Вплив структурних факторів на формування механічних, в’язкісних, динамічних властивостей та акустичну емісію нових берилієвих матеріалів: Автореф. дис

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAOEIAEE OeAIO?

“OA?E?ANUeEEE O?CEEI-OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

Noi?a Iao?i ?ee?/

OAeE 546.45+669.725

AIEEA NO?OEOO?IEO OAEOI??A IA OI?IOAAIIss IAOAI?*IEO, A’ssCE?NIEO,
AeEIAI?*IEO AEANOEAINOAE OA AEONOE*IO AI?N?TH IIAEO AA?EE??AEO
IAOA??AE?A

01.04.13 – o?ceea iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio Iaoeiaiio Oeaio??

“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: Aeieoi?
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, Iai??ia ?ai? ?naeiae/

(ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi??? IIOe OOO?,

i.
Oa?e?a)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai.-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie, Ceueicia A?oae?e Aaeaioeiiae/

(ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo IIOe OOO?, i. Oa?e?a)

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ?eue?inueeee Ieaenaiae?
?aaiiae/, (caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iieioaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo, i. Oa?e?a)

Aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eaa?aio’aa Oei? Oei?iae/

(aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee OO?IO IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo Iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1500 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 64.845.01 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? “Oa?e?anueeee
o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

Aae?ana: 310108, i.Oa?e?a-108, aoe. Aeaaeai?/ia ,1

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaoeiaiai oeaio?o “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____” ________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.845.01
I.?.Aecaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A 1985-1986 ?ieao ia?aae OOO? ? AI??II ye aieiaieie
i?aai?caoe?yie a aaeoc? o?ceee oa oaoiieia?? aa?ee?th aoea iinoaaeaia
caaea/a ?noioiiai iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?ee?th
aeey aoiiii? oaoi?ee ? ?ic?iaee iiaeo ni?o?a iaoaeo c aenieei ??aiai
iaoai?/ieo, a’yce?nieo, aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? ?ici??ii?
noaa?eueiino? ? o.i.

Aaaaoi??/i? ni?euei? aeine?aeaeaiiy (OOO?, AI??II, OIC, ?II IAIO,

?I IAIO, ?IIO IAIO), ye? ca’ycai? c i?iaeaiith e?eoeino? aa?ee?th,
aeicaieeee aeyaeoe, ui iniiaiei oeyoii i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? aa?ee?th ?
iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia ? eaaoaaiiy, a ieanoe/iino? – iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia ?
i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe. A iei?oi?e /an eiioeaioe?y ??oaiiy i?iaeaie
e?eoeino? aa?ee?th oeyoii iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia aeniei/enoiai iaoaeo
io?eiaea caaaeueia aeciaiiy. Oiio iniiaiith i?iaeaiith iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie ? noai?aiiy i?inoeo, aeiiii?/ieo oa iaae?eieo
cania?a i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? oe??? eiioeaioe??.

O?aaeeoe?ei? caniae io?eiaiiy eiiiaeoiiai iaoaeo, iieyaaee a eiai
iaoai?/iiio iiae??aiaii? ? iaeiiiniiio aa?y/iio i?anoaaii? ii?ioeo
ae/a?iaee naaa. Aa?y/ai?aniaaiee aa?ee?e ii nai?i oa?aeoa?enoeeai
(ai?cio?ii?y aeanoeainoae ia?aaeuo? 5–10%, i?oei?noue ieae/a 45–50
ea/ii2, a ieanoe/i?noue iaioa 3%) ia caaeiaieueiya iinoaaeaiei aeiiaai.
No?oeoo?a aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th oaeiae aoea iacaaeia?eueia: a?i iaa
inoaoith ii?eno?noue (aei 1–2%), ia??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eai? aeeth/aiiy
aoi?eiieo oac, ??ciica?ieno?noue. Aaaaoi c ia?a?aoiaaieo iaaeie?e?a
i?eoaiaii? naiiio caniao aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy ? ia iiaeooue aooe onoiai?
iioei?caoe??th oiia i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ?ic?iaeaii? a OOO? oi?eaeueii? oaoiieia?? eeooy, ui
aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii aac caa?oaeiaiiy aeii?oeaie ae?iaeyoe ceeoee c
io?eiaiiai aeenoeeyoe??th aeniei/enoiai aa?ee?th, c ianooiiith
oaoiieia??th i?ia?aiiaaii? iaoai?ei–oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aaea?oueny
iaea?aeoaaoe aeniei/enoee oeueo?aae??aiica?ienoee iaoa??ae. Iaeiae ?
oeae can?a ia? ?noioi? iaaeie?ee: aeniea aa?o?noue aeenoeeueiaaiiai
iaoaeo, o?oaeiiu? io?eiaiiy caaio?aee aaeeeiai ia’?io ? iayai?noue
oaenoo?e ia?iaee.

Iaiao?aeii aoei noai?eoe i?eioeeiiai iia? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee
?noioiiai iie?ioaiiy yeino? iaoaeo ia iniia? neioaco iaaaaeaieo aeua
cania?a, oiaoi iaea?aeoaaoe ae??aiica?ieno? /anoee c no?oeoo?ith eeooy,
a eiiiaeoecoaaoe ?o ii ii?ioeia?e oaoiieia??.

Oae? oiiae caaacia/o? can?a aa?y/iai ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy ii?ioe?a,
io?eiaieo ?icieeaiiyi ?icieaao. ?cinoaoe/ia i?anoaaiiy oaeiai ii?ioeo
iiaeiii caaacia/eoe io?eiaiiy eiiiaeoiiai aa?ee?th aac eiai ?noioiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy aeii?oeaie, c iaeei ?ici??ii ca?ia ? i?i?iaeueiith
oaenoo?ith.

Aaaeeea?noue ae??oaieo caaea/ aecia/a?oueny iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy
aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a iiaiai iieie?iiy c ?cio?iiiith no?oeoo?ith oa
aenieei ??aiai o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

A?aei?iiith iniaeea?noth ?iaioe ? aeei?enoaiiy no/aniiai i?aeoiaeo,
ine?eueee o?eueee ia iniia? o?ce/ieo i?aaenoaaeaiue, io?eiaieo a
?acoeueoao? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ?
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia o?ceei–iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiaeia
c?iaeoe iaoeiai–iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
aenieiai ??aiy aeanoeainoae ? oeyoe eiai ?aae?caoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith
no/anieo cania?a ii?ioeiai? iaoaeo?a??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? o?ceee aa?ee?th ?OOOIO IIOe OOO? a ?aieao
?yaeo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oa IAe?, ui i?iaiaeeeeny a IIOe OOO? ca?aeii c
ieaiaie iaoeiai — aeine?aeieo ?ia?o a iaaeao i?ia?ai eieeoiueiai N?N? ?
Oe?a?ie (I?ia?aia ?ia?o c aoiiii? iaoee ? oaoi?ee IIOe OOO? ia ia??iae
1992 — 2000 ?. a?ae 23.03. 1993 ?., caoaa?aeaeoaaia I?iiaoi?iiii ? IAI
Oe?a?ie oa ?i.), i?iaeo?a AEIO Oe?a?ie 05.02./815 97 i?ia?aia 05.02
“Iia? iaoaeaa? iaoa??aee” ? 07.02. 03/043 92, 07.02. 03/044 92, 07.02.
03/045 92 i?ia?aia 07.02. 03 “Noai?aiiy iaaeeaaeeo aenieiiiaeoeueieo
aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a 3 — ai iieie?iiy ia iniia? aa?ee?th”, ca?aeii c
ieaiaie iaoeiai — aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OOO? ii i?ia?ai? O12476-86 ,
I?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa (eiio?aeo c Eeaa?ii?nueeith
Eaai?aoi???th A319756, i?iaeo ii iaoeiaiio oiiaeo Ni?ina K5V100) oa
i?iaeoo OIOOe 290.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?eoee oaeiae a i?ia?aio “Aa?ee?e
Oe?a?ie”,iai?aaeaio ia noai?aiiy ia aac? Ia?aeainueeiai ?iaeiaeua
iie?iaoaeaaeo ?oae a?o/eciyiiai eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiiai aa?ee??aiai
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ia oi?ioaaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey noai?aiiy
o?ce/ieo iniia io?eiaiiy aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a iiaiai iieie?iiy c
aenieei ??aiai i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?, iii?o ?oeioaaiith, ?cio?iiiino?
? ?ici??ii? noaa?eueiino?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a ?iaio? noaaeeeny ianooii? caaea/?:

– i?iaanoe nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino?
aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iaoai?/i?,
aeeiai?/i?, a’yce?ni? aeanoeaino? oa ia niaeo?e aeonoe/ii? ai?n??
i?iieneiaeo ? aeine?aeieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th;

– anoaiiaeoe iniiai? oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue ??aaiue o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ?, c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iniaeeainoae, ?ic?iaeoe o?ce/i? iniiae
io?eiaiiy aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a c aenieei ??aiai o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae;

?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue i?anoaaiiy noa?e/iiai ii?ioeo aa?ee?th, iiaa?oiy
yeiai iie?eoa i?oeiith ? oa?iino?eeith ie?aeith ieneaeo;

– ?ic?aooaaoe oaeaeeino? ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a ii ??ciei iaoai?ciai
ou?eueiaiiy ? aecia/eoe ?o aeeaae a oi?ioaaiiy u?eueiino? caaio?ae? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia i?anoaaiiy ? ia?aiao??a ii?ioeo;

–iiaoaeoaaoe ea?oe A?I ? oaoiieia?/i? ea?oe i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui a i?e aia?oa

– i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee o??u?iino?eeino? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oiia aei?iaoaaiue. Aecia/ai? cia/aiiy
a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy ??cieo ni?o?a aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th i?e
e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? ? aeine?aeaeaia ?oiy oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue;

– aeine?aeaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th c aeei?enoaiiyi inoeeeia?ao?/ii? iaoiaeeee
?iciiae?eo ?ioaa?aeueii? aaee/eie oaea?ii? a’yceino? ia /anoeie, ui ??
neeaaeathoue. Iieacaii, ui ?iaioa ?oeioaaiiy neeaaea? aei 50% a?ae
?ioaa?aeueii? aaee/eie oaea?ii? a’yceino? neaaei c?inoa? c oaiia?aoo?ith
? ia ia?aaeuo? 1–1,2 Aeae i?e oaiia?aoo?? aei?iaoaaiue 6000N;

– aea/ai? aeonoe/i? niaeo?e ??cieo ni?o?a aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a ? ?oiy
caeaaei?noue a?ae no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a, oa?iiia?iaie, oiia io?eiaiiy ?
aei?iaoaaiue. Iieacaii, ui eiaeiee ni?oo aa?ee?th ia? o?eueee aeanoeaee
eiio aeonoe/iee niaeo?. Aeonoe/i? niaeo?e aa?ee?th iathoue aenieo
/ooo?a?noue aei iniaeeainoae no?oeoo?e, ??aiy aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue ?
noaio iiaa?oi?;

– iiaoaeiaaia iiaeaeue i?anoaaiiy iaoa??aeo, o yeiai iiaa?oiy /anoie
iie?eoa oiieith, i?oeiith ? oa?i?/ii no?eeith ie?aeith ieneaeo aa?ee?th.
?ic?aoiaai? oaeaeeino? ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy i?e aa?y/iio
?cinoaoe/iiio i?anoaaii?, iiaoaeiaai? ea?oe A?I aeey ??cieo oaiia?aoo?,
oene?a ? ?ici??o /anoie ii?ioeo, iieacaiee aecia/aeueiee aeeaae
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeeooc?? a ou?eueiaiiy aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo;

– i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? (c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoai?/ieo,
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo oa ?ioeo cania?a)
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aa?y/a – oa
?cinoaoe/iii?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th ? aecia/ai? oaeoi?e, ui oi?iothoue
??aaiue aeanoeainoae. Iieacaii, ui iaoa??ae, io?eiaiee caniaii aa?y/iai
?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?ao i?anoaaiiy 10300N ? oeneao 160
IIa c oeueo?aae??aiica?ienoiai aeniei/enoiai ii?ioeo c noa?e/iith
oi?iith /anoie ia? ??aaiue aeanoeainoae, ui ia?aaeuo? na?oiaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy
aca?iica’yceo no?oeoo?e, aeanoeainoae, oiia io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo ? ?oi?e
aiae?c eyaee a iniiao ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? noai?aiiy aa?ee??aeo
iaoa??ae?a iiaiai iieie?iiy c aenieei ??aiai o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae.

Aeyaeaia iiaeeea?noue oi?aae?iiy ??aiai o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaea?aeoaaieo iaoa??ae?a oeyoii eiiieaeniiai ci?ithaaiiy iniiaieo
oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue aeanoeaino? aa?ee?th.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy aieeao oa?iioeeee?/ieo ia?iaie ia aeonoe/i?
niaeo?e iieacaei iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe can?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey
ioe?iee ??aiy aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue a aa?ee?th.

?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a oa ?o eiii’thoa?iee aiae?c
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee noaoenoe/ii no?eeeo e?eoa???a
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii noai?aiith iiaeae? ou?eueiaiiy noa?e/ieo
ii?ioe?a aeicaieythoue ?icaeiooe oai?aoe/i? ? o?ce/i? iiaeaiiy i?i
i?ioean i?anoaaiiy ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th oa ?ioeo aeoeaieo iaoae?a, iiaa?oiy
yeeo iie?eoa caoeniith ieeniith ie?aeith.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeeee a i?ia?aio “Aa?ee?e Oe?a?ie”, iaoe?eaio
ia noai?aiiy ia aac? Ia?aeainueeiai ?iaeiaeua iie?iaoaeaaeo ?oae
iacaeaaeiiai a?o/eciyiiai eiieo?aioiicaeaoiiai aa?ee??aiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie, ui caeiathoueny ae?iaieoeoaii iaoae?a ? nieaa?a
aeey ??cieo aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ? aoiiii?
aia?aaoeee.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? neeaaeathoue iniiao aeey iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a ?
nieaa?a c a?eueo aenieei ??aiai aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee.
Eiiieaeniee can?a aeine?aeaeaiue, yeee aoa canoiniaaiee i?e aeeiiaii?
oe??? ?iaioe, iiaeia aeei?enoaoe i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?ioeo eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

– aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ieo
oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iaoai?/i?, aeeiai?/i?, a’yce?ni?
aeanoeaino? aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai ii ??ciei oaoiieia?yi, aeicaieythoue
anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aenieiai ??aiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee; –iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui aecia/athoue ??aaiue
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?ee?th, ? aeniea /enoioa ao?aeiiai
iaoa??aeo ? no?oeoo?a, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??aiiiniith oi?iith /anoie,
oeueo?aae??aiei ca?iii c iayai?noth noaca?ai, ??aiii??iei ?
ae??aiiaeenia?niei ?iciiae?eii ieneaeo aa?ee?th ii a?aieoeyi /anoie;

– noai?aiiy aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a iiai? iieie?iiy iiaeiii aeeth/aoe a
naaa io?eiaiiy ii?ioe?a ?icieeaiiyi ?icieaao, ui caaacia/o? noa?e/i?noue
/anooe?, iayai?noue noano?oeoo?e oa iie?eooy oiieith ie?aeith ieneaeo
aa?ee?th iiaa?oi? /anoee; a oaeiae can?a aa?y/iai ?cinoaoe/iiai
i?anoaaiiy, ui caaacia/o? ??aiiinia i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ?
aeicaiey? i?iaaaeeoe i?ioean i?anoaaiiy i?e a?aeiinii iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao, ye? ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy noano?oeoo?e ?
aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae;

–cai?iiiiiaaia a ?iaio? iiaeaeue i?anoaaiiy aaeaeaaoii iieno? i?ioean
eiiiaeooaaiiy noa?e/iiai ii?ioeo aa?ee?th, ui ia? ia iiaa?oi? /anoie
i?oeio ? oa?i?/ii no?eeo ie?aeo ieneaeo aa?ee?th;

– cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue i?anoaaiiy noa?e/iiai ii?ioeo aa?ee?th
aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe oaeaeeino? ou?eueiaiiy ? e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe
aeeaae ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy o oi?ioaaiiy u?eueiino? caaio?ae?;

– io?eiai? ea?oe A?I aeicaieythoue aeae?aoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie
i?anoaaiiy aeey io?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? u?eueiino? iaoa??aeo;

– aeonoe/ia ai?n?y i?e aea/aii? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? aoaeoeaiei
caniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ?oeioaaiiy ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy a?aie/iiai noaio iaoa??aeo.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee ?i?oe?eiaai? oa aeeiiai? aaoi?ii, i?ae eiai
ea??aieoeoaii aai i?e eiai aecia/i?e o/ano?. A iniiaieo ?iaioao ii oai?
aeena?oaoe??, ia?ae?e yeeo i?eaaaeaiee aeua, iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a
iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: a?i iniaenoi noi?ioethaaa iinoaiiaeo caaea/ a
?iaioao [1-9, 13-15, 17] ? i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o iinoaiiaoe?
caaea/ a ?iaioao [10-12, 16, 18-24]. A?i iniaenoi aiooaaa ia’?eoe aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue o ?iaioao [1, 3 -9, 11-19], i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith
o/anoue a ?ic?iaoe? aeine?aeieoeueeiai eiiieaeno oa i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? oa aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a [1, 5, 8-9, 11, 17, 24], iniaenoi c?iaea i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy ? aeeiiaa ?ic?aooiee [10, 13-15 , 20-22].

?iaioe [1-9, 24] iiai?noth aeeiiai? aeena?oaioii aac ni?aaaoi??a, ?iaioe
[16-17, 19] aeeiiai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii, a ?iaioe
[10-15, 20-23] o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii oa ?ioeie
ni?a?ia?oieeaie. A ?iaioao [10,18] aaoi?ia? iaeaaeaoue aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? anoaiiaeaiiy ?o
aca?iica’yceo c iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?e. A ?iaioao [11-12, 23] aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeaoue aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? oa
anoaiiaeaiiy ?o aca?iica’yceo c iniaeeainoyie no?oeoo?e oa oa?aeoa?ii
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy. A ?iaioao [13-15, 20-22] aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeaoue eiii’thoa?i? i?ia?aie ia/enethaaiiy oa io?eiai? aeai?.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia i?noyoue ?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue
ni?aaaoi?ai, c yeeie aoee iaienai? ni?euei? iaoeia? ?iaioe.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a oaeiae iieyaa? a iaoaiaoe/i?e ia?iaoe? ?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, aiae?c? ? ii??aiyii?
io?eiaieo aeaieo c ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o
ii i?iaeai? aca?iica’yceo no?oeoo?ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a c
??aiai o?ceei–iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??cieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th,
i?aeaioiaoe? aei iioae?eoaaiiy oa i?aaenoaaeaiiy ia a?o/eciyieo oa
caei?aeiiieo eiioa?aioe?yo, oeieao, nai?ia?ao.

E??i oiai, i?e aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? caeiaoaa/a aoa noai?aiee
eiii’thoa?eciaaiee eiiieaen aea/aiiy aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ? iaienai? i?ia?aie aeey ?a?no?aoe?? ? ia?iaee iaea?aeoaaii?
?ioi?iaoe??, ?ic?iaeai? inoeeeia?ao?/i? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy aeeiai?/ieo ?
a’yce?noieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?ee?th.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a o aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaio?
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oei, ui o?ceei–iaoai?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae
iaoa??ae?a i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo ? a?aeiia?aeath/eo
noaiaea?oai no/anieo o?ce/ieo cania?a oa iaoiaeee. Aiae?c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeeiioaaany ca aeiiiiiaith no/aniiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoa.
Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeinyaa?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno no/aniiai aeniei/ooeeaiai
i?iieneiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui iino?eii ia?aa??y?oueny ia ia’?eoao c
a?aeiiei ??aiai oa?aeoa?enoee ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii??aiyiiyi c
aeaieie, ui io?eiai? ia aiaeia?/iiio iaeaaeiaii? aai ?ioeie ai?iaiaaieie
caniaaie.

Aeniiaee, iaea?aeai? a ?iaio?, ? iaa?oioiaaieie, oiio ui aiie
aacothoueny ia no/anieo, aeia?a ai?iaiaaieo oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeyo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iiai?noth
a?aeiia?aeathoue ci?noo oa iiaeci? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaeieo ? Ananithcieo
eiioa?aioe?yo a i. Ee?a (1987 ?.), i. Iai?inuee (1996 ?.), i. A?eai?iae
(1998 ?.), i. Eoeaeoaa (1983 ?.), i. ?inoia (1984 ?), i. Ooea (1986 ?.);
ia 10–?e (1996 ?.) oa 11–?e (1998 ?.) I?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii
o?ceoe? ?aae?aoe?eieo iioeiaeaeaiue oaa?aeiai o?ea (i. Aeoooa), ia
?icoe?aieo i?aea?aeii/eo iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ii aa?ee?th (i. Oa?e?a, 1980
?. ? 1985 ?.), ia i?aenoieiaiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? (c o/anoth
i?aaenoaaiee?a E?aa?ii?nueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Eaai?aoi???) ii caaa?oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiue ii eiio?aeoo ( 1997 ?.), ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao ii caaa?oaiith ni?eueieo ?ia?o o ?IIao? IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a
1985, 1987, 1989, 1991 ??.), ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? a ?inoeooo?
Iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a 1997 ?.), ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao–ca?oao
AEIO (i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1996 ?., i. Euea?a 1997?., i. Ee?a1998 ?.),
ia iaoeiai–oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao OOO? (i. Oa?e?a)

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aa?eoee aei aeena?oaoe??,
iioae?eiaai? o 24 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, ?c ieo 18 o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 447 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? 228 ?enoie?a, ye?
caeiathoue 134 noi??iee, 54 oaaeeoey caeia? 14 noi??iie, nienie ?c 396
aeaea?ae aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e caeia? 36 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A anooi? ?icaeyiooi no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie
i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaiee
?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a
oaeiae aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa ioae?eaoe?? ca oaiith
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “A’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th” nenoaiaoe/ii aea/ai?
a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy a?o/eciyieo i?iieneiaeo ? aeine?aeieo ni?o?a
aa?ee?th, a oaeiae aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee
o??ueiino?eeino?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i ianooaai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a’yce?nieo aeanoeainoae ca?oa?aeieo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. Ia?iaea
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeea ?yae
?noioieo i?ioe??/ i?e aecia/aii? aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a (?ici??o
ca?ia, /enoioe, ai?noo ieneaeo aa?ee?th), oa?iiia?iaie ? ?i. ia?aiao??a
ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, noi?ioeueiaai?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

– io?eiaiiy e?euee?nieo aeaieo i?i a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy a?o/eciyieo
i?iieneiaeo ? aeine?aeieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th;

– aea/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? ? aieea ??cieo oa?iiia?iaie ia
a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy;

– aea/aiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? no?oeoo?ieie
oaeoi?aie;

– iiooee ei?aeyoe?? i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? iaoai?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie aa?ee?th;

– ?ic?iaea iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?aeaeuaiith
a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 ?icaeyioo? iniiai? aniaeoe e?i?eii? iaoai?ee
?oeioaaiiy. Aeeeaaeaia aia?aaoe/ia ? neeiaa eiioeaioe?y ?oeioaaiiy.
I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy neeiaiai (E1=E1n) ? aia?aaoe/iiai (G1=G1c)
e?eoa??th ii/aoeo ?inoo o??ueie ? iieacaia iiaeeea?noue c aeiiiiiaith
oeeo e?eoa???a ciaoiaeeoe iaeiicia/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iai?oaith,
aeaoi?iaoe??th ? aia?a??th ?oeioaaiiy.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.3 aeaiee aiae?c iaoiaeee aei?iaoaaiue, oiia aeai?o
c?ace?a, oi?ie ? ?ici???a iaae??co. Aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy
i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo oiia ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?acoeueoao?a iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeey aei?iaoaaiue aea?ai? c?acee oeio WOL c iaae??cii,
noai?thaaiei aeaeo?i?ne?iaei caniaii ? ?aae?onii a?ey iniiae ~ 0.05 ii.

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.4 iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy
a’yce?nieo aeanoeainoae i?iieneiaeo ? aeine?aeieo ni?o?a AI aa?ee?th
??cii? /enoioe ? e?oiiino? ii?ioeo, yeee aeei?enoiaoaaany. *enaeuei?
cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aeine?aeaeaieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th,
ona?aaeiaieo ii 3-7 aei?iaoaaiiyi, iaaaaeai? a oaae. 1.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? ?ethno?othoue cia/iee ?iceeae aei??thaaieo cia/aiue E1n
aeey ??cieo ia?o?e iaeiiai ? oiai ae ni?oo iaoaeo, oiaoi
na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/i? cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy ?noioii i?iythoueny
a?ae ia?o?? aei ia?o?? a iaaeao iaeiiai ? oiai ae ni?oo iaoaeo.

Iaea?eueoa a?aei?ii?noue aeanoeainoae o ??cieo ia?o?e iaeiiai ? oiai ae
ni?oo iaoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny o aa?ee?th ia?ee O56. Aeaeii, ui oey
a?aei?ii?noue i?e 200N aeinyaa? 30% a?ae i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy E1n,
i?e/iio ci?iththoueny ia o?eueee aaniethoi? aaee/eie E1n, aea ? oa?aeoa?
?oi?o oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae. Aeae?eueea iaioa aaee/eia ?iceeaeo
aei??thaaieo cia/aiue E1n o aa?ee?th, iaea?aeaiiai i?anoaaiiyi ii?ioeo c
?ici??ii /anoie 20 iei. Caaaeo?ii ia oie oaeo, ui a?aei?ii?noue
aeanoeainoae ??cieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th ii aaee/ei? ii??aiyia c
a?aei?ii?noth aeanoeainoae ??cieo ia?o?e iaeiiai ni?oo O56.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao
aei?iaoaaiue

Ia?ee?iaea Na??y A’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy

-196 -100 20 100 200 300

1 O20 37,7 44,6 44,8 52,3 62,7 65,1

2 O56 41,6 47.2 55,0 62,3 79,1 95,6

3 Ae20 39,0 46,4 50,8 64,9 74,1 75,5

4 Ae56 31,6 40,4 52,0 53,0 63,1 64,3

5 O56 34,3 35,7 48,2 53,7 62,4 69,4

6 O56 25,6

61,1

7 O56 30,2

52,0

8 O56 36,1

71,2

9 O56 39,1

56,7

10a O56 34,0 31,6 50,6 58,3 69,4

10a O56 21,1 27,5 39,4

66,6

11 O56 38,3

47,5

62,7 108,0

12 O56 43,9

60,0

82,0 93,0

13 O56 37,6

63,8

76,0 78,6

14 O56A O56I

29.0 39,5 38,0 46,3 43,0 57,5 42.7 62,0 56,06

15 O56A O56I

32,0 28,0 40,8 35,6

59,8 55,8

16 Ae56A Ae56I

35 43,0 41,7

61,0 50.6 66,0 59,7

17 O63A O63I

18 23,4 19,5

37,7 32,9 42

Aeine?aeaeaia caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?enoee o??ueiino?eeino? a?ae /enoioe,
ai?noo ieneaeo aa?ee?th ? ?ici??o ca?ia. Iieacaii, ui ??aaiue cia/aiue
a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua o oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a
(O56, O20) o ii??aiyii? c aeenoeeueiaaieie (Ae56, Ae20). Iaeiae, ?iceeae
aei??thaaieo cia/aiue E1n o /enoeo iaoa??ae?a ieae/a, i?ae o oaoi?/ieo
ia 5-7%.

A?eueo aeniea noaa?euei?noue cia/aiue E1n aeeeeeaia ia e?euee?noth
aeii?oie, a a?eueo noaa?eueiei o?aeoe?eiei neeaaeii iaoa??ae?a ni?oo Ae
(aeea. oaae. 1).

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii aieeao ai?noo AaI ia a’yce?noi?
oa?aeoa?enoeee a?o/eciyieo aa?y/ai?aniaaieo oaoi?/ieo ? aeenoeeueiaaieo
ni?o?a aa?ee?th na?ae/aoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th ciaioaiiy aaniethoieo
cia/aiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy c ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo AaI i?e an?o
oaiia?aoo?ao aei?iaoaaiue. A?aenooi?noue ?noioiiai aieeao noia?ii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ieneaeo aa?ee?th ia a’yce?noi? aeanoeaino? ca’ycaia c
oei, ui i?e ?iciianthaeaeaii? o??ueie aecia/aeueiei noa? ia caaaeueiee
ai?no aeii?oie, a niaoeeo?/iee oa?aeoa? ?oiueiai ?iciiae?eo, yeee
iiai?noth oi?io?oueny aaea ia noaae?? eiiiaeooaaiiy iaoa??aeo.

Aiae?c aieeao /enoioe ia oa?aeoa?enoeee a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy a?o/eciyieo
ni?o?a AI aa?ee?th iieacaa o?eaeo oaiaeaioe?th c?inoaiiy a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy i?e ca?eueoaii? /enoioe iaoaeo ? ciaioaii? ai?noo iaoaeaaeo
aeii?oie. Iieacaia eiiieaeni?noue aieeao iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie ia
a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy ? aieea ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy
a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy 63.8 ea/ii3/2 (i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??) io?eiaia
o oaoi?/iiai ni?oo O56 (ia?o?y 13) i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? ai?noo cae?ca ?
aethi?i?th ??aiiio 7,8.

Ii??aiyiiy cia/aiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy oaoi?/iiai ? aeenoeeueiaaiiai
iaoa??ae?a, ni?aniaaieo c ii?ioe?a c ?ici??ii /anoie –56 ? 20 iei,
iieacaei, ui aa?ee?e c e?oiiica?ienoiai ii?ioeo aieiae?? a?eueo aenieeie
cia/aiiy E1n (a?aeiia?aeii 63.4 ? 60.5 ea/ii3/2 o ni?oo O56 ? O20 ? 52 ?
47.5 ea/ii3/2 o aeenoeeueiaaiiai Ae56 ? Ae20), ui ca’ycaii c
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo AaI o iaoa??ae? c iaioei ?ici??ii /anoie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aoaeue yeee i?inoee ca’ycie
i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? oaeeie no?oeoo?ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ye
aaee/eia ca?ia aai e?euee?noue aeii?oie (a oiio /ene? ai?no ieneaeo
aa?ee?th AaI), a?aenooi?e. I/aaeaeii, i?e ?iciianthaeaeaii? o??uei
aaaeeeaee ia o?eueee caaaeueiee ai?no aeii?oie (a oiio /ene? AaI), aea
oaeiae aaee/eia ? oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeeth/aiue. I?e 200N i?aeaeuaiiy
ai?noo AaI aei 1.0-1.3% (O20 ? O56) ni?ey? iie?ioaiith a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy o ii??aiyii? c aa?ee??i ni?oo Ae20 c ai?noii AaI 0.6-0.85%.
I?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, iaaiaee, i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AaI iaaaaeaia.

Aea/aiee aieea ??cieo oa?iiia?iaie ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th.
??ci? aeaee oa?iiia?iaee c?ace?a ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?noioiiai
iie?ioaiiy iii?o ?iciianthaeaeaiith o??uei a on?o aea/aieo iaoa??aeao.
Oi/a i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao aei?iaoaaiue aaee/eia E1n o a?aeiaeaieo i?e
7500N c?aceao iacia/ii c?inoa?, a o caaa?oiaaieo cieaeo?oueny, oe?
aoaeoe ia ia?aaeuothoue 5-7% ? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao ?iceeaeo
aei??thaaieo cia/aiue. Neaaea caeaaei?noue E1n a?ae oa?iiia?iaee
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaoa i?eiouaiiy i?i ia?aaaaeiee aieea ia E1n oa?aeoa?o
?iciiae?eo /anoie ieneaeo aa?ee?th, ui oi?io?oueny ia noaae??
eiiiaeooaaiiy iaoa??aeo ? i?aeoe/ii ia i?iy?oueny i?e icia/aieo
oa?iiia?iaeao.

Aea/aiee aieea i???ioaoe?? ae??cee c?ace?a a?aeiinii in? i?anoaaiiy. I?e
oaiia?aoo?? aei?iaoaaiue –196 ? 20iN o c?ace?a c ieiueiith iaae??co
acaeiaae in? i?anoaaiiy E1n ia 15% aeua, i?ae o c?ace?a c iaae??cii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iei iai?aaeaiith aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy.

Aea/ai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a
aa?ee?th a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? –196-+3000N. Ona?aaeiaii? /enaeuei?
cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy iaaaaeai? a oaae. 1. Aeaeii, ui a’yce?noue
?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th e?i?eii c?inoa? c oaiia?aoo?ith, i?eiaeii?, aei
2000N. Aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue c?inoa? a 1,5 – 2
?aco a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae –196 aei 2000N.

Caeaaei?noue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?noioii i?iy?oueny
a?ae ia?o?? aei ia?o?? aeine?aeaeaiiai aa?ee?th, ui ca’ycaii c
c?inoaiiyi aeeaaeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ui, a naith /a?ao,
iineeth?oueny c ca?eueoaiiyi /enoioe ? ciaioaiiyi aaee/eie ?ici??o
ca?ia. Ia oea aeacothoue ye o?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oae ?
oa?aeoa? iae?ineii?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a. Ne?aeo? iiae?eyoe aea?
a?oie oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia aaee/eio E1n. Ia?oa ca’ycaia c
oa?aeoa?ii ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?? caeaaei?noth a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, a
ae?oaa — c iniaeeainoyie ?iciiae?eo aoi?eiieo oac o iao?eoe?. I?e
iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (<2000N), eiee ieanoe/i?noue aa?ee?th iaiaaeaia, aecia/aeueio ?ieue a iii?? ?iciianthaeaeaiith o??uei a aa?ee?th a?athoue aeae?eaiiy, a ieanoe/ia ciia a aa?oei? o??ueie iaea. C c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e c-ca aoa?ie/ii? i?e?iaee oaeoi??a ae?oai? a?oie ii/eiathoue aeii?ioaaoe i?ioeane ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ui oneeaaeiththoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o??ueie. Aea/aiee aieea oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy ? iieacaii, ui i?e ci?i? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? a 100 ?ac (a?ae 0,02 aei 2 ii/oa) a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy c?inoa?, iaeiae oeae aoaeo ia ia?aaeuo? aeey an?o aeine?aeaeaieo ia?o?e 10% a?ae aei??yii? aaee/eie. Aea/aiee aieea aeiaaeeie ? oi?ie iaae??co ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei??yi? cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a c aeiaaeeiith iaae??co a?ae 10 aei 19 ii aeia?a aeeaaeathoueny ia eieieaoe?eio e?eao aeey c?ace?a oeio WOL. Oiio aeiiae aei aeiaaeeie aeo?aeii? o??ueie aeey aeaiiai oeio c?acea iaio e?eoe/i?, i?ae oea ne?aeo? c noaiaea?oo aei?iaoaaiue, ine?eueee ? iiaeeea?noue c aeiiiiiaith iaae?eiiai E-oa?oaaiiy ii??aithaaoe cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a, o yeeo aeiaaeeie iaae??c?a ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny. Aeey c'ynoaaiiy i?e?iaee ? iniaeeainoae ?oeioaaiiy ??cieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th i?iaaaeai? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e ceai?a a ??cieo ciiao ?oeioaaiiy. C?noaaeaiiy aei??yieo cia/aiue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy c no?oeoo?ith aeicaiey? aeyaeoe oaeoi?e, ye? iani?eyoeeai a?aeaeaathoueny ia a’yce?nieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie c ieo ? iaiaeii??aei?noue o ?iciiae?e? ca?ai ii ?ici??ai ? aeae?eaiue ieneaeo aa?ee?th. Ia aaee/eio a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aeyaey? aieea ia o?eueee aaniethoia aaee/eia ca?ia, a, a a?eueoiio nooiai?, ??aaiue ??ciica?ienoino?. Oaeei /eiii, aaeeeee ?iceeae ?acoeueoao?a aei???a a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy ??cieo ia?o?e iaeiiai ni?oo, ye ? ??ciiiai?oieo ni?o?a, ca'ycaiee ia no?eueee c ci?iaie ?oiueiai o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ne?eueee c iaiaeii??aei?noth ii neeaaeo aai ?ici??o ca?ia, ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa. Aca?iica'ycie i?ae aeaeii ceaio ? a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy iineoue a?eueo neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao –196 ? 200N ciaioaiiy aeeaaeo ?oeioaaiiy ii ca?io (ca ?aooiie ?oeioaaiiy ii a?aieoeyi), ye i?aaeei, noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iii?oiei ciaioaiiyi a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Oea ca'ycaii c aaea a?aei?/aiei aoaeoii ca?eueoaiiy /anoee i?aeca?aiiiai ?oeioaaiiy ca ?aooiie neoi/aiue ieneaeo. ?acii c oei, ca?eueoaiiy /anoee i?aeca?aiiiai ?oeioaaiiy c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, oa?aeoa?ia aeey iie?e?enoaeaaiai aa?ee?th, ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi a’yce?noieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Oaeei /eiii, i?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy oe?aeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae, ui aiii aeeeeeaia ?icoa?oaaiiyi ii a?aieoeyi c-ca neoi/aiue ieneaeo. Aei oeeo i?? caeeoa?oueny a?aee?eoei ieoaiiy i?i ca'ycie i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? ?ioeie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aa?ee?th. ? aeae?eueea iia?aeiieaiue i?i anoaiiaeaiiy ca'yceo i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie, iaeiae eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?e oeueiio ia ia?aaeuo? 50%. A iei?oi?e ?iaio? aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?? i?ae a’yce?nieie ? iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th ia?aeaeueii c aei??ii a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aoee aecia/ai? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia ?icoya ? caei. C?acee ia ?icoya ? caei ae??caee c c?ace?a, cacaeaeaa?aeue aei?iaoaaieo ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, aei?iaoaaiiy ia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy, ?icoya oa caei aaeaeiny ?aae?coaaoe i?aeoe/ii ia iaeieo ? oeo aea c?aceao. Iaee?aua ei?aeyoe?y a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy c iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie io?eiaia i?e ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a ??aiyiiyi (1) : . (1) Caeaaei?noue E1n a?ae (o ? (a aaciina?aaeiuei aeieeaa? c (1): . (2) Ia iae. 1 iieacaia ci?ia E1n =f ((a+(o) aeey aa?ee?th i?e ??cieo ia?aiao?e/ieo cia/aiiyo ((o/(a). C oeueiai iaethieo iiaeia c?iaeoe aaaeeea? i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee i?i oeyoe ca?eueoaiiy E1n ca ?aooiie aieeao ia iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th. Aeaeii, ui ca?eueoaiiy noie ((a+(o), a oaeiae ye ? ciaioaiiy ((o/(a) i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th. Ia?oee c ieo iiaeia iacaaoe oaoiieia?/iei. A?i ca'ycaiee c caaacia/aiiyi iaeii??aeiino? iaea?aeoaaiiai iaoa??aeo ii neeaaeo ? no?oeoo??, a oaeiae c aeio?eiaiiyi iino?eiino? ia?aiao??a aeo?aeieo ii?ioe?a ? oiia io?eiaiiy eiiiaeoiiai iaoaeo a?ae ia?o?? aei ia?o??. Iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui iaeii??aei?noue a ?iciiae?e? ieneaeo ia iiaa?oi? ii?ioeiie iiaeiia ni?eyoe iie?ioaiith a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Ne?aeo? a?aecia/eoe, ui ?iceeae iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e aei?iaoaaii? ia ?icoya aeey ??cieo ni?o?a iaoaeo a oe?eiio ei?aeth? c ?iceeaeii cia/aiue E1n: a?i oei a?eueoa, /ei iaiaeii?iaei?oa ca?ii ii ?ici??ai ? ?iciiae?e ieneaeo. Iae. 1. Caeaaei?noue a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy a?ae ((a+(o) i?e ??cieo ia?aiao?e/ieo cia/aiiyo ((o/(a) Ae?oaee oeyo i?aeaeuaiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy aa?ee?th ca'ycaiee c oaeei aieeaii ia no?oeoo?o, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ((a+(o) aai ciaioeoe a?aeiioaiiy ((o/(a). C iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a cae?eniaiiy oaeiai aieeao iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei i?aaenoaaey?oueny eaaoaaiiy aeii?oeaie, ye? ooai?ththoue oaa?ae? ?ic/eie (Cu, Ni, Co, Fe ? o.?i. ). Iaaiaee, aeeaiea ?ao?ioaaiiy iaaaaeaia, ai aaaea aei ?noioiiai cieaeaiiy (a ? (o. Oeei, aeaeii, iiynith?oueny iaiaeii?aciai a?aecia/aiiy a e?oa?aoo?? ciaioaiiy E1n aa?ee?th ii i??? eiai i/enoee. Iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy E1n ca ?aooiie iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia aai ooai?aiiy y/a?noi? no?oeoo?e aeiaaa? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ai?iaaoe??, ai i?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny ia o?eueee ((a+(o), aea ? ((o/(a), a c oi?ioee (2) ? iae. 1 ne?aeo?, ui oe? oaeoi?e aieeaathoue ia E1n i?yii i?ioeeaaeiei ia?acii. Aeacai? iiaeeeaino? aoee oni?oii ?aae?ciaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. Aeei?enoaiiy oeueo?aae??aiica?ienoeo ii?ioe?a c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie ? can?a aa?y/iai ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe aa?ee?e c aenieei ??aiai a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy (E1n ~70 ea/ii3/ 2). Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th” i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oiia aei?iaoaaiue ia oaea?io a’yce?noue aa?ee?th. A i?ae?icae?e? 2.1 i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, yeee iieacaa, ui oaea?ia a’yce?noue aa?ee?th aea/aia ae?ae neaaei. A oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? ae?iao c aa?ee?th caciathoue aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, oiio iiaeaeueoa ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aeei?enoaiiy aa?ee?th iaiiaeeeai aac aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai ni?iiiaeiino? i?ioenoiyoe oeei iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co noaio i?iaeaie iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: – aecia/eoe /enaeuei? cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? i?iieneiaeo ni?o?a aa?ee?th; –aea/eoe aieea ia oaea?io a’yce?noue oa?iiia?iaee, oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiue, /enoioe iaoaeo, ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a, noaio iiaa?oi?, i???ioaoe?? ae??cee c?ace?a, oi?ie oa aeiaaeeie iaae??co, caianaii? iayoieeii aia?a?? oa ?i. A i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 iieacaia i?noea oaea?ieo aei?iaoaaiue na?aae ?ioeo cania?a aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae noaoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue aei aeeiai?/ieo aieea o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, no?oeoo?e, oa?i?/ieo ? iaoai?/ieo ia?iaie ? ?ioeo oaeoi??a aeyaey?oueny cia/ii ??ce?oa. Oiio oaea?i? aei?iaoaaiiy oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aea/aii? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ?o io?eiaiiy. A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iaeaaeiaiiy ? iaoiaeee oaea?ieo aei?iaoaaiue, oi?ie c?ace?a ? iaae??c?a, cania?a ?iceeaaeo oaea?ii? a’yceino? ia neeaaeia?. I?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia oaea?iee caei iiaeia io?eiaoe a?eueoee ianya ?ioi?iaoe??, yeui ?iceeanoe oaea?io a’yce?noue ia neeaaeia? (aei??thaaia aaee/eia aE ? ?ioaa?aeueiith aaee/eiith): aia?a?th ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie aC, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia aeaoi?iaoe?th a?ey iniiae o??ueie, ? aia?a?th ?iciianthaeaeaiiy o??ueie (?iaioa ?oeioaaiiy) a?. Iienai? inoeeeia?ao?/ia iaoiaeeea, ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?aie aeaii? ?iaioe, oaeiae eiino?oeoeai? ci?ie iayoieeiaiai eii?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue c ?iciiae?eii oaea?ii? a’yceino? ia neeaaeia?. Iniiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? aa?ee?th iaaaaeai? a i?ae?icae?eao 2.4 ? 2.5. Iieacaii, ui oaea?ia a’yce?noue o c?ace?a aac iaae??co i?ney iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, aei?iaoaaieo i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??, iecueea. Oae, o c?ace?a AI aa?ee?th, io?eiaieo c ii?ioeo e?oii?noth -56 iei, ae neeaaea? 0,04-0,05 eai/ni2. Oea iia'ycaii c ooai?aiiyi a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?e iaoai?/i?e ia?iaoe? aeaoaeo?a, aieiaiei /eiii - aea?eiee?a oa i?e?io??uei. Aeine?aeaeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy aeanoeainoae c?ace?a i?ney ??cieo aeae?a ia?iaie. Iieacaii, ui oaea?ia a’yce?noue c?inoa? ii i??? aeeo/aiiy iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o o?i?/iith iie??iaeith ? aeinyaa? iane/aiiy i?ney ciyooy oa?o oiaueiith 0,3-0,35 ii. Aea/aia caeaaei?noue oaea?ii? a’yceino? aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?cio?iiiiai (2 aiaeeie) a?aeiaeo. Iieacaia, ui c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo aei 800iN oaea?ia a’yce?noue c?inoa?, ca?eueooth/enue ia ii?yaeie o ii??aiyii? c cia/aiiyie aE iaoa?iiia?iaeaiiai aa?ee?th. I?e iiaeaeueoiio c?inoaii? oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo oaea?ia a’yce?noue aa?ee?th cieaeo?oueny. Ca?eueoaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? a ?acoeueoao? a?aeiaeo ? ?acoeueoaoii cae?eiaoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a, ui ooai?youeny i?e ??caii?, ? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aea?eiee?a. Cieaeaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? i?ney a?aeiaea i?e 9000N ? ?acoeueoaoii ?inoo ca?ai. Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie iaeiinooiiaaeo a?aeiae?a: iaeneiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a a?aeiaeo aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 8000C, ai a i?ioeaiiio aeiaaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy eiai aeeiai?/ieo, i?oeiinieo ? ieanoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Iieacaii, ui eiia?iiaai? ia?iaee (a?aeiae ? o?i?/ia iie??iaea) aoaeoeaii a?aeiiaeththoue oaea?io a’yce?noue i?ney iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee aa?ee?th. Oae, a?aeiae iaoai?/ii ia?iaeaieo c?ace?a aa?ee?th i?e 7500N ? ianooiia o?i?/ia iie??iaea c ciyooyi oa?o oiaueiith 0,3 ii i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? ia ii?yaeie (a?ae 0,04-0,064 aei 0,6-0,78 eai/ni2). Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaoinooiaiaa? ia?iaee a?eueo aoaeoeai?, yeui i?ney oa?iiia?iaie ?aea o?i?/ia iie??iaea. Oaea?ia a’yce?noue aa?ee?th neeueii caeaaeeoue a?ae noaio iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo: iayai?noue oaa?aeeo iiaa?oiaeo oa??a cieaeo? oaea?io a’yce?noue. Aea/aiee aieea ??cieo iie?eoue ia oaea?io a’yce?noue aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th. Iieacaii, ui eoaeaiiy c?ace?a aa?ee?th i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? a?eueoa i?ae ia 11%. Aoaeo aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo n??aeyieo iie?eoue ua aeua ? aeinyaa? 100%. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiceoeaiee aoaeo iie?eooy caeaaeeoue a?ae aia?a?? oaea?o. Aea/aiee aieea ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a ia oaea?io a’yce?noue aa?ee?th. Io?eiai? a?ao?/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino? oaea?ii? a’yceino? a?ae iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio c?ace?a aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th i?ney ?o ae??cee aeaeo?i?ne?iaei caniaii ? ??cee c ianooiiith o?i?/ii? iie??iaeith. Oaea?ia a’yce?noue e?i?eii c?inoa? c ca?eueoaiiyi ia?aoeio, i?e/iio i?ney o?i?/ii? iie??iaee aiia aeyaey?oueny i?eaeecii aaea?/? aeua, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?ici???a c?ace?a. I?iaiae?ciaaiee aieea oaenoo?e ia aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th. Iieacaii, ui o aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th ae?acii aeyaey?oueny ai?cio?ii?y oaea?ii? a’yceino? oae naii, ye ? aeey iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Oae, oaea?ia a’yce?noue o c?ace?a, ae??caieo ia?aeaeueii in? i?anoaaiiy, aeyaey?oueny ia 50% aeua, i?ae o ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo c?ace?a. Oaea?ia a’yce?noue aa?y/ai?aniaaieo c?ace?a aac iaae??co, aeaioiaeaieo c aeie?a aeniei? /enoioe, a 2,5 - 3 ?ace aeua, i?ae o c?ace?a, ae??caieo c aeie?a oaoi?/ii? /enoioe. O oeeo aea iaoa??ae?a aeey c?ace?a c iaae??cii oey a?aei?ii?noue aeae?eueea ieae/a (o 0,7-1,5 ?ace). Aea/aia oaea?ia a’yce?noue c?ace?a aa?ee?th c iaae??cii ? i?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaea?ia a’yce?noue c?ace?a c iaae??cii, aeaioiaeaieo c oaoi?/ieo ni?o?a AI aa?ee?th, aeoaea iecueea: i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oi?ie iaae??co aiia neeaaea? 0,03-0,045 eai/ni2, oiaoi i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaaea? c cia/aiiyie oaea?ii? a’yceino? aeey ia iaae??caieo c?ace?a i?ney iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee. Aea/aia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue (a iaaeao oaiia?aoo? 20-6000N) oaea?ii? a’yceino? aa?ee?th ??cii? /enoioe. Ia iae. 2, a iaaaaeaia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ?ioaa?aeueii? aaee/eie oaea?ii? a’yceino? ? ?? neeaaeiaeo aeey c?ace?a aa?ee?th oaoi?/ii? /enoioe c aino?ei iaae??cii. Aaniethoi? cia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? oaea?ii? a’yceino? ca?eueoothoueny c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e iniaeeai neeueii i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 6000N, oiae? ye ?iaioa ?oeioaaiiy aaea a iaaeao oaiia?aoo? 400 - 5000N aeoiaeeoue ia iane/aiiy ? caeeoa?oueny ia ??ai? 0,1 eai/ni2. Ia iae. 2, a iaaaaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oaea?ii? a’yceino? aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th. Aeaeii, ui a on?i ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiue cia/aiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th aeua, i?ae oaoi?/iiai. Aeae?eueea a?ae??ciy?oueny oaeiae ? oa?aeoa? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? oaea?ii? a’yceino? oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Iaeiae ?iaioa ?oeioaaiiy ana ??aii caeeoa?oueny aeoaea iecueeith ? neaaei ci?ith?oueny c oaiia?aoo?ith. Aea/aiee aieea oiia aei?iaoaaiue ia oaea?io a’yce?noue (oi?ie ? aeiaaeeie iaae??co, caiano aia?a?? iayoieea, i?noeaiieiaeaiiy iaae??co i?e oaea?? ? o.?i.). I?e oaiia?aoo?ao aei?iaoaaiue 20 ? 3700N c?acee c a?eueo aino?ei iaae??cii iathoue iaio? aaniethoi? cia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? aaee/eie oaea?ii? a’yceino?. Aiae?c neeaaeiaeo ?ioaa?aeueii? aaee/eie oaea?ii? a’yceino? i?e oeeo aei?iaoaaiiyo iieacaa, ui ?iaioa ?oeioaaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo iaae??co, oiaoi iaae??c aieeaa? eeoa ia aaee/eio ?iaioe ca?iaeaeaiiy aC, yea c?inoa? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae aino?iai iaae??co aei noaiaea?oiiai. Ia cae?i/aiiy ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui, o?eueee aieeaath/e ia ?iaioo, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie (ciaioaiiy ca?ia, ca?eueoaiiy /enoioe, noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeai? noano?oeoo?u, iaianaiiy iecueei- ? aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo iie?eoue), iiaeia iie?auoaaoe aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th. Iecuee? cia/aiiy ?iaioe ?oeioaaiiy coiiaeai? i?e?iaeith aa?ee?th (eiai e?eoe?noth), oiio aieeaaoe ia oeth aaee/eio i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Iae.2. Oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oaea?ii? a’yceino? aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th: a – oaoi?/ii? /enoio? O56; a – aeenoeeueiaaiee Ae56 A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aeonoe/ia ai?n?y aa?ee?th” i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? a?o/eciyieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th ? aea/aiee aieea ia aeonoe/i? niaeo?e ??cieo oaeoi??a. A i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 iieacaii, ui AA aa?ee?th i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei. Aiae?c iayaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ii aea/aiith aa?ee?th iieaco?, ui can?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aea? oi?eaeueio aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aeeiai?eo aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?oeioaaiiy. Oea aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noi?ioethaaoe ?o caaea/?: io?eiaoe aeonoe/i? niaeo?e aeine?aeieo ? i?iieneiaeo ni?o?a aa?ee?th o aeo?aeiiio noai? ? aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea ia oa?aeoa?enoeee AA noaiaea?oieo ? niaoe?aeueieo oa?iiia?iaie, no?oeoo?iiai noaio (/enoioe, ?ici??o ca?ia), oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo, caniao ? oiia ?nieoo, noaie iiaa?oi?. A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. ? 3.3 iienaiee can?a AA ? iieacaii, ui aei?ii?ithaaiiy neaiae?a AA iaoa??aeo aeeeeea?oueny ??cieie i?ioeanaie, ui i?io?eathoue a iaaaioaaeaiiio iaoa??ae?: ?ooii aeeneieaoe?e, aea?eieeoaaiiyi, oaciaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie, ei?ic??th i?ae iai?oaith, aiaeiaaei ie?eo/oaaiiyi, ooai?aiiyi o??uei ? o.?i. A ?aieao oeeo i?ioean?a ?icaeyioo? iaea?eueo ?iia??i? iaoai?cie, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ca?eueiaiiyi aia?a?? ? aei?ii?ithaaiiyi aeonoe/ii? oaee?. I?iaiae?ciaaiee ?ioi?iaoeaiee ci?no ia?aiao??a, ui ?a?no?othoueny AA: aeoeaiino?, caaaeueiiai /enea ?iioeuen?a, aiie?ooaee, aia?a??, oi?ie ? aiie?ooaeii-/anoioiiai niaeo?o. Iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aeayeeie ia?aiao?aie AA ? oeiii ?ioi?iaoe??, yeo aiie ianooue. A i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 iienai? ??ci? onoaiiaee aeey ?a?no?aoe?? ? aiae?co neaiae?a AA ? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae aia?aoo?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeyaeo aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a. Iienai? iniiai? neeaaeia? eiio?ieueii - aei??thaaeueii? aia?aoo?e aeey aei?iaoaaiue caniaii AA oa ?oi? oaoi?/i? iiaeeeaino?. Iienaiee aeine?aeiee eiiieaen EAA, ui aeei?enoiaoaaany i?e aeeiiaii? aeaii? ?iaioe, yeee neeaaea?oueny c oi?aa?naeueii? aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie 1958 -O10, ainueieeaiaeueii? aeonoeei - ai?n?eii? aia?aoo?e I400 ? ?a?no?oth/iai oa ia?iaeyth/iai ono?ith ia aac? AII. Iienaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue ii aea/aiith aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a. Iaaaaeai? aiie?ooaeii - /anoioia oa?aeoa?enoeea eiiieaeno ? ?aae?ciaai? a eiiieaen? niaoe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino?, iai?aaeai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ?a?no?aoe?? caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ? aiie?ooaee ?iioeuen?a AA. A i?ae?icae?e? 3.5 iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aea/aiiy aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a iiiie?enoae?a, eeoiai aeaoi?iiaaiiai aa?ee?th ??cii? /enoioe, aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai ? ?cinoaoe/ii i?aniaaiiai iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo c ii?ioe?a ??cii? e?oiiino? ? /enoioe. Iieacaii, ui ii caeaaeiino? aeoeaiino? a?ae i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae aa?y/ai?aniaai? aa?ee??a? iaoa??aee iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie. O ia?oi? a?oie caeaaei?noue aeoeaiino? AA a?ae iai?oae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iayai?noth ia?oiai iaeneioio a ?aeii? iaae? oaeo/ino? ? cieaeaiiyi aeoeaiino? a cii? ci?oeiaiiy oa ae?oaiai iaeneioio a iaaeao iai?oaeaiue, ui ia?aaeothoue ?oeioaaiith c?acea (aeea. iae. 3). O ae?oai? a?oie iaoa??ae?a niinoa??aa?oueny ??cia ii oa?aeoa?o ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? AA aei iai?oaeaiue 200 IIa oa iayai?noue iaeiiai neeueiiai iaeneioio a iaaeao iai?oaeaiue ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi (aeea. iae. 4). Iae. 3. Caeaaei?noue aeoeaiino? AA a?ae i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae i?e ?icoyc? c?ace?a aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th : 1-aeo?aeiee noai, 2 - aa?o c 6000N o ianei, 3 - aa?o c 6000N o aiaeo, 4 - aa?o c 6000N o ianei + a?aeiae 6000N 1 aiaeeia Iae. 4. Caeaaei?noue aeoeaiino? AA a?ae i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae aeey aa?ee?th oaoi?/ii? /enoioe : 1-aeo?aeiee noai, 2 - aa?o c 6000N o ianei, 3 - aa?o c 6000N o aiaeo, 4 - aa?o c 6000N o ianei + a?aeiae 6000N 1 aiaeeia Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oie oaeo, ui iaeneioi ia iaae? oaeo/ino? ((o) a?aenooi?e o iaoa??ae?a, ui iathoue i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy (o ? a?eueoa /anoeia aeeth/aiue ieneaeo aa?ee?th AaI ciaoiaeeoueny a o?e? ca?ia. Aecia/ai? iieiaeaiiy iaeneioi?a ia in? iai?oaeaiue, ?o aaniethoi? cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th o aeo?aeiiio noai? ? i?ney ??cieo ia?iaie. Aea/aiee aieea oa?iiia?iaie ia aeonoe/i? niaeo?e aa?ee?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?iiia?iaee ia ia?aiao?e aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? ii/eiathoue iicia/aoeny o?eueee c iaaiiai ??aiy oaiia?aoo? (~ 800iN aeey AI ? ~ 900iN aeey eeoiai aa?ee?th). A oa?iiia?iaeaiiio aa?ee?th ii?yae c aeaiia iaeneioiaie ia e?ea?e caeaaeiino? aeoeaiino? AA a?ae i?eeeaaeaii? iai?oae a cii? i?e?iiai?oaeaiue ((~ 0.03%) oa ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi (( ~ 1(1, 5%) c’yaey?oueny o?ao?e iiaeeco iaae? oaeo/ino? (( ~ 0.1%). Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a iiiie?enoae?a, eeoiai aeaoi?iiaaiiai aa?ee?th ??cii? /enoioe, AI ? A?I iaoa??aeo, aeicaieea c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy i?i i?e/eie iiyae iaeneioi?a ia caeaaeiino? aeoeaiino? aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? a?ae iai?oae. I?e a iaaeao i?e?iiai?oaeaiue ca’ycaiee c iii?oiith aeeneieaoe?eiith ?ooii?noth a iaaeao iai?oaeaiue 30 - 40 IIa, ui a?aeiia?aea? cia/aiith i?aoeec?eii? iaae? i?oaeiino?. I?e a cii? iai?oaeaiue a?aeiia?aeieo iaae? oaeo/ino? o aa?ee?th ca’ycaiee c iniaeea?noth ci?ie u?eueiino? ?ooiieo aeeneieaoe?e a ?acoeueoao? aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Iniiaiee aeeaae a oi?ioaaiiy iaeneioio a iaaeao aeaoi?iaoe?e 1(1,5% aiinyoue i?ioeane o??ueiiooai?aiiy. Aeaoaeueii aea/aiee aieea ?ici??o ca?ia ia aeonoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia aeniei/enoiio eeoiio aeaoi?iiaaiiio aa?ee?th c ?ici??ii ca?ia a?ae 9,5 aei 438 iei. Iieacaii, ui e?ea? noia?ii? e?eueeino? aenieiaiieeooaeieo ?iioeuen?a a?ae ?ici??o ca?ia i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac iaeneioi a iaaeao 30 iei, a na?aaeiuei - ? aenieiaiieeooaeieo neaiae?a a iaaeao d (55 iei. Aea/aia aeeiai?ee iaeiie/oaaiiy ?iioeuen?a a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy a iaoa??aeao c ?ici??ii ca?ia a iaeano? iaeneioio oa e?ai?o/ ? i?aai?o/ a?ae iueiai. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioean aeenia?aoaaiiy aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e (ci?ia aoaeoeaiiai ?ici??o ca?ia) a iaoa??aeao c ??ciei ii/aoeiaei ?ici??ii ca?ia a?aeaoaa?oueny ii-??ciiio. Oiaoi oa?aeoa? ci?ie aeoeaiino? AA ? na?aeioeoaii oiai, ui oa?aeoa? “iiae??aiaiiy” aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaiiiioiiii i?iy?oueny c c?inoaiiyi ca?ia ? ui ? yeanue cia/aiiy de?, i?e yeiio aeenia?aoaaiiy no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iia?euei?oa, i?ae i?e d( de?. Aea/aiee aieea ia oa?aeoa?enoeee aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee, ?? aa?oiuei? oaiia?aoo?e, aeaeo ??aeeie, ui ioieiaeaeo?, ianooiieo oa iiia?aaei?o a?aeiae?a. ((), aa?oiy oaiia?aoo?a OOeI aeyaey? aieea ia aaee/eio iaeneioio ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi. Aeyaeaia iniaeea?noue: iaoa??ae, ui i?ney OOeI ia? i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy iaae? oaeo/ino? (o, aea? ? i?i?iaeueia caaaeueia /enei ?iioeuen?a. Ia iniia? aiae?co oa?aeoa?o aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy aea/aieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th iieacaii, ui OOeI i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy u?eueiino? ?ooiieo aeeneieaoe?e ? aeyaey? neeueiee aieea ia aeeneieaoe?eio ?ooii?noue. Oiaoi OOeI ?aaeeeaeueii i?iy? aioo??oith no?oeoo?o ? iieaaoo? ?aeaenaoe?th iai?oaeaiue, ui caaacia/o? i?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue i?e?i - ? iae?iiai?oaeaiue. O AI aa?ee?th i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? /?oei aeyaey?oueny aoaeo Eaeca?a (a?aenooi?noue neaiae?a AA i?e iiaoi?iiio iaaaioaaeaii? aei iaae? iiia?aaeiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy). O?i?/ia o?aaeaiiy ? a?aeiaee aei oaiia?aoo? 5000N ia ii?ooothoue i?iya aoaeoo Eaeca?a. Aiae?c aeonoe/ieo niaeo??a aeine?aeaeaieo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a iieacaa, ui eiaeiee ni?o aa?ee?th aieiae?? niaoeeo?/iei, i?eoaiaiiei o?eueee eiio, oa?aeoa?ii ci?ie AA a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy. (()) aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai c iaeiiai ? oiai ae ii?ioeo oaoi?/ii? /enoioe e?oii?noth -56 iei, aea i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao ? oaeaeeinoyo i?anoaaiiy. Ciaeaeaia caeaaei?noue AA a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a io?eiaiiy iaoa??aeo ? anoaiiaeaiee ca’ycie i?ae aeoeai?noth neaiae?a, ui ?a?no?othoueny AA ? ??aiai iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ni?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th. ((), aaee/eia aeoeaiino? AA c?inoa? c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? aei?iaoaaiiy. ((). i?e noeneoaaii? ii aaniethoi?e aaee/ei? cae/aeii iaioee, i?ae i?e ?icoyc?. Ui noino?oueny ae?oaiai iaeneioio, oi a on?o iaoa??aeao i?e noeneoaaii? a?i ci?uo?oueny a iai?yieo a?eueo aenieeo cia/aiue o ii??aiyii? c ?icoyaii. Aea/aiee aieea noaio iiaa?oi? ? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? aei?iaoaaiue ia aeoeai?noue ? aiie?ooaeiee ?iciiae?e ?iioeuen?a aeonoe/ii? ai?n??, ui ?a?no?othoueny. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue c aeiiiiiaith AA eiio?iethaaoe ??aaiue iai?oaeaiiai noaio iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo. *aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a i?anoaaiiy ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th” i?enay/aiee iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith i?ioeano eiiiaeooaaiiy aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo caniaii A?I ? ?ic?aooieo aeeiai?ee ci?ie a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? a i?ioean? eiiiaeooaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a ii?ioeo ? i?ioeano A?I. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 a?aeaeoa ?ieue A?I a ii?ioeia?e iaoaeo?a?? ? cia/aiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeey iioei?caoe?? i?ioean?a ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaio i?iaeaie iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy cania?a iiaeaethaaiiy aei i?ioean?a A?I aa?ee??aeo ii?ioe?a ? oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? caaea/?: – iiaoaeoaaoe ?ic?aooieiao iiaeaeue eiiiaeooaaiiy caniaii A?I aa?ee??aeo ii?ioe?a; – ?ic?aooaaoe oaeaeeino? ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy; – aecia/eoe aeeaae iaoai?ci?a ia ??cieo noaae?yo ou?eueiaiiy; – iiaoaeoaaoe ea?oe A?I aa?ee?th. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.2, 4.3 ? 4.4 i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?nioth/eo iiaeaeae ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a caniaii A?I, iienai? iiaeae? no?oeoo?iiai ? eiioeioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, i?iaiae?ciaai? ??aiyiiy ??cieo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy. Oe? aeaa i?aeoiaeo iathoue iiaiaeaeaio oai?aoe/io aaco, iniiaaio ia aecia/aeueiiio aeeaae? o?ueio iniiaieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a (ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, iiaco/ino? ? aeeooc??) a i?ioean? ou?eueiaiiy i?aniaee caniaii A?I. Iaaaaeai? ??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeinoae ou?eueiaiiy aeey no?oeoo?iiai ? eiioeioaeueiiai i?aeoiae?a. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.5 aea?aia no?aoaa?y ?ic?aooieo ou?eueiaiiy aa?ee??aeo ii?ioe?a caniaii A?I. C?iaeaii ?ic?aooiie ea?o A?I ii iiaeae? no?oeoo?iiai i?aeoiaeo. Cae?eniaia ioe?iea aieeao ieneaeii? ie?aee ia i?ioeane eiiiaeooaaiiy ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th. A i?ney oeueiai, aaea iath/e aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ? ea?oe A?I, aecia/aee ia?aiao?e a, m, h ??aiyiue eiioeioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo ? ae?iaeyee ?ic?aooiie ou?eueiaiiy aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo a ?aieao oeueiai i?aeoiaeo. Aeey iiaoaeiae ea?o A?I i?iaaaeai? aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiue neoaeeee ?icieeai? ii?ioee aa?ee?th c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie. Oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo ii?ioe?a oa ?o aa?y/iai ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy aoee ?ic?iaeai? a OOO? Aaaoiii A.A., Aiaeeueiaei A.A., Aaneeue?aei A.I., Iai??iaei I.?. ? Oeoeinueeei A.I. Aoee aecia/ai? iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?ioeiie ??ciiai ?ici??o i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia noeneoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui i?oei?noue /anoie ? ?o aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy ??cei c?inoa? ii i??? ciaioaiiy ?ici???a /anoie. Aea/aia ii/aoeiaa i?oei?noue /anoie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?oiueiai ?ici??o. Aeine?aeaeaia oi?iici?iaiiy noa?e/ii? /anoee i?ae aieeaii anaa?/iiai noeneoaaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiee o?aeoe?eiee neeaae noaiaea?oieo ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th ? aecia/aiee i?ioeaioiee ci?no eiaeii? o?aeoe??. Oea aeicaieeei ?ic?aooaaoe ii/aoeiao a?aeiinio u?euei?noue (D0) caneiee ii?ioeo e?oii?noth –56. Aiia aeyaeeany ??aii? 0,64 ? aeia?a iiaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueii ci??yiith aaee/eiith ianeiii? u?eueiino? aeey oeueiai ii?ioeo. Aeey i?ea’ycee iiaeae? aei ?aaeueieo oiia i?anoaaiiy aoee cae?eniai? aenia?eiaioe ii A?I ?icieeaieo ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th c ?ici??aie /anoie –56 ? +56 –100 iei. Aea?? /ano, oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e oeeo aenia?eiaio?a cae?enithaaee oaeei /eiii, uia a?aeiinia u?euei?noue iaea?aeoaaieo caaio?aie ciaoiaeeeanue a ?ioa?aae? 0,8–0,99. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.6 iienaiee ii?yaeie iiaoaeiae ea?o A?I. Aiie yaeythoue niaith a?ao?/ia cia?aaeaiiy caeaaeiino? a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? D a?ae ?ici???a /anoie ? ia?aiao??a i?ioeano A?I (oeneo, oaiia?aoo?e, /ano). A?aeiinio u?euei?noue ciaoiaeyoue oeyoii neeaaeaiiy a?aeiinieo u?eueiinoae, iaea?aeoaaieo i?e aeai?e oaiia?aoo?? ? oeneo ca ?aooiie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? i?aoethth/eo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy. Iaaaaeaia aeie-noaia eiii'thoa?ii? i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo ? iaiao?aei? aeanoeaino? aa?ee??aeo ii?ioeiaeo iaoa??ae?a. I?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie oaeaeeinoae ou?eueiaiiy (? a?aeiinii? u?eueiino?) i?aenoaiiaeith aeo?aeieo aeaieo aeey aa?ee?th a ??aiyiiy no?oeoo?iiai i?aeoiaeo. A ?ic?aooieia? ??aiyiiy iiaeae? aoee aaaaeai? ia?aiao?e (eiao?oe??ioe), ui a?aoiaoaaee aieea ieneaeii? ie?aee. Ioe?iea oeeo eiao?oe??io?a aoei i?iaaaeaia aeaeo?iiii - i?e?ineii?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo ieneaeo aa?ee?th ii iiaa?oi? ? i??e nooe?eueiino? ieneaeii? ie?aee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a i?ioeano A?I ? ?ici??o aeo?aeieo ii?ioe?a. A ?ic?aooieia? ??aiyiiy aaiaeeeeny oaeiae ?io? iii?aai/i? eiao?oe??ioe, iai?eeeaae, eiao?oe??io, ui a?aoiao? ??cieoeth a ieiuao iiaa?oi? noa?e ? oeo aaaaoia?aiiee?a, ui iaea?aeothoueny a ?aaeueieo oiiaao. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oe? ??aiyiiy, aoee ?ic?aoiaai? cia/aiiy a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? caaio?aee i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano A?I ? ?ici??ao /anoie ii?ioeo. Oe? cia/aiiy aeinoaoiuei aeia?a ni?aiaaeaee c iayaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Ianooiiei aoaiii iiaea?i?caoe?? iiaeae? aoei ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? iii?aai/ieo eiao?oe??io?a. Aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a oaeaeeinoae ou?eueiaiiy c ??cieie aa??aioaie ? e?euee?noth iii?aai/ieo eiao?oe??io?a aeicaieea (c iaaaeeeith ao?aoith oi/iino?) ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aaaaeaiiy a ??aiyiiy aoaeoeaieo eiao?oe??io?a ca?iia?aie/ii? ? ia’?iii? aeeooc??. A ?iaio? iaaaaeai? ??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieo ? cia/aiiy ia?aaeaeniiiaioe?aeueieo eiao?oe??io?a aeey ??cieo ?ici???a /anoie ii?ioeo, ui aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe aoaeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe ca?iia?aie/ii? ? ia’?iii? aeeooc??. I?aenoaiiaea aoaeoeaieo eiao?oe??io?a a ?ic?aooieia? ??aiyiiy aeicaieeee i?iaanoe ?ic?aooiee ? io?eiaoe o?eaei??i? a?ao?ee a eii?aeeiaoao oaiia?aoo?a-oene-a?aeiinia u?euei?noue ? oaiia?aoo?a-oene-/an (iae. 5), a c ieo – ??ci? ea?oe A?I aa?ee?th. Oe? a?ao?ee iieacothoue ci?io a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? i?aniaee i?e ci?i? oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e i?ioeano A?I, aai aeicaieythoue aea?aoe oene ? oaiia?aoo?o i?ioeano A?I aeey io?eiaiiy D=1,0 ca ??ci? /ane i?ioeano. Iae.5. O?eaei??i? a?ao?ee i?ioeano A?I ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th o eii?aeeiaoao oaiia?aoo?a - oene - a?aeiinia u?euei?noue A i?ae?icae?e? 4.7 ?ic?aoiaaiee ? i?iaiae?ciaaiee aeeaae i?aoethth/eo iaoai?ci?a a ou?eueiaiiy i?aniaee. I?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th caniaii A?I aeeth/aea a naaa iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo (a a?aenioeao) aeeaaeo iaoai?cio ou?eueiaiiy a aoaeue-ye?e e?aioe? ea?oe A?I. Oa?aeoa?i? a?ao?ee, ui ?ethno?othoue aeeaae ??cieo iaoai?ci?a a ou?eueiaiiy caaio?aee, iaaaaeai? ia iae. 6. Iieacaii, ui iniiaiee aeeaae a ou?eueiaiiy caaio?aee c ii?ioe?a e?oii?noth 30-180 iei a?athoue ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ? aeeooc?y. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.8 iiaoaeiaai? ea?oe A?I ? aecia/aiee aeeaae i?aoethth/eo iaoai?ci?a i?e ou?eueiaii? ae??aiica?ienoiai ii?ioeo aa?ee?th (4 ? 8 iei). O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaeaeeth i?e ou?eueiaii? oeeo ii?ioe?a ii/eia? i?aoethaaoe iaoai?ci Oa??eiaa - Iaaa??i ? Eiaea. Iaaaaeai? a?ao?ee ci?ie a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? ? aaee/eie aeeaaeo a ou?eueiaiiy caaio?aee oeeo iaoai?ci?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e A?I. Ii??aiyiiy aeeaae?a iaoai?ci?a a ou?eueiaiiy iieacaei, ui aaniethoi? cia/aiiy oaeaeeinoae ou?eueiaiiy neeueii caeaaeaoue a?ae aaee/eie oeneo, ui i?eeeaaea?oueny oa oaiia?aoo?e A?I. Iae.6. Caeaaei?noue aeeaae?a ??cieo iaoai?ci?a a ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioeo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e i?e oeneo A?I 50 IIa ? ?ici??? /anoie 90 iei (1-iaoai?ci ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, 2-ae?ooc??, 3- iiaco/ino?) ?ic?aoiaai? ? iiaoaeiaai? a?ao?ee aeeaaeo ??cieo iaoai?ci?a a ou?eueiaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo A?I aeey ii?ioeo c ca?iii 4 ? 8 iei. Iieacaii, ui iaoai?cie Oa??eiaa-Iaaa??i ? Eiaea aeathoue a?ae/ooiee aeeaae a ou?eueiaiiy caaio?aee i?e eiiiaeooaaii? caniaii A?I a iaeano? oeneo 1– 25 IIa ? oaiia?aoo? 800 9000C. i ii i??? c?inoaiiy D. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.9 i?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th caniaii A?I c aeiiiiiaith eiioeioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii A?I aa?ee?th, ianea aeaieo, io?eiaiee c aeiiiiiaith no?oeoo?iiai i?aeoiaeo, ? i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui aeeaae ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? iaoa??aeo a?ae i?eeeaaeaiiai oeneo iaeiaeiaee aeey iaio i?aeoiae?a, aoee aecia/ai? eiinoaioe a, h ? m (0.1; 1.5981 ? 0.4721), ui aoiaeyoue a ?ic?aooieia? ??aiyiiy iiaeae?. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee ci?ie a?aeiinii? u?eueiino? i?aniaee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a i?ioeano A?I. Ea?oe A?I a eii?aeeiaoao oene – a?aeiinia u?euei?noue aeey ii?ioeo aa?ee?th c ?ici??ii /anoie - 56 iei i?e oaiia?aoo?? i?anoaaiiy 1000iN c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?aoo no?oeoo?iiai ? eiioeioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo iieacaee iiaio noiaeei?noue. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a iiaoaeiaaiee aoean ae?aa?ai A?I ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th. “Oaoiieia?/i? ae?aa?aie A?I” aoee aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy iiaeo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a i?e aeai?? ia?aiao??a aa?y/iai ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy oeueo?aae??aiica?ienoeo noa?e/ieo ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th. Io?eiai? ea?oe A?I aeey aa?ee?th, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeicaieyoue aeeaoa c?icoi?oe o?ce/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e eiiiaeoe?oaaii? aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo, aaeaeaaoii iienoth/e e?iaoeeo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy. Aiie noathoue ?iai/ei ?ino?oiaioii oaoiieia?a ? ?ic?iaiee?a iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aa?ee?th ? eiai nieaa?a, ai aeicaieythoue ciaoiaeeoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie eiiiaeooaaiiy caaio?aee a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a ii?ioe?a, ui i?anothoueny. A i'yoiio ?icae?e? “Aieea no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aa?ee?th” aeine?aeaeaii ? aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iiiie?enoae?a, eeoiai ? ii?ioeiaiai aa?ee?th. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.1 aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia iniaeea? aeiiae aei ??aiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aa?ee?th, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ye eiino?oeoe?eiee iaoa??ae. Aa?ee?e, ui aeionea?oueny i?iieneia?noth ia a?aeiia?aea? oeei aeiiaai. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a (ai?noo ? noaio aeii?oie, ?ici??o ca?ia, oaenoo?e, noano?oeoo?e), oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a (oaiia?aoo?e, oeneo ? /ano i?ioeano) ia ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??cieo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. Ia iniia? oaeiai aiae?co iiaeooue aooe ?ic?iaeai? o?ce/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy aenieiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.2 aeaiee noeneee aiae?c iiia?aaei?o ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee aaceniiai ? i?eciaoe/iiai ieeio ? aea?eieeoaaiiy iiiie?enoae?a aa?ee?th, ui aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aeaa oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai iie?ioaiiy ieanoe/iino? aa?ee?th. Ia?oee ca'ycaiee c noai?aiiyi a iie?e?enoaeaaiio iaoa??ae? aeaoi?iaoe?eiith ia?iaeith ia?aaaaeii? i???ioaoe?? e?enoae?a. Ae?oaee iai?aaeaiee ia i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe iaoa??aeo. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.3 ?icaeyiooee aieea no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? eeoiai aa?ee?th. Eeo? iaoa??aee a?ae??ciyeeny ai?noii aeii?oie, aaee/eiith ca?ia, ia?aiao?aie oa?iiia?iaee, noano?oeoo?ith oa oaenoo?ith. Cia/ia iie?ioaiiy i?oeiinieo ? ieanoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eeoeo iaoa??ae?a caaacia/o? ?ic?iaeaia a OOO? oaoiieia?y, ui aeeth/a? a naaa aeeaieo i/enoeo iaoaeo caniaii aaeooiii? aeenoeeyoe??, ia?aieaa oeueiai iaoa??aeo ? ianooiio ??ciiiai?aaeaio aeaoi?iaoe?th. A ?acoeueoao? aaea?oueny iaea?aeoaaoe eeoee aa?ee?e /enoioith 99.99% c ?ici??ii ca?ia 5-13 iei, ui canoiniao?oueny aeey aaaaoueio no/anieo aeiaeaoe?a, a oiio /ene? ye a?eii aeaea?ae neio?io?iiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Io?eiai? c ceeoe?a aaeooiu?euei? oieueae iathoue aenieee ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? i?aeaeuaio no?ee?noue aei ei?ic?? oa aei?ii?ithaaiith. Iaeiae oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe??? oaoiieia?? a i?iieneia?noue no?eio? aeniea aa?o?noue ? iaaaeee? aaaa?eoe iaea?aeoaaieo ceeoe?a. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.4 aeeiiaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeaieo ii aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aa?y/ai?aniaaiiai aa?ee?th, ui aeionea?oueny a?o/eciyiith ? ca?oa?aeiith i?iieneia?noth. Cia/iee aianie o ?ic?iaeo oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy AI aa?ee?th a aea/aiiy ?o aeanoeainoae c?iaeee ni?a?ia?oieee AI??II (Ai?ioia A.I., Oiiooia I.I., Ieoaeeia A.N.) Iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue (o ? (a a?ae aaee/eie ca?ia AI aa?ee?th aeia?a iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi Oiea-Iao/a ? Iao/a-No?i. Oiio ciaioaiiy ?ici??o ca?ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? iaoa??aeo. Caaaeueiee ??aaiue a?aeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy aeineiiaeino? oaenoo?e ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oie. ?acoeueoaoe iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue AI iaoa??ae?a c ?icieeaieo ii?ioe?a iieacaee, ui ii i?oeiiniei ? ieanoe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai caaio?aee c aeenoeeueiaaiiai iaoaeo c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie i?eaeecii ia 10% ia?aaeuothoue ??aaiue aeanoeainoae caaio?aie c ii?ioeo iaoai?/iiai iiiaeo. Aeaoaeueii aea/aia no?oeoo?a iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo c ii?ioe?a c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie. O ii??aiyii? c AI cae/aeieo caaiaenueeeo ii?ioe?a no?oeoo?a ? oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeeth/aiue o AI aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai c ii?ioeo c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie, a?ae??ciy?oueny cia/ii e?auith iaeii??aei?noth ? ??aiii??i?noth. Aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? aeacaoe oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae AI aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. Oea, ia?aaeon?i, cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e i?anoaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe ii?ioeo, ui i?ano?oueny, noai?aiiy no?oeoo?e c ??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii aeeth/aiue ? ieneaeo aa?ee?th. Oe? oeyoe aeicaieythoue ?aae?coaaoe canoinoaaiiy ae??aiica?ienoeo ii?ioe?a c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie, io?eiaieo ?icieeaiiyi aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.5 aea/aiee aieea no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? A?I aa?ee?th. ??aaiue o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie ? ia?aiao?aie i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e i?aeaioiaee ii?ioeo aei i?anoaaiiy (aeaaacaoe?y ? O?I ii?ioeo, a?aeiaee ? aeaaacaoe?y O?I caaio?aee ? ?i.) oa aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai i?anoaaiiy i?aeaioiaaii? O?I i?aniaee. Aiae?c aieeao i?ioean?a i?aeaioiaee ii?ioeo aei i?anoaaiiy iieacaa, ui iaee?aua ieanoe/i?noue ? iaeiaioa ai?cio?ii?y iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoea aeinyaiooa ia iaoae?, ui i?ieoia iiia?aaeith noaae?th aeaaacaoe?? (a?aeiae ii?ioeo aai O?I caaio?aee) a ii?aeiaii? c inoaoi/iith aeaaacaoe??th a eiioaeia??. Cia/iee aieea ia no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? eiiiaeoiiai A?I iaoa??aeo aeyaey? i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo oieiaeiiai ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui no?oeoo?a iaoa??ae?a, ye? i?ieoee oieiaeia ?cinoaoe/ia i?anoaaiiy i?e oeneo 400 IIa ? aeua, noa? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth ?ae?enoae?ciaaiith ? ianooii? aenieioaiia?aoo?i? a?aeiaee i?e 1150iN i?ioyaii 2-o aiaeei ia aeyaeythoue ?noioiiai aieeao ia i?e?ino?oeoo?o. Ie??i i?ioean?a i?aeaioiaee ii?ioeo aei i?anoaaiiy, cia/iee aieea ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aeyaeythoue ia?aiao?e ii?ioeo (?ici??e, oi?ia, /enoioa) ? i?ioeano A?I (oene, oaiia?aoo?a, /an). Aieea ia?aiao??a i?anoaaiiy ia ye?noue ae?ia?a aeine?aeaeaiee iaaeinoaoiuei. Iieacaii, ui a ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe? iaea?eueo /anoi aeei?enoiaothoue ianooii? ia?aiao?e i?anoaaiiy aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo: oaiia?aoo?a 760-9500N, oene 70-100 IIa, /an 1-2 aiaeeie, a iie?ioaiiy aeanoeainoae aa?ee??aeo A?I iaoa??ae?a ca'ycothoue c aeei?enoaiiyi /enoeo ae??aiica?ienoeo ii?ioe?a. Iaea?aeoaaiee a?o/eciyiith i?iieneia?noth A?I aa?ee?e ia? a?eueo iecuee? i?oeiini? ? ieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee o ii??aiyii? c ca?oa?aeiei iaoa??aeii. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy i?e/ei oeueiai iieiaeaiiy ? iie?ioaiiy yeino? a?o/eciyiiai aa?ee?th aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo ia?aiao??a ia eiiieaen o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee A?I aa?ee?th. Caaio?aee iaea?aeoaaee c ii?ioeo iaoai?/iiai iiiaeo (30, -56, +56-100, +100-180 iei), i?ney ??ciiiai?oieo ?aaeei?a aeaaacaoe?? (Oaeaa=700–11000N) ? A?I (OA?I= 800-1200iN). Aea/aia caeaaei?noue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aeaaacaoe?? ? ianooiiiai A?I aa?ee?th c ii?ioeo ??cii? /enoioe ? e?oiiino?. I?oei?noue iaoa??aeo i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? ciaioo?oueny c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?anoaaiiy. Iaaii, i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e i?anoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo iiaiee a?aeiae, iaeeaiaieo a i?ioean? io?eiaiiy /anoie ii?ioeo, ? i?oei?noue caaio?aee cieaeo?oueny. Ii?ioie, yeee i?ieoia aeaaacaoe?th i?e 7000N, iiai?noth ia ni?ea?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?ao i?anoaaiiy 800 ? 9000N. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iecueeeo cia/aiue iaae? i?oeiino?, iaae? oaeo/ino? ? a?aeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy o iaoa??aeo, yeee eiiiaeoocoaaany i?e oeeo oiiaao. Iaaii, i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeaaacaoe?? 7000N ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaiiai aeeo/aiiy aac?a c ii?ioeo, a a i?ioean? eiiiaeooaaiiy i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao aac, ui caeeoeany, ?aaao? c aeii?oeaie ? ooai?th? aoi?eii? oace, ye? ci?oeiththoue iaoa??ae. Ia caeaaeiino? a?aeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy a?ae OA?I iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa ae?eueieoe?. Ia ia?o?e a oaiia?aoo?i?e iaeano? i?anoaaiiy 800-10000N niinoa??aa?oueny iiiioiiia c?inoaiiy ieanoe/iino? i?e an?o oaiia?aoo? aeaaacaoe??. Ia ae?oa?e ae?eueieoe? (iaeanoue oaiia?aoo? A?I 1000-11000N) a?aeiinia iiaeiaaeaiiy c?inoa? neaaoa. C iaaaaeaieo aeaieo ne?aeo?, ui i?e eiiiaeooaaii? ii?ioeo aa?ee?th oaoi?/ii? /enoioe -56 iei iioeiaeueiith ? oaiia?aoo?a i?anoaaiiy 1000- 10500N ? oaiia?aoo?a aeaaacaoe?? 900-9500N. Aeey iaoa??ae?a, iaea?aeoaaieo c e?oii?oeo ii?ioe?a, aea?? ?aaeeio A?I aecia/a?oueny i??i?eoaoaie – caaacia/aiiyi aai aenieeo i?oeiinieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aai ieanoe/ieo. *?oei i?ine?aeaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy iaae? i?oeiino? ? oaeo/ino? i?e ciaioaii? e?oiiino? ii?ioeo, ui i?ano?oueny. A ?iaio? aecia/ai? iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee A?I aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai c ii?ioe?a a?eueo aeniei? /enoioe (Ae) ? ??cii? e?oiiino?. I?oeiini? ? ieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeyaeeeny aeua ia ~7-10% o ii??aiyii? c iaoa??aeii c ii?ioe?a oaoi?/ii? /enoioe, iii?oii cieceany ?iceeae aei??thaaieo aaee/ei. Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iieacaei, ui o A?I aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeaaacaoe?? 7000N ? A?I 9000N, ?oeioaaiiy ca'ycaia c iayai?noth aaeeeeo ae?eueieoeue iac?oeiiaaieo ieneaeieo ie?aie. I?oei?noue cieaeo?oueny ? ca ?aooiie iayaiino? aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeeth/aiue ?ioa?iaoae?ae?a, a iniiaiiio FeBe11, ia a?aieoeyo ca?ai. Aiae?c io?eiaieo a ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a ? aeaieo ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e io?eiaiiy ? iniaeeaino? aieeao ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?ioean?a i?aeaioiaee ii?ioeo o a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai A?I aa?ee?th ?noioii ia a?ae??ciythoueny. Iaeiae a?o/eciyi? iaoa??aee iathoue a?eueo iecueeee ??aaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iniaeeai a?aeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy. Oea aeeeeeaia i?aeaeuaiith e?euee?noth iaoaeaaeo aeii?oie, iayai?noth ia a?aieoeyo ca?ai aaeeeeo /anoie ieneaeo aa?ee?th (caeeoe?a ia?aeiieo iac?oeiiaaieo ieneaeieo ie?aie ia /anoeao ii?ioeo), ? aeei?enoaiiyi a?eueo e?oiieo o?aeoe?e ii?ioe?a o ii??aiyii? c ca?oa?aeieie iaoa??aeaie. E??i oiai, oaoiieia?/iee eaioethaeie iaoiaeo O?I-A?I ia? aaeeeo e?euee?noue iia?aoe?e aeniei? ?iaeaia?ii? neeaaeiino?, ia?aiao?e yeeo ia iioei?ciaai?. Ciaioeoe e?euee?noue oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, iiae??aieoe i?e?ino?oeoo?o ii?ioe?a ? cieceoe ??aaiue aeii?oie aeicaiey? canoinoaaiiy aeey A?I ?icieeaieo ii?ioe?a. Ieoiia iiaa?oiy oaeeo ii?ioe?a i?ney ?icn?ao neeaaeaea aeey ii?ioeo - 180 iei ~ 0.1 i2/a, a aeey ii?ioe?a - 56 iei ~ 0.2 i2/a. Oe? cia/aiiy a aeae?eueea ?ac ieae/?, i?ae o aiaeia?/ieo ii?ioe?a, io?eiaieo iaoai?/iei iiae??aiaiiyi aa?ee?th ? i?in?yieo /a?ac o? ae n?oee. I?e A?I ii?ioe?a aa?ee?th c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie iaiao?aei?noue a iia?aoe?yo ii oieiaeiiio ?cii?anoaaiith a?aeiaaea?, ui aeeeeeaia aeinoaoiuei aaeeeith ianeiiith aaaith ii?ioeo c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie (~1,3 a/ni3). Noa?e/i? ii?ioee, ?icieeai? c oaoi?/iiai ? aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th, aoee ?cinoaoe/ii ni?aniaai? (Oeoeinueeei A.I., Aaaoiii A.A. oa ?i.) i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao ? oeneao (aea?? iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a i?anoaaiiy ae?iaeyee c aeiiiiiaith io?eiaieo “oaoiieia?/ieo” ea?o A?I). Oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo c ii?ioeo e?oii?noth -56 iei iaaaaeai? a oaae. 2. Oaaeeoey 2 Oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th, io?eiaiiai A?I c noa?e/iiai ii?ioeo e?oii?noth -56 iei. Iaoa??ae Oei ii?ioeo ?aaeei A?I (oaiia?a- oo?a, 0N/ /an, aiae. /oene, IIa ?ici?? ca?ia Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? o aeo?aeiiio noai? SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 14 s a, IIa SYMBOL 115 \f "Symbol" \s 14 s o, IIa SYMBOL 100 \f "Symbol" \s 14 d ,% O1 -56 oaoi 980 /2 /140 12,5 395 305 2,5 O2 -56 oaoi 1030 /2 /160 13 365 265 4,1 O3 -56 oaoi 1100 /2 /170 15 327 276 3,1 Ae1 -56 aeeno 1030 /2 /160 13 429 322 4,5 Ae2 -56 aeeno 1100 /2 /170 14,5 395 285 4,1 Ia iae. 7-8 iaaaaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? iaae? i?oeiino?, oaeo/ino? ? a?aeiiniiai iiaeiaaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a O1 ? Ae2. Iieacaii, ui iioeiaeueiee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo? ?cinoaoe/iiai i?anoaaiiy ii?ioe?a c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie e?oii?noth -56 iei ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeano? 980 - 10300N. Iaeanoue iaeneiaeueii? ieanoe/iino? a?aeiia?aea? oaiia?aoo?? aei?iaoaaiue a ?aeii? 4000N. I?e oeueiio a?aeiinia iiaeiaaeaiiy aeey iaoa??ae?a oaoi?/ii? /enoioe ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae? 10 - 20%, a aeey aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th aeinyaa? 33%. Ii??aiyiiy aeanoeainoae oaoi?/iiai ? aeenoeeueiaaiiai A?I aa?ee?th iaeiicia/ii aeaco? ia iie?ioaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o a?eueo /enoeo iaoa??ae?a. I?e oaiia?aoo?ao i?anoaaiiy 1030 ? 11000N i?oei?noue ? ieanoe/i?noue aeenoeeueiaaiiai aa?ee?th aeua, i?ae o oaoi?/iiai, ia 10-20%. ?cinoaoe/ii ni?aniaaiee i?e 10300N c noa?e/iiai ii?ioeo e?oii?noth -56 iei i?aeaeuaiith /enoio? aeenoeeueiaaiee aa?ee?e ia? iaee?aua ii?aeiaiiy ieanoe/ieo oa i?oeiinieo aeanoeainoae. Iae. 7. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey aa?ee?thO1 Iae. 8. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeey aa?ee?th Ae2 I?iaaaeaia aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineiie/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noano?oeoo?e A?I aa?ee?th. Aecia/ai? ?aaeeie A?I, i?e yeeo caa??aa?oueny ae??aiica?ienoa no?oeoo?a a io?eiaieo iaoa??aeao. Io?eiaiee a aeai?e ?iaio? aa?ee?e, ii noo?, yaey? niaith iiaee eean iaoa??aeo, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?aeiieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th caniaii i?anoaaiiy, caniaii io?eiaiiy ? oi?iith /anoie ii?ioeo, ai?noii eenith ? aeanoeainoyie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii i?oeiiniei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ?cinoaoe/ii ni?aniaaiee aa?ee?e ia?aaaaea? aa?y/ai?aniaaiee ia 20%, a ii ieanoe/iino? – a?ae 1.5 aei 2 ?ac?a. I?e oeueiio aiaeii/an aeinyaa?oueny iiaia ?cio?ii?y aeanoeainoae. Io?eiaiee iaoa??ae ii i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino? oa ?cio?ii?? caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai, ui iiaeathoueny a iei?oi?e /an aei iioe/ieo oa a??ineii?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? aa?ee?th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaei??? c iniiaieo i?e/eie iie?ioaiiy aeanoeainoae ? aeei?enoaiiy aeey A?I i?eioeeiiai iiaiai oeio ii?ioe?a. Ii?ioee, iaea?aeoaai? ?icieeaiiyi ?icieaao, yaeythoue niaith caaa?oiaai? c aenieith oaeaee?noth (105 - 106 a?aae/nae) noa?e/i? i?e?iceeoee c niaoeeo?/iith no?oeoo?ith (aenieee ??aaiue iai?oaeaiue, iayai?noue noaca?ai ? o. ?i.). Ae?oaa iniaeea?noue oaeeo ii?ioe?a – aeniea /enoioa ii aeii?ooe? eenith, ai?no yeiai a ii?ioeo o?aeoe?? - 56 iei neeaaea? 0.2% o ii??aiyii? c 1% a cae/aeiiio oaoi?/iiio ii?ioeo. Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oeueo?aae??aiica?ienoee ii?ioie i?aeaeuaii? /enoioe c ia??aiia?niith no?oeoo?ith ? iioeiaeueiei aeo?aeiei i?iaeoeoii aeey i?anoaaiiy ca oiia? caa?aaeaiiy noano?oeoo?e i?ney aa?y/iai ou?eueiaiiy ii?ioeo. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e ?cinoaoe/iiio i?anoaaii? oaeiai ii?ioeo a iaaieo oiiaao (O i?anoaaiiy (10300C) ni?aaae? ooai?youeny y/aeee, ui cieeathoue i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 10300N ? aeua. Iioeiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a i?anoaaiiy eaaeeoue a?ey 10000N. C io?eiaieo a aeai?e ?iaio? ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia oeeanoe, ui a?eueo aenie? i?oeiini? ? ieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee io?eiaieo caaio?aie ca'ycai? c aeae?eueeiia oaeoi?aie – noa?e/iith oi?iith, i?aeaeuaiith /enoioith aeo?aeiiai ii?ioeo, iayai?noth y/a?noi? noano?oeoo?e ? a?eueo ??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii /anoie aoi?eiieo oac (aeea. iae. 9). ?acii c oei, o?aaa a?aecia/eoe, ui e?euee?noue iayaieo aeii?oie o aea/aieo ni?oao aa?ee?th an? ua aaeeea: a ieo niinoa??aathoueny oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?aniaaieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th aoaeoe ooai?aiiy ??aeeeo aaoaeoee ia a?aieoeyo ca?ai, /a?aiiieaieino? i?e 6000N, noa??iiy. Aea/aiiy ?oeioaaiiy aeenoeeueiaaiiai ? oaoi?/iiai iaoaeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i/enoea ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith /anoee ?oeioaaiiy ii ca?io aae aei oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiue 6000N. A aeenoeeueiaaiiio iaoae? oaeiae /?oei aeneiaeaiee aoaeo ieeio ii a?aieoeyi ca?ai i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Oe? oaeoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?e iiaeaeueoiio ?ao?ioaaii? aeo?aeiiai ii?ioeo ? i?aenoaae i/?eoaaoe cieeiaiiy oa?aeoa?iiai aeey iaoaeiea?ai?/iiai aa?ee?th aoaeoo cieaeaiiy ieanoe/iino? i?e O>4000C.

Iae. 9. No?oeoo?a aa?ee?th ni?aniaaiiai i?e oaiia?aoo?? 9800N(o5000)

AENIIAEE

1. Aia?oa aea/aia a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy i?iieneiaeo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th. Aecia/ai? aa?aioiaai? ? na?aaei?
cia/aiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy ??cieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th.

2. Nenoaiaoe/ii aea/aia caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?enoee o??ueiino?eneino?
a?ae no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a. Iieacaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae oa?aeoa?enoee
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ui aeoaea neeueii caeaaeaoue a?ae ?ici??o
ca?ia, /enoioe iaoaeo, ai?noo aeii?oie oa ieneaeo aa?ee?th,
oa?aeoa?enoeee o??ueiino?eeino? aeyaeythoue cia/ii a?eueo neaaeo
caeaaei?noue a?ae no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a.

3. Aea/aia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae a’yce?noth ?oeioaaiiy ? ?ioeie iaoai?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae a’yce?noth
?oeioaaiiy, iaaeath i?oeiino? oa oaeo/ino?. Oea ??aiyiiy aeia?a iieno?
ye aeai? aeey a?o/eciyiiai aa?ee?th, oae ? ?acoeueoaoe ca?oa?aeieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iiaoaeiaaia iiiia?aia aeey aecia/aiiy a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy ii a?aeiiei cia/aiiyi iaae? i?oeiino? oa iaae? oaeo/ino?.

4. Iieacai? iiaeeea? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy: a?eueo
iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e ieneaeo aa?ee?th oa ?ici???a /anoie ii?ioeo,
eaaoaaiiy aeii?oeaie, ui aoiaeyoue a oaa?aeee ?ic/ei, aeei?enoaiiy
ii?ioe?a c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie oa ?cinoaoe/ia i?anoaaiiy, yea
caaacia/o? a?eueo iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e aeae?eaiue.

5. Aecia/ai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oaea?ii? a’yceino? aa?ee?th, a
oaeiae aieea oiia aei?iaoaaiue ia aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa?ee?th.

6. C?noaaeyth/e aeai? ii a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy, io?eiai? a oiiaao
noaoe/ieo ?nieo?a, ? oaea?ii? a’yceino?, ui aecia/a?oueny a aeeiai?/ieo
oiiaao, iiaeia oeeanoe, ui aa?ee?e aieiae?? i?eeiyoiei iii?ii
?iciianthaeaeaiith o??uei i?e noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? ? a?ae??ciy?oueny
i?aeaeuaiith e?eoe?noth a oiiaao oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

7. Aea/aia aeonoe/ia ai?n?y ??cieo ni?o?a ? ia?o?e aa?ee?th. Iieacaii,
ui eiaeiee ni?o iaoa??aeo ia? na?e, i?eoaiaiiee o?eueee eiio, aeonoe/iee
niaeo?.

8. Aea/ai? caeaaeiino? aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? oa aieea ??cieo oaeoi??a:
?ici??o ca?ia, caniao io?eiaiiy, oiia aei?iaoaaiue, oa?iiia?iaie,
no?oeoo?iiai noaio ? ?i., ui aeicaieythoue ia i?aenoaa? AA ia?aaeaa/aoe
noai iaoa??aeo.

9. Canoinoaaiiy caniao AA aoaeoeaia aeey c’ynoaaiiy i?e?iaee i?ioean?a
i?e ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaii? aa?ee?th, a oaeiae
i?iaiicoaaiiy a?aie/iiai noaio iaoa??aeo.

10. Aea?aia iiaeaeue eiiiaeooaaiiy aa?ee??aiai ii?ioeo ? ?ic?aoiaai?
oaeaeeino? ou?eueiaiiy aeey ??cieo iaoai?ci?a i?e aa?y/iio ?cinoaoe/iiio
i?anoaaii?.

11. Iiaoaeiaai? ea?oe A?I aeey ??cieo oaiia?aoo?, oene?a oa ?ici???a
ii?ioeo.

12. Aecia/aiee aeeaae an?o i?aoethth/eo iaoai?ci?a ou?eueiaiiy o
a?aeiinio u?euei?noue caaio?aee ? iiaoaeiaai? ?oi? caeaaeiino? a?ae
oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e.

13. Iiaoaeiaai? oaoiieia?/i? ea?oe A?I a eii?aeeiaoao oaiia?aoo?a
–oene-u?euei?noue, ui aeicaieythoue ciaoiaeeoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie
i?ioeano A?I.

14. Aea/aiee aieea no?oeoo?ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aeanoeaino?
aa?y/i — oa ?cinoaoe/ii i?aniaaieo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo c
i?iieneiaeo ? noa?e/ieo ii?ioe?a.

15. Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui aecia/athoue ??aaiue o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae, ? aeniea /enoioa iaoaeo ? no?oeoo?a, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
??aiiiniith oi?iith /anoie, oeueo?aae??aiei ca?iii (iayai?noth
noaca?ai), ??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii ae??aiiaeenia?nieo /anoie ieneaeo
aa?ee?th.

16. Caniaii A?I (oaiia?aoo?a 10300N, oene 160 IIa), ?icieeaiiai
aeniei/enoiai aeenoeeueiaaiiai ii?ioeo c noa?e/iith oi?iith /anoie
io?eiaiee iiai?noth ?cio?iiiee aa?ee?e c ianooiiei ??aiai aeanoeainoae:
(a=42, 9 ea/ii2, (o= 32.2 ea/ii2, (=4.1%,

E1n=72 ea/ii3/2, aE=0, 6ea/ni2, ui cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue aeanoeaino?
?nioth/eo iaoae?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Noiaa I.E. Eco/aiea aeonoe/aneie yiennee i?e oa?iioeeeee/aneie
ia?aaioea aa?eeeey // Iaoaeeu. – 1998. – ? 3. – N.68–70.

2. Noiaa I.E. Aeaa iiaeoiaea e iiaeaee?iaaieth ai?y/aai ecinoaoe/aneiai
i?anniaaiey aa?eeeey // Iaoaeeu. – 1998. – ? 3. – N. 63–67.

3. Stoev P.I. Temperature effect on the fracture toughness of beryllium
// Functional Materials. – 1997. – V.4, No.3. – P. 439–442.

4. Stoev P.I. Study of impact ductility of beryllium // Functional
Materials. – 1997. – V.4, No.4. – P. 600–602.

5. Noiaa I.E. Aeonoe/aneay yienney aa?eeeey // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e
oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeeaoeeiiiia
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1998.–aui. 1–2 (67–68). – N. 182–184.

6. Noiaa I.E. Eco/aiea oaea?iie ayceinoe aa?eeeey // Aii?inu aoiiiie
iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e
?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1997.– aui.1–2 (65–66). – N. 140–143.

7. Noiaa I.E. Oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue ayceinoe ?ac?ooaiey aa?eeeey //
Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo
iia?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1998.– aui. 6(72). –
N. 64–67.

8. Noiaa I.E. Eco/aiea aeonoe/aneie yiennee i?e oa?iioeeeee/aneie
ia?aaioea aa?eeeey // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea
?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e ?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1998.–
6 (72). – N. 78–81.

9. Noiaa I.E. Enneaaeiaaiey aeonoe/aneeo niaeo?ia oee?eiiey // Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e
?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1997.– aui.1–2 (65–66). – N. 135–139.

10. New beryllium materials / Tikhinskij G.F., Stoev P.I., Papirov I.I.,
Babun A.V., Vasil’ev A.A.// Journal of Nuclear Materials.– 1996.–
233–237.– P.828–831.

11. Aeonoe/aneay yienney i?e aeaoi?iaoeee aa?eeeey / Iaie?ia E.E.,

Noiaa I.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Iaeaoiee I.E., Ieeaoeei I.A., Iocuea A.E.//
OII.– 1984.– 57.– aui.5. – N.1037–1040.

12. Eco/aiea aeonoe/aneie yiennee aa?eeeey a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a
ca?ia / Iaie?ia E.E., Noiaa I.E., Ieeaoeei I.A., Iaeaoiee I.E., Iocuea
A.E.// Iaoaeeioeceea. – 1986 . – o.VIII, ?5. – N. 87–92.

13. Aeeaa?aiiu ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey aa?eeeey /Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia
E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa A.A.// Oeceea iaoaeeia e
iaoaeeiaaaeaiea. – 1994.– o.78, aui.1. – N. 9–19.

14. Aeeaa?aiiu ai?y/aai ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey iaeeica?ienoiai
ii?ioea aa?eeeey /Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa
A.A.// Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu. – 1995. – o.31, ?7. – N.914–919.

15.Aeeaa?aiiu ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey aa?eeeey /Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia
E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa A.A.// Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey. –1997.–
?3–4.– N.46–51.

16. Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E. Aeeyiea ninoiyiey iiaa?oiinoe ia
aeonoe/aneoth yienneth oeoaia// Iaoaeeioeceea. – 1991. –o.OIII, ?10. –
N. 28–33.

17. Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E. Aeonoe/aneay yienney oeoaia i?e ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?ao// Oeceee iaoaeeia e iaoaeeiaaaeaiea. – 1992. – ?3. –
N.117–122.

18. Enneaaeiaaiea oeceei–oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa ?aniueaiiuo ii?ioeia
aa?eeeey ni noa?e/aneie oi?iie /anoeoe //Aaaoi A.A., Aiaueaa A.A.,
Aaneeueaa A.A., Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E., Ei?ieaiei E.A. // Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo iia?aaeaeaiee e
?aaeeaoeeiiiia iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. –1998.– 6 (72). – N. 73–77.

19. Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E. Eco/aiea ninoiyiey iiaa?oiinoe e ieceeo
oaiia?aoo? ia aeonoe/aneoth yienneth oeoaia.– Oa?ueeia: OOOE, 1991.–
18 n. (I?ai?. /OOOE; 91–43).

20. Aeeaa?aiiu ai?y/aai ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey aa?eeeey./
Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa A.A. .– Oa?ueeia:
OOOE, 1993.– 40 n. ( I?ai?. /OOOE; 93–15).

21. Aeeaa?aiiu ai?y/aai ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey iaeeica?ienoiai
ii?ioea aa?eeeey / Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa
A.A. .– Oa?ueeia: OOOE, 1994.– 19.n. ( I?ai?. /OOOE; 94–5).

22. Aoean aeeaa?aii ai?y/aai ecinoaoe/aneiai i?anniaaiey aa?eeeey./
Noiaa I.E., Iaie?ia E.E., Oeoeineee A.O., Aaneeueaa A.A. .– Oa?ueeia:
OOOE, 1995.– 49 n. ( I?ai?. /OOOE; 95–2).

23. Hot isostatic pressing diagrams beryllium./ Stoev P.I., Papirov
I.I., Tikhinskij G.F., Vasil’ev A.A // Seventh International Conference
on Fusion Reactor Materials.– Obninsk (Russia).- September 25–29, 1995.–
?. 155.

24. Noiaa I.E. Eco/aiea aeonoe/aneie yiennee i?e oa?iioeeeee/aneie
ia?aaioea aa?eeeey //Iaoa?eaeu VII eiioa?aioeee no?ai NIA
“?aaeeaoeeiiiay iia?aaeaeaaiinoue e ?aaioiniiniaiinoue eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia”.- a. Aaeai?iae (?inney): Ecae–ai Aaeai?iaeneiai oi–oa
.–1998.- C.96–97.

Noi?a I. ?. Aieea no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?/ieo,
a’yce?nieo, aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? aeonoe/io ai?n?th iiaeo
aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a. –?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 01.04.13 – o?ceea iaoae?a.–Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaoeiaee oeaio? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Oa?e?a,
Oe?a?ia, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aea/a?oueny ca’ycie i?ae no?oeoo?ieie oaeoi?aie (?ici??
ca?ia, ci?no aeii?oie, oaenoo?a) ? o?ceei — iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie
i?iieneiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo ni?o?a aa?ee?th, ye? iaea?aeai? ca
aeiiiiiaith no/anieo ii?ioeiaeo oaoiieia?e. Aeey iieno i?ioeano
i?anoaaiiy aa?ee??aeo ii?ioe?a iaoiaeii A?I ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue, yea
aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe aonoeio e?ioeaaiai iaoa??aeo oa ciaoiaeeoe
iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
aieeao no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia o?ceei —
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aa?ee?th. Iieacaii, ui iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui
aecia/athoue ??aaiue o?ceei — iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? aeniea /enoioa
iaoaeo ? no?oeoo?a, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??aiiiniith oi?iith /anoie,
oeueo?aae??aiei ca?iii (iayai?noth noaca?ai), ??aiii??iei ?iciiae?eii
aeenia?nieo /anoie ieneaeo aa?ee?th. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe a noeoiiino?
ae??oothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio ?ic?iaee o?ce/ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy
aenieiai ??aiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae: i?oeiino?, ieanoe/iino?, iii?o
?oeioaaiiy oa ?cio?iiiino? o iiaeo aa?ee??aeo iaoa??ae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?ee?e, iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy,
oaea?ia a’yce?noue, aeonoe/ia ai?n?y, ii?ioeiaa iaoaeo?a?y, aa?y/a
?cinoaoe/ia i?anoaaiiy.

Noiaa I.E. Aeeyiea no?oeoo?iuo oaeoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaie/aneeo,
ayceinoiuo, aeeiaie/aneeo naienoa e aeonoe/aneoth yienneth iiauo
aa?eeeeaauo iaoa?eaeia.–?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.13 – oeceea iaoaeeia. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iao/iue oeaio? “Oa?ueeianeee oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Oa?ueeia,
Oe?aeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee eco/aaony naycue iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie oaeoi?aie (?acia?
ca?ia, niaea?aeaiea i?eianae, oaenoo?a) e oeceei-iaoaie/aneeie
naienoaaie i?iiuoeaiiuo e iiuoiuo ni?oia aa?eeeey, iieo/aiiuo n
iiiiuueth nia?aiaiiuo ii?ioeiauo oaoiieiaee.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea eniuoaiee ioa/anoaaiiiai aa?eeeey ia ayceinoue
?ac?ooaiey e enneaaeiaaia caaeneiinoue ayceinoe ?ac?ooaiey io
no?oeoo?iuo oaeoi?ia. Eco/aia ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo ayceinoueth ?ac?ooaiey
e ae?oaeie iaoaie/aneeie naienoaaie e i?aaeeiaeaia ooieoeeiiaeueiay
naycue iaaeaeo E1n i?aaeaeii i?i/iinoe e oaeo/anoe n aunieei
eiyooeoeeaioii ei??aeyoeee. Eco/aia no?oeoo?a eceiiia aa?eeeey iinea
eniuoaiee, ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u, io?eoeaoaeueii aeeythuea ia ayceinoue
?ac?ooaiey aa?eeeey, e iieacaiu aiciiaeiua iooe iiauoaiey ayceinoe
?ac?ooaiey.

Eco/aia oaea?iay ayceinoue ai?y/ai?anniaaiiiai aa?eeeey. Onoaiiaeaia
aiecio?iiey ae: o i?iaeieueiuo ia?acoeia iia ia 50% ieaea, /ai o
iiia?a/iuo. Nicaeaia inoeeeeia?aoe/aneay iaoiaeeea eco/aiey oaea?iie
ayceinoe aa?eeeey, iicaieythuay ?acaeaeeoue eioaa?aeueioth aaee/eio ae
ia ?aaioo, ?anoiaeoaioth ia aeaoi?iaoeeth e ?ac?ooaiea. Ii?aaeaeaiu
oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe oaea?iie ayceinoe aa?eeeey ?acee/iie e aeeyiea
oneiaee eniuoaiee. Iieacaii, /oi oieueei aicaeaenoaea ia ?aaioo,
?anoiaeoaioth ia ca?iaeaeaiea o?aueiu (oiaiueoaiea ca?ia, oaaee/aiea
/enoiou, nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiie noano?oeoo?u, iaianaiea iecei- e
aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo iie?uoee) iicaieeo oeo/oeoue niiniaiinoue aa?eeeey
i?ioeainoiyoue oaea?iui iaa?oceai.

Eco/aia aeonoe/aneay yienney ?acee/iuo ni?oia aa?eeeey. Iieacaii, /oi
eaaeaeue ni?o aa?eeeey eiaao naie aeonoe/aneee niaeo?. Enneaaeiaaii
aeeyiea ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia (?acia?a ca?ia, niiniaa iieo/aiey, oneiaee
eniuoaiee, oa?iiia?aaioie, no?oeoo?iiai ninoiyiey e ae?.) ia
aeonoe/aneea niaeo?u aa?eeeey. Iieacaii, /oi eciaiaiea aeoeaiinoe AY
niioaaonoaoao eciaiaieth i?i/iinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee a ?acoeueoaoa
aicaeaenoaey OOeI, a iauay noiia eiioeuenia oiaiueoaaony ii ia?a
nieaeaiey aioo?aiieo iai?yaeaiee. N iiiiuueth iaoiaea AY iieacai
iaiaeii?iaeiue oa?aeoa? aeaoi?ie?iaaiey ii anaio iauaio iaoa?eaea e
iaiiiioiiiinoue ae?iaeaiey no?oeoo?u a i?ioeanna aeaoi?ie?iaaiey
iaoa?eaea. Naeaeai auaiae i ia?niaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaoiaea AY aeey
enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu i?ioeannia i?e ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee e
?ac?ooaiey aa?eeeey, a oaeaea i?iaiice?iaaiey ninoiyiey iaoa?eaea.

?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue, aaeaeaaoii iienuaathuay i?ioeann AEI ii?ioeia
aa?eeeey, iiaa?oiinoue eioi?uo iie?uoa ieneaeiie ieaieie. ?ann/eoaiu
nei?inoe oieioiaiey e iino?iaiu ea?ou AEI aeey ?acee/iuo oaiia?aoo?,
aeaaeaiee e ?acia?ia ii?ioea. Ii?aaeaeai aeeaae ?aaioathueo iaoaieciia
oieioiaiey a ioiineoaeueioth ieioiinoue caaioiaee e iino?iaiu
caaeneiinoe io aeaaeaiey e oaiia?aoo?u. Iieacaii, /oi iniiaiie aeeaae a
oieioiaiea aa?eeeeaauo ii?ieia aeatho ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey e
aeeooocey ii a?aieoeai ca?ai. Iino?iaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ea?ou AEI,
iicaieythuea ?ann/eouaaoue ieioiinoue iieo/aaiiai iaoa?eaea e iaoiaeeoue
iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u i?ioeanna i?anniaaiey.

Eco/aii aeeyiea no?oeoo?iuo e oaoiieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ai?y/a- e
ecinoaoe/anee i?anniaaiiua aa?eeeeaaua ii?ioeiaua iaoa?eaeu. Iaoiaeii
AEI (i?e oaiia?aoo?a 10300N e aeaaeaiee 160 IIa), ?aniueaiiiai
auniei/enoiai aeenoeeee?iaaiiiai ii?ioea ni noa?e/aneie oi?iie /anoeoe,
iieo/ai iieiinoueth ecio?iiiue aa?eeeee ni neaaeothuei o?iaiai naienoa:
(A=42,9 ea/ii2, (o =32,2 ea/ii2, ( = 4,1%, E1n =72 ea/ii3/2, eioi?ue
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao naienoaa nouanoaothueo iaoa?eaeia. Onoaiiaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe aicaeaenoaey no?oeoo?iuo oaeoi?ia e oaoiieiae/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia ia oeceei-iaoaie/aneea naienoaa aa?eeeey. Iieacaii, /oi
iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo
naienoa, yaeyaony aunieay /enoioa iaoaea e no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aaiiiniie oi?iie /anoeoe oeueo?aiaeeei ca?iii (iaee/eai
noaca?ai), ?aaiiia?iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai aeenia?nieo /anoeoe ieneaea
aa?eeeey.

Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou, a niaieoiiinoe ?aoatho aaaeioth iao/ioth
i?iaeaio ?ac?aaioee oece/aneeo iniia oi?ie?iaaiey aunieiai o?iaiy
iaoaie/aneeo naienoa: i?i/iinoe, ieanoe/iinoe, nii?ioeaeaiey ?ac?ooaieth
e ecio?iiiinoe o iiauo aa?eeeeaauo iaoa?eaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?eeeee, iaoaie/aneea naienoaa, ayceinoue ?ac?ooaiey,
oaea?iay ayceinoue, aeonoe/aneay yienney, ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey,
ai?y/aa ecinoaoe/aneia i?anniaaiea.

Stoev P.I. Influence of structural factors on formation of mechanical,
viscous and dynamical properties and acoustic emission of novel
beryllium materials. – Manuscript.

Thesis applied for a scientific degree of doctor of physical and
mathematical sciences at the speciality 01.04.13 – metal physics. –
National Science Centre “Kharkov institute of Physics and Technology”,
Kharkov, Ukraine, 1999.

In the dissertation the correlation was studied the structural factors
(grain size, purity, beryllium oxide content, texture etc.) and
physicomechanical properties of commercial and experimental kinds of
beryllium obtained by advanced powder technologies. For the description
of the beryllium powder pressing by a HIP method a model was developed,
which permits to calculate the expected density of the material and to
find optimal parameters of the process. The laws (general rules)
describing the role of structural parameters and technological factors
in physicomechanical properties of beryllium were established. It was
shown, that the major factors, which provide a high level of
physicomechanical properties are the high purity of the metal and the
structure, which is characterised by the equiaxed particle shape,
ultra-fine grains (presence of subgrains) and random distribution of
fine beryllium oxide particles.

The obtained results in common solve the important scientific problem of
development of the physical grounding for providing a high level of
mechanical properties of novel beryllium materials: durability,
plasticity, fracture resistance, and isotropy.

Key words: beryllium, mechanical properties, fracture toughness, impact
ductility, acoustic emission, powder metallurgy, hot isostatic pressing.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 20.08.1999 ?.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 2,2. Oi?iao 60(841/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee

OIA “Ciaiiy LTD”

Oa?e?a, aoe. A?oaia, 32

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