Вплив попереднього термомеханічного навантаження на опір крихкому руйнуванню теплостійких сталей: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / О.Г. Іванченко, Н

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI I?OeIINO?

?AAI*AIEI IEAEN?E AAIIAAe?EIAE*

OAeE 620.1.+539.4.

Aieea iiia?aaeiueiai oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ii?? e?eoeiio
?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae

01.02.04. — iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea.

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai i?oeiino?

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iie?ianueeee Aieiaeeie? A?eoi?iae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino?

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

caa. a?aeae?eii “Iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo eiino?oeoe?e”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noaiaiia Aaiiaae?e Aieiaeeie?iae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie

caa. a?aeae?eii “I?oeiino? oa ?oeioaaiiy ca oiia oaea?iiai ?
?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy”

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

Aaeaoaiei A?eai??e Aaneeueiae/

?inoeooo iaoai?ee ?i. N.I. Oeiioaiei IAI Oe?a?ie

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 930 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.241.01, ?inoeooo i?iaeai
i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie, 252014, i.Ee?a, aoe.Oei??yc?anueea, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie, 252014, i.Ee?a, aoe.Oei??yc?anueea, 2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 ” /a?aiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe A?a?iye O.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ei?ione aoiiieo aiaei-aiaeyieo ?aaeoi??a, ui
i?aoeththoue i?ae aenieei oeneii, ? iaea?aeiia?aeaeuei?oeie aeaiaioaie
eiino?oeoe?? aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie. ?oeioaaiiy oeeo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e iiaea i?ecaanoe ia o?eueee aei iiaiiai aeoiaeo c eaaeo
an??? aoiiii? aia?aaoe/ii? onoaiiaee, a ? aei aaaeeeo aeieia?/ieo
iane?aee?a, a oaeiae iiaea caa?iaeoaaoe aeeooth oa caei?ia’th ethaeae.
Oiio oae aino?i noi?oue i?iaeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ano?no aacia/ii?
aenieoaoaoe?? oeeo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iniiao aoiiii? aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue ?aaeoi?e oeio AAA?-440 oa
AAA?-1000. sse a?aeiii, a ei?ionao oeeo ?aaeoi??a ua ia noaae??
aeaioiaeaiiy c’yaeythoueny aeaoaeoe oeio o??uei, ui iiaeooue noaoe
i?e/eiith e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy oeeo eiino?oeoe?e. Iaaaciaea e?eoeiai
?oeioaaiiy i?aeaeuo?oueny o ca’yceo c ?ioaineaiei ce?eo/aiiyi iaoa??aeo
ei?ion?a aoiiieo ?aaeoi??a a i?ioean? ?o aenieoaoaoe?? i?ae aieeaii
iaeo?iiiiai ii?ii?ithaaiiy. *enaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie
iieacaee, ui i?ae aieeaii ii?ii?ithaaiiy oaiia?aoo?a ci?ie iaoai?cio
?oeioaaiiy a?ae e?eoeiai aei a’yceiai wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyyA??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Iiia?aaei? oa?iiiaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy
(IOI) aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e c o??ueiaie, ui iieyaa? a iaaaioaaeaii?
aeaiaioo eiino?oeoe?? i?e oaiia?aoo??, ui ia?aaeuo? oaiia?aoo?o ci?ie
iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy a?ae e?eoeiai aei a’yceiai wmetafile8?
??????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?????&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyyA??A?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Ine?eueee, ye aaea aoei neacaii, e?eoea
?oeioaaiiy oaieino?eeeo noaeae cacae/ae a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie
iayaiino? a ieo o??uei, i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao IOI ia ii?? oeeo noaeae
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith ia? a?oiooaaoeny ia iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aiao??a o??ueiio?eaeino?, a naia eiao?oe??ioo
?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue (E?I), ci?uaiiy aa?aa?a o??ueie, oiui.

Aeaye? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao IOI ia ii??
oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith, a oaeiae oai?aoe/ia i?aea?oioy
iiyniaiiy oeueiai aieeao aoei aeeeaaeaii a ?iaioao oaeeo aecia/ieo
a/aieo, ye O.I.Aa?ai?i, O.Ioae?e, Aeae.O.Iioo, A.A.Iie?ianueeee,
A.O.Oeiioa?a, A.O.O?iuaiei, Aeae.Aeae.*aee , oa oaeeo a?aeiieo
aeine?aeiee?a, ye ?.A??eao, A.Aonn?aa, A.A?oae, ?.A.A?ae,
TH.A.Ae?aaoiia, A.A.Eaieoiaiei, Ae.A.Ea???, O.Eaoe, Aeae.A.Eea?e,
A.A.Eenaeaa, O.Eiaayoe, O.Eiaeae?a, O.Eio?eaeiai, Ae.E?aeaa??, O.?.Einn,
Aeae.Aeae.Iaeaiaai, O.Iao?an, O.I?oeia, A.TH.Iiaeeieuec?i, I.A.N.??ae,
A.E.?eaeei, A.?.Ni??iia, Oaaei?ia A.A., E.I.Oa??ii, ?.?.Oaooi?i,
Aeae.Oaaeia?, Aeae.?.Oae, Ae.E.I.Oai oa ?ioe.

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o iaoa??ae?a e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith
i?ney IOI iaoiiaeaii ci?iith iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiiai noaio a?ey aa?oeie
o??ueie, a naia: iaaaaeaiiyi nenoaie caeeoeiaeo caeaaethth/eo
iai?oaeaiue, caooieaiiyi aa?oeie o??ueie oa aeaoi?iaoe?eiei ci?oeiaiiyi
iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie.

Ia aeeaey/enue ia aaeeeee ianya i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aein? iaia?
/?oei? a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy, yeee naia aianie eiaeiiai c aeacaieo
iaoai?ci?a o i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae
i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI, ioaea, iaia? /?oeiai i?aea?oioy aeey
ei?aeoiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao onueiai niaeo?o ?aaeei?a IOI ia ii??
oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith. Iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeaii
ieoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? IOI o ?ac? aeie?eoe/iiai i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae
/an IOI, a oaeiae ieoaiiy no?eeino? aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo
oaeoi??a, ui iathoue i?noea i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo
?aaeoi??a, a naia aeiaaio?eaaeiai noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e. Ana oea co?eio? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oaoiieia?? IOI aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no aacia/ii? aenieoaoaoe?? aoiiieo
aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?.

sse aeieeaa? ?c caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, oe?eee ?yae
ieoaiue aeiaaa? a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co. O ?aieao cai?iiiiiaaii? ?iaioe aeaye? ieoaiiy c
oe??? i?iaeaie io?eiaee nai? ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aoei
aeeiiaii o ?aieao i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeiiaithaaeeny ca
aei?o/aiiyi Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 09.11.1994?. ?18970/87
“Oaoiieia?y oaieiai? ii?aniaee ei?ion?a aoiiieo ?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?”, oa
Aea?aeaaii? I?ia?aie aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
aaaaeaii? a ae?th Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae
13.05.1996?. ?517, a oaeiae a ?aieao athaeaeaoii? oaie 1.3.4.10. IAI
Oe?a?ie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a oa noaeino? ci?oeithaaiiy noaeae c
o??ueiaie i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o
aieeao aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aoaeoeai?noue oa
no?ee?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae
i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeee i?iaiicoaaiiy a’yceino?
?oeioaaiiy oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney IOI oa i?iaiicoaaiiy caeeoeiai?
aeiaaia?/iino? aeaiaio?a eiio?oeoe?e c o??ueiiiiae?aieie aeaoaeoaie
i?ney IOI. Oe? iaoiaeeee iathoue a?aoiaoaaoe ??ci? oaeoi?e, ui iathoue
i?noea a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a,
oa oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oaieino?eeeo noaeae.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o
oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeie??oe/iiai i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an
IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith.

3. Anoaiiaeaiiy ?ie? caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an IOI o
i?aeaeuaii? iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino? aoaeoo i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo
noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI i?ae aieeaii oaeeo
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, ye aeiaaio?eaaea noaoe/ia oa oeeee?/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e.

5. ?ic?iaea o?ceei-iaoai?/ii? iiaeae?, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?ney ??cieo
?aaeei?a IOI, i?iaiicoaaoe no?ee?noue aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii
aoaeue-yeeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, a oaeiae i?iaiicoaaoe ?icaeoie
o??uei a aeaiaioao eiino?oeoe?e i?ney IOI.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o :

— io?eiaii? aaeeeiai ianyao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aieea ??cieo
?aaeei?a IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio
?oeioaaiith, io?eiaieo ia c?aceao ??cii? oiaueie (25..150 ii), o oiio
/ene? oi?eaeueieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui ia iathoue aiaeia?a o
na?oia?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, i?i aieea ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?ae /an
IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith,
io?eiaieo ia aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo c?aceao oiaueiith aei 150 ii;

— iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aieea IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy
iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith o ?ac? aeie?eoe/iiai
i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI;

— iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i oi?io oa caeiiii??iino?
cae?eooy caooieaii? aa?oeie o??ueie i?ney IOI;

— iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i no?ee?noue aoaeoo
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?ney ??cieo
?aaeei?a IOI i?ae aieeaii aeiaaio?eaaeiai (aei 24000 aiaeei) noaoe/iiai
oa oeeee?/iiai (200 oeeee?a) iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e;

— ?ic?iaeaii? o?ceei-iaoai?/ii? iiaeae? i?ioean?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaoa??aeo a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an IOI;

— ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aoaeoeai?noue oa no?ee?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI;

— ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo o??ueie aoiie i?ney IOI.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaa?oiooaaii? i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith
oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI, a oiio /ene? o ?ac?
aeie?eoe/iiai i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI, a oaeiae i?ae aieeaii
??cieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeae? oa iaoiaeeee
i?iaiicoaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae
i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI oa iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo o??ueie
aoiie i?ney IOI.

Io?eiai? o ?iaio? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe oa ?ic?iaeai? a i?e
iaoiaeeee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy IOI aeey i?aeaeuaiiy caian?a i?oeiino? oa ?ano?no aacia/ii?
aenieoaoaoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?, ui
aenieoaoothoueny ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aeey aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo oa aacia/ieo ?aaeei?a IOI.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o oiio, ui a ?iaioao [1,4,5] aaoi?
io?eiaa oa i?iaiae?coaaa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i aieea ??cieo
?aaeei?a IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo
noaeae, a oaeiae i?i no?ee?noue aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a. O i?aoeyo [2,3] ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee
?icaeoeo iiaa?oiaai? o??ueie i?ney iaeii?aciaiai ia?aiaaaioaaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia “I’yo?e I?aeia?iaei?e Eiioa?aioe?? c Eiino?othaaiiy,
Ae?iaieoeoaa oa Aenieoaoaoe?? Iaeaaeiaiiy Aoiiieo Aia?aaoe/ieo
Noaioe?e”, ui i?iaiaeeeany a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c? (?in?y) 7-14 /a?aiy
1998?.; ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Contribution of
materials Investigation to the Resolution of Problems Encountered in
Pressurized Water Reactors” Fontevraud IV, ui i?iaiaeeeany 14-18 aa?aniy
1998?. a E?ii? (O?aioeey).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?? c 243
iaeiaioaaiue ? aeeeaaeaia ia 233 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 72 iaethiee, 3 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, iaaaaeaii aaaeeea?
iieiaeaiiy ?c i?aoeue ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a, aeaii ?o ioe?ieo oa ei?ioeo
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeoo
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney IOI, a
oaeiae ei?ioeee iien ?ioaa?aeueieo oa eieaeueieo ia?aiao??a
o??ueiio?eaeino?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ioe?ith?oueny aoaeoeai?noue IOI ?
ia yeeo a?oioothoueny iaea?eueo a?aeii? iaoiaeeee i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoo
IOI.

C aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iiaeia iiaa/eoe, ui ii?? oaieino?eeeo
noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?ney IOI caeaaeeoue a?ae cia/ii? e?eueeino?
/eiiee?a, a naia: a?ae ?aaeei?a IOI, aaiiao??? aeine?aeaeo?ieo c?ace?a,
i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie, oiui. A oie aea /an caeeoathoueny iaei aea/aieie
ieoaiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a IOI, iniaeeai cia/aiiy ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?ae /an
IOI, ia ii?? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith aaeeeiaaaa?eoieo c?ace?a c
oaieino?eeeo noaeae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? ??cieie a/aieie, ia
aeathoue oaeiae a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy i?i aieea aeie?eoe/iiai
i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI ia aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio
?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae.

??cieie aeine?aeieeaie aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeo c?inoaiiy iii?o
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney IOI iaoiiaeaii o?ueiia
iniiaieie /eiieeaie: caooieaiiyi aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an IOI,
iaaaaeaiiyi nenoaie caeeoeiaeo caeaaethth/eo iai?oaeaiue i?ae /an
?icaaioaaeaiiy oa aeaoi?iaoe?eiei ci?oeiaiiyi iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith
o??ueie. A oie aea /an eeoa?oueny iaaeyniaiei e?euee?niee aianie
eiaeiiai c iaaaaeaieo /eiiee?a o i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith
oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny
aianeo caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an IOI, ui ?aii?o?oueny oe?eei
?yaeii aeine?aeiee?a.

Oaeiae ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue eeoa?oueny iaeiaea/aiei ieoaiiy
no?eeino? aoaeoo i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo
noaeae i?ney IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo oaeoi??a, ui iathoue i?noea i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?. Aei
oaeeo oaeoi??a iaeaaeaoue aenieoaoaoe?y i?e aenie?e oaiia?aoo?? i?ae
noaoe/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi i?ioyaii aeiaaiai no?ieo, oeeee?/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e aenie?e oaiia?aoo??, oiui.

Aeayeeie a/aieie ?ic?iaeaii iiaeae? IOI, iniiaai? ia ?ioaa?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy, a naia, J-?ioaa?ae, e?eoe/ia
?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie, eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue (E?I),
oa ia eieaeueieo i?aeoiaeao a’yceino? ?oeioaaiiy. Ia iniia? oeeo
iiaeaeae iiaoaeiaaii iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aoaeoo IOI. ?nioth/? iiaeae?
aeicaieythoue aeinoaoiuei oi/ii i?iaiicoaaoe i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio
?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney aeayeeo ?aaeei?a IOI, iaeiae
aeiaeia c oeeo iiaeaeae ia aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe aoaeo IOI oa eiai
no?ee?noue c o?aooaaiiyi onueiai eiiieaeno oaeoi??a, ui iathoue i?noea
i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a.

Oaeei /eiii, c aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aoaeo
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney aeayeeo
?aaeei?a IOI — neeaaeia yaeua, ui iio?aao? a?eueo aeeaieeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ei?aeoia i?iaiicoaaiiy oeueiai
neeaaeiiai yaeua iiaeeeaa o?eueee ca oiiae o?aooaaiiy on?o /eiiee?a, ui
iaoiiaeththoue oeae aoaeo, ui ? iiaeeeaei o?eueee i?ney aeaoaeueiiai
aea/aiiy e?euee?nieo aeeaae?a oeeo /eiiee?a.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aoea noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe
oa caaaeaiiy aeey ?? ?aae?caoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaiao?aei? aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?iaioe, a naia:

— iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noaoe/ii? oa oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiio?eaeinoe oaieino?eeeo noaeae;

— iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI ia i?aeaeuaiiy
iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae, o oiio /ene? ca oiiae
aeie?eoe/iiai i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI;

— iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino? aeiaeaoiiai aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii
aeiaaio?eaaeiai noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e;

— iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie oa caeiiii??iinoae cae?eooy caooieaii?
aa?oeie o??ueie i?ney IOI.

Iaaaaeaii ?enoiee oa ?ici??e c?ace?a, ia yeeo i?iaiaeeeeny
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O??ueiio?eae?noue oaieino?eeeo noaeae aeine?aeaeoaaeany
ia c?aceao ia iicaoeaio?iaa ?icoyaiaiiy oiaueiith 25 ii oa ia c?aceao ia
o?ueiooi/eiaee caei oiaueiith 150 ii ?c aeiaaith iane??ciith o??ueiith
oa ei?ioeith iiaa?oiaaith o??ueiith [1].

Oaeiae iaaaaeaii iien iaoa??ae?a, ui aoee ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue o
?iaio?, a naia oaieino?eeeo noaeae 15O2IOA(II), 15O2IOA(III) ? iaoa??aeo
caa?thaaeueiiai oao 10OIOO(II), ui canoiniaothoueny a eiino?oeoe??
ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo ?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?-440, a oaeiae noaeae
15O2IIOA(I), 15O2IIOA(II) ? iaoa??aeo caa?thaaeueiiai oao 08OAIIO(II),
ui canoiniaothoueny a eiino?oeoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo
?aaeoi??a oeio AAA?-1000.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe oa aiae?c io?eiaieo a ?iaio?
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue [1,4,5].

I?ae /an aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
iiia?aaei? oa?iiiaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith c?ace?a on?o ?ici???a c on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoa??ae?a (?en.1). A?aenooi?noue ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?ae /an IOI ia
caaaeaee i?ecaiaeyoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o ?oeioaaiith ii??aiyii c IOI
?c iiaiei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi (?en.1). Aeey aeayeeo iaoa??ae?a a?aenooi?noue
?icaaioaaeaiiy iaoiiaeth? iaioa c?inoaiiy iii?o ?oeioaaiith, ai?ae i?ney
IOI c iiaiei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi, a aeey aeayeeo — iaaiaee.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a aoaeoeaiino? IOI ca aeiiiiiaith
iiaeae? *aeea c aeaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaei
iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? ?? aeei?enoaiiy. ?yae i?eioeeiiaeo ia-aeie?e?a
iiaeae? *aeea ia aea? iiaeeeaino? a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?iaanoe
aaeaeaaoio ioe?ieo aoaeoo IOI, ye, iai?eeeaae, i?e IOI ca noaiith c
iiaiei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi aeey e?oiiiaaaa?eoieo c?ace?a (?en.1).

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeie?eoe/ia i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaiino? IOI (?en.2).

I?ae /an noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oi?ie aa?oeie o??ueie
i?ney IOI aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aa?oeia o??ueiu cia/ii caooiey?oueny i?ae
/an IOI ? i?ney ciyooy

iaaaioaaeaiiy o??ueia cae?eaa?oueny ia a nai?e aa?oei?, a iicaaeo ia?
(?en.3). I?e oeueiio aa?oeia o??ueie eeoa?oueny ia aino?ith, a
caooieaiith. Aiane?aeie oeueiai eiioeaio?aoe?y iai?oaeaiue ia?aae
aa?oeiith caooieaii? o??ueie aoaea cia/ii ieae/a, i?ae ia?aae aa?oeiith
aino?i? aoiiii? o??ueie. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ??aaiue
iai?oaeaiue, iaiao?aeiee aeey ii/aoeo ianoaa?eueiiai ?icaeoeo o??ueie,
aoaea aeinyaiooi ca cia/ii a?eueo aenieeo aaee/ei ciai?oiueiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oiaoi ca cia/ii a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy E?I, ai?ae o
aeiaaeeo aino?i? o??ueie. Oiio i?e i?iaiicoaaii? aoaeoo IOI iaiiaeeeai
?aii?oaaoe caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie.

Aeyaeaii, ui aaee/eia caeeoeiaiai ?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie caeaaeeoue
a?ae ??aiy iiia?aaeiueiai oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (?en.4).
Aaee/eia ?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie aeineoue oi/ii aecia/a?oueny ca
oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??B???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ay§y?’ ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????=????=a???u?th??????aea E —
iioi/iee E?I; E — iiaeoeue THiaa; wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@o ???&? ?MathType??P????u?th??????

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ay?yAo ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????Y???_? ???u??
???????»????-????g????aN???-?????aU???m7???m
7???m
???u?????????»????-????Ey???o???u?thUe?????aea —
eiao?oe??io Ioanniia, n — iieaciee aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy
iaoa??aeo.

Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii ? ioe?iea oi/iino? ??cieo iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie ?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie. Oae, canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee, ui
iniiaaia ia aei??? ?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie ca aeiiiiiaith
oaiciaeao/ee?a, ca aaeeeeo ??ai?a iaaaioaaeaiiy iio?aao? o?aooaaiiy
i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy aeao/eea oa noaio aa?aa?a o??ueie i?ae /an
iaaaioaaeaiiy-?icaaioaaeaiiy.

E??i oiai aeai? noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeeee
caeaaei?noue aaee/eie ?ice?eooy aa?oeie o??ueie a?ae aei?noeino?
iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie (?en.3).

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaaio?eaaea noaoe/ia (aei 24000 aiaeei) oa
oeeee?/ia (200 oeeee?a) iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e ia
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? IOI (?en.5), a aeey
iaoa??ae?a caa?thaaeueiiai oao oae? aiee ae iaa?oue i?aeaeuothoue
aoaeoeai?noue IOI. Oe? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith i?ney IOI ei?ionieo
oaieino?eeeo noaeae ? no?eeei aei ??cieo aieea?a, ui iathoue i?noea i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? ei?ion?a aoiiieo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie, a naia
aeiaaio?eaaea noaoe/ia oa oeeee?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe noaee i?aea?oioyi aeey
noi?ioeueiaaii? a ianooiiiio ?icae?e? o?ceei-iaoai?/ii? iiaeae?
i?ioean?a a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an IOI.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoiaeeeai i?iaiicoaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? IOI c
o?aooaaiiyi aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, a oaeiae i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo
iiaa?oiaai? aoiiii? o??ueie i?ney IOI.

Ia iniiaai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aieea ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI ia
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o oaieino?eeeo noaeae e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith, a oaeiae
no?eeino? aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, ye?
iaaaaeaii a iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e?, aoei cai?iiiiiaaii o?ceei-iaoai?/io
iiaeaeue i?ioean?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo, ui iathoue i?noea ia?aae
aa?oeiith o??ueie i?ae /an IOI oa i?ae /an iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ney IOI.

Iiaeaeue a?oioo?oueny ia ia/eneaii? ci?ie iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiiai noaio
iaaaeeeiai aeaiaioa?iiai ia’?io iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie
(?en.6a) i?ae /an IOI oa i?ney iueiai ? a?aoiao? on? iniiai? /eiieee, ui
ni?e/eiythoue i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae
i?ney IOI, a naia: caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiiy, caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie
oa aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie. Ioe?iea
IAeN o aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? i?iaiaeeoueny aoaeue-yeei /enaeueiei aai
aiae?oe/iei iaoiaeii, ui aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe ci?io neiaoey?iino?
iai?oaeaiue oa aeaoi?iaoe?e aiane?aeie caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie.
Caaaeii ?icaeyaea?oueny /ioe?e iniiai? aeiaaeee (?en.7):

a) IOI aac ?icaaioaaeaiiy;

a) IOI c iiaiei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi;

a) IOI c /anoeiaei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iayaiino? a
aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? ?icoyaoth/eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue;

a) IOI c /anoeiaei ?icaaioaaeaiiyi, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iayaiino? a
aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? noeneoth/eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue.

Iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiee noai a aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? ia/eneth?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue ia?aae aa?oeiith
o??ueie aiane?aeie ?? caooieaiiy i?ae /an IOI. Noeniaiiy iaoa??aeo a
aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? i?ae /an ?icaaioaaeaiiy i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aei
ae/a?iaiiy caiano i?oaeiuei? aia?a??, iaeiie/aii? i?ae /an IOI, oiaoi
aei oeo i??, aeiee ia aoaea aeiiaithaaoeny oiiaa:

wmetafile8? ??O???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy? ??µ?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????¬?»????‡???u;ya?????aea Ueg ? Ugg
— ?iaioa i?oaei?o oa i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a onueiio o?e?, a
Uel ? Ugl — ?iaioa i?oaei?o oa i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a
aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i?. A?aeiioaiiy ?iaio aeey o?ea ciaoiaeeoueny c
a?aeiioaiiy ieiu i?ae ae?aa?aiith ?- (Iaa?ocea — ?ice?eooy aa?oeie
o??ueie), caienaii? ii e?i?? ae?? neee (?en.6a), aea ?iaioa i?oaei?o
aeaoi?iaoe?e ia/eneth?oueny ye ieiua o?eeooieea ABC, a ?iaioa
i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia/eneth?oueny ye ieiua e?eaie?i?eiiai
o?eeooieea OAB. A?aeiioaiiy ?iaio aeey aeaiaioa?iiai ia’?io
ciaoiaeeoueny c a?aeiioaiiy ieiu i?ae ae?aa?aiith

— (iai?oaeaiiy — aeaoi?iaoe??), io?eiaii? c aiae?co IAeN aeey
aeaiaioa?iiai ia’?io (?en.7), aea ?iaioa i?oaei?o aeaoi?iaoe?e
ia/eneth?oueny ye ieiua e?eaie?i?eiiai o?eeooieea ABC, a ?iaioa
i?oaeiueiieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia/eneth?oueny ye ieiua e?eaie?i?eii?
o?aiaoe?? OABC.

Noeniaiiy iaoa??aeo a aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? i?eieieoueny oaeiae o ?ac?
aeinyaiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?yie ioeueiaiai ??aiy, oiaoi ia? aeeiioaaoeny
oiiaa:

0 0 (4)

aea 0 — aeaoi?iaoe?y i?ney ?icaaioaaeaiiy (?en.7).

Caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy wmetafile8? ??«????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ay?y`( ???&? ?MathType??`????u
th??????res = |IOI| — |2| (5)

res , IOI, 2 ia/eneththoueny ca oi?ioeith (1) c o?aooaaiiyi c?inoaiiy
wmetafile8? ??1/2????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??o?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Acaaae? E?I, i?e yeiio a?aeaoaeaoueny
?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo i?ney IOI wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA???&??yyyy?????Ay?y?? ???&? ?MathType??wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??S?? ???&?
?MathType??0 ???u?????????»????-?????a?A ???uA
???a?_???u_???uyU?????aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ay?y`( ???&? ?MathType??`????u th??????Ia
iniia? oe??? iiaeae? iiaeia iiynieoe iiaaae?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ui
i?aeaeaaaeeny IOI, i?ae aieeaii aeiaaio?eaaeiai noaoe/iiai oa
oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (aac i?i?inoaiiy aoi?eiii? aoiiii? o??ueie) ca
aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e. I?e oeueiio a aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? iaoa??aeo
iathoue i?noea aeaa iniiai? i?ioeane: ?aeaenaoe?y caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue
i?ae ae??th aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e oa ci?e/eiaia iaaaioaaeaiiyi ca aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e iiaco/?noue iaoa??aeo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua a?eueoiai
caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie. sseui aeii?ioth/ei ? ia?oee i?ioean,
aoaeoeai?noue IOI ia? aeaui cieceoeny, a yeui aeii?io? ae?oaee i?ioean,
aoaeoeai?noue IOI ia? c?inoe.

I?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?ic?aooie?a, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee, oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo (?en.1,3),
iieacaa, ui c aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
aoaeoeaiino? IOI ? iiaeeeaith aeinoaoiuei oi/ia ioe?iea oeueiai
neeaaeiiai yaeua. Iniaeeai ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui ?ic?aooiie
aoaeoeaiino? IOI ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee aea?
caaeia?eueio a?aeiia?aei?noue aei aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ca
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo noai oa ?aaeei?a IOI aeey oaieino?eeeo noaeae c
??cieie iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. C ?en.3 oaeiae aeaeii, ui
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? IOI aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe
no?ee?noue yaeua i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo
noaeae i?ney IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, oaeeo,
ye aeiaaio?eaaea noaoe/ia oa oeeee?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e.

Ae?oao /anoeio /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo i?enay/aii iaoiaeeoe? i?iaiicoaaiiy
?icaeoeo iiaa?oiaai? aoiiii? o??ueie i?ney IOI.

Iaoiaeeea a?oioo?oueny ia canoinoaaii? i?eioeei?a iiaeaethaaiiy ?icaeoeo
aoiiieo o??uei i?e ia?aaoey?iiio iaaaioaaeaii? c canoinoaaiiyi
eiioeaioe?? aoaeoeaiiai E?I, ci?iiiai ii o?iioo o??ueie [2,3].

I?ney IOI ?icaeoie aoiiii? o??ueie oiia?eueith?oueny ii??aiyii c ??
?inoii ia?aae IOI, aai iiaea ia aeayeee /an coieieoeny i?e oiia?
i?eeeaaeaiiy oaeiai ae naiiai oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ? ia?aae
IOI. Cao?eieo ?icaeoeo o??ueie ni?e/eiaii oeie ae naieie oaeoi?aie, ui e
aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney
IOI, oiaoi caeeoeiaeie iai?oaeaiiyie, caooieaiiyi aa?oeie o??ueie oa
aeaoi?iaoe?eiei ci?oeiaiiyi iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie. Aeey
oiai, uia ?icaeaaoeny c oith naiith oaeaee?noth, ui aoea aei IOI, o?aaa
uia, ii-ia?oa, ?c caooieaii? i?ae /an IOI aa?oeie o??ueie i?i?inea
aoi?eiia aino?a o??ueia, ?, ii-ae?oaa, uia ?iciao aoaeoeaiiai E?I
c??aiyany c oei, ui aoa aei IOI. Oiio e?euee?noue oeeee?a cao?eiee ?inoo
o??ueie Nd ia/eneth?oueny ye noia e?eueeino? oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy,
iaiao?aeieo aeey i?i?inoaiiy aoi?eiii? o??ueie wmetafile8?
??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??o?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??H???????????
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`a???&??yyyy?????Ay¤y  ???&? ?MathType???????u
th??????Cia/aiiy wmetafile8? ??o????????????
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@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??o?? ???&?
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 a???&??yyyy?????Ay?y R ???&? ?MathType??aea wmetafile8?
??±???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy?????? ???&?
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Cia/aiiy wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
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th??????E?I oeeeeo Kol; wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@ ???&? ?MathType??Ine?eueee ?iciao
aoaeoeaiiai E?I a ??cieo oi/eao o?iioo iiaa?oiaai? o??ueie nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny, cia/aiiy wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???o?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????

Aeniiaee

1. Io?eiaii oi?eaeueiee eiiieaen aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui ia
iathoue aiaeia?a o na?oia?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, i?i aieea
oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ii?? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo
noaeae, a oaeiae i?i no?ee?noue aeiaeaoiueiai aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii
aeiaaio?eaaeiai noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei?
oaiia?aoo?e.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui io?eiai? ia c?aceao aaeeei? oiaueie (aei 150 ii)
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i aieea ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI ia eiai
aoaeoeai?noue ia caaaeaee iiaeeeai ei?aeoii iienaoe c aeiiiiiaith
a?aeiieo i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI,
iai?eeeaae, ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeae? *aeea.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a’ycea aeie?eoe/ia i?ae?inoaiiy o??ueie i?ae /an IOI
ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy aeiaeaoiiai aoaeoo IOI.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae /an ?icaaioaaeaiiy cae?eooy caooieaii? o??ueie
a?aeaoaa?oueny iicaaeo ?? aa?oeie, aiane?aeie /iai o??ueia eeoa?oueny
caooieaiith. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui iaa?aooaaiiy aieeao caooieaiiy
aa?oeie o??ueie i?e i?iaiicoaaii? “aoaeoo IOI” iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
cia/ieo iioeaie.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiaeaoi?e aoaeo IOI oaieino?eeeo noaeae ? no?eeei
i?ae aieeaii aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, a naia aeiaaio?eaaeiai
noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeniei? oaiia?aoo?e.

6. C aiae?co i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei c?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui aianie eiaeiiai c oaeoi??a, ui ni?e/eiythoue aeiaeaoi?e
aoaeo IOI, caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoiiai ?aaeeio IOI, aeanoeainoae
iaoa??aeo oa aaiiao??? c?acea.

7. Cai?iiiiiaaii o?ceei-iaoai?/io iiaeaeue, yea iiynith? i?ioeane
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a aeine?aeaeoaaieo noaeyo
ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie i?ae /an IOI ? i?e iine?aeoth/iio
iaaaioaaeaii?. Iiaeaeue a?oioo?oueny ia ioe?ioe? ci?ie IAeN a
aeaiaioa?iiio ia’?i? iaoa??aeo ia?aae aa?oeiith o??ueie i?e oaiia?aoo??
IOI oa i?e oaiia?aoo?? ?oeioaaiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi caooieaiiy aa?oeie
o??ueie, aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo oa e?iaoeee caeeoeiaeo
iai?oaeaiue a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie i?ae /an iine?aeoth/eo i?ney IOI oiiaao
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

9. Ia a?oio? cai?iiiiiaaii? o?ceei-iaoai?/ii? iiaeae? ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaeeeo i?iaiicoaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith
oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI, ui aaco?oueny ia
eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? aianeo a “aoaeo IOI” oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye caooieaiiy
aa?oeie o??ueie, aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo oa caeeoeia?
iai?oaeaiiy a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie i?ney IOI. I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy
c?iaeaieo ca?aeii ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a c io?eiaieie
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie iieacaei ?o caaeia?eueiee ca?a. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaoiaeeea ? i?eaeaoiith ye aeey ioe?iee
aeiaeaoiiai aoaeoo IOI, oae ? aeey ioe?iee no?eeino? aeiaeaoiiai aoaeoo
IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a.

10. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeey ?ic?aooieo caeeoeiai? aeiaaio?eaeino?
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e c iiaa?oiaaeie o??ueiaie i?ney IOI, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia eiioeaioe?? aoaeoeaiiai E?I, ci?iiiai ii o?iioo o??ueie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Iie?ianeee A.A., Eaai/aiei A.A. Aeeyiea ?aaeeiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai iaa?oaeaiey ia iiauoaiea nii?ioeaeaiey o?oieiio
?ac?ooaieth oaieionoie/eauo noaeae // I?iae. i?i/iinoe, 1999a., — ?2 —
n.126-138.

2. Iie?ianeee A.A., Oea/ TH.A., Eaai/aiei A.A. Iaoiaeeea ioeaiee
inoaoi/iie aeieaiaa/iinoe yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee n iiaa?oiinoiuie
o?aueiiiiaeiaiuie aeaoaeoaie. Niiauaiea 1. Iiaeaee?iaaiea ?acaeoey
iiaa?oiinoiie onoaeinoiie o?aueiu// I?iae. i?i/iinoe, 1996a. — ?1. —
N.36-47

3. Pokrovsky V.V., Tkach Yu.V., Ivanchenko A.I. Prediction of fatigue
crack propagation under irregular loading//Fatigue Fract. Engng. Mater.
1996. — vol.19, N2-3 P.309-321.

4. Ioeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey ?aaeoi?iuo noaeae o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth iinea
?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai iaa?oaeaiey e
onoie/eainoue iieiaeeoaeueiiai yooaeoa oaieiaie ii?anniaee/ A.A.
Iie?ianeee, A.A.Eaai/aiei, A.A.Oaaei?ia, TH.A.Ae?aaoiia, I.O.?iaia,
A.I.Ea?cia, A.TH.?eaeei, TH.E.Eia?eaeeei, A.A.Naaeiaa // Nai?iee o?oaeia
“Iyoie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Eiioa?aioeee ii Eiino?oe?iaaieth, I?iecaiaenoao
e Yenieoaoaoeee Iai?oaeiaaiey Aoiiiuo Yia?aaoe/aneeo Noaioeee”,
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a (?inney), 7-14 ethiy 1998, — oii 2. — N.304-316.

5. Pokrovsky V.V., Ivanchenko A.G., Kovrizhkin Yu.L., Sednev V.A.
Methods for estimation and enhancing of resistance of pressure vessel
materials to fracture at different stages of service taking into account
actual dimensions of the construction // International Symposium
“Contribution of materials Investigation to the Resolution of Problems
Encountered in Pressurized Water Reactors” Fontevraud IV, Lion, 14-18
September 1998, Proceedings of Symposium, vol.1 — P.61-73.

?aai/aiei I.A. “Aieea iiia?aaeiueiai oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ii?? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae”. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.04. — iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea.
?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino?, Ee?a, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia aoaeoeai?noue oa no?ee?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith oaieino?eeeo noaeae i?ney ??cieo ?aaeei?a
iiia?aaeiueiai oa?ii-iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (IOI), a oaeiae oaeoi??a,
ui ni?e/eiythoue oeae aoaeo.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo ?aaeei?a IOI oa
no?eeino? aoaeoo IOI i?ae aieeaii ??cieo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a, yea
a?oioo?oueny ia o?aooaaii? ci?ie iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiiai noaio i?ae /an
IOI ca ?aooiie caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie, aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy
iaoa??aeo oa caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue a?ey aa?oeie o??ueie.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo caeeoeiai? aeiaaio?eaeino? aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e c iiaa?oiaaeie o??ueiaie i?ney IOI.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o??ueia, ii?? e?eoeiio ?oeioaaiith, iiia?aaei?
oa?iiiaoai?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy, iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiee noai, caooieaiiy
aa?oeie o??ueie, aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy, caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy.

Eaai/aiei A.A. “Aeeyiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oa?iiiaoaie/aneiai
iaa?oaeaiey ia nii?ioeaeaiea o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth oaieionoie/eauo
noaeae”. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.04. — iaoaieea aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea.
Einoeooo i?iaeai i?i/iinoe, Eeaa, 1999.

I?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaioaeue

auaeoa enneaaeiaaiey auee aua?aiu
oaieionoie/eaua noaee 15O2IOA e 15O2IIOA, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeu naa?iuo
oaia 10OIOO e 08OAIIO iinea ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia oa?iiia?aaioee. Aeaiiua
noaee i?eiaiythony a eiino?oeoeee ei?ionia aoiiiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo
?aaeoi?ia oeia AAY?-440 e AAY?-1000. Eniieueciaaeenue ia?acoeu ?acee/iuo
?aciaoia (oieueiie 25..150 ii).

?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaee, /oi aeey
ia?acoeia anao ?acia?ia o anao enneaaeiaaiiuo noaeae iinea IOI
cia/eoaeueii iiauneeinue nii?ioeaeaiea o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth, iaeiaei
aeey iienaiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo ia anaaaea iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue nouanoaothuea iiaeoiaeu e iauyniaieth IOI. Aeaiiue yooaeo
nio?aiyeny i?e aeie?eoe/aneii iiae?anoaiee o?aueiu i?e IOI.

Enneaaeiaaiey oi?iu aa?oeiu o?aueiu iinea IOI iieacaee, /oi o?aueia
iinea IOI cae?uaaaony iicaaee naae aa?oeiu, eioi?ay i?e yoii inoaaony
caooieaiiie.

Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo IOI nio?aiyaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia, i?e/ai aeey
iaoa?eaeia naa?iuo oaia yoe aicaeaenoaey i?eaiaeyo e aua aieueoaio
iiauoaieth nii?ioeaeaiey o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia auea
i?aaeeiaeaia oeceei-iaoaie/aneay iiaeaeue, iienuaathuay i?ioeannu o
aa?oeiu o?aueiu i?e IOI, a oaeaea i?e iineaaeothuai iinea IOI
iaa?oaeaiee, o/eouaathuay ana oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea yooaeoeaiinoue
IOI, a eiaiii: caooieaiea aa?oeiu o?aueiu i?e IOI; inoaoi/iuo
iai?yaeaiey, aicieeathueo i?e ?aca?ocea; aeaoi?iaoeeiiiia oi?i/iaiea
iaoa?eaea ia?aae aa?oeiie o?aueiu.

Ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiie oeceei-iaoaie/aneie iiaeaee ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea i?iaiice?iaaiey iiauoaiey nii?ioeaeaiey o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth
oaieionoie/eauo noaeae iinea ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia IOI, iicaieythuay
i?iaiice?iaaoue onoie/eainoue yooaeoa IOI iiae aicaeaenoaeai aunieie
oaiia?aoo?u. I?iecaaaeaiiua n iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee ?an/aou
yooaeoa IOI e aai onoie/eainoe iieacaee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia
niioaaonoaea ?an/aoiuo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo.

Iiieii yoiai ?ac?aaioaiiua oeceei-iaoaie/aneay iiaeaeue e iaoiaeeea
i?iaiice?iaaiey yooaeoeaiinoe IOI auee eniieueciaaiu i?e ?ac?aaioea
iaoiaeeee i?iaiice?iaaiey ?inoa iiaa?oiinoiie onoaeinoiie o?aueiu iinea
IOI, eioi?ay iicaieyao ioeaieaaoue inoaoi/ioth aeieaiaa/iinoue yeaiaioia
eiino?oeoeee n iiaa?oiinoiuie o?aueiiiiaeiaiuie aeaoaeoaie i?e
oeeeee/aneii iaa?oaeaiee iinea IOI.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aueia, nii?ioeaeaiea o?oieiio ?ac?ooaieth,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia oa?iiiaoaie/aneia iaa?oaeaiea,
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea, caooieaiea aa?oeiu o?aueiu,
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiia oi?i/iaiea, inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey.

Ivanchenko A.G. “Influence of warm prestressing on the resistance to
brittle fracture of reactor steels”, — Manuskript.

The thesis presented for a Candidate’s of Sciences Degree in
engineering; speciality 01.02.04. — mechanics of deformable bodies.
Institute for problems of strength, Kyiv, 1999.

The experimental investigations were conducted to determine the impact
operational and technological factors on the effectiveness and
durability of increase resistance to brittle fracture of reactor steels
after different regimes of warm prestressing (WPS).This impact was
investigated as well as factors causing WPS effect.

The evaluation methodology of effectiveness different regimes of WPS and
durability of WPS effect under the impact of different factors was
developed. To evaluate the WPS different regimes effectiveness and
durability of WPS positive effect under the impact of different
operational factors the methodology was developed. It is based on
changes in stress strain state during WPS including crack tip blunting,
strain agening and residual stresses near crack tip.

The methodology was developed to calculate service life of engineering
construction with surface cracks after WPS.

Key words: crack, resistance to brittle fracture, warm prestressing,
stress strain state, crack tip blunting, strain agening, residual
stresses.

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