Яблуневий квіткоїд та яблунева плодожерка у Східному Лісостепу України (фенологія, шкодочинність, прогноз): Автореф. дис… канд. с.-г. наук / А.В. Ва

2

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO?IAI? A.A. AeIEO*A?AA

Aann?e?n Aiae?aa Aann?e?o

OAeE 632.768.12+632.782:632.914:[634.11

ssAEOIAAEE EA?OEI?Ae OA ssAEOIAAA IEIAeIAEA?EAO NO?AeIIIO E?NINOAIO
OE?A?IE (OAIIEIA?ss, OEIAeI*EII?NOUe, I?IAIIC)

03.00.09 – aioiiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? A.A. Aeieo/a?aa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EEOAEIIA Ai?en Ieo?ioaiiae/,Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ciieia?? oa aioiiieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe –aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee E?ANEEIAAOeUe TH??e Aaa?eeiae/,?inoeooo
?ineeiieoeoaa ?i. A.ss. TH?’?aa OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? oaoiieia??
caoenoo ?ineei

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio IAENEIIAA THe?y Iao??aia,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/ieeoi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.
Neiai?iaee,aeioeaio eaoaae?e a?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea
aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a caoenoo ?ineei, I?i?noa?noai AIE Oe?a?ie, i.Oiaiue

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 64.803.02 i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa:
312131, Oa?e?anueeee ?aeii, Oa?e?anueea iae., i/a “Eiioi?no-1”, OAeAO,
o/aiaee ei?ion ? 4, aoaeeoi??y 418.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.A. Aeieo/a?aa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
A?eee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie iiiaae 50 aeae?a
oe?aeiee?a iioeiaeaeothoue aaia?aoeai? i?aaie yaeoi?. A ?iee iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue (1996-1998) iaea?eueo /eneaiieie ? oeiaeiiinieie aoee
yaeoiaaee ea?oei?ae oa yaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea. Aiie “i?e/aoi?” aei
cia/ieo ao?ao o?iaea?a ye o No?aeiiio E?ninoaio, oae ? a oe?eiio ii
Oe?a?i?. ? aeey eiaeiiai ie?aii acyoiai ?aa?iio aeoaea aaaeeeaei ?
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ?o a?ieia??, aeieia??, aoieia?? oa oeiaei/eiiino?.

Ia an? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa oeiaei/eiiino? aeacaieo aeae?a aena?oeai?
a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, ia ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ??/iiai
i?iaiico oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee aeey oiia No?aeiiai
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iaaeieoaeeoe oea aaaeeeai ye c oai?aoe/iiai, oae ? c i?aeoe/iiai aieo.

Aeine?aeieee ?ai?oa ia aea/aee iiaaae?ieo aeoe?a yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea,
?o i?a?aoe?th a oiiaao aeno?aiaeueieo oaiia?aoo? oa iia’ycaio c oeei
iioeiaeaeai?noue aooii?a ? eenoy a ??cieo /anoeiao e?iie aea?aa – ia
ia?eoa??? oa a oeaio??, a oaeiae iioeiaeaeai?noue caeaaeii a?ae oi?ie
e?iie. Ioe?iea nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii ?
ieiae?a yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith noinoaaeany aea?aaa a oe?eiio ?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaea o?eueee e?euee?ni?e a?e oeiaee. Iaie ae aoea
cai?iiiiiaaia ? ia?aa??aia ioe?iea nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a ?
ieiae?a ie?aii ia ia?eoa??? e?iie (aea o?iaeae ieiae?a a?eueo ye?niee) ?
a ?? oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ia o?eueee
e?euee?niee, a e ye?niee a?e oeiaee, yeo ni?e/eiythoue yaeoiaaee
ea?oei?ae oa yaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea.

A iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? oaeiae a?aenooi? ii??aiyeuei? aeai? i?i
a?io?i?/iee neeaae iaiioeiaeaeaiiai oa iioeiaeaeaiiai yaeoiaaei
ea?oei?aeii eenoy, a oaeiae i?i a?io?i?/iee neeaae ? iano
iaiioeiaeaeaieo oa iioeiaeaeaieo yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ieiae?a ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie aea?aa ? a ?? oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e ciieia?? oa
aioiiieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A.
Aeieo/a?aa noiniaii caaaeaiiy «Iaa?oiooaaoe oai??th oa ?ic?iaeoe i?eeiie
oi?aae?iiy aeeiai?eith iiioeyoe?e eiiao ia iniia? aeieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a
??cii? caa/aniino?». Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0194U012990.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue – aea/eoe
iniaeeaino? oaiieia?? oa oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ?
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee o No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

 aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee;

 aecia/eoe e?euee?nio ? ye?nio ioe?ieo oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaaiai
ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee oa ?o aieea ia o?iaeae;

 ?ic?iaeoe ??/iee i?iaiic oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee aeey
No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii
iiaaae?ieo aeoe?a yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio aeiy oa eiai ?ieue o aecia/aii? nooiaiy
iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a o aaniyiee ia??iae ? eenoy a e?oi?e ia??iae.
?ai?oa nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii ? ieiae?a
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith aecia/aany aeey aea?aaa a oe?eiio. Iaie aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a
yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii ? ieiae?a yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ie?aii ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie oa a ?? oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue
cae?enieoe ia o?eueee e?euee?nia, a e ye?nia aecia/aiiy oeiaee ?
ioe?ieoe aieea oe?aeiee?a ia o?iaeae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?eoa??eia /anoeia e?iie, yea aea? a?eueo ye?ni?
ieiaee, iioeiaeaeo?oueny a a?eueo?e i???, i?ae oeaio?aeueia, ? yaeoiaaei
ea?oei?aeii, ? yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith.

Aecia/aii i??o ooeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oi?ie e?iie aea?aa (?ic??aeaeaia aai caaouaia).

Aia?oa aeyaeaii cia/io caaeaaeue iaoaeee?a yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
ia?oiai iieie?iiy /a?ac o?eaaea cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ieae/a
ii?iaiai? i?ae /an ?o ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue a oeae
ia??iae.

Aia?oa io?eiaii ii??aiyeuei? aeai? i?i a?io?i?/iee neeaae
iaiioeiaeaeaiiai eenoy oa iioeiaeaeaiiai aeoeaie yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea,
a oaeiae i?i a?io?i?/iee neeaae ? iano iaiioeiaeaeaieo ? iioeiaeaeaieo
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ieiae?a ia ia?eoa??? e?iie oa a ??
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?.

?ic?iaeaii ??/iee i?iaiic oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee aeey
No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo. O?e??/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic??aeaeoaaiiy e?ii (ia??coaaiiy), e??i a?aeiieo
iiceoeaieo noi??i oeueiai aa?ioaoi?/iiai i?eeiio, caaacia/o? a?eueo
??aiii??ia ?icina?aaeaeaiiy yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee a e?ii? aea?aa. Oea aeicaiey? cieceoe iioeiaeaeai?noue
aooii?a ? ieiae?a ia ia?eoa??? e?ii, yea aea? a?eueo ye?ni? ieiaee.

Aeey oni?oiiai cieuaiiy yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a ?iee eiai ianiaiai
?iciiiaeaiiy ia?iaeo aea?aa ?inaeoeoeeaeaie ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe i?ae /an
ianiaiai iaieaiiy nooea?ooy – ia?aae ianiaei a?aeeeaaeaiiyi y?oeue
oe?aeieea cai?noue, o?aaeeoe?eiiai iai?eneoaaiiy o oaiioace caeaiee
eiion aai ?iaeaaee aooii, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe a?iaeae
ieiae?a.

A ?iee c o?eaaeei oo?eioaaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ieae/a ii?iaiai? (ye
o 1997 ?.) i?ae /an ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue iaoaeeeaie
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? ( a oaeeo oiiaao a?aeaoaa?oueny
cia/ia caaeaaeue oe?aeieea) iaiao?aeii o?i?/i? ia?iaee i?ioe ia?oiai
iieie?iiy caanoe aei i?i?ioio aai iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe ?o.

Neoaea? neaiae?caoe?? oa i?iaiic?a i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?ic?iaeaio iaie iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ??/iiai i?iaiico oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee aeey No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a. An? aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue oa ioae?eaoe?? aeeiiai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
c oaie aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ciieia?? oa
aioiiieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A.
Aeieo/a?aa, ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a oaeoeueoaoo caoenoo
?ineei OAeAO a 1996-1998 ??. Aaoi? aenooiea c aeiiia?aeaeth ia V c’?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai aioiiieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa a 1998 ?. o i. Oa?eia?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii /ioe?e noaoo?:
o?e– a aeo?iae? “Ecaanoey Oa?ueeianeiai yioiiieiae/aneiai iauanoaa”,
iaeia – a aeo?iae? “Aanoiee ciieiaee”, a oaeiae oace aeiiia?ae? ia V
c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai aioiiieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 139
noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae a e?eueeino? 172 iaeiaioaaiue, a oiio /ene? 31 ?iicaiieo
aaoi??a, ia? 3 aeiaeaoee, n?i ?enoie?a, 27 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE ci?no ?iaioe

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeine?aeaeaiue. A ?icae?e? iiaea?oueny
aiae?oe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c a?ieia??, aeieia??, oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea oa yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee, i?aee?aneth?oueny
iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue aaaaoueio ieoaiue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iniaeeai
oaiieia?? oa oeiaei/eiiino? aeacaieo aeae?a.

Oae, iiia?aaei?ie aeine?aeieeaie ia aoei aea/aii iiaaae?ieo aeoe?a
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio aeiy.
Ioe?iea nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a i?iaiaeeeany ?ai?oa a oe?eiio ia
aea?aa?, ui aeeeth/aei iiaeeea?noue ?? aecia/aiiy ie?aii ia ia?eoa???
e?iie yaeoi? ? a ?? oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? (??cieoey /eiaea: ieiaee
??cii? yeino?).

Ia i?iaiaeeeeny oaeiae niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aieeaii o?eaaeino? ia??iaeo
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (ieae/a ii?iaiai?) ia oe?aeieea, yea ? i?e/eiith
ianiai? caaeaae? iaoaeee?a ? a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
ia?oi? aaia?aoe??. Nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiino? ieiae?a yaeoiaaith
ieiaeiaea?eith aecia/aany a oe?eiio aeey aea?aaa aac ?icae?eueiiai
iae?eo ia ia?eoa??? oa a oeaio?? e?iie, ui ia aeicaieyei aeaoe ye?nio
ioe?ieo oeiaee. Ia i?iaiaeeeiny ii??aiyiiy aeaieo i?i a?io?i?/iee neeaae
iaiioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a ? iioeiaeaeaieo yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ye ia
ia?eoa???, oae ? a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? e?iie.

Iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ??/iiai i?iaiico oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee c o?aooaaiiyi eini?/ieo ? aaio?ce/ieo oaeoi??a ia
?ic?iaeyeeny.

Iaaea/ai?noue oeeo ieoaiue ? noaea i?aenoaaith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?y, iaoiaeeea oa i?noea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Aea/aiiy
aeeiai?ee oe?aeeeaino? yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
cae?enithaaeiny ca?aeii c iaoiaeieia??th nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo oa
nenoaiiiai aiae?co (Aaa?’yiia, 1985). A ?icae?e? iienothoueny iaoiaeeee,
ca yeeie i?iaiaeeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? a 1996-1998 ??. a naaeao
o/aiai-aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa, oai?aoe/i?
– ia eaoaae?? ciieia?? oa aioiiieia??.

A ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny iaoai?ieia?/i? aeai? ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue oa
?o a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae na?aaei?o aaaaoi??/ieo, iienothoueny oaiieia?y
yaeoiaaeo ianaaeaeaiue, aeacothoueny iia’ycai? c oeei no?iee ?icaeoeo
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee.

ssAEOIAAEE EA?OEI?Ae

Iniaeeaino? oaiieia?? yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue. A
1996-1998 ??. yaeoiaaee ea?oei?ae ?acaeaaany a oae? no?iee. Aeo?ae
aeoe?a c i?noeue cei?ae? ?icii/aany o oaiioaco iaaooaiiy ieiaeiaeo
a?oiueie o yaeoi? ni?oo A?eee iaeea, ianiaee aeo?ae – /a?ac o?e aei?
i?ney eiai ii/aoeo. A?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue ?icii/aeiny o oaiioaco iaieaiiy
nooea?oue, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?oeo ee/eiie – o oaiioaco ?iaeaaiai aooiio,
ia?aoai?aiiy a eyea/eo – iai?ee?ioe? oea?o?iiy, aeo?ae aeoe?a iiai?
aaia?aoe?? – /a?ac 11-12 aei?a i?ney cae?i/aiiy oea?o?iiy, i?ae /an
ia?oi? oaee? iiaaeaiiy iaaei??ii? caa’yc?.

Oeiaei/eii?noue yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue. A 1996-1998
??. yaeoiaaee ea?oei?ae cono??/aany a iania?e e?eueeino? ? cia/ii
iioeiaeaeoaaa aooiie yaeoi?. Iae?e iioeiaeaeaiino? i?iaiaeeee ia e?oi?o
(A?e?e iaeea, Iaeaa, Iaioao), in?ii?o (Neaaa ia?aiiaeoeyi, Iaeeioio) ?
ceiiaeo (Nia?oai) ni?oao yaeoi? ie?aii ia ia?eoa??? oa a oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoei? e?iie (oaae.1). Ca ia?eoa??eio /anoeio e?iie aoei i?eeiyoi 50 ni
a?ae e?ioey a?eie ? aeae? a na?aaeeio e?iie, a ?aooo – ca oeaio?aeueio
/anoeio.

A na?aaeiueiio ii oanoe ni?oao a 1996 ?. /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a a
ia?eoa??ei?e /anoei? e?iie neeaea 60,8 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a, a oeaio?? – 39,2 %, a 1997 ?. – a?aeiia?aeii 53,9
? 46,1 %, a 1998 ?. – 60,7 ? 39,3 %.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe?, iaea?eueo aeniea iioeiaeaeai?noue aooii?a aoea
a?aei?/aia a 1997 ?., iaeiaioa – a 1996 ?.

Oaaeeoey 1

Iioeiaeaeai?noue aooii?a ??cieo ni?o?a yaeoi? yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii ia
ia?eoa??? oa a oeaio?? e?iie(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i.
A.A. Aeieo/a?aa)

?ieeNi?oIioeiaeaeaii aooii?a, %IN?05ia ia?eoa??? e?iiea oeaio??
e?iie1996E?niaa yaeoiy94,082,02,317A?eee
iaeea55,046,0Nia?oai73,055,0Iaeaa62,048,0Iaioao57,026,0Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi76,038,0Iaeeioio81,047,0A n?aaeiueiio69,446,3–1997E?niaa
yaeoiy93,577,61,352A?eee
iaeea94,280,0Nia?oai85,074,5Iaeaa87,274,6Iaioao74,561,5Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi70,058,4Iaeeioio80,070,5A n?aaeiueiio83,571,0–1998E?niaa
yaeoiy81,569,11,291A?eee
iaeea88,770,2Nia?oai86,160,3Iaeaa63,935,9Iaioao63,339,0Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi67,640,5Iaeeioio58,231,1A n?aaeiueiio71,648,6–Iacaaaeath/e
ia eieeaaiiy nooiaiy iioeiaeaeaiino? ii ni?oao ? ii ?ieao, a?eueo
aenieee i?ioeaio iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a aoa a?aei?/aiee a ia?eoa??ei?e
/anoei? e?iie a ii??aiyii? c oeaio?aeueiith. Cia/ii iaioa ??cieoey o
iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a i?ae ia?eoa??eiith ? oeaio?aeueiith /anoeiaie
e?iie iiynith?oueny oi?iith e?iie (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

Iioeiaeaeaiiy aooii?a yaeoi? yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oi?ie e?iie(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa)

?ieeOi?ia e?iieNi?oIioeiaeaeaii aooii?a, %IN?05ia ia?eoa??? e?iiea
oeaio?? e?iie1996?ic??aeaeaiaA?eee
iaeea55,046,01,532Nia?oai73,055,0Iaeaa62,048,0A na?aaeiueiio ca
??e63,349,7CaaouaiaIaioao57,026,0Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi76,038,0Iaeeioio81,047,0A na?aaeiueiio ca
??e71,337,01997?ic??aeaeaiaA?eee
iaeea94,280,00,909Nia?oai85,074,5Iaeaa87,274,6A na?aaeiueiio ca
??e88,876,4CaaouaiaIaioao74,561,5Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi70,058,4Iaeeioio80,070,5A na?aaeiueiio ca
??e74,863,51998?ic??aeaeaiaA?eee
iaeea88,770,21,073Nia?oai86,160,3Iaeaa63,935,9A na?aaeiueiio ca
??e79,655,5CaaouaiaIaioao63,339,0Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi67,640,5Iaeeioio58,231,1A na?aaeiueiio ca ??e63,036,9A
na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee:e?iia ?ic??aeaeaia77,260,5–e?iia
caaouaia69,745,8–Ia ni?oao A?eee iaeea, Nia?oai, Iaeaa c ?ic??aeaeaiith
e?iiith /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a a ia?eoa??ei?e ? oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoeiao e?iie noaiiaeea a 1996 ?. a?aeiia?aeii 56,0 ? 44,0 % a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a, a 1997 ?. – 53,8 ? 46,2 %,
a 1998 ?. – 58,9 ? 41,1 %.

Ia ni?oao Iaioao, Neaaa, ia?aiiaeoeyi, Iaeeioio ?c caaouaiith e?iiith
oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoei oaeei: 1996 ?. – 65,8 ? 34,2 %, 1997 ?. – 54,2
? 45,8 %, 1998 ?. – 63,1 ? 36,9 %.

sse iieacaee i?ae?aooiee, /enei iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a a ia?eoa??ei?e
/anoei? e?iie ia?aaeuoaaei ?o /enei a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?. I?ioa a
oeaio?? ?ic??aeaeaii? e?iie iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a aoei a?eueoa, i?ae a
oeaio?? caaouaii? e?iie.

Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aee I.I. O?aoueyeiaa (1982) iieacaee, ui iaea?eueoa
ieiaeth/?noue yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea (a na?aaeiueiio 40,5 y?oeue ia iaeio
naieo) a?aei?/aia a iaaeao oaiia?aoo? +10-15 0N. I?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua
+15 0N e?euee?noue a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue ciaioo?oueny.

O No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie naiee a iaea?eueo ni?eyoeea? ca
oaiia?aoo?iei ?aaeeiii aiaeeie ?ioaineaii a?aeeeaaeathoue yeoey a aooiie
ia ia?eoa??? e?iie ? o?eueee c ianoaiiyi oaiea, yea ia?aaeuo? iioeioi
aeey ea?oei?aea (+20-25 0N), aeoee i?a?othoue a na?aaeeio e?iie, i?ioa
?o aeoeai?noue ? caeaoi?noue aei a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue i?e oeueiio cia/ii
cieaeothoueny.

sseui aeoee o aaniyiee ia??iae cina?aaeaeothoueny a iniiaiiio ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie, iioeiaeaeoth/e aooiie, oi aeoee iiaiai iieie?iiy a
e?oi?e ia??iae (a iaea?eueoo niaeo – o /a?ai?-eeii?) ciaoiaeyoueny a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? e?iie, cia/ii iioeiaeaeoth/e eenoy (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Iioeiaeaeaiiy eenoy yaeoi? ni?oo A?eee iaeea yaeoiaaei
ea?oei?aeii(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa,
1998 ?.)

Iiia?aea?aaaAnueiai eenoy ia 4-o a?eeao, oo.Ia?eoa??y e?iieOeaio?
e?iieAnueiai eenoy, oo.Iioeiaeaeaia eenoy, %Anueiai eenoy,
oo.Iioeiaeaeaia eenoy,
%12421137517,38104629,612132371216,5561130,993194992020,42102935,3042862
152016,77134229,105149470120,4879341,63Anueiai10049522818,32±1,72482133,
32 ± 2,83Oae, ia i‘yoe yaeoiyo e?oiueiai ni?oo A?eee iaeea a oeaio??
e?iie aeyaeeiny 33,3 % iioeiaeaeaiiai eenoy, ia ia?eoa??? – o?eueee
18,3 % .

Aeooaeueiei ? ieoaiiy i?i ci?io a?io?i?/iiai neeaaeo a eeno?,
iioeiaeaeaiiio yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii (oaae. 4).

A eeno?, iioeiaeaeaiiio aeoeaie yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea, ai?no oei?io?eo A
ciaioo?oueny ia 9,5 %, oei?io?eo A – ia 33,3; eaoaeace – ia 3,0;
ia?ieneaeace – ia 17,6; iie?oaiieieneaeace – ia 6,0 %. Iana aaniethoii
nooi? ?a/iaeie cieaeo?oueny ia 4,3 % a ii??aiyii? c iaiioeiaeaeaiei
eenoyi.

Oaaeeoey 4

A?io?i?/iee aiae?c eenoy ni?oo A?eee iaeea (o/aiai-aeine?aeia
ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa)

IieacieeeIaiioeiaeaeaia eenoyIioeiaeaeaiayaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeiiOei?io?e
A, %2,420 0,1212,190 0,109Oei?io?e A, %0,270 0,0140,180 0,009Aieia?noue,
%79,200 1,04580,100 0,992Eaoaeaca, o.a.6,600 0,3306,400
0,320Ia?ieneaeaca, o.a.3,570 0,1782,940 0,147Iie?oaiieieneaeaca,
o.a0,266 0,0130,250 0,012Iana aaniethoii nooi? ?a/iaeie, %20,800
1,04019,900 0,995Iioeiaeaeaia eenoy a cia/i?e i??? ao?a/a? iiaeeea?noue
ii?iaeueiiai oioineioaco, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ieanoe/ieo ?a/iaei. A oea,
aacoiiaii, iicia/a?oueny ia e?eueeino? e yeino? o?iaeath. Oeae aeniiaie
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie A.I. Ei?/aa?ia (1987): i?e ao?ao? 10 % eenoy
yaeoi? aea?aaa ao?a/athoue iaeaea 5 % o?iaeath, a i?e ao?ao? 75 % eenoy
o?iaeae ao?a/a?oueny iiai?noth.

Ie i?iaiaeeee aaniethoi? i?ae?aooiee ia oanoe aea?aaao e?oiueiai ni?oo
Iaeaa naie-ainueie??/iiai a?eo c iaoith aecia/aiiy aieeao
iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a ea?oei?aeii ia o?iaeae. O?e aea?aaa aoee
ia?iaeai? oanoaeii (3-5 e ?iai/iai ?ic/eio ia aea?aai) o oaiioaco
iaieaiiy nooea?oue, o?e aea?aaa ia ia?iaeyeeny ?inaeoeoeeaeii (oaae. 5).
Ia?iaee ?inaeoeoeeaeaie a?eueoa ia i?iaiaeeeeny, aae aei cae?aiiy
a?aaeath.

Oaaeeoey 5

Aieea iioeiaeaeaiiy aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii a na?aaeiueiio ia
iaeiinaie-ainueie??/ia aea?aai ni?oo Iaeaa ia o?iaeae(o/aiai-aeine?aeia
ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa)

A na?aaeiueiio ia iaeii aea?aaiIaia?iaeai?
(eiio?ieue)Ia?iaeai?oanoaeiiAnueiai%Anueiai%*enei aooii?a,
oo.5610,61005343,6100Iioeiaeaeaii aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii,
oo.3888,369,3±8,00553,710,1±3,95O?iaeaei?noue,
oo.295,75,3±2,66545,010,1±2,96Aooiie, iioeiaeaeai? yaeoiaaei
ea?oei?aeii, aoee c?a?ai? i?ae /an oea?o?iiy: aiie aecia/aeeny ii
eiaia/eao. Iiae? aooiie, ea?oee oa ieiaee ia a?aoiaoaaeeny. O?iaeae aoa
ciyoee 28 eeiiy. Ia eiio?ieueieo aea?aaao aeyaeeiny a na?aaeiueiio 296
ieiae?a, ia ia?iaeaieo – 545.

A ca’yceo c oeei ie i?eionea?ii ?nioaaiiy o naiie yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea
aea??iino? i?e a?aeeeaaeaii? y?oeue. I/aaeaeii, a?aeaea?oueny ia?aaaaa
a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei aooiiai c ia?eoa??eii? /anoeie e?iie, aea
?icaeaathoueny a iniiaiiio iaei?oei?o? aooiie oa iaeye?ni?o? ieiaee.
I?iaaaeai? iaie a?io?i?/i? aiae?ce iieacaee, ui ieiaee c oeaio?aeueii?
/anoeie e?iie iinooiathoueny ca ianith, ai?noii oeoe?o, i?e?i- oa
iae?iaeaiaio?a ieiaeai c ia?eoa??? e?iie.

ssAEOIAAA IEIAeIAEA?EA

Iniaeeaino? oaiieia?? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue. O
No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie yaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea ? iaea?eueo
iaaacia/iei oe?aeieeii yaeoiaaeo ianaaeaeaiue.

A ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue (1996-1998) ?icaeoie yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
a?aeaoaaany a oae? no?iee. Ia?aoai?aiiy aonaieoeue ia eyea/eo i?ney
ia?acei?ae? a?aei?/aii a 1996 ?. 29 ea?oiy, a 1997 ?. – 4 o?aaiy, a 1998
?. – 5 o?aaiy, ianiaa ia?aoai?aiiy ia eyea/eo a 1996 ?. – 3 o?aaiy, a
1997 ?. – 8 o?aaiy, a 1998 ?. – 9 o?aaiy, ia?aoai?aiiy ia eyea/eo
cae?i/eeiny a?aeiia?aeii 12 /a?aiy, 1 eeiiy oa 10 eeiiy. Ii/aoie eueioo
iaoaeee?a yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a?aei?/aiee a 1996 ?. 13 o?aaiy, a 1998
?. – 18 o?aaiy, ianiaee e?o – a?aeiia?aeii 15 oa 20 o?aaiy, e?iaoeue
eueioo – 19 oa 22 /a?aiy. A?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue ?icii/aeiny a 1996 ?. 17
o?aaiy, a 1998 ?. – 22 o?aaiy, ianiaa a?aeeeaaeaiiy – a?aeiia?aeii 20 oa
29 o?aaiy.

A 1997 ?. i?ioyaii aeaio oeaei?a (c 25 o?aaiy ii 7 /a?aiy) oaiia?aoo?a
iia?o?y aoea ieae/a ii?iaiai? (+10 0N), ui i?ecaaei aei cia/ii? caaeaae?
iaoaeee?a i?ae /an ?o ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue
ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oi? aaia?aoe??. Ana oea i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui e?o
iaoaeee?a i?ioiaeea o aeaa i?ee: ia?oee (aei iioieiaeaiiy) – c 16 ii 28
o?aaiy, ae?oaee (i?ney iioieiaeaiiy) – c 8 ii 28 /a?aiy. A?aeeeaaeaiiy
y?oeue a?aeaoaaeiny oaeiae o aeaa i?ee: ia?oee – 21 o?aaiy, ae?oaee – 11
/a?aiy, ianiaa a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue: ia?oee i?e – 23 o?aaiy, o ae?oaee –
12 /a?aiy. Oea yaeua o No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie a?aei?/aia ? iienaia
iaie aia?oa. A 1997 ?. aoea cia/ii iaioith iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a
ia?oei iieie?iiyi yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee.

sse iieacaee i?iaaaeai? iaie ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaieo i?i oaiia?aoo?iee
?aaeei oa i?i noie aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ca inoaii? 30 ?ie?a (c
1969 ?.), iani?eyoeea? aeey ?icaeoeo ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee oiiae aoee oaeiae a 1969 ?. (iaeaea a?n?i aei?a iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? a ia??iae ianiaiai eueioo iaoaeee?a ? a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue),
a 1980 ?. (14 aei?a) ? a 1990 ?. (14 aei?a). Iiae?ai? oiiae aoaathoue a
na?aaeiueiio /a?ac eiaei? n?i-a?n?i ?ie?a. ? oiae? iiaeia caanoe aei
i?i?ioio e?euee?noue o?i?/ieo ia?iaie i?ioe ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee aai iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe ?o.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy aonaieoeue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oiai iieie?iiy a
1996 ?. a?aeaoeiny 28 o?aaiy, a 1997 ?. – 18 /a?aiy, a 1998 ?. – 3
/a?aiy. Aon?iue caaa?oeea aeeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii 22 /a?aiy, 11 eeiiy, 28
/a?aiy. Ia?aoai?aiiy aonaieoeue ia eyeueie ii/aeiny a 1996 ?. 25 /a?aiy,
a 1997 ?. – 14 eeiiy, a 1998 ?. – 1 eeiiy. Aee?o ia?oeo iaoaeee?a
?icii/aany a?aeiia?aeii 4, 23 oa 12 eeiiy, a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue – 7, 25
oa 16 eeiiy. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy aonaieoeue ae?oaiai iieie?iiy a?aei?/aii a
1996 ?. 16 eeiiy, a 1997 ?. – 1 na?iiy, a 1998 ?. – 24 eeiiy, a
cae?i/aiiy ?o aeeaeaiiy – a?aeiia?aeii 15, 28 oa 23 na?iiy.

Oeiaei/eii?noue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue. Nooi?iue
iioeiaeaeaiino? ieiae?a yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith aecia/aany a 1996-1998
??. a aioiaiio aeey ci?iaiiy o?iaea? ii noi?iiao na?oo ia in?iiueiio
ni?o? Neaaa ia?aiiaeoeyi. A 1996 ?. na?aaeiy e?euee?noue iioeiaeaeaieo
ieiae?a neeaea 67,1 %, iaiioeiaeaeaieo – 32,9 %, a 1997 ?. –
a?aeiia?aeii 20,9 ? 79,1 %, a 1998 ?. – 54,8 ? 45,2 %. Iaea?eueoa
iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a aoei ia no?aeiiio aioe? e?iie (36,1 – 59,7 % a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a), iaeiaioa – ia i?ai?/iiio
(6,2 – 17,3 %); ia i?aaeaiiiio iioeiaeaeai?noue neeaea 23,9 – 32,7 %, ia
cao?aeiiio – 10,2 – 19,3 %.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an yaeythoue ie?ai? iae?ee iioeiaeaeaiino? ieiae?a
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ia ia?eoa??? oa a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? e?iie
(oaae. 6). Ca ia?eoa??eio /anoeio e?iie oaae aoei i?eeiyoi 50 ni a?ae
e?ioey a?eie ? aeae? a na?aaeeio e?iie, a ?aooo – ca oeaio? e?iie.

Oaaeeoey 6

Iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a yaeoi? e?oiueiai ni?oo A?eee iaeea yaeoiaaith
ieiaeiaea?eith(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A.
Aeieo/a?aa)

Ni?oAeaoa cae?aiiy o?iaeathIioeiaeaeaii ieiae?a, %IN?05ia ia?eoa???
e?iiea oeaio?? e?iieA?eee
iaeea25.07.199676,543,90,99428.07.19974,42,7*24.07.199825,911,90,459A
na?aaeiueiio35,619,5–* I?ae aa??aioaie aeine?aeo ?noioieo ?ica?aeiinoae
iaia?.

A 1996 ?. ia e?oiueiio ni?o? A?eee iaeea /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie neeaea 63,5 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo
ieiae?a, a oeaio?? – 36,5 %, a 1997 ?. – a?aeiia?aeii 62,0 ? 38,0 %, a
1998 ?. – 68,5 ? 31,5 %. Iaioa iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a a 1997 ?.
iiynith?oueny cia/iith caaeaaeeth iaoaeee?a oe?aeieea ? a?aeeeaaeaieo
y?oeue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? /a?ac iani?eyoeea?
iiaiaei? oiiae aeey ?? ?icaeoeo a inoaii?e aeaeaae? o?aaiy oa a ia?o?e
aeaeaae? /a?aiy.

Na?aaeiy iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a yaeoi? ni?oo A?eee iaeea yaeoiaaith
ieiaeiaea?eith ca o?e ?iee neeaea ia ia?eoa??? e?iie 35,6 %, a oeaio?? –
19,5 %. A 1996 ?. na?aaeiy iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a ia aea?aaa a oe?eiio
(ia?eoa??y + oeaio?) noaiiaeea 60,2 %, a 1997 ?. – 3,6 %, a 1998 ?. –
18,9 %.

A 1996 ?. ia in?iiueiio ni?o? Neaaa ia?aiiaeoeyi /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo
ieiae?a ia ia?eoa??? e?iie neeaea 69,3 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a, a oeaio?? – 30,7 % (oaae. 7).

Oaaeeoey 7

Iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a yaeoi? in?iiueiai ni?oo Neaaa ia?aiiaeoey
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A.
Aeieo/a?aa)

Ni?oAeaoa cae?aiiy a?iaeathIioeiaeaeaii ieiae?a, %IN?05ia ia?eoa???
e?iiea oeaio?? e?iieNeaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi23.08.199675,133,30,90326.08.199716,77,00,33517.08.199846,31
8,40,799A na?aaeiueiio46,019,6–A 1997 ?., iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io
caaeaaeue oe?aeieea ia?oiai iieie?iiy, iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith iii?oii ca?eueoeeany /a?ac c?inoaiiy
/enaeueiino? oe?aeieea ae?oaiai iieie?iiy: /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a
ia ia?eoa??? e?iie neeaea 70,5 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a, a oeaio?? – 29,5 %: a 1998 ?. – a?aeiia?aeii
71,6 % ? 28,4 %. A 1996 ?. na?aaeiy iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a (ia?eoa??y
+ oeaio?) noaiiaeea 54,2 %, a 1997 ?. – 11,9 %, a 1998 ?. – 32,4 %.
Na?aaeiy iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a oeueiai ni?oo ca o?e ?iee neeaea ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie 46,0 %, a oeaio?? – 19,6 %.

Nooi?iue oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee i?eeiyoi aecia/aoe
i?ae?aooieii e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a o iaaeaeeoe? oa a o?iaea?.
Oeae iaoiae aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeyoe e?euee?niee a?e oe?aeeeaino?
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee, ye?niee aea a?e ia a?aoiao?oueny. Aea ae ieiaee
c ia?eoa??? e?iie ca ye?noth aaaaoi a /iio ia?aaaaeathoue ieiaee c
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie e?iie. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaieo iaie a?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a.

A?io?i?/i? aiae?ce ieiae?a c ia?eoa??? oa c oeaio?o e?iie iieacaee
?noioio ??cieoeth uiaei ai?noo oeoe??a, i?e?i- oa iae?iaeaiaio?a (oaae.
8). Na?aaeiy iana iaeiiai iioeiaeaeaiiai ieiaea c oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie
e?iie cieceeany a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ia 35,2 %, iana aaniethoii
nooi? ?a/iaeie – ia 17,8 %.

Oaaeeoey 8

A?io?i?/iee neeaae ? iana ieiae?a yaeoi? ni?oo A?eee
iaeea(o/aiai-aeine?aeia ainiiaea?noai OAeAO ?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa)

IieacieeeIaiioeiaeaeai? ieiaeeIeiaee, iioeiaeaeai?
ieiaeiaea?eithIN?05Ia?eoa??y e?iieOeaio? e?iieIa?eoa??y e?iieOeaio?
e?iieNa?aaeiy iana iaeiiai ieiaea, a42,93030,93030,20027,8009,800Iana
aaniethoii nooi? ?a/iaeie, %27,80021,95023,95022,8501,490Iiiioeoe?e,
%43,75040,00038,90036,2002,020Caaaeueiee oeoei?,
%57,68050,14054,70048,1402,760Acio, %1,0900,9241,0560,9420,108Oinoi?,
%0,0660,0320,0750,0320,007Eae?e, %0,6900,6900,7590,6900,055Eaeueoe?e,
%0,6380,5240,4920,3280,038Iaai?e, %0,1980,1950,0980,0980,006Ciea,
%1,9901,9901,8702,1600,050A 1997 ?. na?aaeiy iana iaeiiai ieiaea c
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie e?iie aoea ieae/ith a ii??aiyii? c ianith ieiaea c
ia?eoa??? e?iie (eiio?ieue) a na?aaeiueiio ia 27,9 %, iana aaniethoii
nooi? ?a/iaeie – ia 21,0 %. Ai?no iiiioeoe?o aoa ieae/ee, i?ae ia
eiio?ie?, ia 8,6 %; caaaeueiiai oeoe?o – ia 13; acioo – ia 15,2; oinoi?o
– ia 51,5; iaai?th – ia 1,5; eaeueoe?th – ia 17,9 %. Ai?no eae?th oa
ciee ia ci?ieany.

Na?aaeiy iana iaeiiai iioeiaeaeaiiai ieiaea c ia?eoa??eii? /anoeie e?iie
cieceeany a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ia 29,7 %, iana aaniethoii nooi?
?a/iaeie – ia 13,9 %. Ai?no iiiioeoe?o ciaioeany ia 11,1 %; caaaeueiiai
oeoe?o – ia 5,2; acioo – ia 3,1; eaeueoe?th – ia 22,9; iaai?th – ia
50,5 %. Niinoa??aaeiny i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo oinoi?o a iioeiaeaeaieo
ieiaeao ia 13,6 %, eae?th – ia 10,0, ciee – ia 6,0 %. Ai?no iiiioeoe?o
ciaioeany ia 17,3 %; caaaeueiiai oeoe?o – ia 16,5; acioo – ia 13,5;
oinoi?o – ia 51,5; eaeueoe?th – ia 48,6; iaai?th – ia 50,5 %. Ai?no
eae?th ia ci?ieany. Ai?no ciee ca?eueoeany ia 8,5 %.

Iaiioeiaeaeai? ? iioeiaeaeai? yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ieiaee c
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie e?iie iinooiaeeny ca ianith, ai?noii oeoe??a,
i?e?i- oa iae?iaeaiaio?a iioeiaeaeaiei ? iaiioeiaeaeaiei ieiaeai c
ia?eoa??? e?iie.

Ioaea, ?icae?euei? iae?ee iioeiaeaeaiino? ieiae?a (ie?aii ia ia?eoa??? ?
a oeaio?? e?iie) aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ia o?eueee e?euee?niee,
a e ye?niee a?e oeiaee.

??/iee i?iaiic oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee. An? ?nioth/?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy no?ie?a i?iaaaeaiiy o?i?/ieo ia?iaie
i?ioe aonaieoeue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee neoaeaoue o?eueee
neaiae?caoe??th. Aeey ?ic?iaee i?iaiico iaiao?aeia aeiaaa na??y /aniaeo
?yae?a. Oiio iaie aoee aeei?enoai? aaaaoi??/i? ?yaee oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ca ia??iae c 1953 ii 1984 ??. o No?aeiiio
E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie aeey ?ic?iaee iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ??/iiai i?iaiico c
o?aooaaiiyi ci?i niiy/ii? aeoeaiino?, ae?aaeaii? a /eneao Aieueoa, noie
aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? oa noie iiaae?a. Io?eiaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??:

A = 28,11 + 0,144 W + 0,012 NAO + 0,004 NI

(A – i?iaiicia oeiaei/eii?noue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a ianooiiiio
?ioe?;

W – niiy/ia aeoeai?noue (NA) a iioi/iiio ?ioe?;

NAO – noia aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae;

NI – noia iiaae?a ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae).

Canoinoaaiiy ??aiyiiy ?aa?an?? aeaei iai iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe ?ic?aooiee
aeey i?iaiico oe?aeeeaino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a 1997-1999 ??.

Ia 1997 ?.:A= 28,11 + 0,144 o 8,6 + 0,012 o 1341,1 + 0,004 o 297,8 =
46,7%;ia 1998 ?.:A= 28,11 + 0,144 o 21,5 + 0,012 o1135,8 + 0,004 o 404 =
46,4%;ia 1999 ?.:A= 28,11 + 0,144 o 74,9 + 0,012 o 1311,9 + 0,004 o
218,1 = 55,5%.

A??ia?aei?noue i?iaiico aeyaeeany aenieith aeey 1998 ?. (46,4 %,
oaeoe/ii – 54,8 %). I?iaiic ia 1997 ?. ia aei?aaaeaany (46,7 %, oaeoe/ii
– 20,9 %). Oea ie iiynith?ii oei, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaie iiaeaeue
i?iaiicoaaiiy oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia ?ic?aoiaaia ia
aiiiaeuei? yaeua i?e?iaee (o?eaae? iioieiaeaiiy ieae/a ii?iao ?icaeoeo
oe?aeieea a ia??iae ianiaiai eueioo iaoaeee?a oa a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue
ia?oi? aaia?aoe??).

Iaaaaeaia ??aiyiiy neoaeeoue iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth e?euee?niiai
i?iaiico oe?aeeeaino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia ianooiiee ??e aai nacii.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee ??/iiai i?iaiico iiai?noth aei?aaaeaiee ?
aoa naiai /ano aeei?enoaiee ?.I. A?eaoeueeei (1992) aeey neeaaeaiiy
??/iiai i?iaiico iiyaee oe?aeeeai? /a?aiaoee a Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano?.

AENIIAEE

1. Iaie aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii oa ia?aa??aii iaoiae ioe?iee oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ie?aii aeey ia?eoa??eii?
oa oeaio?aeueii? /anoei e?iie, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/aoe ia o?eueee
e?euee?niee, a e ye?niee a?e oeiaee.

2. Aea/aii oaiieia?th yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea. Aeyaeaii i?a?aoe?th aeoe?a
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a?ae ia?eoa??? aei oeaio?a e?iie aea?aa ? iacaae
caeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio, ui aieeaa? ia nooi?iue
iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a o aaniyiee ? eenoy a e?oi?e ia??iaee.

3. Aooiie ia ia?eoa??? e?iie yaeoi? a cia/ii a?eueo?e i???
iioeiaeaeothoueny yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii, i?ae a ?? oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoei?. A na?aaeiueiio ii oanoe ni?oao a 1996-1998 ??. aoei
iioeiaeaeaii 53,9-60,8 % aooii?a (a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a) ia ia?eoa??? e?iie ? 39,2-46,1 % a oeaio?? e?iie.

4. Aecia/aii nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a yaeoi? yaeoiaaei
ea?oei?aeii caeaaeii a?ae oi?ie e?iie: i?e caaouai?e e?ii?
iioeiaeaeoaaeiny ia ia?eoa??? 54,2-65,8 % aooii?a ? 34,2-45,8 % a
oeaio?? e?iie, i?e ?ic??aeaeai?e e?ii? – ia ia?eoa??? 53,8-58,9 % ? a
oeaio?? 41,1-46,2 % (a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo aooii?a).

5. AEoee yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea iiaiai iieie?iiy a a?eueo?e i???
iioeiaeaeoaaee eenoy a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? e?iie – 33,3 %, ia
ia?eoa???– 18,3 %, ui iia‘ycaii c i?a?aoe??th oe?aeieea.

6. A?io?i?/i? aiae?ce iaiioeiaeaeaiiai eenoy oa iioeiaeaeaiiai aeoeaie
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea iiai? aaia?aoe?? iieacaee, ui a iioeiaeaeaiiio
eeno? ai?no oei?io?eo «A»cieaeo?oueny ia 9,5 %; oei?io?eo «A» – ia 33,3;
eaoaeace – ia 3,0; ia?ieneaeace – ia 17,6; iie?oaiieieneaeace – ia
6,0 %, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?cio oa ao?aoe a?iaeath.

7. Aaniethoi? i?ae?aooiee ia naie-ainueie??/ieo ia ia?iaeaieo
?inaeoeoeeaeii aea?aaao iieacaee, ui i?e iioeiaeaeaii? 69,3 % aooii?a
o?iaeae ieiae?a cieaeo?oueny iaeaea ia 50 % a ii??aiyii? c ia?iaeaieie
aea?aaaie.

8. I?e aea/aii? oaiieia?? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a 1997 ?. aia?oa aoei
aeyaeaii cia/io caaeaaeue iaoaeee?a yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oi?
aaia?aoe?? a ia??iae ?o ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue /a?ac
o?eaaea iiieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y (ieae/a ii?iaiai?) c 25 o?aaiy ii
7 /a?aiy. Iane?aeeii oeueiai noaea iacia/ia iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a
(a?ey 4 %). Aiaeia?/ia yaeua aoei a ?aa?ii? a 1969, 1980 oa 1990 ??.

9. ssaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea a cia/ii a?eueo?e i??? iioeiaeaeo? ieiaee ia
ia?eoa??? e?iie, i?ae a oeaio?aeuei?e, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o noeaeino?. Ia
e?oiueiio ni?o? A?eee iaeea /anoea iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a a 1996-1998 ??.
ia ia?eoa??? noaiiaeea 62,0-68,5 %, a oeaio?? – 31,5-36,5 % a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo ieiae?a, ia in?iiueiio ni?o? Neaaa
ia?aiiaeoeyi – a?aeiia?aeii 69,3-71,6 ? 28,4-30,7 %.

10. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ? iioeiaeaeai?, ? ia iioeiaeaeai? yaeoiaaith
ieiaeiaea?eith ieiaee, acyo? aeey aiae?co c oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie e?iie,
a cia/i?e i??? iinooiathoueny ieiaeai c ia?eoa??eii? /anoeie e?iie ca
ai?noii oeoe?o, i?e?i- oa iae?iaeaiaio?a ? ca ianith. ?icae?euei? iae?ee
iioeiaeaeaiino? ieiae?a ye ia ia?eoa???, oae ? a oeaio?? e?iie
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe ia o?eueee e?euee?niee, a e ye?niee a?e oeiaee.

11. ssaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea a a?eueo?e i??? iioeiaeaeo? ieiaee ?c
no?aeiiai aieo e?iie aea?aaa: a 1996-1998 ??. aoei iioeiaeaeaii
36,1-59,7 % ieiae?a a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iioeiaeaeaieo; c
i?aaeaiiiai aieo – 23,9-32,7; ?c cao?aeiiai – 10,2-19,3; c i?ai?/iiai –
6,2-17,3 %.

12. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?iaiico oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee aeey No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiy
eini?/ieo ? aaio?ce/ieo oaeoi??a. Ca?aeii c iaoei i?iaiicii, a 1999 ?.
i/?eoaaia iioeiaeaeai?noue ieiae?a yaeoi? yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith
iiaea ia?aaeueoe 50 %.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

1. Iao? o?e??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee aeioe?euei?noue ?ic??aeaeoaaiiy
e?ii (ia??caiiy), yea caaacia/o? a?eueoa i?iieeiaiiy na?oea oa oaiea a
oeaio?aeueio /anoeio e?iie. Oea iaoiiaeth? a?eueo ??aiii??ia
?icina?aaeaeaiiy yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a e?ii?
aea?aa ? ciaioaiiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a oa ieiae?a ia ia?eoa??? e?ii,
yea aea? a?eueo ye?ni? ieiaee.

2. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a ?iee
ianiaiai ?iciiiaeaiiy yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea i?iaanoe iai?eneoaaiiy
aea?aa ia o oaiioaco caeaiiai eiiono aai ?iaeaaiai aooiia, a o oaiioaco
iaieaiiy nooea?oue, ui ni?aiaaea? c ii/aoeii a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue
naieaie oe?aeieea. Ia?iaea a oeth oaiioaco aea? iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe
o?iaeae iaeaea ia 50 % a ii??aiyii? c o?iaea?i ia iaia?iaeaieo aea?aaao.

3. A ?iee o?eaaeiai iiieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ieae/a ii?iaiai?
(iiae?aii aei 1997 ?.) i?ae /an ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaiiy y?oeue
iaoaeeeaie yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? (iioieiaeaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ii? caaeaae? oe?aeieea) ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny caanoe aei
i?i?ioio e?euee?noue o?i?/ieo ia?iaie i?ioe oeacaiiai iieie?iiy aai
iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe ?o.

4. Neoaea? neaiae?caoe?? oa i?iaiic?a i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?ic?iaeaiee iaie ??/iee i?iaiic oeiaei/eiiino? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
aeey No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeoe ca oaeei
??aiyiiyi ?aa?an??:

A = 28,11 + 0,144 W + 0,012 NAO + 0,004 NI

(A – i?iaiicia oe?aeeea?noue yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee a ianooiiiio ?ioe?;

W – niiy/ia aeoeai?noue (NA) a iioi/iiio ?ioe?;

NAO – noia aoaeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae;

NI – noia iiaae?a ca aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae).

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aaneeeo A.A. I iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoueyo ?acaeoey yaeiiiie
ieiaeiaei?ee ia?aiai iieieaiey a 1997 aiaeo // Eca. Oa?uee. yioiiie.
ia-aa. –1997. –O. 5. –Aui. 2. –N. 159-160.

2. Aaneeeo A.A. Oaiieiaey e a?aaeiiiniinoue yaeiiiiai oeaaoiaaea
(Anthonomus pomorum L.) a Ainoi/iie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu // Aanoiee
ciieiaee (i?aoe? V c,?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai aioiiieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa,
7-11 aa?aniy 1998 ?.). –1998. –? 9. –N. 34-38.

3. Aaneeeo A.A., Eoeueyi/aiei A. I. Eciaiaiey aeioeie/aneiai ninoaaa
ieiaeia yaeiie e a?ooe a caaeneiinoe io inaauaiiinoe e iia?aaeaeaiiinoe
ieiaeiaei?eaie // Eca. Oa?uee. yioiiie. ia-aa. –1998. –O. 6. –Aui.1. –N.
137-139. (Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a 50 %. Io?eiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai? oa i?iaaaeaii ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy).

4. Aaneeeo Aaneeen Aiae?aa. A?aaeiiiniinoue yaeiiiie ieiaeiaei?ee a
Ainoi/iie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu // Eca. Oa?uee. yioiiie. ia-aa. –1999. –O.
7. –Aui. 1. –N. 154-157.

5. Aaneeeo A.A. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey e a?aaeiiiniinoe
yaeiiiiai oeaaoiaaea // V c`?cae Oe?a?inueeiai aioiiieia?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa: Oace aeii. –Ee?a, 1998. –N. 30-31.

Aann?e?n Aiae?aa Aann?e?o. ssaeoiaaee ea?oei?ae oa yaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea
o No?aeiiio E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie (oaiieia?y, oeiaei/eii?noue, i?iaiic).-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 03.00.09 –
aioiiieia?y.- Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a,
1999.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii ? ia?aa??aii iaoiae aecia/aiiy oeiaei/eiiino?
yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea ? yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee ie?aii ia ia?eoa??? oa a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? e?iie, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeyoe ia o?eueee
e?euee?niee, a e ye?niee a?e oeiaee. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
a?io?i?/ieie aiae?caie.

Iioeiaeaeai?noue aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii, a ieiae?a yaeoiaaith
ieiaeiaea?eith a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaaeii ia ia?eoa??? e?iie. Anoaiiaeaii
i?a?aoe?th yaeoiaaiai ea?oei?aea a?ae ia?eoa??? aei oeaio?a e?iie aea?aa
? iaaiaee caeaaeii a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio, a?ae /iai caeaaeeoue
nooi?iue iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a aaniith oa eenoy ae?oeo.

A 1997 ?. a?aeaoeany cia/ia caaeaaeue iaoaeee?a yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee
ia?oi? aaia?aoe?? a ia??iae ?o ianiaiai eueioo oa a?aeeeaaeaieo y?oeue
/a?ac o?eaaea iiieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y (ieae/a ii?iaiai?). Oea
i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui e?o iaoaeee?a ? a?aeeeaaeaiiy ieie y?oeue i?ieoee
o aeaa i?ee. Aiaeia?/ia yaeua aoei a 1969, 1980 oa 1990 ??. A oae? ?iee
/enei o?i?/ieo ia?iaie iiaeia caanoe aei i?i?ioio aai iiai?noth
aeeeth/eoe ?o.

?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?iaiico oe?aeeeaino? yaeoiaai?
ieiaeiaea?ee aeey No?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaii caoiaee
uiaei cieaeaiiy iioeiaeaeaiino? aooii?a yaeoiaaei ea?oei?aeii ? ieiae?a
yaeoiaaith ieiaeiaea?eith ia ia?eoa??? e?iie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: yaeoiaaee ea?oei?ae, yaeoiaaa ieiaeiaea?ea, oaiieia?y,
oeiaei/eii?noue, i?iaiic.

Aanneeen Aiae?aa Aanneeeo. ssaeiiiue oeaaoiaae e yaeiiiay ieiaeiaei?ea a
Ainoi/iie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu (oaiieiaey, a?aaeiiiniinoue, i?iaiic). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.09 – yioiiieiaey.-
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aia?aua i?aaeeiaeai e i?iaa?ai iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey a?aaeiiiniinoe
yaeiiiiai oeaaoiaaea e yaeiiiie ieiaeiaei?ee ?acaeaeueii ia ia?eoa?ee e
a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe e?iiu. Iaoiae aeae aiciiaeiinoue auyaeyoue ia
oieueei eiee/anoaaiioth, ii e ea/anoaaiioth noi?iio a?aaea.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi yaeiiiay ieiaeiaei?ea iia?aaeaeaao iaeaieaa oeaiiua ii
aeioeie/aneiio ninoaao ieiaeu n ia?eoa?ee e?iiu aea?aaueaa.
Aeioeie/aneee aiaeec iieacae, /oi eae iaiia?aaeaeaiiua, oae e
iia?aaeaeaiiua ieiaeu ia ia?eoa?ee e?iiu niaea?aeao aieueoa naoa?ia,
iee?i- e iae?iyeaiaioia, /ai ieiaeu a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe e?iiu.

Iia?aaeaeaiiinoue aooiiia yaeiiiui oeaaoiaaeii e ieiaeia yaeiiiie
ieiaeiaei?eie anaaaea cia/eoaeueii aieueoa ia ia?eoa?ee /anoe e?iiu. A
n?aaeiai aeiey aooiiia, iia?aaeaeaiiuo yaeiiiui oeaaoiaaeii, ia
ia?eoa?ee e?iiu ninoaaeyea 54-61 %, a oeaio?a – 39-46 %, ieiaeia,
iia?aaeaeaiiuo yaeiiiie ieiaeiaei?eie, – niioaaonoaaiii 62-72 e 28-36 %.

Onoaiiaeaia iea?aoeey aeoeia yaeiiiiai oeaaoiaaea io ia?eoa?ee e oeaio?o
e io oeaio?a e ia?eoa?ee e?iiu aea?aaueaa a caaeneiinoe io
oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia, io /aai caaeneo noaiaiue iia?aaeaeaiiinoe
aooiiia a aanaiiee e eenoueaa a eaoiee ia?eiae. Iia?aaeaeaiiinoue
eenoueaa (ethiue-etheue) aeoeaie yaeiiiiai oeaaoiaaea iiaiai iieieaiey a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe e?iiu ninoaaeyea 33 %, ia ia?eoa?ee – 18 %.

A 1997 a. i?iecioea cia/eoaeueiay aeaaeue aaai/ae yaeiiiie ieiaeiaei?ee
ia?aie aaia?aoeee a ia?eiae eo ianniaiai eaoa e aeaaeue ioeiaeaiiuo yeoe
ec-ca i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai iiieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa (ieaea
ii?iaiaie) a yoio ia?eiae. Yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi eao aaai/ae e
ioeeaaeea eie yeoe i?ioee a aeaa ieea: ia?aue – n 16 ii 28 iay, aoi?ie –
n 8 ii 28 ethiy. Neaaenoaeai yoiai noaea iacia/eoaeueiay
iia?aaeaeaiiinoue ieiaeia yoei iieieaieai (ieiei 4 %). Aiaeu n iiaeiaiui
oaiia?aoo?iui ?aaeeiii – 1969, 1980 e 1990. A oaeea aiaeu /enei
oeie/aneeo ia?aaioie iiaeii naanoe e ieieioio eee iieiinoueth
eneeth/eoue eo.

?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?iaiica a?aaeiiiniinoe yaeiiiie
ieiaeiaei?ee aeey Ainoi/iie Eaninoaie Oe?aeiu n o/aoii einie/aneeo e
aaioece/aneeo oaeoi?ia. ?an/aou ii o?aaiaieth ?aa?annee iieacaee, /oi a
1999 a. iaeeaeaaiay iia?aaeaeaiiinoue ieiaeia yaeiie yaeiiiie
ieiaeiaei?eie i?aauneo 50 %.

I?aaeeiaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey, iai?aaeaiiua ia nieaeaiea iia?aaeaeaaiinoe
aooiiia yaeiiiui oeaaoiaaeii e ieiaeia yaeiiiie ieiaeiaei?eie a
ia?eoa?eeiie /anoe e?iiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yaeiiiue oeaaoiaae, yaeiiiay ieiaeiaei?ea, oaiieiaey,
a?aaeiiiniinoue, i?iaiic.

Vassilis Andrea Vassiliou. Apple blossom weevil and codling moth in the
East Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine (phenology, harmfulness, prognosis).
– Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.09. – entomology.-
Kharkov State Agrarian University, Kharkov, 1999.

The method of defining of harmfulness of apple blossom weevil and
codling moth has been suggested for the first time regarding separately
periphery and central parts of the tree crown. It made possible to
reveal both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the pest`s harmful
effect. It is proved by results of biochemical analysis.

Harmful effect causing by apple blossom weevil and codling moth is more
significant in the periphery part of the crown comparing with its
central one.

Migration of the apple blossom weevil beetles from the periphery to the
center and from the center to the periphery of the crown was noticed to
take place depending on temperature regime, from which depends the
degree of blossom injure during Spring and leaves in Summer time.

In 1997 there was stated a significant death of the first generation
codling moth butterflies and hatched by them eggs as a result of
continuous lowering of air temperature in this period. This resulted in
the fact that the moth`s flying and hatching eggs by them took place
during two peaks. The similar phenomenon was observed in 1969, 1980 and
1990. In such years the number of chemical treatments can be either
decreased to minimum or fully excluded.

The mathematic model of prognosis of harmful effect of codling moth has
been proposed concerning the East-Steppe of Ukraine. The measures have
been proposed as to decreasing of the damage caused by apple blossom
weevil and that of apples by codling moth in the crown`s periphery.

Key words: apple blossom weevil, codling moth, phenology, harmfulness,
prognosis.

I?aeien. aei ae?oeo 12.10.99. Oi?iao 60 o 84/16.

Ianya: 1,0 oi. — ae?oe. a?e., 1,0 iae?e. — aeae. a?e.

Oe?aae 100. Caiiaeaiiy

Ae?eueieoey iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo OAeAO.

312131, Oa?e. iae., i/a “Eiioi?no – 1”, iaa/aeueia i?noa/ei OAeAO,

99–77–80

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