee;

· aia?oa i?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiaeic aeieiai/iiai ?ooo ye ?ooo
nioeiaeueiiai, iieacaii eiai niaoeeoi/ii iniaeeainoi ? oa?aeoa?
aca?iiae?? c iiiiaioaie o nioe?i-aeieia?/iiio ae?aeic?, i?aaeiaoii yeiai
? yaea?ia aia?aaoeea;

· aia?oa aecia/aii i?ia?aeia i?noea a?iiaaenueeino? o ?ica’ycaii?
nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo c i?eaiaeo ae?yeuei?no? yaea?ii? ?ia?aaoeee, yea
i?iaiaeeoueny iaoiaeii nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao;

· aia?oa aeeo/ai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e ? ci?noo nioe?aeueieo
oaoiieia?e, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue ia?oia?e nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao
uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoeo yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee;

· aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioeiy nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai iiiioi?eiao ?aaiiio
?icoaooaaiiy iiooaeiiai oaoiiaaiiiai ia’?eoo ye oaei? nioe?aeueii?
oaoiieia??, ui caaacia/o? cai?ioiee ca’ycie a nenoaii «aaei?i?no?aoe?y
oaoiiaaiiiai ia’?eoo — ianaeaiiy i i?e?iaeicaoeni? i?aaiicaoei?»;

· ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy ?c noai?aiiy
ocaaaeueiaiiai aeai?eoio oi?ioaaiiy nioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai? c iiceoe?e
i?enoinoaaiiy eiai aei nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii ye iniiaa aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ianooiieo oai?aoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue o aeayeeo aaeocyo
nioe?ieiai? oi?aaeiiiy, eiioe?eoieiai?, iiaae?iiiaioaeueii? nioe?ieiai?
? nioe?ieia?? oaoi?ee;

· cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai
ae?aeiao ye aeai??aiaai? nenoaie aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeyoe
oai?aoeei-i?aeoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy ?ica’ycaiiyi eiioe?eoieo
n?ooaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue ia a?oio? ??cieo oe?ii?nieo iiceoe?e noi??i;

· i?iaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c ?icaeoeo nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai
ae?aeiao oa eiai iniaeeainoae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a
nioe?i-oaoiieiai/iie i?aeoeoei ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo nioe?aeueieo
eiioe?eo?a;

· ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiith ii?ith iiaeooue
aooe ei?enieie i?e oi?ioaaiii aoc?anueeeo eo?nia c nioe?ieiai?
oi?aaeiiiy, eiioe?eoieiai?, iiaae?iiiaioaeueii? nioe?ieiai? ?
nioe?ieia?? oaoi?ee A iiiia?ao?? A.Ii/aioeiaa “Iaaeee ?aeaeoic, eee eae
oi?aaeyoue iauanoaaiiei iiaieai” (Iineaa, aeae-ai Oeaio?, 1998 ?.,
n.144-145), ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ye i?ae?o/iee o aeayeeo aocao,
iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? c i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee a i?noao-noiooieeao AAN.;

· ?icaeyioo? a aeena?oaoe?? nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia?? nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai
ae?aeiao, i?aaeiaoii yeiai ? yaea?ia aia?aaoeea, iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? eiai ia?oia?aie a ae?aeia?/i?e aca?iiae?? Oae, a ia?iiae
1990-1992 ??. iiae ea?iaieoeoaii aaoi?a a ?aaiiii ?iciiuaiiy
Caii?icueei? AAN aoa ai?iaaaeaeaiee nioe?i-aeieiai/iee iiiioi?eia ye
nioeiaeueia oaoiieiaiy aeiaeiai/ii? aca?iiaei?, a a ?aaiiiao ?iciiuaiiy
Iiaaeaiii-Oe?a?inueei? i Oiaeueieoeueei? aoiiieo noaioeie aoee
i?iaaaeai? nioe?ieia?/i? aeineiaeaeaiiy aeieiai/ii? iai?oaeaiinoi na?aae
ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio c ?ic?iaeith ?aeiiaiaeaoeie aeey ea??aieo no?oeoo? AAN
uiaei iaoai?ci?a ?? ciaioaiiy i ?icaeoeo iioi?iaoeieii-inaioiio
oaoiieiaie.;

· cai?iiiiiaaiee o aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi noai?aiiy
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee o i?aeoe/i?e
nioe?i-oaoiieia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
eiioe?eo?a oe?iiinoae.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?,
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii aeineiaeieoeueei ?aeiiaiaeaoei?, ye? iaaaaeai? a
?iaioi, ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii o iaoeiaeo aeiiiaiaeyo i iiaiaeiieaiiyo ia 29
iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo oa naiiia?ao a Oe?a?ii, ?ini?, *aoi?,
Aeaii?, Neiaa//ei? ? ?oae??, ia 13 iaoeiiiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo i
naiiia?ao:

I, ???, IV i V c’?caeao Iiaeia?iaeiiai ssaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa (Iai?inuee,
?in?y, 1990 ?.; Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?iniy 1992 ?.; Ieaeiie Iiaai?iae,
?iniy, 1993 ?.; Ee?a, 1995 ?.), Iiaeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioei? «Aoiiia
aia?aaoeea a iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio eiiieaeni «(Oaaa?ianuee, eaioaiue
1991 ?.), I i III Iiaeia?iaeieo eiia?anao oe?a?inueeeo aeiiiiino?a
(Ee?a, 1992 ?. i Oa?eia, 1996 ?.), Iiaeia?iaeiiio naiiia?i «Aeieiai/ia
inaioa a eiioaeno? *i?iiaeeuenueeie aaa?i? (Ee?a, 1992 ?. ), naiiia?ao
Iiaeia?iaeiiai ssaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa «ssaea?ia aia?aiy i iaaeee
?aeaeoic» (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?iniy, 1992 ?.; Aeiiio?iaa?aae, ?iniy, 1993
?.), Iiaeia?iaeiiio naiiia?i ?a?iiaenueeiai ssaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa
“?ioi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueeino? i?i yaea?io aia?aith a i?aeoeoei — Pime»
(Ea?eiae Aa?e, *aoiy, 1993 ?.), Iiaeia?iaeiiio naiiia?i «Aeieiaiy AAN»
(Iaeana, 1993 ?.), Iiaeia?iaeiiio ssaea?iiio eiia?ani (Oi?iioi —
Eaiaaea, 1993 ?.), ??? Iiaeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioei? «Iaoeiai-oaoii/ii
i?iaeaie aaciaee AAN i i?iaeaie iiaeaioiaee oaoiaoeia» (Iaiiinuee,
?iniy, 1993 ?.), iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aeieiaiy, inaioa,
aoiaiici» ( Ee?a, 1994 ?.), «I?iaeaie ii?aoethaaiiy ?aeeii? nenoaie
aeieiai/ii? inaioe i aeoiaaiiy a Oe?a?ii» (Oa?eia, 1994 ?.),
«Oioaeioa?ici i aioioioaeioa?i? ?ooe OO noi??//y» (Oa?eia, 1995 ?.),
«Oiea?aioi?noue ye eoeueoo?ia oiiaa?naeiy» (Oa?eia, 1996 ?.), ??? ? ?V
I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Aoeea i iiaae?iiiaioaeueia iieioeea»
(A?aoeneaaa, Neiaa//eia, 1996 ?., A?anaiiia, ?oae?y, 1999 ?.), ??
Iiaeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioei? «Aeieiaiy i inaioa: i?iaeaie oai?i? i
i?aeoeee» (*a?eanne, 1996 ?.), iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Iinoi ye
i?aaiici» (Eiiaiaaaai, Aeaiiy, 1996 ?. ), «?inienueea iaoea a eiioei OO
noi?i//y» (Nie?eainuee, ?iniy, 1996 ?.), ?a?iiaenueeiio naiiia?i
“Aeieiai/i? IOI «Ca noaeo aia?aaoeeo» (Aoaeia?eoea, Neiaa//eia, 1997
?.), ??? Iiaeia?iaeii? Aeoiaenueei? eiioa?aioei? (A?aoeneaaa,
Neiaa//eia, 1997 ?.), iiaeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo «Iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua i caeii» (Eaea?ao, Iieaeiaa, 1997 ?.), «Iaoea i nioeiaeueii
i?iaeaie noniieuenoaa» (Oa?eia, 1998 ?.), I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia??”
I?aaia? canaaee ?ica’ycaiiy eieaeoeaieo o?oaeiaeo noia?a/ie
(eiioe?eo?a)” Oa?e?a, 1999 ?., I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeaaea ?
eoeueoo?a” (Caii??aeaey, 1999 ?.), ??? I?aeia?iaeiiio ineoieia?/iiio
eiia?an? (Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.),

V? c’?cae? Aaia?aoi/iiai oiaa?enoaa O?N? (Iaeana, 1990 ?.),
iaoe?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioeiyo «Iaoea, inaioa, aoiaiici» (Oa?eia, 1990?.),
«I?aaiai i?iaeaie aeieiai/iiai eiio?ieth «(Ee?a, 1991 ?.), naiiia?ao
«Caeai?» i caniae ianiai? iioi?iaoei?» (Ee?a, 1992 ?.),
«Aaiiioi?iaoe?ei? nenoaie a Oe?a?ii» (Aiiieoey, 1993 ?. ), «Aoiiia
aia?aaoeea Oe?a?ie» (Aeoooa, 1993 ?.), eiioa?aioe?yo «?aaiiie a
iacaeaaeiie Oe?a?ii» ( Oa?eia, 1994 ?.), «I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oo?ecio a
Oe?a?ii» (Einia, 1994 ?.), «I?iaeaie caa?aaeaiiy i aiaeaoaeiae
inoi?e/ii? iai’yoi” (Oa?eia, 1995 ?.), Oa?eianueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo
/eoaiiyo a 1996, 1997 i 1998 ?.?., eiioa?aioei? «Oo?eci a Oe?a?ii:
aeiiiiiea i eoeueoo?a» (Naioycue, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoeiai ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
iioaeieiaaii a Oe?a?ii, ?ini?, NOA i *aoi? a 62 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, a
naia: a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?aoi? ianyaii 11,3 ae?oe.a?e., a 24
noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao i ia?iiaee/ieo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 4
cai?eao iaoeiaeo ?iaio, a 11 iaoa?iaeao i 20 oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e
oa nai?ia??a i o 2 i?ai?eioao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy aeeth/a? anooi, iniiaio /anoeio, ui
neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe ?icaeieia, aeniiae?a i nieneo aeei?enoaieo
eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Ianya aeena?oaoei? neeaaea? 397 noi?iiie, c ieo
nienie eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (aeeth/a? 350 iaeiaioaaiue) neeaaea? 30
noi?iiie.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoei?, aeacaiee
ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.I.Ea?ac?ia,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy, a?aeia?aaeaii
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee oa aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia, iaaaaeaii aiaeiiinoi uiaei ai?iaaoei? ?iaioe i
ioae?eaoe?e iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae uiaei
no?oeoo?e aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icaeie? «Nioe?ieia?/iee aiaeic caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao» ?icaeyiooi ieceo i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue, ui
aeieeathoue ia iaae? nioe?ieia?? oi?aae?iiy, ?iaae?iiiaioaeueii?
nioe?ieia??, eiioe?eoieia??, nioe?ieia?? oaoi?ee oa nioe?aeueii?
aeieia??, aea/aiiy yeeo ? iaiao?aeiei aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Caaaeyee iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio i?ia?ano ethaenoai aeinyaei /eiaeeo oni?o?a
o iieiioaiii oiia naiai ?nioaaiiy, i ca?ac cia/ia eieueeinoue aea?aeaa,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ia?aaeiai aeinyaiaiiy iaoee i oaoiiee, nyaathoue o
nai?io ?icaeoeo iaeaeuiai aeiiiii/iiai ?iaiy. I?ioa, i?eeiyoi ethaenoaii
o oiaei iiaeono?iaeicaoei? iai?yie ?icaeoeo, e?eoa?i? i?ia?ano,
noi?iiaaiee niin?a aeeooy iaa’ycaee no/aniei iieie?iiyi ethaeae iaaii
noaie noaaeaiiy aei aeiae?eey, a oiio /enei i ei?enooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie
?ano?naie. Oaoiiea, ui iino?eii aaeineiiaeth?oueny, ii?iaeeea iethcith
iiaeeeainoi iiiaaieaiiy i?e?iaee, a iaaei??iee aio?iiiaaiiee oene ia
a?inoa?o icoiiaea aeieeiaiiy aeeaiei? aeieiai/ii? e?ece. Iiaeaeueoa ??
iiaeeaeaiiy i?ecaaaea aei ii?ooaiiy noaeiai ?icaeoeo aeiae?eey i aei
eaoano?io?/ieo ciii noaio aiinoa?e a?oo?eaoe?eiiai oeio.

Iiaeeea?noue iiaii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ?aaeueii
caa?iaeo? iiaeaeueoiio inioaaiith ethaenoaa ? iio?aao? ia?ainieneaiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo canaae i?aaiicaoei? noniieueii-aeiiiii/iiai aeeooy,
aca?iia?aeiinei noni?euenoaa ? a?inoa?e. Oey i?iaeaia iaeaieueo oe?iei
ioiieth?oueny ?aieaie oae caaiiai iiaae?iiiaioaeicio —
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ii? ? na?oiaeyaeii? i?i?ioaoei?, oeaio?ii oaaae yei? ?
aca?iiaeiy nioeiaeueieo ooai?aiue c ?o na?aaeiaeuai. Nai? iaea?eueo
aeeaiea iaoeiaa aeyaeaiiy ?iaae?iiiaioae?ci ciaeoia o nioe?aeuei?e
aeieia??. Oey iaoeiaa aeenoeeie?ia ca?ac ?icaeaa?oueny o aeaio
oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeieo iai?yieao:

· i?iaeooaaiiy oa ci?ie a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua,
aeoiaey/e c iio?aa noni?euenoaa;

· ci?ie oa oaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e naiiai noni?euenoaa,
aeoiaey/e c iio?aa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? noni?euenoaa.

Iiaae?iiiaioaeueiiio aiaeico i?aeeyaa? oeieee eiiieaen ieoaiue:
caa?oaeiaiiy a?inoa?e, aeaoioeeo i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia, ia?aianaeaiiy,
ianeiaeee o?aaiicaoe??, aieiae, cieaeaiiy aii??ciiiai?ooy oa ?i. I?ioa,
aeiiae iiaae?iiiaioaeino?a iaiaaeeoe niiaeeaaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?nia a
ii’y caa?aaeaiiy noaeiai ?icaeoeo a?inoa?e aeaeyaeathoue aeineoue
aieinieie, ai oea iaiaaeaiiy iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cieaeaiiy ?iaiy aeeooy
aaee/acii? e?eueeino? ethaeae. Oiio iiaae?iiiaioaeueia iiceoeiy ia?
aino?eo iiiiaioia ye o na?aaeiaeui niiaeeaa/ia, oae i na?aae ae?iaieeia.

A nieneiaiio i ae?yeuei?niiio i?inoi?i, iia’ycaiiio c iaaiai?aiiyi i
i?aeoe/iei ?icaeoeii iniiaieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy,
neeaeeny ? eiioe?eoothoue ?iciiiaiioii i aca?iii i?ioeeaaei? oyaeaiiy
i?i iai?yiee noniieueiiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeiei ic oeeo iai?yieia, yeee
iaceaathoue «oaoiie?aoe/iei», iaoith i?ia?ano aaaaea?oueny iaooeeueia
iiaeaeuaiiy aeeoo?aiai ?iaiy ethaeae i iaiaiaaeaia aeiiiii/ia c?inoaiiy,
ye? nie?athoueny ia ia?aaeiai aeinyaiaiiy iaoee i oaoiiee i iia’ycaia c
ieie iioaineaia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. Iioa — iiaae?iiiaioaeueia —
na?oiaa/aiiy aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui iioaineaia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy aaaea
aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? na?aaeiaeua ethaeeie i caa?iaeo? iiaeaeueoiio
?nioaaiith ethaenoaa.

Oei na?oiaeyaei? iiceoei? iaoiiaeththoue ?iciiiaiioii oe?ii?ni?
oyaeaiiy, ye? noai?ththoue ca’ycee iiae iniaaie, ui ?o iiaeieythoue,
aenooiathoue a?oiioi?ioth/ith iciaeith ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae a iaaii
nioeiaeueii a?oie i ca’ycoth/ith eaieith iiae iniaenoinoth i
nioeiaeueiith a?oiith. ?icii oe?ii?ni? i?aeoiaee o aa/aii?
i?eeaeaoiueiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oi?iothoue a iueiio aeaa iiey?ii
i?i?ioiaaieo nioeiaeueieo ooai?thaaiiy. I?ioe??//y iiae i?eai/ieeaie
iiaae?iiiaioaeueieo iiaeyaeia i ethaeueie, ui aiaenoiththoue iaeath
aeiiiii/iiai c?inoaiiy i iia’ycaiiai c iei iioaineaiiai
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, inoaii?i /anii ia??aeei nyaathoue eiioe?eoii?
aino?ioe.

I?aeoe/iei a?oioii aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aeieia?/ieo eiioe?eo?a ?
?aaeuei? nioe?i-aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, ui aeieeathoue o noni?euenoa? a
ca’yceo c? no?eeeie iaaaoeaieie ci?iaie o aeiae?ee? ? ca/?iathoue
aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue oe?ieeo ian ethaeae. I?e ona?aeiieaii? ieie
aeieia?/ii? iaaaciaee aeieea? aeieia?/ia iai?oaeai?noue ianaeaiiy.
Oiaoi, aeniea nioe?aeueia ioe?iea aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo ii?iaeaeo?
nioe?aeueio iai?oaeai?noue, yea, o naith /a?ao, ? eaoaioiith oi?iith
nioe?aeueiiai eiioe?eoo, ui ia?iaeaeo?oueny. O aeiaaeeo
nioe?i-aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, iaoiiaeaieo aeei?enoaiiyi yaea?ii? aia?a??,
aeniea nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiinoue ? /eneaiii nioe?aeueii eiioe?eoe
iaoiiaethoueny aeno?aiaeueieie iiae?yie, ui aeieeee i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii?
yaea?ieo oaoiieia?e: aoiiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi O??ineie ? Iaaanae?,
aaa??yie ia AAN “O?e-Iaee-Aeeaiae” (NOA) ? a *i?iiaee?, ieceith iaio
cia/ieo, aea a?aeiieo aio?iiiaaiieo ii?ooaiue a?inoa?e, ui i?eaaee aei
?? ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy. A oeueiio ?ac? aeieia?/ia iai?oaeai?noue
i?aeneeth?oueny e yaea?ieie no?aoaie ianaeaiiy, ui /anoi aenooiathoue o
aeaeyae? iaoao?ce/ieo no?ao?a.

Aiae?c eieaeueieo aeieia?/ieo eiioeieo?a, ye? ?ac ii ?ac aeieeathoue a
??cieo ?aa?iiao ieaiaoe, iieaco?, ui aiie ? i?iyaii aeiaaeueiiai
nioeiaeueiiai eiioeieoo c i?iaeaie iaiaiaaeaiiai niiaeeaaiiy i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a i iaiao?aeiino? caa?aaeaiiy noaeiai ?icaeoeo a?inoa?e, yeee
aeiee i?ae i?ea?/ieeaie ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.
Aeieiai/ii eiioeieoe aiaeiinyoueny aei oeio eiioeieoia oe?iiinoae,
?ica’ycaiiy yeeo ? ae?ae neeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi, ? ii oeae /an ia
cai?iiiiiaaii aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieo cania?a eiai ae??oaiiy. Aea aiae?c
eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e c iiceoe?e ae?aeia?ee iieaco?, ui ia ??ai?
i?aeiniaeno?nieo oa i?aea?oiiaeo a?aeiinei iiaeeeaa aeinyaiaiiy
eiioe?eooth/eie noi?iiaie oe?ii?niiai eiinainono aai eiii?ii?no ca
oiiaith oiea?aioii? ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae?? noi??i.

Iaeiae caeeoa?oueny iaaecia/aiei iaoai?ci aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono aai
eiii?ii?no o nioe?aeueiiio eiioe?eo? oe?iinoae, ai aca?iiae?y noi??i o
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia? i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iee oa?aeoa?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao ye iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa ?ica`ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a oe?iiinoae” i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo ?
iaa?oiooaaiith aenoiooi? aaoi?ii eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao,
yeee ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiith nioe?aeueiith oaoiieia??th ?ica’ycaiiy
nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a oe?iiinoae, o oiio /ene? e aeieia?/ieo
eiioe?eo?a.

A i?ioeani ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae?? ?? noi?iie — ia?oia?e ae?aeiao,
aei?iaiaothoue aca?iiee aieea iaeei ia iaeiiai — niinoa?iaathoue,
inieneththoue, iioa?i?aoothoue iaii?e ia?oia?a i ?aaaothoue ia ieo. Aea
a oe?ieiio ?yaei aeiaaeeia, eiee i?aaeiao i i/ieoaaiee ?acoeueoao
eieaeoeaii? aeiaeiai/ii? aca?iiaei? ca/?iathoue ?ioa?ane oe?ieeo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy, i?e oeueiio i?enooiy oaeiae noi?iia, yea oi/a e ia aa?a
aaciina?aaeiuei? o/anoi a aeiaeici, aea oaaaeii niinoa?iaa? ca eiai
?icaeoeii ? aieeaa? ia iueiai nai?ie aaciina?aaei?ie ?aaeoe?yie, — oea
a?iiaaenuee?noue. Oaeee aeiaeia ? yeinii aiaei?iiei a?ae
i?aeiniaeno?niiai oa eieaeoeaiiai ae?aeia?a. Eiai oi/i?oa iaceaaoe
nioeiaeueiei ae?aeiaii, ai ca eiai aeiiiiiaith aeneiaeththoueny iioa?ane
nioeiaeueieo ooai?aiue — i?aaeiao i ?acoeueoao aeiaeiao ? nioeiaeueii
cia/oueie.

A i?ioeani nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao aeiaeiaiaa nenoaia, ui neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio ia?oia??a ae?aeiao i eiai aoaeeoi?i? — a?iiaaenueeino?, iinooiiai
naii?aaoeth?oueny (naiiaaeineiiaeth?oueny) ia aeaio ?iaiyo. Ii-ia?oa,
aeeneoooth/e, iiiiaioe a iiooeo eiinainono aai eiii?iiino aeiooai?
iii’yeooaaoe nai? noia?a/iinoi — i?enoiniaoaaoeny iaeei aei iaeiiai,
iaeii/anii a?aoiaoth/e e iiceoeith aoaeeoi?i? — a?iiaaenueeinoi. Aea,
ii-ae?oaa, e aoaeeoi?iy ia caeeoa?oueny iaciiiiith a nioeiaeueiiio
aeiaeic?. Aiia oi?th /e iioith i??ith ii?aoeueiao? ?aoeiiiaeueii
a?aoiaioe o/anieeia aeiaeiao, i?eeiath/e ?o ye nai?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciii noaio a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee. Oe? ci?ie a?aoiaothoueny iiiiaioaie, i
?oiy iiaeaeueoa aeiaeiai/ia aca?iiaeiy i?ioiaeeoue aaea ia a?eueo
aeineiiaeiio ?iaii, yeee nie?a?oueny ia aeinyaiooa ?aiio caeeaeaiiy
iiceoeie i ci?iaio — a?eueo aaeaeaaoio neooaoei?, a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo.
Iayaiinoue iinoieiiai iioi?iaoeieiiai iaiiio a aeiaeiaia?e nenoaii
iinooiiai iaaeeaeo? ia?oia??a aei eiinainono a aeiaeici.

Ae?aeiaiaa aca?iiae?y ia?oia??a nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao oa ?o aieea ia
iiceoeeth aoae?oi??? cae?eniththoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e. Oaeei /eiii, eiaeai c ia?oia??a nioe?aeueiiai
ae?aeiao aenooia? iaeii/anii ye noa’?eo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e, yeee
cae?enith? na?e aieea ia iiiiiaioa aaciina?aaeiuei ? /a?ac
a?iiaaenuee?noue, ? ye ia’?eo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e ia?oia?a ae?aeiao.
I?e oiio nai nioe?aeueiee ae?aeia ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiith nioe?eueiith
oaoiieia??th, yea ?ioaa?o? a nia? an? ??ciiiai?oi? oaoiieia?? ia?oia??a
ae?aeiao, iaiao?aei? aeey eiai ooieoe?thaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo.

Aeiaaeueiee nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo c nioe?i-aeieia?/ii? i?iaeaie
iaiaiaaeaiiai niiaeeaaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a i caa?aaeaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ui oe?iei iioe?aiee o na?o?, ? oaeiae
eiioe?eoii oe?iiinoae. Aiae?c i?e?iaee aeieia?/ii? iai?oaeaiino?
ianaeaiiy, iaoiiaeaieo iath eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e oa inioth/i? i?aeoeee
iieaco?, ui a iniiai eiioe?eoo eaaeaoue nioeiaeueii ioeiiee aeieiai/iiai
?eceeo, ye? ia ? aaeaeaaoi? oaoii/iei ioe?ieai, oiio nioe?i-aeieiai/ia
i?iaeaia iiaea aooe iaeaieueo aoaeoeaii ?ica’ycaia iaoiaeii
nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao niaoeeoi/iiai oeio — nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai
ae?aeiao. A eaoaioi?e oi?i? eieaeuei? nioe?i-aeieiai/ii aeiaeiae
niiioaiii eaeooue a ??cieo i?noeyo ?c i?eaiaeo ?iciiiaiioieo iinoeaaeo
nioe?i-aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai. Aea an? aiie ? i?iyaaie aeiaaeueiiai
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao, ui aaaeooue aeaa nioeiaeueieo ooai?aiiy,
ye? iiaeieythoue ?icii oe?ii?ni? i?aeoiaee a aa/aii? iaeaooiueiai
noniieuenoaa — «niiaeea/ee» iiaeoiae i iiaeoiae iiaae?iiiaioaeueiee.

Na?aae oai i nthaeaoia aeiaaeueiiai nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao
aeineoue aino?ei i neeaaeiei ? aeiaeia c i?iaeaie oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy
yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie. Iaeaieueo iioe?ai? c ieo — yaea?ii-aia?aaoe/i?
oaoiieiai?, ye? ? ye aeaea?aeii iaoa?iaeueieo aeaa — ii?iaiyii aeaoaai?
i?iieneiai? aia?ai?, oae i (?acii c? ca?ieieie yaea?ieie oaoiieiaiyie)
i?e/eiith ?aae?aoe?eiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ? aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?inoa?e, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aino?eo nioeiaeueieo eiioeieoia a noni?euenoa?.

I?e oeueiio nioe?i-aeieiai/iee aeiaeia uiaei yaea?ii? aia?ai? ia? naith
aiaei?iio niaoeeoieo. C iaeiiai aieo, aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie ?
aeeaiei iioaa?iaaiei a noniieueia aeeooy, ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
caeiathoueny aaaaoi ethaeae i i?aaiicaoeie, ui onaiaeiieththoue
niieueiinoue oeieae i caaaeaiue. Aiie ae i aenooiathoue aeoeaieie
i?eai/ieeaie yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee oa iioeo yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie. C iioiai
aieo, nioeiaeueiiio i?eeiyooth yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee i iioeo yaea?ieo
oaoiieiaie ye iiai? oaoiiee caaaaea?, e??i iaaaeaeaaoieo nioeiaeueieo
ioeiiie ?eceeo i iaaieo oe?ii?nieo ia?aeiiaiue, ui iiaeooue aooe
aeneiaeaii a iaaiie ii?i ?aoeiiiaeueii, oaeiae ? iayaiinoue yaea?ieo
no?ao?a, iaoaoice/ia i?e?iaea yeeo iiioeith? iaiioeaiaaio aeieiai/io
iai?oaeai?noue ianaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaith iciaeith nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao ? oa, ui o aeiaaeeao, eiee
e?ioeaa? oe?e? ia?oia??a ae?aeiao ? iiae?ai?, ?icaeoie ae?aeiao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui aaeoi?e coneeue ia?oia??a ae?aeiao ii/eiathoue
neeaaeaoeny. Oiaoi, aeoeaiee ?icaeoie ae?aeiao iii?ae i?ea?/ieeaie oa
noi?ioeaieeaie aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee, ona?aeiieaiiy ?
ei?aeoe?y eiai o/anieeaie nai?o eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi ci?i
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a ae?aeia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeicaieeoue noi?iiai o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aeinyaoe aeaeea?iaaieo
ieie noiaeeo no?aoaa?/ieo oe?eae, ye? caiaeyoueny aei oace “iie?ioaiiy
oiia aeeooy ethaeae”.

Aioo??oi? iaoai?cie aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao
iiaeooue aooe, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii aea/ai? ia
aii??e/iiio iaoa??ae? ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae?? ia?oia??a ae?aeiao uiaei
aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?a??. Oea aeanoue ciiao
iinooiiai ae??oeoe eiioe?eoi? neooaoe?? c i?iaeaie nioe?aeueiiai
ni?eeiyooy yaea?ii? aia?a?? ? ?icoe?eoe a?naiae iaoiae?a nioe?ieia??
oi?aae?iiy a noa?? ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a: ?i?oe?thaaoe
nioe?aeueiee ae?aeia, noai?thth/e aeey oeueiai iaiao?aei? oiiae,
i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeai? ?ic?iaeo oa ao?eaiiy iioeiaeueieo nioe?aeueieo
oaoiieia?e aeey eiai ia?oia??a, i?aeo?eioaaoe nioe?aeueiee ae?aeia a
oiea?aioiiio ?one?, cieaeoth/e ??aaiue nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino? a
noni?euenoa?.

Ianooiii o?e ?icaeiee aeena?oaoei? i?enay/aii aiaeico iniaeeainoae ?
ae?yeueiino? o/anieeia nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao — eiai ia?oia?ia i
aoaeeoi?i? (a?iiaaenueeinoi) ia iaoa??ae? nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao,
i?aaeiaoii yeiai ? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?, a oaeiae aiae?co
iaoaiiciia aeieeiaiiy i ?icaeoeo nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai aeiaeiao.

A o?aoueiio ?icaeie? «Ianiaee i?e?iaeicaoeniee ?oo ye ia?oia?
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao» ?icaeyiooi iniiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo “caeaieo”, eiai aaiaca, aioeyaea?iee ?oo ye
iaea?eueo aeoeaiee iai?yi i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo oa ieceo nioe?aeueieo
oaoiieia?e, ye? canoiniaothoue o ae?aeic? “caeai?”.

I?aaiaiiy cia/ii? nioeiaeueii? a?oie ethaeae, ye? iiaeieythoue
iiaae?iiiaioaeuei? oeiiiinoi, aei i?aeoe/iiai i?iyao i?eoaiaii? iei
nioeiaeueii? iiceoei? iaoiiaeei ?o nioeiaeueio iiaaae?ieo, yea
ni?yiiaaia ia caa?aaeaiiy aeiae?eey. Niieueiinoue ?o i?aaiaiue i
aaaeaiiy noiinii? aeiyeueiinoi a aeinyaiaiii ?aeeieo oeieae i?ecaaee aei
aeieeiaiiy iiaiai aeey iaoiai /ano nioeiaeueiiai oaiiiaio —
i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo, ui iaea?aeaa iacao ?ooo «caeaieo».
Noo?aiaai?noue noaiii iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ethaeeie — ye
i?e?iaeiueiai, oae i nioeiaeueiiai, coiiaeea aaiethoeith
i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo a ?oo aeieiai/iee, yeiio i?eoaiai? iniiai?
eiiiiiaioe, ui iaeaaeaoue nioeiaeueiei ?ooai:

· eieaeoiaiinoue ethaeae, aeith/eo niieueii;

· ?aeiinoue aiaeiinii iaoe eieaeoeaieo aeie, ni?yiiaaieo ia ciiie a
noniieuenoai;

· a?aeiinii aeeoocia eieaeoeai?noue, c iecueeei ?iaiai oi?iaeueii?
i?aaiicaoei?;

· ?oo neeaaeathoue ye aieueii i?aaiiciaaii eieaeoeae, oae i ie?aii
iniaenoinoi, ui aeithoue niieueii;

· aei? o/anieeia ?ooo iathoue ii??aiyii aenieo ii?o noeo?eiinoi i ia
i?eeiathoue iinoeoooe?aeiciaaieo oi?i.

O/anieeaie aeieia?/iiai ?ooo aenooia? iaeaieueo aeoeaia /anoeia
ianaeaiiy, ui onaiaeiieth? ia oieueee iaiao?aeiinoue ae?ioaiiy
nioe?i-aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai, aea e ?icoii? iniaenoo aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue
eiaeii? ethaeeie ca caa?aaeaiiy a?inoa?e. I?e?iaeicaoenia ae?yeuei?noue
?ooo cae?nith?oueny oe?ieith ia?aaeath iacaeaaeieo iao?yaeiaeo
i?aaiicaoeie — IOI. IOI ye aaoiiiiii ae?eyiee ?ooo noaiiaeyoue aieueii
i?aaiiciaaii ia’?aeiaiiy ie?aieo iniaenoinoae, ui aeithoue niieueii.
Aaaeeeaith iniaeeainoth aeieiai/iiai ?ooo ye ?ooo nioeiaeueiiai ? oa,
ui a?i ia? aeiaaeueiee ianooaa i oei/aniaa cieaeaiiy aai i?eieiaiiy
aeoeaiinoi IOI a oiio /e ?ioiio ?aaiiii ieaiaoe i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
noai naiiai ?ooo a oeieiio.

Oyaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aeey ae?ioaiiy aeieiai/ieo i?iaeai iaiaoiaeii
onoiooe iaaa?acaee ? i?ioe??//y inioth/i? noniieueii? nenoaie,
iiioeithaaee a na?aaeiaeui «caeaieo» ?icieo e?a?i aenoiaiiy aeueoa?iaoea
iiaeono?iaeueiiio noniieuenoao i, ioaea, oi?ioaaiiy aeanieo iieioe/ieo
i?ia?ai noniieueieo ia?aoai?aiue. I?aaiaiiy aei caeieniaiiy oeeo i?ia?ai
i?ecaaei a 70-o ?ieao aei ooai?aiiy iieioe/ieo ia?oie aeieiaino?a. Ca?ac
o ?yaei e?a?i ?a?iie «caeaii» ia?oi? ia oieueee i?aaenoaaeaii a
ia?eaiaioao, aea e iathoue iiiioio iieioe/io aaao. Oaeei /eiii,
aeieiai/iee ?oo ?aaeico? naaa a i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?iao aeaio oeiia: IOI
(a?iiaaenuee? iiioeiaoeae) i iieioe/ii ia?oi?, ye?, aeith/e niieueii,
aeeiiothoue a aeieiai/iiio ?on? ?icii caaaeaiiy.

Aiae?c iieaco?, ui iaia? yeiai-iaaoaeue iiiioiiai iaeaeiiai aiaenoaaaiiy
a noaiiaeaiii noiaeii-?a?iiaenueeiai e?eea naioiaiai aeieiai/iiai ?ooo,
/anoeiith yeiai ? oe?a?inueeee aeieia?/iee ?oo, a ciinoiaii aniaeoe
aeiyeueiinoi IOI Noiaeo i Caoiaeo ca?aathoueny o aaaaoueio iai?yieao.
Aea i?e oeueiio ? iecea i?eioeeiiaeo iniaeeainoae ianiaiai aeieiai/iiai
?ooo a e?a?iao Noiaeii? ?a?iie, coiiaeaieo oei, ui eiai oi?ioaaiiy
a?aeaoaaeinue a oiiaao iaaeiiiiiieiciaaii? aea?aeaaii-iiaeono?iaeueii?
nenoaie, yea nie?aeanue ia oioaeueiee iaeaieiai/iee eiio?ieue, ui
aeeeth/aa aoaeue-ye? iaocaiaeaeaii ?c aeaaeith a?iiaaenuee? iiioeiaoeae.
I?e oeueiio aeieiai/iee ?oo aoa (i caeeoa?oueny ca?ac) a aea?aeaaao
Noiaeii? ?a?iie i eieeoiueiai N?N? iaeiei ic aeoeaieo aaaioia oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noniieuenoaa.

A inoaiii ?iee aeieiai/iee ?oo a e?a?iao Noiaeii? ?a?iie iiiioii
o?ainoi?io?oueny c aeieeiaiiyi IOI oae caaii? «iiai? oaee?». Oei
aeieiai/ii i?aaiicaoei? aiae?iciythoueny eiie?aoiith niaoe?aeicaoe??th
ca iaaiith oaiaoeeith, i?aaiicaoeieiith oa oiiainiaith iacaeaaeiinoth,
iioeiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith i?aaiicaoeie, ea??aiith eaieith yei? ?
oaoiaoei c aeuith inaioith, ui iia’ycaia c oaiaoeeith ae?yeueiino?. IOI
«iiai? oaeei» i?aaiooue aei ?icaeoeo iiaeia?iaeieo ca’yceia, aa?ooue
o/anoue o iiaeia?iaeieo i?iaeoao i i?ia?aiao, aeei?enoiaothoue aeey
oiiainoaaiiy nai?? aeiyeueiinoi iiaeo?eieo iiicaiieo i aio/eciyieo
oiiaeia.

Na?aae onueiai ??ciiiai?oooy iai?yieia naioiaiai aeieiai/iiai ?ooo
aioeyaea?ia ae?yeuei?noue i?iyaey? naaa iaeaieueo nioeiaeueii aeoeaii i
ianiai. Cia/ia iioe?ai?noue aenooi?a i?ioe yaea?ii? ca?i? ? yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee, iania?noue iao?yaeiaeo i?aaiicaoeie, ui aeeth/ai? a oeth
aeiyeueiinoue a ?icieo e?a?iao, eiino?oeoeaia aca?iiaeiy iiae ieie
aeicaieythoue ?icaeyaeaoe ?oith noeoii?noue ye aioeyaea?iee ?oo.
Oeiiiinoi, ui iiaeieythoueny noi?ioeaieeaie aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii?
aia?ai? — aaciaea aeeooy i aeiyeueiinoi ianaeaiiy ieaiaoe, caei?ia’y
no/aniiai e ianooiieo iieie?iue ethaeae, caoeno a?inoa?e aiae
?aaeiaoeieiiai caa?oaeiaiiy, caoeno iauaaee?a aiae iaeiie/oaaiiy ia
Caie? ?aaeiiaeoeaieo a?aeoiae?a, ?icaeoie aia?aaoeee, i?i?ioiaaii? ia
aeiaea?aeaiiy iioa?ania i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ? oeiiiinoyie
caaaeueieie, iaiaoiaeieie oe?ieei ianai ethaeae, ic na?aaeiaeua yeeo i
aeaeieeeeny aeoeaii o/anieee aioeyaea?iiai ?ooo. Nioeiaeueia cia/ei?noue
a?aenoithaaiiy cacia/aieo oeiiiinoae caaacia/eea aioeyaea?iiio ?ooo
cia/io iiaeo?eieo ianaeaiiy.

A N?N? i a e?a?iao Noiaeii? ?a?iie oi?ioaaiiy aioeyaea?iiai ?ooo
ii/aeinue iiney *i?iiaeeuenueei? aaa?i? i ca?aeiny c i?ioeanaie
aeaiie?aoecaoei? a e?a?iao Noiaeii? ?a?iie. Iiaieicaoeiy aeieiai/iiai
?ooo a Oe?a?ii, ui aoea aeeeeeaia *i?iiaeeuenueeith eaoano?ioith, ia
aeiaaio?eaaeee /an aecia/eea i i??i?eoao aioeyaea?ieo caaaeaiue a
aeieiai/iiio ?on? Oe?a?ie. C i?eoiaeii IOI «iiai? oaeei» oa?aeoa?
aioeyaea?iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? noaa iaio ?aaeeeaeueiei i a?eueo eiie?aoiei
? eiino?oeoeaiei.

Aeieia?/iee ?oo ye ia?oia? nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao cae?enith?
ae?aeia?/io aca?iiae?th c ia?oia?ii — a?oiith i?ea?/iee?a aeei?enoaiiy
yaea?ii? aia?a?? (“yaea?ieeaie”), oa aoaeeoi???th ae?aeiao —
a?iiaaenuee?noth, oeyoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueieo
oaoiieia?e. Aiae?c iieaco?, ui oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oaoiieia?e
i?e?iaeicaoeniee?a ? na??ei?noue ?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy — oea,
iae/ano?oa, “aei?noe?” oaoiieia??, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeeo ia iio?aao?
aeniei? eaae?o?eaoe?? aeeiiaaoe?a. Oaoiieia?? aeieia?/iiai ?ooo a
ae?aeic? iae/ano?oa ni?yiiaai? ia a?iiaaenuee?noue, aiie a?aee?eo? ?
?oi?e aioo??oi?e iaoai?ci “i?ici?ee” aeey ia’?eoa oaoiieia??. Ua
iaei??th aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth ? oa, ui iae/ano?oa aiie aiaeththoue
aei aenieeo ii/ooo?a ia’?eoo oaoiieia?? ? nie?athoueny ia aoe/i? oa
ii?aeuei? oe?iiino?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei «ssaea?ieee» ye ia?oia? nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai
aeiaeiao i?i yaea?io aia?a?th» ?icaeyioo? ?icaeoie i?ioeano
iinoeoooe?aeicaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?, nioeiaeueia a?oia
i?ea?/iee?a ?? aeei?enoaiiy oa nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia??, ui ?o
aeei?enoiaothoue “yaea?ieee” a ae?aeic?.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie a aeeooy noni?euenoaa ia? aieueo iiae
i?anoie?oith inoi?ith. O aaaaoueio e?a?iao naioo, aea ?icaeaathoue
yaea?ii oaoiieiai?, aeiyeueiinoue c aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? aeaaii
aaea noaea /anoeiith aeeooy noniieuenoaa, a a aeiyeueiinoue
i?aaiicaoeie, ui ?ic?iaeythoue oa aeei?enoiaothoue yaea?ii oaoiieiai?,
caeo/aii /eiaeo eieueeinoue ethaeae — iiiioio /anoeio ianaeaiiy. Oe?iea
nioeiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? iinooiiai noa? /anoeiith
noniieueiiai aeeooy, oiio aiia i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii aieeaa? ia
nioeiaeueiee i?ioean.

Aeei?enoaiith yaea?ii? aia?ai? ye aeaeo ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi
i?eoaiaiii aaaaoi ?en, ui iaeaaeaoue nioeiaeueiiio iinoeoooo. Oae, a
oiaei o?eaaei? inoi?ecaoe?? oey ae?yeuei?noue iiaeieaea aoai
ia’?eoeaaoe?? — aiia noaea nioeiaeueiith ?aaeueiinoth, c yeith ia iiaeia
ia ?aooaaoeny. Noai?aia ii?iaoeaia aaca i aeieeee niaoeiaeueii iaoaiicie
nioeiaeueiiai eiio?ieth, ui iiaeo?eiothoue i a?aeoai?ththoue cacia/aio
aeiyeueiinoue; noi?iiaaia nenoaia iaiaoiaeieo eaaioeiaoe?e — caniaia
iiyniaiiy i aei?aaaeaiiy aeiyeueiinoi.

I?ioa, i?e anueiio oeueiio aeiyeueiinoue c aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?
ana ua iiiioiith ii?ith caeeoa?oueny ciaiioiueith uiaei ethaeeie — ia
iioa?iaeiciaaiith iath aeiyeueiinoth. Aiaenooiinoue iioa?iaeicaoe??,
oiaoi aiaenooiinoue iaiaoiaeii? a?iiaaenueei? aeiai?e, icia/a? oa, ui
i?ioean iinoeoooe?aeicaoe?? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? ye ?iaeo
aeiyeueiinoi ua aeaeaeee aiae caaa?oaiiy i ciaoiaeeoueny a noaaei?
aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo. I?e/eia oeueiai a iieyaa? oiio, ui a oiaei
inoi?ecaoe?? aeiyeueiinoi ia noaeiny ?? iiaii? oaaiooaeicaoe?? —
«icae/aiiy» ethaeueie.

Inoioiei aeey aaeueioaaiiy i?ioeano oaaiooaeicaoe?? ? oa, ui aeeiaiiea
ciii yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie a oiaei inoi?ecaoe?? aoea iacae/aeii cia/iith,
a ?o nioeiaeueia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ieceith
aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie — canoinoaaiiyi aoiiieo aiia a ?? Naioiai? aieii,
aei?iaoaaiiyie yaea?ii? ca?i? a aoiinoa?i, /eneaiieie aaa?iyie ia AAN ?
yaea?ii-oaoi?/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui naiae/eei i?i iaaeinoaoith, ic
iiceoeie nioeiaeueieo ioeiiie aeieiai/iiai ?eceeo, aaciaeo yaea?ieo
oaoiieiaie. Oea noi?ioaaei noieeo iiiceoeith aeei?enoaiith yaea?ii?
aia?ai? a noniieuenoa? i oneeaaeieei ?? eaaioeiaoe?th.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, oaaiooaeicaoeiy, a neiaeii ca iath e iinoeoooe?aeicaoe?y
aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? iiaeeeai a oiiaao aeinoaoiuei
aeiaaio?eaaeiai /ano (ianooaao iieieiiiy ethaenueeiai aeeooy) i?e
aeinoaoiuei noaaieueiiio — aac aeno?aiaeueieo iiaeie — ai?iaaaeaeaiii
yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie a nioeiaeueia na?aaeiaeua. I?e oeueiio iiaeiia aooe
caaacia/aia iaae?eia e ocaiaeaeaia c iiiceoe??th eaaioeiaoe?y
ae?yeueiino?, ui iinoeoooeiae?co?oueny. Oea icia/a?, ui oaaiooaeicaoe?y
oa iinoeoooe?aeicaoe?y cacia/aii? aeiyeueiinoi iaiiaeeeai aac aca?iiaei?
c iiiiaioaie — i?aaiicaoeiyie aioeyaea?iiai ?ooo, i?e/iio
nioe?i-aeieiai/iee aeiaeia ? iaeaieueo aeieiaei caniaii aeinyaiaiiy
aeiai?e a?iiaaenueeinoi aei aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie.

sse ia’?eo iinoeoooe?aeicaoe?? aeiyeueiinoue ii aeei?enoaiith yaea?ii?
aia?ai? a nioeiaeueiie aeieniinoi ia? aeaeyae iaaeeieaeoeaii?
nioeiaeueii? oeieiniino?, ui ia’?aeio? ethaeae, i?aaiicaoei? i
aiaeiinoaa, ye? iia’ycaii ?c canoinoaaiiyi yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie. Eiei
ethaeae a ?icieo e?a?iao, caeo/aieo aei noa?e ?? oyae?iiy, ae?ae oe?iea.
I?e/iio a?oio i?eai/ieeia yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee, ui aa?a o/anoue a
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiio aeiaeici, iiaeia oiiaii iiaeieeoe ia aea? ia??ai?
/anoeie: ethaee, ui aaciina?aaeiuei — a ca’yceo c ia?aiei oaoii, aa?ooue
o/anoue o aeiyeueiino?, ui ?inoeoooe?th?oueny, a oaeiae ?o ?iaeii i
aeecueei; i o?, ooi iiaeo?eio? oeth aeiyeueiinoue, aeoiaey/e c nai?o
oe?ii?nieo oyaeaiue i?i aeioe?eueiinoue aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai?.
Ae?oaa /anoeia i?eai/ieeia yaea?ii? aia?ai? iaio iioi?iiaaia, iaio
caoeieaaeaia a ?icaeoeo cacia/aii? aeiyeueiinoi, oiio iae/anoioa aiia
a?a? ianeaio ?ieue o aeiaeici.

Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?ieo ?en, i?eoaiaiieo i?eai/ieeai aeei?enoaiiy
yaea?ii? aia?ai?, ye? i?ioanieii caeiyo? a aeiyeueiino?, iia’ycai?e c
yaea?iith aia?ai?th, ? oa, ui aiie a o?e /e a ?io?e i??? ia iicaaaeaii
aiae/oooy aeioa?iinoi. Oea a?ae/oooy noi?ioaaeinue ai?iaeiaae cia/iiai
ia?iiaeo ?icaeoeo ?iaio c nioeiaeueiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yaea?ieo
oaoiieia?e iiae aieeaii cae?eoiai oa?aeoa?o ?iaio ? aei?noeiai ?aaeeio
nae?aoiinoi, i?iaeeaaiiy a iinoao i naeeuao cae?eoiai oeio, a oaeiae a
oiiaao cia/ieo iieuea i i?eaiea?a, iaoiiaeaieo oa?aeoa?ii
yaea?ii-oaoi?/ii? aeiyeueiino?. Nooo?aei aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?ae/oooy
aeioa?iinoi (i iia’ycaii? c iei ei?ii?aoeaiino?) aoee iaeaeui
iaoeiai-oaoii/iee ?iaaiue i yeinoue ?iaio, ui i?iaiaeyoueny, i, ioaea,
iaeaeua eaaeioieaoeiy naieo aeeiiaaoe?a. I?e/iio oe?iea iiiceoeiy
yaea?i?e aia?aaoeoei oaeiae iiaeo?eio? aenieee ?iaaiue ei?ii?aoeaiinoi
ethaeae, caeo/aieo aei ?? aeiyeueiino?.

I?ioa, aeey ocaaaeueiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ethaeae, ye? i?ioanieii caeiyo?
a yaea?ii-aia?aaoe/i?e aaeoci, aaaeeeaei aoaea a?aei?oeoa oaea
nioeiaeueia yaeua, ye oa, ui a iaaiee /an oaiie nioeiaeueiiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yaea?ieo oaoiieiaie aeia?aaeeee aioiaiinoue noniieuenoaa
aei oe?iei? aenieoaoaoei? oaei? neeaaeii? oaoiiee. Oaeaeea ?icoe?aiiy
aeiyeueiinoi c aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?ai? i?ecaaei aei caeo/aiiy a
ia? ana a?eueo oe?ieeo ian ethaeae, ye? i?eianee a oeth aeiyeueiinoue
noi?iiaai? iica iath iioi nioeiaeueii cae/ee, iecueeo nioeiaeueio
aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue, ui i?iaieoaaei ii?ooaiiy oaoiai? aoeee, ae?iaie/i?
aeenoeeieiie i, a eiioeaaiio i?aenoieo, cieceei aaciaeo
yaea?ii-oaoii/ieo ia’?eoia.

A?oia “yaea?iee?a” ye ia?oia? nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao cae?enith?
ae?aeia?/io aca?iiae?th c aeieia?/iei ?ooii oa na?e aieea ia
a?iiaaenuee?noue ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiai ?iaeo aeanieo nioe?aeueieo
oaoiieia?e. ?o aiae?c iieaco?, ui o “yaea?iee?a” iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ?
aeei?enoaiiy “i’yeeo“ oaoiieia?e, i???ioiaaieo ia eiie?aoi? nioe?aeuei?
a?oie, aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeeo iio??aai aenieee oao aeeiiaaoe?a ?
neeaaeia i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e “yaea?iee?a” nie?a?oueny ia i?aeo?eieo
oi?iaeueieo (iaea?aeaaeaieo) no?oeoo?, i?e/iio aeey ?oiueiai cae?eniaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny cia/i? ethaenuee? oa iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne.

?icaeie i’yoee ia? iacao «A?iiaaenueeinoue: ni?eeiyooy aeiaeiao i?i
yaea?io aia?a?th oa aieea ia eiai ?icaeoie».

A?iiaaenueeinoue ye aoaeeoi?iy nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao, aa?o/e a
iueiio iiina?aaeeiaaio o/anoue, aenooia? ia’?eoii i?eeeaaeaiiy
nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie, ui canoiniaothoueny ia?oia?aie aeiaeiao. Iiae
aieeaii nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie o a?iiaaenuee?e aeoioe? aeieeathoue
iaaii ciiie, aea oa?aeoa? ni?eeiaiiy ae?aeiao a?iiaaenueeinoth ?
aeineoue neeaaeiee i /anii caeaaeeoue aiae aaaaoueio /eiieeia, ye?
aaaeei a?aoiaothoueny, ? ye? cae?eniththoue ye iinoieiee, oae i
oei/aniaee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy noaaeaiiy ethaeae aei i?aaeiaoo aeiaeiao.

Aeieiai/ia naiaeiiinoue, ui ?iaiaioii i?eoaiaiia iniaenoinoi, a?ae?a?a?
aeineoue inoioio ?ieue o ni?eeiaiii nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao
a?iiaaenueeinoth. Aeieiai/ia naiaeiiinoue i?iyaey?oueny ia ?icieo
?iaiyo. A aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aiia ae?aaea?oueny e ia ?iaii eieaeoeaiiai
i?aenaiaeiiiai ye ?acoeueoao i?aaeaaiueiai nioeiaeueiiai aeinaiaeo
nioe?ii?e?iaeieo aca?iiae?e. Aeieiai/ii aeoiaaiiy i inaioa (aeeth/ath/e
noeoieiee aieea nioeiaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia naiaeiiinoue iniaenoinoi)
noai?ththoue niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? a aeieiai/iie naiaeiiinoi,
iaoiiaeai? ?iciiiaiioieie aeieiai/ieie noaeoeueoo?aie, ye? i?eoaiai?
?iciei nioeiaeueiei na?aaeiaeuai. Iaeaieueo yaii a?ae/oooy ?aeiino?
ethaeeie e i?e?iaee oa ?icoi?iiy aino?ioe aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
i?inoaaeo?oueny a aeieiai/i?e na?aeiiino? ? aeieia?/i?e iiaaae?ioe?,
iia’ycaieo c aeieiai/ieie noaeoeueoo?aie, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?ii
ni?eeiaiiy i?inoi?o ye aiiiaaiiiai, a /ano — ye e?i?eiiai. A
ae?yeuei?niiio aniaeoi aeieiai/ia naiaeiiinoue i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac
aeieiai/io iiaaae?ieo ye iniaeeaee aeae nioeiaeueii? iiaaae?iee
iniaenoinoi, i?i?ioiaaii? ia iiaae?iiiaioaeuei? oeiiiinoi.

C ii/aoeo ?icaeoeo yaea?ii-oice/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue a N?N? noaaeaiiy
a?iiaaenueeino? aei ieo aoei aeineoue ni?eyoeeaei, a oiceee (i
“yaea?ieee” na?aae ieo) ei?enooaaeenue aacoiiaiei aaoi?eoaoii a
noniieuenoai. Aea c /anii caaino?aiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai a e?a?i? oa
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioi?iiaaiino? ianaeaiiy uiaei iaaaoeaieo ci?i noaio
a?inoa?e i?ecaaee aei aeieeiaiiy oa c?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii? iai?oaeaiino?
?, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao, aei aeieia?/ieo eiioe?eo?a a noni?euenoa?. A
oaea aeno?aiaeueia iiae?y, ye aaa?iy ia *i?iiaeeuenuee?e AAN 1986 ?.,
ii?iaeeea ae?ae aenie? nioeiaeuei? ioeiiee ?eceeo aeiyeueiinoi yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee, ye?, a oaeiae yaea?ii no?aoe ianaeaiiy, iaoiiaeee aino?o
nioeiaeueio iai?oaeai?noue a e?a?ii. Iiaeaeueoi ni?iae «yaea?iee?a» i
aeaaeieo no?oeoo? i?eoiaaoe aeieniee noai ni?aa ia *i?iiaeeuenueeie
aoiii?e aeaeo?inoaioei? ? ?iaii ?aaeiiaeoeaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi?ie
?aae?iioee?aeaie aeac?ioi?ioaaoe ianaeaiiy noeioethaaee oi?ioaaiiy
noieei? iiiceoei? yaea?i?e aia?aaoeoe? a N?N? i a Oe?a?ii cie?aia.
Aeieiai/ia naiaeiiinoue iiiiaio?a yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee, aiaeaeoa a
aeieiai/i?e iiaaae?ioe?, oa i?aaiaiiy ae?yoe ni?eueii i?ecaaee aei ?o
ia’?aeiaiiy a iao?yaeia? aeieiai/i? i?aaiicaoei? i oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaiiai
aioeyaea?iiai ?ooo, ui iaea?aeaa oe?ieo iiaeo?eieo a?iiaaenueeinoi. Oae,
ii/aaoe a eiioei 80-o ?ieia iieaiieo c yaea?iith aaeoccth,
i?e?iaeicaoeni? i?aaiicaoei? a N?N? anooieee c iath a nioe?i-aeieiai/iee
aeiaeia.

A ii/aoeiaie noaaei? nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao a Oe?a?ii c i?iaeaie
aeiyeueiinoi yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee «caeaiei», /e? oaoiieiai? oi/a e iaee
?aaeeeaeueiee oa?aeoa?, aea a?aeaeaaee iaii?e ethaeae, ni?yiiaaii ia
eieaiaeaoeith aoiiieo noaoe?e a e?a?ii, aoea caaacia/aia iiaia
iiaeo?eiea a?iiaaenueeinoth. I?ioa c /anii «yaea?ieeaie» aoee
aeoeaiciaaii ??ciiai ?iaeo nioeiaeueii oaoiieiai? (oaei, ye aieea ia
iiiiaio?a i aoaeeoi?ith /a?ac caniae ianiai? iioi?iaoei?, eiaithaaiiy
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ooai?aiiy iioi?iaoeieieo oeaio?ia oa ii.), ui a
eiioeaaiio i?aenoieo caaacia/eei ia?niaeoeae aeiyeueiinoi yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee a e?a?i?.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao a Oe?a?i? iieaco?, ui oi/a
a?iiaaenueea aeoiea ia ? i?inoith noiith aieea?a nioe?aeueieo ia?oia??a
ae?aeiao, aea i?e aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeiio eiai ?icaeoeia? a?iiaaenuee?noue
— aoaeeoi??y ae?aeiao i???ioo?oueny ia i?aeo?eieo noi?iie, ui
aeei?enoiao? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaio o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oaoiieia?th. A oiaei
aeiaeiao, aeeneoooth/e iiae niaith, «yaea?ieee» i «caeaii» iiae oeneii
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, ui ciiithaaeany a oiaei ae?aeiao, aeiooai? aoee
ei?eaoaaoe nai? iiceoei?, eoe ia iinooiee iaeia iaeiiio. Oea yeithnue
ii?ith iii’yeoeei noia?a/iinoi iiae ieie i, ye iane?aeie, ciiieei
iiceoeith aoaeeoi?i?. Oaeei /eiii, a aeiaeici aeieeei noaiiaeua, i?e
yeiio noi?iie aeinyaee iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai ?acoeueoaoo i?e inioth/eo
aca?ieiao noi??i i a?iiaaenuee?e ioeiioei ?o aeiyeueiinoi. O
eaacinoaaieueiiio iieiaeaii? nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao, ui neeaeiny,
noi?iie aecia/athoue nai? iiaeaeueoi ieaie, i?iaiicothoue iiaeeeao
?aaeoeith aoaeeoi?i? ia ?o caeieniaiiy, ii?aoeueiaothoue nioeiaeueii
oaoiieiai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai i?iaaaeaiiy nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao.

Iniiaiei iaoiaee/iei caniaii caeieniaiiy nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao ?
nioeiaeueii oaoiieiai?, aea oaeoe/ii a?i noai?th?oueny ia a?oiith
ie?aieo oaoiieiaie, a ?o ainaiaeyie, a yeeo nioeiaeueii oaoiieiai?
aca?iii aeiiiaiththoue, iiaeo?eiothoue i ci?iththoue iaeia iaeio. A
ainaiaeyo cae/aeii ii?aeiothoueny oaoiieiai? «aei?noeiai» oeio — c
aeieii iaaieo i oieniaaieo i?ioeaaeo?, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy
eiie?aoiiai ?acoeueoaoo, i «iaaei?noe?» — «i’yei», oaoiieiai?,
i?ioeaaeo?e yeeo aecia/athoueny /e ooi/iththoueny aaea a i?ioeani
aeiaeiao. I?e/iio oaoiieiai? ia?oiai oeio a?ae?a?athoue a ae?aeic? ?ieue
aeiiiiiaeieo. Uiaei “i’yeeo” oaoiieia?e, oi a iii?oiiio /ene? aeiaaee?a
?oi?i no?oeoo?ai i?eoaiaiiee aeai?eoi ?ieueiaeo ?ai?.

Aiaeiiaiaeii aei i?aaeiaoo nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao iiaeeeaa ye
aeei?enoaiiy aiaeiieo, oae i ?ic?iaea iiaeo nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie. I?e
oeueiio, iacaaeath/e ia a?aei?iiino? aeei?enoaiiy ? neeaaei?noue
no?oeoo? nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie, caniaia i?aaiicaoei?, noa?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, neooaoeaieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e, ?icii i?aeoiaee aei ?iaiy
i?i?iaee no?oeoo?e i oaoiieiai/ieo aoaiia, aiie iathoue aeinoaoiuei
aaaaoi iiae?aieo yeinoae. Oea aeicaiey? iaaiith i??ith oi?iaeicoaaoe
i?ioean ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie ? neeanoe
ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi oe??? ae?yeueiino? ia ?? aeieiioi?eaoeaiiio,
eiioi?eaoeaiiio ? iinoeiioi?eaoeaiiio aoaiao.

?ica’ycaiiy eiioeieoo oe?iiinoae caniaii nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao noaaeoue
aeniei aeiiae aei ci?noiaii? eiiiiiaioe ia?aieo ia?oia?aie ae?aeiao
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieiaie, ui aiaeaeaa? oeiiiinoi ? iioa?ane, aeaeea?iaaii
ieie. *anoi o?aiey?oueny, ui iaeia ? oa ae iiaeiy, oaeo /e ia’?eo a
caeaaeiinoi aiae aeiaeiai/ii? neooaoei? iiaeooue iioa?i?aooaaoeny
nioeiaeueieie oaoiieiaiyie ia?oia?ia aeiaeiao ic ?icieo oe?ii?nieo
iiceoeie. I?e oeueiio, a?aoiaoth/e ?ieue a?iiaaenueeinoi a ?icaeoeo
nioeiaeueiiai aeiaeiao, eiino?othaaiith nioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai?
aeiaeiai/ii? aca?iiaei? a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo ioneoue ia?aaeoaaoe
aiaeic noaio ? iniaeeainoae a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee. A ?yaei aeiaaeeia i?e
eiino?othaaii? nioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai? ? iaiaoiaeiei aeeoa?aioeithaaoe
ia’?eo aieeao ia no?aoe, oyaeaiiy yeeo i?i i?aaeiao aeiaeiao iathoue
?ica?aeiino?. A nioe?i-aeieiai/iiio aeiaeici oniioiei aoaea aeei?enoaiiy
oeo nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie, ye? i?i?ioiaai? ia iaeaieueo iioe?ai? a
na?aaeiaeu?, ui ? ia’?eoii nioe?i-oaoiieia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeieiai/ii
noaeoeueoo?i? oi?ie.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aenoiooi i?iiiceoe?? oa aecia/aii ia?niaeoeae ? iai?yie
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie ae??oaiiy nioeiaeueieo eiioeieoia
(aai i?ioe?i/ ye ia?aaeeiioe?eoieo noaiia), ui aiaeaoaathoueny ia
iiaenoaai ?icieo oe?ii?nieo iiceoe?e noi??i, a aeena?oaoe?? aenoiooi ?
iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao ye aeai??aiaai? nenoaie
«ia?oia? aeiaeiao — ia?oia? aeiaeiao» i «ia?oia?e aeiaeiao — aoaeeoi?iy
aeiaeiao», yea ?icaeaa?oueny e naiiaaeineiiaeth?oueny a i?ioean?
ae?aeiao. Ieceith aii??e/ieo ? aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao ye iniaeeaiai oeio nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao,
i?aaeiaoii yeiai ? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?a??, iieacaia iaoeiaa
ni?iiiaei?noue eiioeaioe??. Oaeei /eiii a aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaia
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aacia?a?aiiai nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao aeey
ae??oaiiy iaea?eueo neeaaeieo nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a — eiioe?eo?a
oe?iiinoae.

Aeiaaeueiee aeieia?/iee eiioe?eo a noni?euenoa? i?aaenoaaeaiee a
aeena?oaoe?? ye i?ioenoiyiiy i?ea?/iee?a ?aeae ?iaae?iiiaioae?cio oa
?aeae oaoiie?aoecio, a ni?iiiaei?noue eiai ?ica’ycaiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny c
iiceoe?e nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao, ui niiioaiii ?icii/aany a
noni?euenoa?. Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie i?iaaaeaii ia a?oio? nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai
ae?aeiao c i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?a??. Iieacaii, ui ia?oia?e
ae?aeiao: anana?oi?e aeieia?/iee ?oo oa “yaea?ieee” — nioe?aeueia
a?oiia, yea i?aeo?eio? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?a??, ? aeineoue
cia/ieie nioe?aeueieie ooai?aiiyie. Oae aeieia?/iiio ?ooia? i?eoaiai?
an? ?ene ?ooo nioe?aeueiiai, a ae?yeuei?noue c aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii?
aia?a?? aenooia? ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, ui ciaoiaeeoueny o oac?
noaiiaeaiiy. Oea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?aiee oai?aoeei-nioe?aeueieo
cania?a oa oi?aae?iuenueeeo i?aeoiae?a aei ieo, ye? canoiniaothoueny o
aca?iiae?? c nioe?aeueieie ?ooaie oa nioe?aeueieie ?inoeoooaie, ?
aecia/eoe eiiai?iinoue nioeiaeueieo i?iaiic?a o oeie noa?i. Aiaecia/aii,
ui nioeiaeueia aeoeaiinoue eeieiai/iiai ?ooo iiiioiith ii?ith iaoiiaeaia
oei, ui aii ?aaeico? naaa a i?aaiicaoeieieo oi?iao aeaio oeiia:
iao?yaeiai aeieiai/ii i?aaiicaoei? oa iieioe/ii ia?oi?. Iiaeaeueoa
oaa?ooae?caoe?y ? ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? c aeei?enoaiiy
yaea?ii? aia?a?? nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ni?eeiyooy ??
a?iiaaenuee?noth ? ae?aeia?/ii? aca?iiae?? ia?oia??a ae?aeiao.

Aiae?oe/i? oa aii??e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao c
yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee a Oe?a?i?, ui aoee i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii c iiceoe?e
nioe?i-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo, aeicaieeee aecia/eoe caaaeuei?
iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao, i?e/eie eiai aeieeiaiiy, oace
?icaeoeo, aieea ia oeae i?ioean nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e ia?oia??a
ae?aeiao. Iieacaii, ui iiceoe?y a?iiaaenueeino?, yea ? aoaeeoi???th
ae?aeiao, nooo?ai aieeaa? ia eiai o?ae, aea a?iiaaenueea aeoiea uiaei
i?aaeiaoa ae?aeiao iiaea aooe nei?eaiaaia eiai ia?oia?aie oeyoii
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaen?a aoaeoeaieo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e ae?aeia?/ii?
aca?iiae??. C iaeyaeo ia oea a ?iaio? aoa i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
canoiniao?ieo o nioe?i-aeieia?/iiio ae?aeic? nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e ?
iaea?aeaee a?eueo aeeaieee ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy ?c
noai?aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai aeai?eoio oi?ioaaiiy nioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie c
iiceoe?e i?enoinoaaiiy eiai aei nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o noa??
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy aeey i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo
eiioe?eo?a oe?iiinoae ??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi. Eiie?aoia ae?yeuei?noue
o oeueiio iai?yi? iieyaa? a ?i?oeththaaii? nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao,
?ic?iaoe? e ai?iaaaeaeaii? aoaeoeaieo nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e aeey eiai
noi??i oa o anaa?/iie i?aeo?eioei oiea?aioiiai ?icaeoeo ae?aeiao.
Ii?aoethaaiiy i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o nioeiaeueio aeieniinoue eiie?aoieo noai
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai aeiaeiao aeicaieeoue cieceoe nioeiaeueio
iai?oaeai?noue a noniieuenoai, iaoiiaeaio aeiyeuei?noth yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee, aecia/eoe nioeiaeueio aeioeieueiinoue ?? aeiyeueiinoi i
?icaeoeo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?aoi?:

1. Naiia I.I. Cioeeaeueiue aeeaeia a yeieiae/aneii eiioeeeoa. —
Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1999. — 11,3 ae?oe.a?e.

Noaooi o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

2. Caiia I.I., Oeiaea A.A. I?i «caaaeueio i?aaiicaoeieio iaoeo
(oaeoieiaith)» Aiaaeaiiaa I.I. // Ainiee Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo:
na?iy» Oieinioiy». — 1973. — N 101. — A.9. — N. 52-60.

3. Naiia I.I., Iaoiiiaa I.A., Eeoieao O.A. Aeaeaeaiea «caeaiuo» Oe?aeiu
aeacaie aai aeoeaenoia e acaeyae nioeeieiaa // Oeeinioneay e
nioeeieiae/aneay iuneue. — 1991. — N 10. — N. 18-24.

4. Naiia I.I., Iaoiiiaa I.A., Eeoieao O.A. Yeieiae/aneay
iai?yaeaiiinoue a ?aaeiiao yenieoaoaoeee AYN: nioeeaeueiua aniaeou //
Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. — 1992. — N2. — N. 94-96.

5. Naiia I.I., Iaoiiiaa I.A., Eiaooiaiei A.A. Aeaeaeaiea “caeaiuo” e
i?anna Oe?aeiu ii aii?inai ?aaeeaoeeiiiie yeieiaee // Iaoa?eaeu
oeieu-naieia?a “Caeaiua” e n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee”. E.:
Yeioeaio?, 1992. — N.33-35.

6. Sappa N.N., Gushin V.A., Pakhomova N.V. Social-Psychological Analysis
of the Public Attitude to Radiation and Other Factor of Risk //
Transactions of American Nuclear Society. V. 67 (Sapl. 1). — 1992. — P.
27-31.

7. Naiia I.I. I piee iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey a paoaiee yeiiiie/aneeo
caaea/ (ia ipeia?a aoiiiie yiapaaoeee) // Iaoa?iaee ? Iiaeia?iaeiiai
eiia?ano oe?a?inueeeo aeiiiiinoia (Eeia, o?aaaiue 1992 ?.). E., 1992. —
N. 47-50.

8. Naiia I.I. Iiuo nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a Oe?aeia ii
nioeeaeueiie i?eaieaiinoe yaea?ii-yia?aaoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee. — Eca?aiiua
o?oaeu I Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a ssaea?iiai Iauanoaa «Nuclear Power
and Public Opinion» (iae 1992 a., Eaieia?aae). — N. 46-47.

9. Sappa N.N. Ukrainian «Greens» and Nuclear Power // Oransactions of
International Workshop on Nuclear Public Information in Practice — PIME
(31.01-3.02.1993, Karlovy Vary, Czeh rep.) — 1993. — P.189-198.

10. Naiia I.I., Eeoieao O.A., Ieeaoeei Ae.I., Ii?aeiaaiei Ae.I.
O?aaiaeiinoue ianaeaiey iaeciaiia // Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai. — 1993. — N
1. — N. 126-130.

11. Naiia I.I., Ii?aeiaaiei Ae.I. Yeieiae/aneia i?inaauaiea a
ai?iaeao-niooieeao AYN Oe?aeiu // Oeeinioneay e nioeeieiae/aneay iuneue.
— 1993. — N 2. — C.46-56.

12. Naiia I.I., Ii?aeiaaiei Ae.I., Naiia Ae.I. Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea
aeacaie iiae?inoeia // Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. — 1993.- N 6. —
C. 108-109.

13. Naiia I.I., Ii?aeiaaiei Ae.I. Cioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e
iaania/aiea nioeeaeueiie i?eaieaiinoe aoiiiie yia?aaoeee // Aoiiiay
iaoea e oaoieea ca ?oaaaeii. — 1993. — ?7. — N.11-13.

14. Eeceeia A.E. Iaa?ioeeee A.E., Naiia I.I., Nieo?yineay E.A.,
Oeeeineay E.A. Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu ia yeieiaee e aoiiiuo
noaioeeyo // Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia iao/iiai naieia?a «Yeieiaey AYN»
(Iaeanna, 4-8 ieo. 1993 a.), I., 1993. — N.80-86.

15. Eocueiaiei A.N., Naiia I.I. I iaaeeei-nioeeieiae/aneii
(aeiiicieiae/aneii) iiieoi?eiaa a ?aaeiia ?aniieiaeaiey AYN// Nai?iee
iaoa?eaeia iao/iiai naieia?a «Yeieiaey AYN» (Iaeanna, 4-8 ieo. 1993 a.),
I., 1993. — N.86-88.

16. Naiia I.I. ssaea?iia ?ac?oaeaiea a Oe?aeia: i?anna e iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea // Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai. — 1994. — N1. — N. 19-24.

17. Naiia I.I. I nioeeaeueiie ioeaiea yeieiae/aneiai ?enea //
Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai. — 1994. — N 4. — C. 71-74.

18. Naiia I.I. Yeieiai-nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey eae
eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey a oi?aaeaiee oa??eoi?eae // Iaoa?iaee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai naiiia?o c aaiiioi?iaoeieieo nenoai (Aiiieoey,
22-25.11.93), E., 1994. N. 145-148.

19. Caiia I.I. A?iiaaenueea aeoiea c ieoaiue aeieiai? ye ia’?eo
iiiioi?iiao // Aeineiaeaeaiiy ia?aaee?eciaeo aeieiai/ieo neooaoeie a
Oe?a?ii. — E.: Iaione?eio, 1994. — N.165-167.

20. Naiia I.I. Yeieiae/aneia niciaiea e ieo // The World of Security. —
1994. — N 3. — P. 21-22.

21. Naiia I.I., Ea?anthe A.A. Niiauanoai /a?iiaueueneeo naiinaeia (iiuo
nioeeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca) // Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. — 1994.- N
4. — C. 107-109.

22. Aonaa A.A., Eocueiaiei A.N., Naiia I.I. Oa??eoi?eaeueii-io?aneaaua
aniaeou aaciianiinoe aoiiiie yia?aaoeee // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e
oaoieee. — 1994. — Aui. 2-3 (62-63). — N.139-142.

23. Naiia I.I. Eeieiai/iee ?oo: ei?ioeee ia?en inoi?i? oa ?icaeoeo
// Iieioieiai/ii /eoaiiy. — 1995. — N 2. — C.140-150.

24. Naiia I.I. Ia oi?aaeaiee ?eneii a aoiiiie yia?aaoeea:
nioeeaeueiua aniaeou // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. — 1995. — Aui.
1 (64). — N. 88-92.

25. Naiia I.I. O.A. ?aeianeee ia Oe?aeia a 1925 e 1927 aa. (i
oi?ie?iaaiee iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey a oioaeeoa?iie aea?aeaaa) //
Oioaeeoa?eci e aioeoioaeeoa?iua aeaeaeaiey (20-80 aiaeu OO aaea). —
Oa?ueeia, 1995. -O.2. — N.461-470.

26. Naiia I.I. Nioeei-yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey — acaeyae ec
nooaeai/aneie n?aaeu // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-95
(aeieeaaeu e niiauaiey o/anieeia). X., 1995. — N. 150-153.

27. Naiia I.I. Aeeaeia ia yaea?iie yia?aaoeea e oiea?aioiinoue //
Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee «Oiea?aioiinoue eae eoeueoo?iay
oieaa?naeey» (Oa?ueeia, iae 1996). O., 1996. — N.29.

28. Caiia I.I. Aoiiiua noaioeee eae oo?enonei-yeneo?neiiiua iauaeou //
Oaiaoe/iee cai?iee (aei.1) «Oo?enoe/ii ?ano?ne Oe?a?ie». E.: Oe?. ?i-o
oo?ecio, 1996. — C. 210-215.

29. Naiia I.I. Nioeeaeueiua ioeaiee yeieiae/aneiai ?enea e
i?eaieaiinoue yaea?iie yia?aaoeee / Iaoa?iaee II Iiaeia?iaeii?
eiioa?aioei? «Aeieiaiy i inaioa: i?iaeaie oai?i? i i?aeoeei»: (*a?eane,
1996). *a?eanu, 1997. — N. 24-27.

30. Naiia I.I. Cioeeaeueiue aeeaeia a noieeiiaaiee eaeae ?acaeoey //
Ainiee Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo: nioeiieiai/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy
no/aniiai noniieuenoaa, oai?iy, iaoiaeieiaiy. — A.393. — 1997. — N.
127-136.

31. Naiia I.I. O enoieia nioeeaeueiie yeieiaee // Oa?ueeianeea
nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-97 (aeieeaaeu e niiauaiey o/anoieeia). O.,
1997. — N. 99-103. // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-97 (aeieeaaeu
e niiauaiey o/anoieeia). O., 1997. — N. 99-103.

32. Naiia I.I., Aaaaiei N.A. I nioeeaeueiie oeaiiinoe onoie/eaiai
?acaeoey ai?iuo ?aaeiiia (ii ?acoeueoaoai nioeeieiae/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey) // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-97 (aeieeaaeu e
niiauaiey o/anoieeia). O., 1997. — N. 395-397.

33. Aoceaoaeee A.A., Naiia I.I. Caei?iauea eae eaoaai?ey nioeeaeueiie
yeieiaee // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-97 (aeieeaaeu e
niiauaiey o/anoieeia). O., 1997. — N. 105-108.

34. Naiia I.I. Iinoea oo?ecio a nenoaii cioeiaeueieo oaoiieiaie
i?e?iaeicaoeniiai ?ooo // Oo?enoe/ii-e?aaciaa/i aeineiaeaeaiiy: cai?iee
iaoeiaeo noaoae. — E.: Oe?a?inueeee iinoeooo oo?ecio. — 1998. — Aei.1. —
*.1. — N. 225-230.

35. Naiia I.I. Nioeeaeueiue aeeaeia eae noiia oaoiieiaee // Ainiee
Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo: iaoea i nioeiaeueii i?iaeaie noniieuenoaa. —
Aei. 414’98. — 1998. — 89-94.

36. Naiia I.I. Nioeei-yeieiae/aneee aeeaeia a Oe?aeia i yaea?iie
yia?aaoeea // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-98 (aeieeaaeu e
niiauaiey o/anoieeia), X. — 1998. — N.175-180.

37. Naiia I.I. Eneonnoai ieaeaoa eae nioeeaeueiay oaoiieiaey //
Nioeeieiaey: oai?ey, iaoiaeu, ia?eaoeia. — 1999. — ?1. — N.114-118.

38. Naiia I.I. Eniieueciaaiea yaea?iie yia?aee: i?ioeann
einoeoooeeaeecaoeee // Ainiee Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo: nioeiieiai/ii
aeineiaeaeaiiy no/aniiai noniieuenoaa, oai?iy, iaoiaeieiaiy. — Aui.
433’99. — 1999. — N.59-66.

39. Naiia I.I. Ea?a a oaoiieiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiey yeieiae/aneiai iiaaaeaiey
// Ainiee Oa?eianueeiai oiiaa?neoaoo: ineoieia?y, nioeiieiaiy,
iieeoieia?y. — Aei. 439’99. — 1999. — *. 4-5. — N. 325-328.

40. Naiia I.I. Ainoaea?noai e nioeeaeueiua aeaeaeaiey: oaoiieiaee
acaeiiaeaenoaey // Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
noni?eueii? aeoiee ? i?aeoeea oi?aae?iiy”. — Caii?iaeuea: AIA
“Aeaeaaaoeue”, 1999. — Aui.5. — *.1. — N.126-130.

I?ai?eioe:

41. Naiia I.I., Iaoiiiaa I.A. Yeieiai-nioeeieiae/aneee iiieoi?eia ciiu
?aniieiaeaiey aoiiiie noaioeee. O.: 1992. — 10 n. (I?ai?. / Oa?ueeianeee
oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo; 15-92).

42. Naiia I.I., Iaoiiiaa I.A. Iniiau i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u nenoaiu
eioi?ie?iaaiey i aeayoaeueiinoe AYN (nioeeaeueiua aniaeou) O.: 1992. — 8
n. (I?ai?. / Oa?ueeianeee oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo; 16-92).

Aeaye? oace ? ?aoa?aoe aeiiia?aeae:

43. Naiia I.I. I?iaeaiu eioi?ie?iaaiey a oneiaeyo aeoeaiiai iai?eyoey
eioi?iaoeee // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iaaeaocianeie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee
«Iaoea, ia?aciaaiea, aoiaieci» (Oa?ueeia, iae 1990a.). O., 1990. —
C.111-112.

44. Naiia I.I., Eeoieao O.A. AEaiueiu e AYN (nioeeieiae/aneea
iaaethaeaiey) // ?aoa?aou 4-e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee ssaea?iiai
iauanoaa «ssaea?iay yia?aey e aaciianiinoue /aeiaaea» (Ieaeiee
Iiaai?iae, ?inney). I., 1993. — *.2. — 1304-1306.

45. Naiia I.I., Ieeaoeei Ae.I., Ii?aeiaaiei Ae.I. Acaeyae ia aoiiioth
yia?aaoeeo n iiceoeee ia?eaoeiaa // ?aoa?aou 4-e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee ssaea?iiai iauanoaa «ssaea?iay yia?aey e aaciianiinoue
/aeiaaea» (Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, ?inney). I., 1993. — *.2. — N.1309-1311.

46. Naiia I.I. Yeieiae/aneia niciaiea e iiaaaeaiea a enoi?e/aneeo
o?aaeeoeeyo Oa?ueeiaueiu // Nioeiaeueii i?ioeane a ?aaiiiao Oe?a?ie: Ca.
oac aeiiiaiaeae Iaae?aaiiiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?
«?aaiiie a iacaeaaeiie Oe?a?ii» (Oa?eia, aa?acaiue. O., 1994. — N.
130-131.

47. Naiia I.I. Aei icoi?i? i?e?iaeicaoinoiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?ii // Oace
aeiiiaiaeae III iaoeiai? eiioa?aioei? «I?iaeaie caa?aaeaiiy oa
aiaeiiaeaiiy inoi?e/ii? iai’yoi» (Oa?eia, 23-24 o?aaiy ?.). Oa?eia:
OAeIE, 1995. — C.126.

48. Naiia I.I. Aoiiiay yia?aaoeea eae i?aaeiao nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai
aeeaeiaa // Aook of abstracts of the Sixth Scientific & Technical
Conference of the Nuclear Society (Kiev, 3-7 July 1995). I.: ssaea?iia
iauanoai, 1995. — N.262-263.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoai? ?aea? aai
?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai, ?acii c yeeie aoee iioae?eiaai?
iaoeia? i?aoe?. O aeeiiaieo a niiaaaoi?noai iaoeiaeo ?iaioao aaoi?iai
iaeaaeaoue: a ?iaioao 3-6,10-15,21,22,32,33,41,42,44,45 — iinoaiiaea
caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy, ea?iaieoeoai aeine?aeaeaiiyi, aaciina?aaeiy
o/anoue o eiai i?iaaaeaiii, a ia?iaoei ? aiae?c? ?acoeueoaoia, oa
i?iaiaeia ?ieue o oi?ioethaaiii aeniiaeia; a ?iaioi 2 — aaciina?aaeiy
o/anoue a onio aoaiao ?? aeeiiaiiy.

AIIOAOe?ss

Naiia I.I. ssaea?ia aia?aaoeea ye i?aaeiao nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao
(nioe?i-oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.07 — nioe?ieia?y oi?aae?iiy. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a
nioe?i-aeieiai/iiai ae?aeiao, i?aaeiaoii yeiai ? aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii?
aia?aaoeee. Aenoiooa i iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioeiy nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao
ye aeai??aiaai? nenoaie nioe?i-oaoiieia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iieacaii ni?iiiaei?noue eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ae?aeiao ye
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? nioe?aeueii? oaoiieia??, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe nioe?aeueiee ae?aeia a nioe?aeueiiio oi?aae?ii? i?e
ae??oaii? eiioe?eo?a oe?iiinoae. ?icaeyiooi ia?oia??a
nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao, i?aaeiaoii yeiai ? yaea?ia aia?aaoeea, ?
aeiaaaeaii, ui ae?yeuei?noue c aeei?enoaiiy yaea?ii? aia?a?? ?
nioe?aeueiei ?inoeoooii, ui ciaoiaeeoueny o oac? noaiiaeaiiy, a
anana?oi?e aeieia?/iee ?oo ? ?ooii nioe?aeueiei. Aea/aii nioe?aeuei?
oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiaothoue ia?oia?e nioe?i-aeieia?/iiai ae?aeiao ?
iaea?aeaii a?eueo aeeaieee ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo aeineiaeaeaiiue c?
noai?aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai aeai?eoio oi?ioaaiiy nioeiaeueii? oaoiieiai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueiee ae?aeia, aeieia?/iee eiioe?eo, nioe?aeuei?
oaoiieia??, yaea?ia aia?a?y, aeieia?/ia ieneaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naiia I.I. ssaea?iay yia?aaoeea eae i?aaeiao nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai
aeeaeiaa (nooeei-oaoiieiae/aneee iiaeoiae). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.07 — nioeeieiaey oi?aaeaiey — Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo aniaeoia
nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai aeeaeiaa, i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai yaeyaony yaea?iay
yia?aaoeea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai aeeaeiaa
iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ooiaeaiaioaeueioth
nioeeaeueioth oaoiieiaeth ?ac?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia, aicieeoeo a iauanoaa a nayce ni noieeeie eciaiaieyie a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Yoe eiioeeeou ioiinyony e oeio iaeaieaa neiaeiuo a
?ac?aoaiee eiioeeeoia oeaiiinoae. I?e/ai iiiai/eneaiiua eieaeueiua
yeieiae/aneea eiioeeeou yaeythony io?aaeaieai aeiaaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai
eiioeeeoa, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaaony a aeenna?oaoeee eae noieeiiaaiea
noi?iiieeia eaeae eiaae?iiiaioaeecia e oaoiie?aoecia.

Aaoi?ii auaeaeiooa eiioeaioeey ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia oeaiiinoae iaoiaeii
nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa eae aeaio?iaiaaie nenoaiu ioiioaiee «ia?oia?
aeeaeiaa — ia?oia? aeeaeiaa» e «ia?oia?u aeeaeiaa — aoaeeoi?ey
aeeaeiaa», eioi?ay ?acaeaaaony e naiioniaa?oainoaoaony a i?ioeanna
aeeaeiaa. A ?aieao eiioeaioeee aoaeeoi?eae nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa
aunooiaao iauanoaaiiinoue. I?e aa o/anoee ?acaeoea aeeaeiaa i?ienoiaeeo
ia aeaoo o?iaiyo: inouanoaeyy aeeaeiae/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea, ia?oia?u
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ae?oa ia ae?oaa e ia iauanoaaiiinoue, oi?ie?oy oaeei
ia?acii iauanoaaiiia iiaiea a naith iieueco, iaeiia?aiaiii ei??aeoe?oy
naie iiceoeee iiae aicaeaenoaeai eciaiythuaainy iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
Iniiaiui iaoiaeieiae/aneei n?aaenoaii inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueiiai
aeeaeiaa yaeythony nioeeaeueiua oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua ?ac?aaaouaatho e
eniieuecotho ia?oia?u aeeaeiaa aeey aeeyiey ae?oa ia ae?oaa e ia
iauanoaaiiinoue.

Eco/aiea i?iaeaiu nioeeaeueiie oeaeania?aciinoe eniieueciaaiey yaea?iie
yia?aee i?iaaaeaii ia iniiaaiee auiieiaiiuo aaoi?ii aiaeeoe/aneeo e
yiie?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai aeeaeiaa i yaea?iie
yia?aaoeea. A ea/anoaa ia?oia?ia aeeaeiaa a aeenna?oaoeee
?anniao?eaathony nioeeaeueiay a?oiia noi?iiieeia aeayoaeueiinoe yaea?iie
yia?aaoeee e o/anoieee i?e?iaeicaueoiiai aeaeaeaiey. Iieacaii, /oi iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nioeeaeueiue einoeooo,
iaoiaeyueeny a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu — nioeeaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea, iinyuaa ieaiaoa?iue oa?aeoa?. Yoi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue
?aiee oai?aoeei-nioeeaeueiuo e oi?aaeai/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e iei,
eniieuecoaiuo ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n nioeeaeueiuie einoeoooaie e
nioeeaeueiuie aeaeaeaieyie e ioeaieoue aa?iyoiinoue nioeeaeueiuo
i?iaiicia a yoie noa?a. Ioia/aii, /oi c?aeinoue e nioeeaeueiay
aeoeaiinoue yeieiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey ai iiiaii iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi iii
?aaeecoao naay a i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?iao aeaoo oeiia:
iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee (a?aaeaeaineea eieoeeaoeau) e
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee. Iieacaii oaeaea, /oi iiceoeey iauanoaaiiinoe eae
aoaeeoi?ee aeeaeiaa nouanoaaiii aeeyao ia aai oiae, iaeiaei iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea ioiineoaeueii i?aaeiaoa aeeaeiaa iiaeao auoue nei??aeoe?iaaii
aai ia?oia?aie i?eiaiaieai yooaeoeaiuo nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee
aeeaeiae/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

I?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai aeeaeiaa
?anniao?eaaaony a aeenna?oaoeee ia iaoa?eaea aeayoaeueiinoe yaea?iie
yia?aaoeee a Oe?aeia e i?iaeaiu aa nioeeaeueiiai i?eyoey. Iiaeiaiue
aiaeec e?aeia aaaeai aeey iaoae no?aiu, ia?aaeeaoae *a?iiaueueneoth
aaa?eth e iaeaaeathuae iiuiie yaea?iie yia?aaoeeie. Ia iaoe?iii
yiie?e/aneii iaoa?eaea, iieo/aiiii aaoi?ii, iieacaii /oi a Oe?aeia
i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia naeeaeaiea iiceoeee ia?oia?ia aeeaeiaa, /aio
niinianoaoao eciaiaiea (a noi?iio aieueoae aaeaeaaoiinoe neooaoeee)
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey iiae aeeyieai nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee ia?oia?ia
aeeaeiaa. Enneaaeiaaiea iicaieeei auyaeoue ?yae iniaaiiinoae
nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa: oa?aeoa? aai aicieeiiaaiey, oacu ?acaeoey,
aeeyiea ia yoio i?ioeann nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee ia?oia?ia aeeaeiaa.

A ?aaioa aue oaeaea i?iaaaeai aiaeec eniieueciaaiiuo a
nioeei-yeieiae/aneii aeeaeiaa nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee, auyaeaiu eo
iniaaiiinoe e iieo/eee aieaa aeoaieia ?acaeoea oai?aoe/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey ii nicaeaieth iaiauaiiiai aeai?eoia oi?ie?iaaiey
nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee n iiceoeee eniieueciaaiey eo a nioeeaeueiii
aeeaeiaa.

Iieo/aiiua a aeenna?oaoeee ?acoeueoaou oeacuaatho ia iao/ioth e
i?aeoe/aneoth aeaenoaaiiinoue eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa, /oi
oeacuaaao ia aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa a noa?a
nioeeaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey aeey i?aeoe/aneiai ?ac?aoaiey neiaeiuo
eiioeeeoia oeaiiinoae. Eiie?aoiay aeayoaeueiinoue a yoii iai?aaeaiee
ninoieo a eieoeee?iaaiee nioeeaeueiiai aeeaeiaa, ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiee
yooaeoeaiuo nioeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee aeey noi?ii aeeaeiaa, a oaeaea ai
ananoi?iiiae iiaeaea?aeea oiea?aioiiai ?acaeoey aeeaeiaa. Aiaae?aiea a
nioeeaeueioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eiie?aoiuo noai nioeei-yeieiae/aneiai
aeeaeiaa iicaieeo nieceoue nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue a iauanoaa,
iaoneiaeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoueth yaea?iie aia?aaoeee, ii?aaeaeeoue
nioeeaeueioth oeaeania?aciinoue aa aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiue aeeaeia, yeieiae/aneee eiioeeeo,
nioeeaeueiua oaoiieiaee, yaea?iay yia?aey, yeieiae/aneia niciaiea.

ANNOTATION

Sappa M.M. Nuclear energtics as a subject of socio-ecological dialogue
(social and technological approach). — Manuscript.

Disseration for doctor’s degree in sociology on speciality 22.00.07. —
sociology of management. — Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the study of theoretical and practical
aspects of social dialogue which is nuclear energy. Conception of
social dialogue as a two level system of socio-technological activity is
suggested and stipulate.

The capacity of conception of social dialogue is shown as fundamental
social technology which makes possible usage of it in social regulation
at solving conflicts of values. Partners of socio-ecological dialogue
are studied and the subject of it is nuclear energy. It is proved that
activity of usage of nuclear energy is a social institution which is at
the period of its formation. Worldwide ecological movement is a social
movement. Social technologies, tnat partners of socio-ecological
dialogue use are studied and deeper development of theoretical reseach
on general algorithm of creation of social technology have been
received.

Key words: social dialogue, ecological conflict, social technologies,
nuclear energy, ecological mentality.

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