Втомні властивості бурильних труб при екстремальних режимах буріння свердловин: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Д.Ю. Петрина, Івано-Франків. держ.

?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

iaooe ? aaco

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 622.24.053

Iao?eia Aeieo?i TH??eiae/

Aoiii? aeanoeaino? ao?eeueieo o?oa

i?e aeno?aiaeueieo ?aaeeiao ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.05.12 — Iaoeie iaooiai? oa

aaciai? i?iieneiaino?

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/eo iaoe, i?ioani?E?eaeai?anueeee
?anoao?e ?aaiiae/,?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
iaooe? aaco, ?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaioEiiae Aiaaeai
Aieiaeeie?iae/,?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
iaooe? aaco, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaooiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oieeNooaeaio
Ieaenaiae?a Caiia??aia,O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ei?ic?eii-aiaeiaai? aeaa?aaeaoe?? oa
caoenooiaoa??ae?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: AAO “Oe?a?inueeee iaooiaaciaee ?inoeooo”,
I?i?noa?noaa aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae20.052.04 a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco ca aae?anith: 76019,
Oe?a?ia, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Ea?iaonueea, 15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco
ca aae?anith: 76019, Oe?a?ia, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Ea?iaonueea,
15.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29 ethoiai 2000 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oeaiae E.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ae??oaiiy aaaeeeai? aea?aeaaii? i?iaeaie
caaacia/aiiy iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno ne?iaeiith aeiaaa? aeey
oe??? aaeoc? ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, a
oaeiae ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a eiai iioeiaeueii? aenieoaoaoe??.
Aoaeoeai?noue aenieoaoaoe?? oa aoae?aieoeoaa naa?aeeiaei caeaaeeoue a
cia/i?e i??? a?ae yeino? o?oaiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

No/ania iaoea i?i i?oei?noue ? ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?ic?iaey?
oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?ioean?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy o?e a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, yeeie iiaeooue aooe, iai?eeeaae,
naa?aeeiaeii? oiiae (?acia? oa oeeee?/i? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, o?ceei-o?i?/ia
ae?y aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu, aenieeo oene?a ? i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?),
iayai?noue a o?oaao aino?eo eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue – ??cuea ?
o??uei, oiui. Oiio noai?thaaoe iiaa iaeaaeiaiiy iaiao?aeii c a?aooaaiiyi
oeeo /eiiee?a.

Iniaeeao iaaaciaeo, c oi/ee ci?o ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie,
neeaaeathoue ci?ii? iai?oaeaiiy, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ?icaeoeo aoiiieo
i?ioean?a. Noia?ia aeiey aaa??eieo a?aeeac?a ao?eeueieo eieii a
caaaeueiiio aaeain? aaa??e i?e ao??ii? naa?aeeiaei neeaaea? a?ey 70%.
Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, iia’ycaii c a?aenooi?noth iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth ca
aeaoaeoi?noth aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii ? iaaeinoaoi?ie ciaiiyie
caeiiii??iinoae ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei a aeaoaeyo naa?aeeiaeiiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy. ?oeioaaiiy eieiie noai?th? aaa??ei? neooaoe??, aeey
e?ea?aeaoe?? yeeo /anoi aeo?a/athoueny cia/i? eiooe oa cao?aoe /ano.

Oaeei /eiii aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, ni?yiiaaia ia anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae aieeao aeno?aiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei ia
aoiii? aeanoeaino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie, ia? ia o?eueee iaoeiao
aeooaeuei?noue, aea e aaaeeeaa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaiaoeea ?iaioe
? /anoeiith ieaiiaeo aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?ia?ai c ?icaeoeo
iaooii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie ? aaco?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoao
aea?aeathaeaeaoieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o “Iaoeia? iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe oa aea?? iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ao?iaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? ?0195U026337, ye? aoiaeyoue
a eii?aeeiaoe?eiee ieai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe “Iaoeia? iniiae ?ic?iaee
iiaeo oaoiieia?e aeaeiaooeo iaooe ? aaco, aacii?iieneiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy,
iiaeeaeaii? ia?a?iaee iaooe ? aaco c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?nieo
iioi?ieo iaeea, ianoeeueieo iaoa??ae?a, aeiiii?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a ?
iaooio?i?/ii? ne?iaeie”. Oeae ieai aoiaeeoue a iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio
“Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?ieo”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii?
caeiiii??iinoae aieeao oaeeo aeno?aiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei
ye ?aciaeo ? oeeee?/ieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue, ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua, iayaiino?
o??uei ia aoiii? aeanoeaino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?.

1. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? aieeao ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia i?oaei?
oa aoiii? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaeae ao?eeueieo o?oa i?e iaei?ino?oeo
?aaeeiao iaeiie?aoieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue.

2. Ioe?ieoe aieea aaee/eie aiie?ooaee oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ?aciaeo
ia?aaaioaaeaiue ? ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu ia eiino?oeoeaio i?oei?noue
aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii c o??ueiaie.

3. Aeine?aeeoe aieea iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy (IIAe)
?icoyaii ? iaaiaeithaaiiy ia ei?ioei/anio oa oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue
oa?iiia?iaeaii? noae? 40OI.

4. Anoaiiaeoe ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae aoiiiith i?oei?noth oa
ciinino?ee?noth iaoa??ae?a ao?eeueieo o?oa.

5. I?iaanoe ioe?ieo i?aoeacaeaoiino? ao?eeueieo o?oa c iiceoe??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-iiaeae?.

6. Aea/eoe aieea oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua oa
noa??iiy ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a c iaoith
aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ao?eeueieo o?oa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?noaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoeia? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaieo noaeae ao?eeueieo o?oa.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaiee aieea aaee/eie aiie?ooaee oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue,
?aciaeo ia?aaaioaaeaiue ? ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu ia ei?ioei/anio oa
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue noaeae aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie.

Ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iiaeaeue ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee
ciinino?eeino? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca e?iaoe/ieie ae?aa?aiaie
aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy (EAeA?) noiniaii noaeae aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie.

Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaiee ?ic?aooieiaee iaoiae i?iaiicoaaiiy caeeoeiaiai
?ano?no ao?eeueieo o?oa c o??ueiaie i?e ?o oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? c
iiceoe??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-iiaeae?, aeaia ioe?iea
ei?ioei/anii? o??ueiino?eeino? ca
picscalex100010009000003ce00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600220021200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffb5ffffffe0010000150200000b00000026060f000c004d617468
54797065000060001c000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e2043595200d067ef77fb030a5d00000a00040000002d010000
08000000320a1002200101000000ea791c000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000002
0402001053796d626f6c0000f0030a894a88ed775388ed77d067ef77f0030a8900000a00
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa00135000100000064790a000000
26060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc
0102022253797374656d0077f203666407008a0100000a000600000007008a0100000a00
040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000-e?eoa???i.

Noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?e/eie iecueei? ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? i?oeiino?
oeoaiiaeo ao?eeueieo o?oa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?e ioe?ioe?
eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie a?aoiaoaaoe ia
o?eueee aeo?aeiee ??aaiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy, aea e caeaoi?noue
iaoa??ae?a aei aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ie?eo/aiiy, iia’ycaiiai c i?ae?inoaiiyi
o??ueie oa aieeaii ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeey oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaii? noae? 40OI cai?iiiiiaaia iioeiaeueia
oaiia?aoo?a a?aeioneo, yea caaacia/o? ii?aeiaiiy iaeaeueo iieaciee?a
aoiiii? i?oeiino? oa ciinino?eeino?. Oey ?aeiiaiaeaoe?y ai?iaaaeaeaia a
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy ao?eeueieo caie?a ia Ae?iaiaeoeueeiio
aeieioiiio caaiae?.

Aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee ciinino?eeino?
?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca EAeA? aeey noaeae aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii?
eieiie.

Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy a oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy
aeaoaeae c aeaoi?iaoe?eii ci?oeithth/iai iaoa??aeo iia?aoe?e ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoiiii? i?oeiino?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ni?iuaiiai ?ic?aooieo caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no
ao?eeueieo o?oa c o??ueiaie i?e ?o oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? c iiceoe??
picscalex100010009000003ce00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e01180000000500000031020100
0000050000000b0200000000050000000c02600220021200000026060f001a00ffffffff
000010000000c0ffffffb5ffffffe0010000150200000b00000026060f000c004d617468
54797065000060001c000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e2043595200d067ef77fb030a5d00000a00040000002d010000
08000000320a1002200101000000ea791c000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000002
0402001053796d626f6c0000f0030a894a88ed775388ed77d067ef77f0030a8900000a00
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa00135000100000064790a000000
26060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc
0102022253797374656d0077f203666407008a0100000a000600000007008a0100000a00
040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000-iiaeae?, yea iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?yo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo neoaeaao, ui cae?eniththoue aenieoaoaoe?th ao?eeueieo
o?oa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Cie?aia: aecia/ai?
i?oaei? oa aoiii? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaeae ao?eeueieo o?oa i?e iaeiie?aoieo
ia?aaaioaaeaiiyo [6, 10]; ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaoeee
iioe?aiiy o??uei ia oeee?iae?e/ieo c?aceao [7, 2]; i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea
aieeao aaee/eie aiie?ooaee oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ?aciaeo
ia?aaaioaaeaiue ? ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu ia o??ueiino?ee?noue noaeae
ao?eeueieo o?oa [7, 4, 9]; aecia/aia ei?ioei/ania oa oeeee?/ia
o??ueiino?ee?noue oa?iiia?iaeaii? noae? 40OI i?ney IIAe ?icoyaii ?
iaaiaeithaaiiy [11, 12]; i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ciinino?eeino? aeaiaio?a
ao?eeueieo eieii ca EAeA? [13]; aecia/aia o?ce/ia a?aieoey aoiie noae?
40OI ? anoaiiaeaia ?? a?aie/ia oaiia?aoo?a a?aeioneo [3]; i?iaaaeaia
ioe?iea oeeee?/ii? oa noaoe/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? ao?eeueieo o?oa c
iiceoe??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-iiaeae? [5, 8]; aea/aia
o??ueiino?ee?noue oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a [1, 2]. I?eeiyoa iniaenoa o/anoue o
an?o eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ai?iaaaeaeaii?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaea?eueo nooo?a? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ???-io i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iaeeane/i?
i?iaeaie oai??? oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
iaoai?ee eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995); O?? ? OIV
i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeaoc?anuee?e oeie?-nai?ia?? “Iaoiaee ? caniae
oaoiieia?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee”, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995, 1997 ??.;
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? oi?aa?neoaoo a Aay-Ia?a (?oioi?y, 1998);
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oi?aa?neoaoo , ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996-1999 ??.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 noaoae ? 4
oace iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, yeee i?noeoue 167 iaeiaioaaiue
? aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaiee oaeno aeeeaaeaii ia 133 noi??ieao, a oiio /ene? 9
oaaeeoeue, 40 ?enoie?a oa aeiaeaoee ia 3 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi. O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, iieacaiee
ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, aecia/ai? iaoa oa caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeacai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui ia eieiio ao?eeueieo o?oa ae?thoue
iae??ciiiai?oi?o? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue ?? neeaaeiee
iai?oaeaiee noai. ?oeioaaiiy eieiie noai?th? aaa??ei? neooaoe??, aeey
e?ea?aeaoe?? yeeo /anoi aeo?a/athoueny cia/i? eiooe ? cao?aoe /ano. Oiio
aea/aiith noaio aaa??eiino? ao?eeueieo eieii, ui iaoiiaeaiee a?aeiiaaie
?? aeaiaio?a, i?enay/aia aaeeea e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. Na?aae
a?o/eciyieo a/aieo iaea?eueo a?aeii? ?iaioe E.A.Aaooaii?eiaa,
N.O.A?eeea, TH.A.Aeoaeaie/a, A.I.?aan?aa, I.I.Ea?iaoa, A.A.Eiiay,
?.?.E?eaeai?anueeiai, I.A.Eeneaie/a, A.?.Iioio?nueeiai, I.I.Naaa?ei/eea,
TH.N.Ne/iaa, A.I.*a?iiaa oa ?ioeo.

C oi/ee ci?o ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie iniaeeao iaaaciaeo
neeaaeathoue ci?ii? iai?oaeaiiy, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ?icaeoeo aoiiieo
i?ioean?a. I?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no ao?eeueieo eieii cae?enith?oueny, ye
i?aaeei, aac a?aooaaiiy ia?aaoey?iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy. A oie aea /an
aenieoaoaoe?eiee niaeo? caeiath/eo iiiaio?a, ae?th/eo ia ao?eeueio o?oao
a naa?aeeiaei?, iiaea i?iyoeny a oe?ieeo iaaeao. E??i oiai,
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaa ca?eueoaiiy noaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeinyaa? ?iiae?
40-50% ? a?eueoa, ui i?eaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei aeiaeaoeiaiai
iaeiie/aiiy aoiiieo iioeiaeaeaiue a ao?eeueieo o?oaao, aea e aei
aoiiiiai (a oiio /ene? iaeioeeeeiaiai) ? e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy.

A i?ioean? ao??iiy ?ioi?ii, a oaeiae i?e nioneii?aei?iaeueieo iia?aoe?yo
ao?eeuei? o?oae ? caiee aca?iiae?thoue ?c no?ieaie naa?aeeiaeie, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ciiooaaiiy aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie, a /ano?
iia?aoe?? caaei/oaaiiy-?icaaei/oaaiiy aeeeeeathoue ciiooaaiiy ??cueae.
Ioaea, i?iaeaia caaacia/oaaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii?
eieiie ? oaeiae aeoaea aeooaeueiith.

Aiae?c a?aeiia aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie aeaco? ia ni?euei?noue
i?ioean?a ?o ?oeioaaiiy, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy: ?oeioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ii/eia?oueny c ca?iaeaeaiiy o??uei ? eiai oa?aeoa? caeaaeeoue
a?ae iii?o ?o iioe?aiith. Oe? caeiiii??iino? aea/a? iaoai?ea ?oeioaaiiy.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oe??? iaoee ae?noaee oe?ieee ?icaeoie ia Oe?a?i?
caaaeyee i?aoeyi A.A.Iaianthea, I.I.?iiai?aa, I.?.Aiae?aee?aa,
N.?.Eia/eea, A.I.Ieeeoi?/eia oa ?ioeo. Ine?eueee ei?ic?eii-aoiii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a ao?eeueii? eieiie iieacaee, ui aiie cia/io
/anoeio ?ano?no i?aoeththoue c o??ueiaie, oi iaoiaee oa e?eoa???
iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy ciaoiaeyoue ooo ana oe?oa canoinoaaiiy. Iaeiae oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoueny a ca?iaeeiaiio noai?.

I?iaiicoaaiiy caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no aeaoaeae iaoei iaee?aua
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith EAeA?. I?e iiaoaeia? iiaeae? ciiooaaiiy
ye i?ioeano ?icaeoeo o??uei ss.I.Aeaaeeei cai?iiiiiaaiee iaa?oioiaaiee
ia?ao?ae a?ae e?iaiaoe/ieo ??aiyiue aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy aei ??aiyiue
?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo o??uei. Ia iniia? aeaii? iiaeae? iei
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ciinino?eeino? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a ca EAeA?, yea aeicaiey? ye?nii ii??aithaaoe ii?? ciiooaaiith
iaoa??ae?a. Oea ieoaiiy aeoaea aeooaeueia aeey iaoa??ae?a ao?eeueieo
o?oa, ine?eueee ?o i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aecia/a?oueny ye aoiiiith
i?oei?noth, oae ? ciinino?ee?noth.

Ine?eueee ao?eeueia eieiia i?e ?iaio? a naa?aeeiaei? eiioaeoo? c ao?iaei
?ic/eiii, yeee a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ? aa?aneaiei na?aaeiaeuai,
inoaii?i /anii iineeaii aea/athoueny iaoai?cie ei?ic?eii-aoiiiiai
?oeioaaiiy ?? aeaiaio?a. Iaeiae ?ano?n o?oa c o??ueiaie a ?iai/eo
na?aaeiaeuao i?aeoe/ii ia ioe?ithaaee. A oie aea /an ei?ic?ei?
na?aaeiaeua iiaeooue nooo?ai ci?ithaaoe oaeaee?noue ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei
? oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue a oe?eiio. Aiaeaiue — oea iaeei c
/eiiee?a, yeee iaea?eueo ??cei i?eoaeaeoo? ??no aoiiieo o??uei. Iaeiae
iaoai?cie aieeao aiaeith ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a
aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii i?aeoe/ii ia aea/ai?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aieeao iaoa??ae?a, ?o no?oeoo?iiai noaio ia aoiii?
aeanoeaino? ao?eeueieo o?oa. Aeey aaaaoueio iaoa??ae?a a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?o no?oeoo?e, oa?aeoa?enoee aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy oa
aeeiai?ee i?ioeano aoiie iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeooue ??cei
a?aeoeeyoeny a noi?iio ye a?eueo iecueeeo, oae ? a?eueo aenieeo
cia/aiue. Oea iiynith?oueny ??cieie oaeaeeinoyie iaaaioaaeaiiy ?,
aieiaiei /eiii, ??ciei noaiii iaoa??aeo a?ey o?iioo o??ueie aiane?aeie
iiyae i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue ? ?icaeoeo
aoiiiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy. Aeey iaoa??ae?a ao?eeueieo o?oa oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?iaiaeeeenue. Ia aei e?ioey aeyniai? i?e/eie
iai?eaeaoiino? oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ao?eeueieo o?oa.

A e?ioe? ?icae?eo aeeiiaia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iai?yie?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, ia iniia? yeiai noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienai? iaoa??aee ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. A
?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue c?acee, aeaioiaeai? c noae? a?oie i?oeiino? Ae
? 40OI, ye? oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a
ao?eeueieo eieii. I?aeeyaaee aei?iaoaaiiyi oaeiae c?acee ?c noaeae
20OICA ? 50OI, ui ?icoe?eei ae?aiacii noaeae ca ai?noii aoaeaoeth ?
aeaei iiaeeea?noue aea/eoe aieea inoaiiueiai ia oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy
aeaoaeae ao?iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy. C iaoith aeyniaiiy i?e/ei iai?eaeaoiino?
aeei?enoaiiy oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a ye eiino?oeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo ao?eeueieo
o?oa aoee aea?ai? ??ci? ca i?oei?noth nieaae AO1-0 ? AO8.

Ei?ioei/ani? noaoe/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ia ?icoya i?iaiaeeee ia iaoei? OI-5A
c aaoiiaoe/iei caienii ae?aa?aie iaaaioaaeaiiy a eii?aeeiaoao
“iaaaioaaeaiiy-ia?ai?uaiiy aeoeaiiai caoaaoo”, yeee cae?enithaaany /a?ac
oaiciiao?e/iee aeeiaiiiao? ia naiiieoo/iio aeaeo?iiiiio iioaioe?iiao??.
Oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? 0,6 ii/n. Aecia/aee iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee A,
0,2 ? . Caaaeyee iayaiino? naiiieoo/iai aeaeo?iiiiai iioaioe?iiao?a aoea
iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe IIAe c?ace?a c iaia?aae caaeaieie
ia?aiao?aie. Ae?th aeiaaio?eaaeiai i?e?iaeiiai noa??iiy ?i?ooaaee /a?ac
iaa??a c?ace?a aei 425E c aeo?eieith i?ioyaii 2 aiae.

Ioe?ieo a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy noaeae i?iaiaeeee ia aaei/ieo c?aceao c
iaeiinoi?iiiueith o??ueiith (/ioe?ueiooi/eiaee ?icoya) ? ia
oeee?iae?e/ieo c?aceao c e?eueoeaaith o??ueiith (?icoya). Aeey iaianaiiy
o??uei ia aaei/ieo c?aceao aeei?enoiaoaaee niaoe?aeueio onoaiiaeo c
i?eaiaeii a?ae a?aeoeaio?iaiai a?a?aoi?a. Ciai?oith e?eueoeaao o??ueio
noai?thaaee a aa?oei? e?eueoeaaiai eiioeaio?aoi?a oeee?iae?e/iiai c?acea
i?e e?oaiaiio iecueei/anoioiiio caei? ia iiaea?i?ciaai?e iaoei? oeio
IO-5 (/anoioa iaaaioaaeaiiy 49 oeeee?a ca oaeeeio). Ia oe?e aea iaoei?
i?iaiaeeee aoiii? aei?iaoaaiiy c iaoith aea/aiiy e?iaoeee iioe?aiiy
o??uei ia oeee?iae?e/ieo c?aceac iaoiaeii ia?eoaaiiy. Aei?iaoaaiiy ia
aoiiio i?oei?noue cae?enithaaee i?e /enoiio e?oaiaiio caei? ia iaoeiao
EIA-5 (/anoioa 50 Aoe).

?iai/eie na?aaeiaeuaie neoaeeee 3%-iee ?ic/ei iea?iiai? eeneioe a
aacae?iiaiio iane? oa aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea.

Aeey aei?iaoaaiue ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue noaeae aeei?enoiaoaaee
i?eciaoe/i? c?acee o aeaeyae? aaeee c iaeiinoi?iii?i a?/iei iaae??cii.
Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeee ia aei?iaoaaeueieo onoaiiaeao ?c aei?noeei oeiii
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith e?eaioeiii-oaooiiiai iaoai?cio. Caien
?iciaoo coneeey iaaaioaaeaiiy cae?enithaaee ia iioaioe?iiao?? ENI-4.
C?acee aei?iaoaaee i?e a?aeioeueiaiio oeeee? iaaaioaaeaiiy. *anoioa
oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy cae/aeii noaiiaeea  = 10 Aoe. Niinoa?aaeaiiy
ca ?inoii o??ueie oa aei??thaaiiy ?? aeiaaeeie i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith
i?e?ineii?a IIA-2 c iioeaeith cai??o ia a?eueoa 0,01ii. Ca
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie aoaeoaaee EAeA?.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? a?aoiaoaaee aoaeo
cae?eooy o??ueie (CO), yeee iieyaa? a caieeaii? aa?aa?a o??ueie iicaaeo
?? aa?oeie i?ioyaii iaaii? /anoeie iiceoeaiiai oeeeeo iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Ioe?ieo CO cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiii? iaoiaeeee, ?ic?iaeaii?
?iiai?aei I.I. ? Ieeeoi?/eiei A.I., yea iieyaa? a ?a?no?aoe?? ci?ie
coneeey ia c?aceo ? ia?ai?uaii? aa?aa?a o??ueie i?eaeecii ia ??ai? ??
aa?oeie a oeeee? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iaaiaeithaaiith i?aeeyaaee i?eciaoe/i? c?acee c e?a?aei eiioeaio?aoi?ii
iai?oaeaiue ? aeaaaeaiith c iueiai aoiiiith o??ueiith. Aeei?enoiaoaaee
aeaeo?ie?oe/iee niin?a iaaiaeithaaiiy, oeyoii eiai eaoiaeii?
iiey?ecaoe??. Aeaea?aeii no?oio neoaeeoue aei?yiey/, c?acie aenooia?
eaoiaeii, a ieanoeiiaa ni??aeue — aiiaeii. Niaoeeo?ea iaaiaeithaaiiy
caeaaeaea a?ae aeaeo iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue. O aeiaaeeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ei?ioei/anii? o??ueiino?eeino? c?acee ?c iiia?aaeiuei iaaaaeaiith
o??ueiith ia i?ioyc? o?ueio aiaeei i?aeaeaaaee eaoiaei?e iiey?ecaoe?? o
?ic/ei? NaOH c pH = 12,7 i?e aonoei? no?oio 0,01 A/i2. Aaciina?aaeiuei
i?ney cae?i/aiiy iaaiaeithaaiiy c?acee iaaaioaaeoaaee ?icoyaii.
A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeo o?eaae?noue aenia?eiaio?a ia oeeee?/io
o??ueiino?ee?noue ? iiaeeea?noue aeani?aoe?? aiaeith ca /an aei?iaoaaiue
ia iia?o??, c?acee iaaiaeithaaee a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ca o?e aiaeeie aei
ii/aoeo, a oaeiae ai?iaeiaae oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey oeueiai
aeei?enoiaoaaee a?aeiia?aeii neiino?oeiaaio aeaeo?io?i?/io eaia?o, yea
ioiiethaaea ?iai/o /anoeio c?acea c o??ueiith ? aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue
a?coaeueii ne?aeeoaaoe ca ci?iith ?? aeiaaeeie. Aeaeo?ie?o ? aonoeia
no?oio eaoiaeii? iiey?ecaoe?? o? ae, ui canoiniaaii aeey ioe?iee aieeao
iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy ia ei?ioei/anio o??ueiino?ee?noue.

Aeey ioe?iie yeino? no?oeoo?e c?acee i?ney oa?iiia?iaee i?aeeyaaee
nenoaiaoe/iiio eiio?ieth ca oaa?ae?noth oa i?e?ino?oeoo?iiio aiae?co.
Aeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?ao?/iee aiae?c ceai?a c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee ia i?e?ineii?
OYI-100 ?c canoinoaaiiyi ieanoeei-aoa?eueieo ?aie?e.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith aieeao oa?aeoa?o iaaaioaaeaiiy oa
?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua ia aoiii? aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a ao?eeueieo o?oa.

A ca’yceo c ??ciiiai?ooyi aeaieo i?i caeiiii??iino? iaeiie/aiiy
iioeiaeaeaiue i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao i?ia?aiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeaiith neeaaeieo i?ia?aiieo aei?iaoaaiue iiaeii? ia?aaeoaaoe
iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iaeiie/aiiy iioeiaeaeaiue a
iaoaeao i?e iaei?ino?oeo ?aaeeiao iaeiie?aoieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue, aea a
/enoiio aeae? iiaeia aeine?aeeoe aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia oe?
caeiiii??iino?. Oae? ni?iuaiiy iaiao?aei?, ye e?ie aei ?icoi?iiy a?eueo
neeaaeieo yaeu.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia c?aceao, aeaioiaeaieo c noae? a?oie
i?oeiino? Ae. Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y noae? aaaea aei cia/ii? ci?ie
ii/aoeiai? (eaac?e?i?eii?) ae?eyiee ae?aa?aie i?e iiaoi?iiio ?icoyao.
Iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? nooo?ai ciaioo?oueny, a eiao?oe??io iiia?a/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny. Aieea ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?iyaey?oueny
iacaeaaeii a?ae ciaeo iai?oaeaiue, ui aeeeeeathoue iaeeai. sseui ciaee
IIAe oa iai?oaeaiue, i?e yeeo aecia/athoue iiaeoeue, ni?aiaaeathoue, oi
niaae iiaeoeth ia aeoaea nooo?aee ? neeaaea? 10-13% a?ae ii/aoeiai?
aaee/eie. Iaeeai i?ioeeaaeiiai ciaeo aeeeeea? ciaioaiiy iiaeoeth aei
35%. Iaeneioi iaae?iiy aaee/eie iiaeoey i?oaeiino? a?aeiia?aea? IIAe
5-6%.

Aeeiai?ea ci?ie eiao?oe??ioo iiia?a/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaeeaiaiiai
iaoa??aeo iaea oa?aeoa? i?ioeeaaeiee ci?i? iiaeoey i?oaeiino?. A?i
nii/aoeo c?inoa? (aei ?  3%), a iio?i caeeoa?oueny ia i?aeoe/ii
iino?eiiio ??ai?. Aaee/eia iaeneiaeueii? ci?ie caeaaeeoue, ye ? a
iiia?aaeiueiio aeiaaeeo, a?ae ciaeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Oae, iaeeai
?icoyaii ca?eueoo? aeaiee eiao?oe??io i?e ?icoyao ? ia  10%, a i?e
noeneo n ia  15%.

Anoaiiaeaia ianoaa?euei?noue ci?ie i?oaeieo aeanoeainoae noae? i?ney
iaeeaio. *a?ac iaaiee i?ii?aeie /ano aeo?aei? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo
iiiiaeththoueny.

A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui a?eueo?noue iieiiie aeaoaeae ao?eeueieo eieii
ia? oa?aeoa? ei?ic?eii-aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy, inoaiiueiio i?eae?ey?oueny
cia/ia oaaaa a no/anieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Iaeiae a ieo i?aeoe/ii
aeiouaia ieoaiiy aea/aiiy aieeao ??ciiai ?iaeo aeno?aiaeueieo
iaaaioaaeaiue i?e ao??ii? ia aoiii? aeanoeaino? ao?eeueieo o?oa. Oiio
c?aceai iaaeaaaeenue ??ci? aaee/eie IIAe (aei 25%). I?e aeaoi?ioaaii?
aei 22% a?aieoey aoiie noae? a?oie i?oeiino? Ae c?inoa?. Iaea?eueoee
aoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny i?e  = 5…10%. Iaeiae a?i ia ia?aaeuoaaa 20% a?ae
aeo?aeiiai cia/aiiy -1.

Aoaeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, a iniiaiiio ??aiii??ii?, yeee aeeeeea?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoiiii? i?oeiino?, c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caeaoiino?
iaoa??aeo aei aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy i?e noaoe/iiio ?icoyao.
Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue cai?iiiioaaoe aaanoe a
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iia?aoe?e ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeiaaia?/iino?.

I?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no ao?eeueieo o?oa, i?iae?a, iooo cae?enith?oueny aac
a?aooaaiiy ia?aaoey?iino? iaaaioaaeaiue. A oie aea /an aenieoaoaoe?eiee
niaeo? caeiath/eo iiiaio?a, ae?th/eo ia ao?eeueio o?oao a naa?aeeiaei?,
iiaea i?iyoeny a oe?ieeo iaaeao. Aei /enea aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a,
ye? ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo ??cieo ciai?oi?o aeaoaeo?a, iieaaoothoue
?icaeoie o??uei a?aeiinyoueny oaeiae ??aee? ?iai/? na?aaeiaeua. Oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia noae? 40OI.

sse aeaeii c ?en. 1 aeey c?ace?a, o?aiiaaieo a iia?o??, i?e iaeeo
aiie?ooaeao a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy nii/aoeo c?inoa?, a i?e aaeeeeo —
iaaea?. sseui o??ueia iaaaaeaia i?e iaeeo aiie?ooaeao, oi ianooiia
noa??iiy i?eaiaeeoue ??aaiue E1n aei “thaai?eueieo” cia/aiue.
I/aaeaeii, ui i?aeaeuaiith iii?o iioe?aiiy o??ueie ni?ey? iaeeai
iaoa??aeo a aa?oei? o??ueie. Ianooiia noa??iiy ci?ia? caeeoeiaa
iai?oaeaiiy a iaoa??ae? a aa?oei? o??ueie ? iiaa?oa? ??aaiue a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy aei aeo?aeieo cia/aiue. O?aioaaiiy c?ace?a i?e i?aeaeuaieo
??aiyo aiie?ooaee i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy cia/aiue E1n, ui iia’ycaii c
iioeiaeaeaiiyi iaoa??aeo a aa?oei? o??ueie. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
ianooiiei noa??iiyi, yea ia iiaa?oa? ia?aiao?e o??ueiino?eeino?
iaoa??ae?a a aeo?aeia iieiaeaiiy. A oie aea /an c?acee, o?aiiaai? a
?ic/ei? iea?iiai? eeneioe c ianooiiei noa??iiyi, iieacaee noaa?eueiee
??aaiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy i?e an?o aiie?ooaeao iaaaioaaeaiue.
Iiae?aiee aieea ia oa?aeoa? iaeeaio i?e oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo
i?iyaeea oaeiae aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea.

I?eaaaeai? aeua aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i iiaia onoiaiiy aieeao oeeee?/iiai
iaeeaio ? noa??iiy ia aaee/eio E1n a aeiaaeeo, eiee o??ueio noai?ththoue
a i?enooiino? na?aaeiaeua. Oea icia/a?, ui aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy i?ae
aieeaii na?aaeiaeua aoaeoeaii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? ??cei cieaeo?oueny
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y iaoa??aeo iiia?aaeo o?iioo o??ueie.

I?e iaaaaeaii? o??ueie a ?ic/ei? iea?iiai? eeneioe /an ooai?aiiy ??
a?eueoee, i?ae a iia?o??, a o?eaae?noue iaaaioaaeaiiy, iaiao?aeiiai aeey
iioe?aiiy o??ueie ia e?eoe/io aeeaeio, aeaui ciaioo?oueny. ??no /ano
ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie a ?ic/ei? iea?iiai? eeneioe iiynith?oueny oei, ui
o?i?/ii iaaeoeaia ??aeeia ioi?iiy? iaoae a?ae ciai?oiueiai ei?ic?eii
ae?th/iai na?aaeiaeua, a aaeni?aoe?eiee aoaeo ianea i?iyaey?oueny a
ieanoeo?eoth/iio aieea? ia iaoa??ae a cii? eiino?oeoeaiiai
eiioeaio?aoi?a ia noaae?? ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie. Ui noino?oueny ia??iaeo
iioe?aiiy o??ueie i?e oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?, oi ooo a ca’yceo c
a?eueo aei?noeeie oiiaaie iaaaioaaeaiiy i?iyaey?oueny ie?eo/oth/a ae?y
na?aaeiaeua, yea iieaaoo? ??no iaa?no?aeueii? aoiiii? o??ueie.

A?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiith ? ae?y aiaee. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo cia/ii
nei?i/o?oueny ye ia??iae ooai?aiiy o??ueie, oae ? ia??iae ?? iioe?aiiy.
Oe? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ?acoeueoaoaie aeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae
aoiiii? i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a, aea e a?ae ?o ciinino?eeino?. A oeueiio
aeiaaeeo aeoaea aeooaeueiei ? ieoaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o oaiia?aoo?e
a?aeioneo noae?: iaaeoi aeniea ?? cia/aiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
oaa?aeino? ?, ye iane?aeie, ciinino?eeino?, a iaaeoi iecueea — aei
cieaeaiiy a’yceino? oa aoiiii? i?oeiino?. Aeey noae? 40OI, c yei? ia
Ae?iaiaeoeueeiio aeieioiiio caaiae? aeaioiaeythoue ao?eeuei? caiee,
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy iieaciee?a aoiiii?
i?oeiino? oa ciinino?eeino? caie?a aoaea caaacia/oaaoenue i?e ?o
oaiia?aoo?? a?aeioneo 650-670E. Ia caaiae? oeae oa?i?/iee i?ioean
cae?eniththoue i?e  760E. Ioaea, cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a?aeioneo caie?a
ia  100E i?ecaaaea ia o?eueee aei iie?auaiiy ?o iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
? ciinino?eeino?, aea e aei caeaoaaeaiiy oa?i?/ii? iia?aoe??.

Aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? a oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy
caie?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee i?aoeacaeaoiino?
ao?eeueieo o?oa ca EAeA?. Nii/aoeo aea/eee aieea IIAe ?icoyaii ia
ei?ioei/anio oa oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue oa?iiia?iaeaii? noae? 40OI
(oaiia?aoo?a a?aeioneo 763E).

Aiae?c e?eaeo iaaaioaaeaiiy c?ace?a ?icoyaii na?ae/eoue, ui e?eoe/iee
E?I En ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai uiaei ?aae?caoe?? ieineiaeaoi?iiaaiiai
noaio ? eiai ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe oa?aeoa?enoeeith iaoa??aeo. Ui ae
noino?oueny eiie?aoieo cia/aiue En, oi iiaeia aecia/eoe iacia/ia
cieaeaiiy ei?ioei/anii? o??ueiino?eeino? c?ace?a, ye? iiia?aaeiuei
ieanoe/ii aeaoi?ioaaee ?icoyaii aei  = 2%. Oae cia/aiiy En aeey c?ace?a
o aeo?aeiiio noai? noaiiaeei 114 IIa·i1/2, a ia iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaieo c?aceao — 98 IIa·i1/2.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue iieacaee, ui
aeey ae?aiaciio aenieeo cia/aiue E = 20…25 IIa·i1/2 iiia?aaei?
ia?iaethaaiiy ieanoe/iei aeaoi?ioaaiiyi i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue noae?. C iiieaeaiiyi ??aiy oeeee?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy noa? a?ae/ooiei iiceoeaiee aoaeo ia?iaee iaoa??aeo. A?i
ca?eueoo?oueny ?c ciaioaiiyi E ? iaeneiaeueii i?iyaey?oueny ia
i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe? iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oae ii?iaiaee ??aaiue ?iciaoo E?I
Eth c?inoa? a?ae 4,9 IIa·i1/2 aeey noae? o aeo?aeiiio noai? aei
7,3 IIa·i1/2 aeey ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaieo c?ace?a. Oeae aieea coiiaeaiee
aeeeth/ii ci?iith cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie.

I?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeacothoue ia aaaeeea?noue o?aooaaiiy aieeao IIAe
ia noaoe/io oa oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue ao?eeueieo eieii. C ?ioiai
aieo, iaiao?aeii ?aooaaoeny ?c iiaeeeaei iaaiaeithaaiiyi iaoa??aeo a
?iai/eo na?aaeiaeuao, ia?aaeian?i o i?noeyo eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue,
ui iiaea aeiaeaoeiai iaaaoeaii aieeiooe ia ei?ioei/anio ? aoiiio
o??ueiino?ee?noue ? oei naiei o?eie?noue ao?eeueieo eieii.

Iiia?aaei? aeaeo?ie?oe/ia iaaiaeithaaiiy nooo?ai iiieceei ei?ioei/anio
o??ueiino?ee?noue noae?. ?? cia/aiiy (52 IIa·i1/2) ii??aiyii c En noae?
o aeo?aeiiio noai? (114 IIa·i1/2) ciaioeeinue o aea?/?. Ua a?eueoa
iaae?iiy En (a?ae 98 aei 29 IIa·i1/2) cao?eniaaii a iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaieo c?ace?a, iacaaaeath/e ia ? oae ieae/o o??ueiino?ee?noue
aeaoi?iiaaii? noae? i?ioe aeo?aeiiai noaio. sseui ae a?aoe aei oaaae
noia?iee aieea IIAe oa iaaiaeithaaiiy, oi oe? /eiieee i?aeoe/ii a /ioe?e
?ace ciaioothoue ei?ioei/anio o??ueiino?ee?noue noae? ao?eeueii? eieiie.
E??i oiai ia?ao?ae a?ae ?oeioaaiiy a oiiaao ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio
aei ?oeioaaiiy ca ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i neeueio
ie?eo/oaaeueio ae?th IIAe ? aiaeith. Io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao aeicaiey?
i?iaiicoaaoe aeiaeaoeiaa cieaeaiiy oo?eioaaeueii? caeaoiino? aeaiaio?a
ao?eeueii? eieiie ?c o??ueiiiiae?aieie aeaoaeoaie, yeui aiie
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaoa??ae?, yeee aiane?aeie iaeii?aciaiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy
ae/a?iaa iaaio /anoeio caiano ieanoe/iino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei aeyaeee ??ceee aieea iaaiaeithaaiiy
? ca oa?aeoa?ii, ? ca ?ioaineai?noth. A?i caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe oa
?iciaoo oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, a oaeiae noaio iaoa??aeo (aeo?aeiee
/e i?ney IIAe). Iaaiaeithaaiiy aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo (?en. 2 a) iaei
iicia/a?oueny ia e?iaoeoe? ?oeioaaiiy, oi/ i?eii?iaiaee ??no o??uei
aeaui niia?eueith?oueny a ?ac? aeniei? /anoioe ? i?eoaeaeoo?oueny ca
a?eueoeo E ? ieae/i? /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaiee iaoa??ae aeyaeany iaaaaaoi /ooeea?oei aei
iaaiaeithaaiiy (?en. 2 a). Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao neeueia /anoioia
caeaaei?noue e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy i?ae i?aeaeuaiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi:
ieaei?e /anoio? a?aeiia?aea? a?eueoa oaeaee?noue ?inoo o??ueie.
Ca?a?no?iaaiee ??ceee no?eaie oaeaeeino? a na?aaeiueiaiie?ooaei?e
ae?eyioe? ae?aa?ai a?aeaeaa?, i/aaeaeii, noeeuei?noue iaoa??aeo aei
aiaeiaaiai ?ico??neoaaiiy i?ae oeeee?/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi. ?iciao E, yeee
a?aeiia?aea? no??ieiio i?eoaeaeoaiith, caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? i?i?iaeueiee (13 IIa·i1/2) ca iaeiaioi? /anoioe 0,3 Aoe
(e?eaa 4). Ia i?eii?iaiaeo E iaaiaeithaaiiy ia aieeaa? iaaaoeaii, yeui
/anoioa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeniea.

Ioe?ieaoe cae?eooy aoiiieo o??uei, yea aeanoeaa ianaiia?aae iecueeei
cia/aiiyi E onoaiiaeee eiai ?noioiee aieea ia e?iaoeeo ?oeioaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? noae? o aeo?aeiiio noai? (?en. 2 a,
e?ea? 1,picscalex100010009000003ce00000002001c00000000000500000009020000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). Oae, aoaeoeaiee
ii?iaiaee ?iciao Eth eff  3 IIa·i1/2 i?ioe iii?iaeueiiai Eth
  5 IIa·i1/2. IIAe i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeaeaa?oueny ia oaeaeeino? aoiiiiai
?inoo o??ueie ca aeaiiai aoaeoeaiiai ?iciaoo Eeff. Ioaea,
a?aeiia?aeaeueia ca iiceoeaiee aieea IIAe ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue
noae? naia cae?eooy o??ueie.

Iaaiaeithaaiiy iaoa??aeo o aeo?aeiiio noai? ii noo? ia i?iy? oaeaeeino?
i?eii?iaiaiai aoiiiiai ?inoo o??uei ca aeniei/anoioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
(?en. 2 a,
e?eaa picscalex100010009000003ce00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000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), yeui ?acoeueoaoe
cia?aceoe caeaaeii a?ae aoaeoeaiiai ?iciaoo Eeff. Oiaoi iayai?noue
aiaeith ia iicia/a?oueny ia caeaoiino? iaoa??aeo iiia?aaeo aa?oeie
o??ueie i?ioeae?yoe aeaoi?ioaaiith oa ?oeioaaiith. A niinoa?aaeaiee
?ai?oa aeayeee iiceoeaiee aieea iaaiaeithaaiiy ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo
o??uei, eiee E  Eth (?en. 2 a, e?ea? 1, 2), coiiaeaiee c?inoaiiyi
cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie.

Iaaiaeithaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo ia nooo?ai cnoioei
i?eii?iaiao ae?eyieo ae?aa?aie dl/dN — Eeff a a?e aeueo oaeaeeinoae
?inoo o??ueie (?en. 2 a,
e?ea? picscalex100010009000003ce00000002001c0000000000050000000902000000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, picscalex10001000900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), oiaoi aeaui iieaaoo? ?oeioaaiiy. A
?acoeueoao? cacia/aia ?ai?oa a?aenooi?noue oaeiai aieeao ia ??no o??uei
a?ey ii?iao Eth ni?e/eiaia aeayeei c?inoaiiyi aoaeoo cae?eooy o??ueie.
Oaeei /eiii, ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaiee iaoa??ae noeeueiee aei aiaeiaaiai
ie?eo/aiiy iaa?oue a oiiaao aeniei/anoioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a
i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe? ae?aa?aie, ui i?aaeth?oueny ?ioaineo?eaoe??th
cae?eooy o??ueie, oiaoi ineaaeaiiyi aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo a?ey ??
aa?oeie.Ca i?aeaeuaieo E, eiee c cae?eooyi iiaeia ia ?aooaaoeny,
aiaeiaaa ie?eo/aiiy ae?aaeaia yne?aa?oa. E??i oiai, ooo /?oei
aeyaey?oueny noeeuei?noue iaaiaeiaiiai iaoa??aeo aei aiaeiaaiai
?ico??neoaaiiy.

A ?iaioao Aeaaeeiai ss.I. cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy
na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca
ia?aiao?aie EAeA?. ?ic?aooiee, i?iaaaeai? ca aeaiith oi?ioeith,
iieacaee, ui ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy noae? 40OI, a?aeiouaii? i?e 660E,
i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo eiioaeoieo oene?a nooo?ai ieae/a, i?ae a?aeiouaii?
i?e 760E. Oea ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ia?aaaao cai?iiiiiaaii? a
iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee ia?aae caaiaenueeei
oaoiieia?/iei i?ioeanii.

EAeA?, iiaoaeiaai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie aoiiieo aei?iaoaaiue oeee?iae?e/ieo
c?ace?a c oeoaiiaiai nieeaao AO1-0 iaoiaeii ia?eoaaiiy, iieacaee, ui
aeiaaia?/i?noue oeoaiiaeo c?ace?a c o??ueiaie acaeiaae aieieia iaeaea a
i’youe ?ac aeua, i?ae a c?aceao c o??ueiaie aiiia?ae aieieia (yaeua
“cai?ioiuei?” ai?cio?ii??). Oeei iiynith?oueny iecueea ei?ic?eii-aoiiia
i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo ao?eeueieo o?oa. ??no o??uei o aiae? iieaaoo?oueny.
Aeey oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a inoaii? iaa?oioiao?oueny c iiceoe?? aiaeiaai?
eiioeaioe?? aieeao aiaee.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ioe?ioe? i?aoeacaeaoiino? ao?eeueieo o?oa ca
ia?aiao?aie a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Inoaii?i /anii aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino? ao?eeueieo o?oa ana oe?oa aeei?enoiaothoueny
iaoiaee ? ia?aiao?e iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy. Iaeiae oaea ioe?iea
cae?enith?oueny aeeeth/ii ia iniia? e?eoe/ieo E?I, oi/a aeey iaoae?a,
ye? iathoue i?aeaeuaio ieanoe/i?noue, a?eueo aoaeoeaiee aeaoi?iaoe?eiee
i?aeo?ae. Aei inoaii?o iaeaaeeoue noaeue a?oie i?oeiino? Ae. Oiio aoea
iinoaaeaia caaea/a ioe?ieoe oeeee?/io aeiaaia?/i?noue ao?eeueieo o?oa c
iiceoe?? e-iiaeae?.

?icaeyiaii oeee?iae?e/io o?oao c aioo??oi?i d ? ciai?oi?i D ae?aiao?aie,
yea i?noeoue a iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c? iai?aae?ioe/io o??ueio c i?ainyie a
oa b (?en. 3). Iai?oaeaiiy a ia?a??c? o?oae ci?ith?oueny a?ae 0 aei
iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy . O??ueia aoaea ?icaeaaoeny a iaei?e ieiuei? ?
aeey ni?iuaiiy aiae?co aaaaea?ii, ui a i?ioean? i?ae?inoaiiy aiia
caeeoa?oueny iai?aae?ioe/iith.

Aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy aeey iienaiiy e?iaoeee ?icaeoeo aoiiii?
o??ueie iathoue aeaeyae:
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 (1)

? iiaeii? ?ica’ycoaaoeny i?e ii/aoeiaeo oiiaao:
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 (2)

Ooo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 ?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-
iioi/i? oa ii/aoeia? ?ici??e o??ueie;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 — oa?aeoa?enoe/ia ooieoe?y
aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy;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 — ?ice?eooy o??ueie a oiiaao
eieaeueii? ieinei? i?oaeii-ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??;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- e?eoe/ia, a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 — ii?iaiaa ?ice?eooy
o??ueie, ye? ? noaeeie iaoa??aeo;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- aenia?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeai? ia?aiao?e ae?aa?aie aoiiiiai
?oeioaaiiy.

Aeiaaia?/i?noue N* aecia/a?oueny ca ?ica’yceii caaea/? (1), (2) c oiiae,
ui
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(3)

Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?ice?eooy o??ueie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 aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ic?aooieiao noaio,
?ic?iaeaio a O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? IAI Oe?a?ie. Oey noaia,
nie?ath/enue ia ?ioa?iieyoe?eiee i?aeo?ae ? ia iaoiae aea?aaeaioieo
noai?a, aea? iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe iaaeeaeai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey () o
o?oa? c iiaa?oiaaith iai?aae?ioe/iith o??ueiith.

Caaea/a Eio? (1), (2) ?ica’ycoaaeanue /enaeueii iiaeeo?eiaaiei iaoiaeii
Aeea?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie ii/aoeiaeo oiia, ia?aiao?a
iaaaioaaeaiiy /o, oa aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co o?oae.
?ieiee cono??/a?oueny neooaoe?y, eiee o??ueia i?i?inoa? ia anth oiaueio
no?iee o?oae (b = t, t = (D-d)/2), a iaeneiaeueia ?? ?ice?eooy ia o?iio?
ia ia?aaeuo? fc, oiaoi ??ai?noue (3) ua ia aeinyaiooa. A oaeeo aeiaaeeao
?ica’ycoaaeanue ua e i?ino?oa caaea/a i?i aeiaeaoeiaee ?ano?n
aeiaaia?/iino? oeee?iae?e/ii? o?oae c iane??ciith o??ueiith c?
noa?oiaith i?aaeiaaeeiith, aeinyaiooith i?e b = t. Iaeiae, ye iieacaee
i?ae?aooiee, aeeaae oe??? caeeth/ii? noaae?? oeeee?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy o
noia?io aeiaaia?/i?noue eiino?oeoe?? ia ia?aaeuo? 3% ? iei iiaeia
ciaoooaaoe aeey ?icaeyiooiai iaie ni?oaiaioo ao?eeueieo o?oa. ?ioeie
neiaaie, ca e?eoa??e aeiaaia?/iino? iiaeia i?eeiyoe iaioa c N, eio??
caaeiaieueiythoue oiia? (3) aai oiia? b(N) = t.

sse i?eeeaae, ui ?ethno?o? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a, ia ?en. 4 iieacaia
ae?aa?aia aeiaaia?/iino? o?oae (D = 168,3 ii, d = 150,3 ii,
A = 2,12105 IIa,  = 0,3, o = 390 IIa, fc = 0,017 ii, 0 = 0,89, A = 8,2
105oeeee/i, m = 2,1) c iiia?a/iith o??ueiith. I?e oeueiio ii/aoeia?
?ici??e o??ueie eiio?ieth?ii iaeiei ia?aiao?ii — ?? aeeaeiith b0 = a0/2.

Na??y aiaeia?/ieo ae?aa?ai iiaoaeiaaia aeey oe?ieiai niaeo?o
oeii?ici???a ? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaii noaoe/io o??ueiino?ee?noue oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaii? noae? 40OI
c iiceoe?? e-iiaeae? (aenieee a?aeione c?ace?a oiaiiaeeeaethaaa
i?iaaaeaiiy oaei? ioe?iee ca E1n). Iaoai?/ieie aei?iaoaaiiyie oa
aeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?ao?/iei aiae?cii ceii?a anoaiiaeaiee aoaeo cieaeaiiy
aaee/eie e i?ae aieeaii aiaee. C iiieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?aeioneo niaae
e a na?aaeiaeu? iineeth?oueny ii??aiyii c aei?iaoaaiiyie ia iia?o??. Ia
noaeyo a?oie i?oeiino? Ae ? 40OI iieacaii, ui i?e oeeee?/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii?, ?aciaeo ia?aaaioaaeaiiyo ? aeaoi?iaoe?eiiio noa??ii?
c?ace?a c o??ueiaie ??aaiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy iiaea nooo?ai iaaeaoe.
Oea aeeeeeaii ci?iaie aeanoeainoae iaeeaiaiiai iaoa??aeo a aa?oei?
o??ueie. C oeei oaeoii iaiao?aeii ?aooaaoeny i?e ioe?ioe? eiino?oeoeaii?
i?oeiino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo o?oa.

Anoaiiaeaii iaaaoeaiee aieea noa??iiy nieaao AO8 i?ney oeeee?/iiai
o?aioaaiiy: ieaei?e ii??a oieiaeiieaieino? c?ace?a, ui i?ieoee noa??iiy
i?ney iaianaiiy o??uei, ia? cia/iee cnoa a noi?iio a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, a a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a, ye? ia i?ioiaeeee noa??iiy,
nooo?ai ia?aaeuothoue a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy c?noa?aieo c?ace?a.
Iieacaii, ui cieaeaiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy oeoaiiaiai nieaao i?ae
ae??th aiaee ia oaea nooo?aa, ye a noae? oaei? ae i?oeiino?.

AENIIAEE

1. Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y noae? a?oie i?oeiino? Ae ia? neeueiee aieea ia
?? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? oa i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ?? i?oaeieo
oa?aeoa?enoee (iiaeoey i?oaeiino?, eiao?oe??ioa Ioanniia, a?aieoe?
i?iii?oe?iiaeueiino?). Ci?ie iinyoue ianoaa?eueiee oa?aeoa?: /a?ac
iaaiee i?ii?aeie /ano aeo?aei? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo iiiiaeththoueny.
Aoaeo ??aiii??ii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, yeee aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy
oeeee?/ii? aeiaaia?/iino?, c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi caeaoiino? iaoa??aeo
aei aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy i?e ?icoyao. Iaea?eueoee aoaeo
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e  = 5…10%. Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy a
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iia?aoe?? ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoiiii? i?oeiino?.

2. I?e ioe?ioe? eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino? aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii c
o??ueiaie iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia o?eueee aeo?aeiee ??aaiue a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy, aea e caeaoi?noue iaoa??ae?a aei aenieoaoaoe?eiiai
ie?eo/aiiy, iaoiiaeaiiio iaeeaiii ? iioeiaeaeoaai?noth iaoaeo a aa?oei?
o??ueie i?e oeeee?/ieo ? ?aciaeo ia?aaaioaaeaiiyo, a oaeiae
aeaoi?iaoe?eiei noa??iiyi. ?acoeueoaoaie iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ?
aeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co iieacaii, ui ??no aoiiieo o??uei a
noaeyo a?oie i?oeiino? Ae ? 40OI a i?enooiino? ??aeeeo ?iai/eo
na?aaeiaeu noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny nooo?aei iiieaeaiiyi i?e?iieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoa??aeo ii??aiyii c iia?o?yi.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui IIAe oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaii? noae? 40OI a iacia/i?e i???
cieaeo? ?? noaoe/io o??ueiino?ee?noue. Iaea?ae/ooi?oee aieea IIAe
iieyaa? a nooo?aiio i?aeaeuaii? iii?o aoiiiiio ?inoo o??ueie ca iecueeeo
i?eii?iaiaeo ??ai?a oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oeae aieea coiiaeaiee
aeeeth/ii ci?iith cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie.

Noia?iee aieea IIAe ? iaaaioaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii a /ioe?e ?ace ciaioothoue
ei?ioei/anio o??ueiino?ee?noue noae? ao?eeueii? eieiie. Niinoa??aa?oueny
ia?ao?ae a?ae ?oeioaaiiy a oiiaao ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai noaio aei
?oeioaaiiy ca ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe??. Iiaeeeaa iaaiaeithaaiiy iaoa??aeo a
?iai/iio na?aaeiaeu? caeaoia ?noioii i?aeaeueoe oaeaee?noue ?inoo
aoiiii? o??ueie. Iaea?eueoiai ciaioaiiy eiino?oeoeaii? i?oeiino?
iaaiaeiaiiai iaoa??aeo iiaeia niiae?aaoeny a i?noeyo eiioeaio?aoe??
iai?oaeaiue, ?ai?oa ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaieo. IIAe ?iaeoue noaeue neeueii
/ooeeaith aei aiaeiaaiai ?ico??neoaaiiy, ui iniaeeai iaaacia/ii a oiiaao
aeiaaio?eaaeiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai /eiieea
aeiaaia?/i?noue ao?eeueii? eieiie ia noaae?? noaa?eueiiai i?ae?inoaiiy
aoiiii? o??ueie iiaea ciaioeoenue ia ii?yaeie.

4. Aeoiaey/e c eiioeaioe?? o?ce/ii? a?aieoe? aoiie aeey oa?i?/ii
ci?oeiaii? noae? 40OI cai?iiiiiaaia a?aie/ia oaiia?aoo?a a?aeioneo, yea
caaacia/o? ii?aeiaiiy iaeaeueo iieaciee?a aoiiii? i?oeiino? oa
ciinino?eeino?. Aeaia ?aeiiaiaeaoe?y ai?iaaaeaeaia a oaoiieia?/iee
i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy ao?eeueieo caie?a ia Ae?iaiaeoeueeiio aeieioiiio
caaiae?.

Iieacaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia ae.o.i. Aeaaeeei ss.I. iaoiaeeea ioe?iee
ciinino?eeino? ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aei?iaoaaiiy ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue aeicaiey? oaeiae ye?nii
ii??aithaaoe ii?? ciiooaaiiy noaeae aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii ? iiaea
aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey ioe?iee ?o ciinino?eeino?.

5. ?ic?iaeaiee ?ic?aooieiaee iaoiae i?iaiicoaaiiy caeeoeiaiai ?ano?no
ao?eeueieo o?oa c o??ueiaie i?e ?o oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? c iiceoe??
e -iiaeae?. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ni?iuaiee iaoiae oaeiai ?ic?aooieo, yeee
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe?.

Aei?iaoaaiiyie oa?i?/ii ci?oeiaii? noae? 40OI iieacaiee nooo?aee aieea
?? no?oeoo?iiai noaio ia ia?aiao?e a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Aenieee
a?aeione c?ace?a oiaiiaeeeaethaaa i?iaaaeaiiy ioe?iee o??ueiino?eeino?
ca E1n, oiio a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo aeioe?eueii ei?enooaaoeny iieacieeii e
.Anoaiiaeaiee aoaeo cieaeaiiy aaee/eie e i?ae aieeaii aiaee. C
iiieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?aeioneo niaae e a na?aaeiaeu? iineeth?oueny
ii??aiyii c aei?iaoaaiiyie ia iia?o??.

Aeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?ao?/iee aiae?c ceii?a iieacaa nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? a
i?e?iiaoai?ci? iioe?aiiy o??uei a c?aceao c ??ciei no?oeoo?iei noaiii ?
a i?enooiino? ??aeeiai ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaia?/i?noue oeoaiiaeo c?ace?a c o??ueiaie
acaeiaae aieieia iaeaea a i’youe ?ac aeua, i?ae a c?aceao c o??ueiaie
iiia?ae aieieia. Oiaoi, cao?eniaaia yaeua “cai?ioiuei?”ai?cio?ii??, ia
a?aei?io a?ae i?yii?, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey noaeae. Oeei iiynith?oueny
iecueea ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo ao?eeueieo o?oa. I?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo o aiae? ??no o??ueie iieaaoo?oueny. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae
aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue oaoi?/iiai oeoaio, oaeee ?acoeueoao
iiynith?oueny c iiceoe?? aiaeiaai? eiioeaioe?? aieeao aiaee. Noa??iiy
aenieii?oeiiai oeoaiiaiai nieaao i?ney oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy eiai o??ueiino?eeino?, a cieaeaiiy
a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy i?ae ae??th aiaee ia oaea nooo?aa, ye a noae?
aiaeia?/ii? i?oeiino?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iao?eia Ae.TH. A’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy aenieii?oeieo oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a
// Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae III I?aeia?. neiiic. “Iaeeane/i? i?iaeaie
oai??? oiieino?iieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a”. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: ?OAeOOIA, ?IIII IAI
Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — N. 47-49.

2. Iao?eia Ae.TH. O??ueiino?ee?noue oeoaiiaeo ao?eeueieo o?oa // Iaoiaee
? caniae oaoi?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee: ca??iee iaoa??ae?a XII i?aeia?iaeii?
i?aeaoc?anueei? oeiee-nai?ia?o. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee. — 1995. — N.
151-153.

3. Canoinoaaiiy aenieii?oeieo noaeae ye eiino?oeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo
aeaoaeae ao?iaeo aeie?o / ?.?.E?eaeai?anueeee, TH.Ae.Iao?eia,
O.A.Iaaeaiei, Ae.TH.Iao?eia oa ?i. // ?ica?aeea oa ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo ?
aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei. Na??y: Iaooiaacii?iieneiaa iaeaaeiaiiy. — 1996. —
?33. — N. 30-44.

4. Iao?eia Ae.TH. Ioe?iea aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a
ao?eeueieo eieii ca iieacieeaie o??ueiino?eeino? // ?ica?aeea ? ?ic?iaea
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na??y: Iaooiaacii?iieneiaa iaeaaeiaiiy. —
1997. — ?34. — N. 78-82.

5. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Oaoeueeee ?.I., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Ioe?iea
aeiaaia?/iino? ao?eeueieo o?oa c iiceoe?e e — iiaeae? // ?ica?aeea ?
?ic?iaea iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na??y: Iaooiaacii?iieneiaa
iaeaaeiaiiy. — 1997. — ?34. — N. 3-8.

6. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aieea oa?aeoa?o iiia?aaeiueiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeanoeaino? noaeae a?oie i?oeiino? Ae // Iaoiaee ?
caniae oaoi?/ii? ae?aaiinoeee: ca??iee i?aoeue i?aeia?iaeii?
i?aeaoc?anueei? oeiee-nai?ia?o. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee. — 1997. — N.
212-215.

7. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aieea aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a
ia o??ueiino?ee?noue aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii // ?ica?aeea ? ?ic?iaea
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na??y: Iaooiaacii?iieneiaa iaeaaeiaiiy. —
1998. — ?35. — N. 10-16.

8. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Iao?eia Ae.TH., Aiaeia?/oe I.A.
O??ueiino?ee?noue caie?a ao?iaeo o?oa // Iaoeia? iioaoee:
I?aeaoc?anueeee ca??iee (ca iai?yieii “?iaeaia?ia iaoai?ea”). — Eooe.
aea?ae. oao. oi-o. — 1998. — Aei. 4. — N. 115-126.

9. Kryzhanivsky Y.I., Ivasiv V.M., Petryna D.Y. Research of fatigue
cracks spread kinetics in drillinq pipes // The international meeting of
the carpathian region specialists in the field of worm gears. Scientific
bulletin. Serie C, Volume XII. — Baja Mare. — 1998. — P. 109-115.

10. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aieea inueiaiai ?icoyaoth/iai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aoiii? aeanoeaino? noaeae a?oie i?oeiino? Ae //
Iaoeiaee a?niee ?inoeoooo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa aeiiii?ee. —
?aaii-O?aie?anuee. — 1999. — N. 94-97.

11. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Oee?oeueiee I.O., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aieea
iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii ia o??ueiino?ee?noue
eiino?oeoe?eii? noae? ao?eeueii? eieiie // Iaoeiiciaanoai. — 1999. — ?4.
— N. 14-17.

12. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Oee?oeueiee I.O., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aieea
iaaiaeithaaiiy oa iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy noae? ia ??
o??ueiino?ee?noue // O?c.-o?i. iaoai?ea iaoa??ae?a. — 1999. — ?5. — N.
67-71.

13. E?eaeai?anueeee ?.?., Iao?eia Ae.TH. Ioe?iea ciinino?eeino?
aeaiaio?a ao?eeueieo eieii ca e?iaoe/ieie ae?aa?aiaie aoiiiiai
?oeioaaiiy // ?ica?aeea oa ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei.
Na??y: Iaooii?iieneiaa iaeaaeiaiiy. — 1999. — ?36. — N. 9 – 14.

AIIOAOe??

Iao?eia Ae.TH. Aoiii? aeanoeaino? ao?eeueieo o?oa i?e aeno?aiaeueieo
?aaeeiao ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.12 — Iaoeie oa aa?aaaoe iaooiai? ? aaciai?
i?iieneiaino?. — ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
iaooe ? aaco, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 2000.

Caoeua?oueny 17 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ui i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoiiieo aeanoeainoae ao?eeueieo o?oa
i?e oaeeo aeno?aiaeueieo ?aaeeiao ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei ye ?acia? oa
oeeee?/i? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, iayai?noue ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu ? o??uei a
eiino?oeoe?yo.

Anoaiiaeaiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae ia?aiao?aie aoiiii? i?oeiino? oa
ciinino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a ao?eeueieo o?oa. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea
i?aoeacaeaoiino? ao?eeueieo o?oa c iiceoe?? e — iiaeae?.

Aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo a ?iaio? ??oaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ao?eeueia eieiia, ao?eeueia o?oaa, i?iaeue, a‘yce?noue
?oeioaaiiy, oeeee?/ia o??ueiino?ee?noue, ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oei?noue,
ciinino?ee?noue, aoiiia aeiaaia?/i?noue, aiaeiaaa e?eoe?noue.

Iao?eia Ae.TH. Onoaeinoiua naienoaa ao?eeueiuo o?oa i?e yeno?aiaeueiuo
?aaeeiao ao?aiey neaaaeei. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.12 — Iaoeiu e aa?aaaou iaooyiie e aaciaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. — Eaaii-O?aieianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao iaooe e aaca, a. Eaaii-O?aieiane, 2000.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia i?iaeaia iaania/aiey
?aaioiniiniaiinoe yeaiaioia ao?eeueiie eieiiiu i?e oaeeo yeno?aiaeueiuo
?aaeeiao ao?aiey neaaaeei, eae ?aciaua e oeeeee/aneea ia?aa?ocee,
iaee/ea ?aai/eo n?aae e o?auei a eiino?oeoeeyo.

Iieacaii, /oi ?aciaua ia?aa?ocee noaee a?oiiu i?i/iinoe Ae eiatho
neeueiia aeeyiea ia aa iaoaie/aneea naienoaa.

I?e ioeaiea eiino?oeoeeiiiie i?i/iinoe yeaiaioia ao?eeueiie eieiiiu n
o?aueiaie neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea ia oieueei enoiaeiue o?iaaiue
ayceinoe ?ac?ooaiey, ii e niiniaiinoue iaoa?eaeia e yenieoaoaoeeiiiiio
io?oi/eaaieth, iaoneiaeaiiiio iaeeaiii e iia?aaeaeaiiinoueth iaoaeea a
aa?oeia o?aueiu i?e oeeeee/aneeo e ?aciauo ia?aa?oceao, a oaeaea
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui noa?aieai.

?acoeueoaoaie iaoaie/aneeo eniuoaiee e yeaeo?iiiio?aeoia?aoe/aneiai
aiaeeca iieacaii, /oi ?ino onoaeinoiuo o?auei a noaeyo ao?eeueiuo o?oa a
i?enoonoaee aeeaeeeo ?aai/eo n?aae nii?iaiaeaeaaony nieaeaieai
iee?iieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee iaoa?eaea n?aaieoaeueii n aicaeooii.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey aeaeaao noaeue neeueii
/oanoaeoaeueiie e aiaei?iaeiiio ?ano?aneeaaieth, /oi iniaaiii iianii a
oneiaeyo aeeeoaeueiiai iaa?oaeaiey.

Iieacaia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie onoaeinoiie i?i/iinoe a oaeaea
eciininoieeinoe iaoa?eaeia ao?eeueiuo o?oa. I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea
?aaioiniiniaiinoe ao?eeueiuo o?oa n iiceoeee e — iiaeaee.

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiiuo a ?aaioa ?aoaiee iiaeoaa?aeaeaia
aiaae?aieai ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee a i?iecaiaenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ao?eeueiay eieiiia, ao?eeueiay o?oaa, ieiiaeue,
ayceinoue ?ac?ooaiey, oeeeee/aneay o?aueiinoieeinoue,
ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoiay i?i/iinoue, eciininoieeinoue, onoaeinoiay
aeieaiaa/iinoue, aiaei?iaeiay o?oieinoue.

Petryna D.Y. The fatigue properties of drilling pipes at the extreme
conditions of drilling of holes. — Manuscript

The dissertation for getting the Candidate degree in engineering
speciality — 05.05.12- Oil and gas industry’s machines — Ivano-Frankivsk
state Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk, 2000.

17 scientific works are defended which comprise the results of
theoretical and experimental investigations for fatigue properties of
drilling pipes at the following extreme conditions of drilling of holes:
single and cyclic overloading, availability of working environments and
cracks in constructions.

Established relationship between parametres of fatigue strength and
wear resistance of materials of drilling pipes. Evaluation of
serviceability of drilling pipes from the point of the e — model was
done.

Efficiency of the offered decisions in the work is prooved by
introducing of the results of the investigation in manufacture.

Key words: drill string, drilling pipe, nipple, fracture toughness,
cyclic crack, persistence, corrosion fatigue strength, wear resistance,
fatigue durability, hydrogen fragility.

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