Вплив атмосфери на віддалемірні спостереження штучних супутників Землі: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / Н.І. Каблак, НАН України. Голов. астрон

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

AIEIAIA ANO?IIII?*IA IANA?AAOI??ss

Eaaeae Iaoae?y ?aai?aia

Aieea aoiinoa?e ia a?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ooo/ieo noiooiee?a
Caie?

01.03.01-ano?iiao??y ? iaaania iaoai?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oaeai?iae-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iioeee a eaai?aoi??? eini?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie, a Aieiai?e ano?iiii?/i?e iana?aaoi??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: -aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Ie?iiia Ieeiea
O?ioeiiae/,

Aieiaia ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: -aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?/aiei
Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», i?ioani?

-eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Iaaeaaoeueeee Ieoaeei Ieoaeeiae/, Aieiaia ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.O.A.Oaa/aiei

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «22» ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.208.01 i?e AAI IAI Oe?a?ie. Ii/aoie
can?aeaiiy i 10 aiaeei? o aaeeeiio eiioa?aioe-cae? AAI ca aae?anith:

252650, Ee?a-22, Aiein??a, AAI IAI Oe?a?ie.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? AAI IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 22 » aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

e.o.-i.iaoe Aon?aa I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeieeaa? ?c iaiao?aeiino? ?icaeoeo oaoiieia??
aeaiieo eaca?ieo oa ?aae?ioaoi?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ooo/ieo noiooiee?a
Caie? (ONC), i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e ca aieea
aoiinoa?e, a?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo oa eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae
?ao?aeoe?eiiai iiey, ui a?aeiia?aea? caaea/ai no/aniiai ?icaeoeo
eini?/ii? aaiaeac?? ? ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oaiaoeoe?
i?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oi?a, i?iaeo?a, i?ia?ai: I?aeia?iaeii? neoaeae
iaa?oaiiy Caie? (INIC), Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoie
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ?aeeiiai /ano ? aoaeiiieo /anoio Oe?a?ie” oa ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeo?a.

?nio? aaeeea e?euee?noue eiie?aoieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aoiinoa?ii?
iii?aaee aei ?acoeueoao?a ano?iiiii- aaiaeace/ieo aei???a, ?ic?iaeaieo
a/aieie Oe?a?ie, ?in?? oa ?ioeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i (?.A.Eie/einueeee,
?.?.Iio?oie/, I.O.Ie?iiia, I.O.Iaetha?i, A.A.Iaoaaeue?aa,
A.E.Ino?ianueeee, I.A.I?ieiiia, A.A.Oaaaeueieeia, A.A.Oaiaeo?ia,
E.N.THiioaa, Aeae.Aneia, A.Aaea?, I.Aaiaea?, O.A?thiia?, Aeae.Aeaa?n,
E.Aa?aeia?, A.Oiio?eueae, Aeae.Ith??ae, ss.Naanoaiieiai oa ?io?).

Aeey aecia/aiiy aoiinoa?ii? iii?aaee iaeoi/i?oeie aaaaeathoueny iiaeae?
Naanoaiieiaia oa Ia??i?-Ith??ay, ye? caaacia/othoue oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy
a?aeaeae? aei ONC aeae?eueea naioeiao??a i?e cai?oi?e a?aenoai? ii?yaeeo
70°-80°. Ia?aa??ea a?aeiinii? oi/iino? iiaeae? Ma??i?-Mth??ay, yeo INIC
aeei?enoiao? ye noaiaea?o i?e ii?aoethaaii? eaca?ieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue ONC, aoea i?iaaaeaia aeey ?aa?iio NOA, a oaeiae aeaui
i?ci?oa aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie ia i?/iee /an aeiae.

?icaeoie aeaiieo eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC, i?aeaeuaiiy
?ino?oiaioaeueii? oi/iino? eaca?ieo aei??thaaiue a?aenoaiae aei ONC aei
1-5 ii, ?icaeoie ?aae?ioaoi?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue (GPS- niinoa?aaeaiiy),
oa aeeiiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a coiiaeee
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

CA’ssCIE ?IAIOE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao caaaeaiue aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie “Noai?aiiy oa
?icaeoie neoaeae ?aeeiiai /ano ? aoaeiiieo /anoio Oe?a?ie”, iaoeiai-
aeine?aeieoeueeeo oai Aieiaii? ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi???
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie (AAI IAIO), eiiieaeniiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai oa i?aeaoc?anueeiai i?iaeoo “Cae?i/aiiy noai?aiiy ia?aae?
eaca?ii- eieaoe?eieo noaioe?e aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue c aaio?ceee, aaiaeac??, ea?oia?ao??,
iaa?aaoe??, aaieia??, aeieia?? oa iaoai?ieia??” oa a ?aieao iaoeiai-
aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o eaai?aoi??? eini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? aeai?eoie ? i?ia?aie, ooi/iaia iiaeaeue
Ia??i?- Ith??ae, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiinoa?ieo ?aaeoeoe?e o
a?aenoaiue ca aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e
ia?aaeai? a AAI IAI Oe?a?ie oa ia eaoaae?o I?yo?anueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo
(Neiaae?y). ?o oaeiae iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey aeei?enoaiiy i?e
ia?iaoe? a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC ia ioieoao noai?thaaii?
i?aeaoc?anueei? ia?aae? eaca?ii- eieaoe?eieo noaioe?e, a oaeiae iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ia?aae? aaiaeeiai?/ieo
noaioe?e oa ii?aoethaaii? ?acoeueoao?a ao?iiiii- aaiaeace/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue.

IAOA ? CAAeA*? AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — a?eueo oi/ia a?aooaaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e
ia ?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC o ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie a
aeaiiee /an aeiae.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoea aecia/aia iaiao?aei?noue
?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo eiie?aoieo caaea/:

1. Aeine?aeeoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e noa?e/ii- neiao?e/io oa ianoa?e/io
iiaeae?, aieea caiii? aoiinoa?e ia ?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaeai??ieo eaca?ieo
oa GPS- niinoa?aaeaiue ONC ca iaea?aeaieie ai?iaeiaae ?ieo aeaieie
aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e o ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie oa a
Aoaeaiaoo?.

2. I?iaanoe ioe?ieo oa aiae?c iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o,
?aeiiaiaeiaaieo INIC aeey ia?iaee a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC.

3. Ni?anoaaeoe ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e ia
a?aeaeaeai??i? eaca?i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC o i?/iee oa aeaiiee /an aeiae.

4. Aeine?aeeoe ? oaeineiiaeeoe iiaeae? ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o ia
iniia? aeyaeaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aieeao
aoiinoa?e ia eaca?i? ? ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC.

IAOEIAA IIAECIA IAeA?AEAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A

A ?iaio? aia?oa ca aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e:

1. Aeine?aeaeaii ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oa i?inoi?iai- /ania?
aa??aoe?? aoiinoa?ieo iii?aaie aei ?acoeueoao?a eaca?ieo oa
?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??ieo aei???a o ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie.

2. I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo oa aiae?c ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo INIC noaiaea?oieo
iiaeaeae aeey ?aaeoeoe?e ca aeaiio aoiinoa?o i?e a?aeaeaeai??ieo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC.

3. Ooi/iaia noaiaea?oia iiaeaeue Ia??i?-Ith??ae aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy
aaee/eie iii?aaee ca aieea aoiinoa?e i?e eaca?ieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie.

4. Aeeiiaii ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ioe?iee oa aiae?co noaiaea?oieo
iiaeaeae ca aeaieie i?/ieo ? aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e.

5. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e ia ?acoeueoaoe
?a?aeioaoi?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC.

6. Aeine?aeaeaii ? a?aoiaaii ?aa?iiaeuei? oa eieaeuei? iniaeeaino?
?ao?aeoe?eiiai iiey a iiaeaeyo ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o i?e eaca?ieo oa
?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss IAeA?AEAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e ia ?acoeueoaoe eaca?ieo ?
?aae?ioaoi?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC ca aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo
ciiaeoaaiue a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai no/aniiai ?icaeoeo eini?/ii? aaiaeac??,
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ia?aae? aaiaeeiai?i/eo noaioe?e ? oaoiieia??
aeaiieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ca aeaieie
aa?ieia?/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e o ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie aeine?aeaeaii
aoiinoa?io iii?aaeo o a?aeaeaeue aei ONC, ooi/iaii oi?ioeo
Ia??i?-Ith??ae, yea ?aeiiaiaeiaaia INIC ye noaiaea?o i?e ia?iaoe?
eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ? aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaeo?aeueii? aoiinoa?e i?e
GPS-niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy ano?iiii?/ieo iana?aaoi??e, noaioe?e eaca?ieo noiooieeiaeo
niinoa?aaeaiue, oeaio??a ia?iaee ano?iiao?e/ieo aeaieo, a oaeiae
iiaeooue aooe aeeth/ai? aei iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a aoc?a, ui aioothoue
oao?aoe?a ?c ano?iiii?? oa aaiaeac??.

Iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?ciaaii a i?ia?aiiiio
caaacia/aii? aeey ?ic?aooieo iii?aaie ca aoiinoa?o i?e ano?iiiii-
aaiaeace/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

AeINOIA??I?NOUe ? IAA?OIOIAAI?NOUe IAOEIAEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A ? AENIIAE?A

noi?ioeueaaieo a aeena?oaoe??, ia?aa??yeenue oeyoii ii??aiyiiy c
a?aeiieie c e?oa?aoo?e ?acoeueoaoaie ?ioeo aaoi??a, ia?iaee aaeeeeo
ianea?a aei??thaaiue, ? caaacia/ai? ei?aeoiei aeei?enoaiiyi noaoenoe/ieo
? iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a oa ae?oeiaai?noth ?acoeueoao?a.

INIAENOEE AIANIE CAeIAOAA*A iieyaa? a aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? a
iinoaiiaoe? caaea/, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ?o ?ica’ycaiiy, i?iaaaeaii?
aiae?oe/ieo oa /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a, aiae?c? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioethaaii? aeniiae?a, i?aeaioiaoe?
iaoa??ae?a aei ioae?eaoe??.

IA CAOENO AEIINssOUeNss:

1. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e ia eaca?i? ?
?aae?ioaoi?/i? a?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC ca aeaieie 468 aeaiieo
aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e a Oaeai?iae?, Ee?a?, Eueaia?,
Oaiao?aoe?, N?ioa?iiie?, *a?i?aoeyo, Iaean? oa Aoaeaiaoo?.

2. ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee oa aiae?co noaiaea?oii? iiaeae? ?aaeoeoe?e ca
aoiinoa?o, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? INIC.

3. Ii??aiyiiy oa aiae?c noaiaea?oieo iiaeaeae aoiinoa?ieo ?aaeoeoe?e o
a?aeaeaeue aei ONC ia iniia? ia?iaee aeaieo i?/ieo ? aeaiieo
aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e.

4. Ooi/iai? iiaeae? ?aaeoeoe?? ca aoiinoa?o c o?aooaaiiyi aeyaeaieo
?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aieeao aoiinoa?e ia
a?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoee?a ?ciiaei?/ieo iiaa?oiiue ? aaeeeiianooaaieo
ai?eciioaeueieo a?aae??io?a ?ao?aeoe??, ?o ci?ie c /anii oa aenioith
iaae ??aiai ii?y.

6. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e ia ?acoeueoaoe
?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeENA?OAOe??

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e Eiioa?aioe?? «O?ceea I?nyoey ? ieaiao»
(Oa?e?a,1994), Iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?ena’y/ai?e 225-?e ??/ieoe?
canioaaiiy ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(Euea?a, 1994), I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Iaa?oaiiy Caie? ? nenoaie
a?aee?eo a aaiaeeiai?oe?» (Iieueoa, Aa?oaaa,1995), ia ???-io c’?cae?
Oe?a?inueei? Ano?iiii?/ii? Anioe?aoe?? (Ee?a,1995), Oe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai- oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iao?ieia?y a aaiaeac??» (Oa?e?a, 1996),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 125-?e ??//th
Ano?iiii?/ii? iana?aaoi??? Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo «No/ani? i?iaeaie
ano?iiii??» (Iaeana,1996), ia /aoaa?oiio c’?cae? Oe?a?inueei?
Ano?iiii?/ii? Anioe?aoe?? (Ee?a,1997), ??-e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
iai’yo? A.O.Aaa?y «Aea?ai? ieoaiiy ano?iiii?? oa ano?io?ceee»
(Euea?a,1998), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao AAI IAIO, a oaeiae ia ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a oa iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a o?ce/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo OaeAeO (1995-1998??).

IOAE?EAOe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 11 ?ia?o, ye?
i?eaaaeai? iai?ee?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

NO?OEOO?A OA IANssA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ?
nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. Aiia i?noeoue 133 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, 19
?enoie?a, 9 oaaeeoeue, a oaeiae nienie e?oa?aoo?e c 109 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe,
aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iiaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a
oaeiae noenea aiioaoe?y ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith. C iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ano?iiiii-aaiaeace/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue aeyaeaii
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aoiinoa?e ia
?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ooo/ieo noiooiee?a Caie? ia
aeaiiee ia??iae aeiae a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao aoiinoa?e ia
oi/i?noue eaca?ieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ooo/ieo noiooiee?a
Caie? (ONC).

Aoiinoa?io iii?aaeo o a?aeaeaeue i?e eaca?i?e eieaoe?? ONC iiaeia
caienaoe o oaeee niin?a:

Dr = Dr1 + Dr2 (1)

(2)

, (3)

aea N(S) = 10+6 [n(S)-1]- ?iaeaen ?ao?aeoe??,

Dz- ano?iiii?/ia ?ao?aeoe?y a aeia?euei?e oi/oe? i?inoi?iai? e?eai? S.

Oi?ioee (2) ? (3) – oea ?ioaa?aeuei? ae?ace aeey iii?aaee o a?aeaeaeue
?c-ca ci?ie oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy ?iioeueno a aoiinoa?? Dr1 oa aeey
iii?aaee, yea a?aoiao? aee?eaeaiiy o?aaeoi??? eaca?iiai ?iioeueno
aiane?aeie ?ao?aeoe?? (aaiiao?e/ia iii?aaea), Dr2.. ?iaeaen ?ao?aeoe?? a
aeia?euei?e oi/oe? i?inoi?iai? e?eai? S iieno?oueny ooieoe??th noa?e/ieo
eii?aeeiao: aenioe h iaae ??aiai ii?y, aaia?ao?/ii? oe?ioe j ?
aaia?ao?/ii? aeiaaioe l’. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aaee/eio iii?aaee Dr1
iiaeaoe noiith aeaio /eai?a:

Dr1 = Dr1S+Drg, (4)

aea Dr1S –iii?aaea ca ci?io oaeaeeino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy eaca?iiai
?iioeueno i?e i?eiouaii? noa?e/ii- neiao?e/ii? iiaeae? aoiinoa?e,

Drg – iii?aaea, ui coiiaeaia a?aeoeeaiiyi i?io?e?a ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe??
a?ae noa?e/ii? neiao???, oiaoi ?nioaaiiyi ai?eciioaeueieo a?aae??io?a
?ao?aeoe??.

Aeey noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ii? iiaeaei aoiinoa?e ia/eneaiiy iii?aaee o
aiaeaeaeue, ye noie iii?aaie Dr1S i Dr2, i?iaiaeeeinue aeey = 0.694 iei
i?e Z = 0?, 35?, 55?, 70?, 75?, 80?. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoaii 468
aa?ieiai/ieo i?ioieia iaoaiia?aiao?ia, iaea?aeaieo i?ioyaii ?ieo
i?aeoe/ii a iaeii i oi ae iiiaioe /ano (12 aiaeei Ananaioiueiai /ano) a
ynii aeii (oia?iinoue iaioa 2 aaeia) aeey 7 ioieoia ?aaiiio Oe?a?ie i
Aoaeaiaooo.

A oaaeeoei 1 iiaeaii na?aaeii aaee/eie iii?aaie Dr1S a aeineiaeaeoaaieo
ioieoao aeey ?icieo cia/aiue caiioii? aiaenoaii.

Iioeaea iioaa?oaaiiy i?e ia/eneaiii iii?aaee o aiaeaeaeue ca ciiio
oaeaeeinoi iioe?aiiy eaca?iiai aei?iiiithaaiiy o aoiinoa?i iaeaea ia
anueiio aeiai iia aciii caiioieo aiaenoaiae Z aiae 0? aei 80? noaiiaeoue
i?eaeecii 1 ii.

Iioeaea ia/eneaiiy INIC aeey ia/eneaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e a yeino?).
Anoaiaea?oo aeei?enoiao? oi?ioeo Ia?iii-Ith??ae. Oey oi?ioea aeicaiey?
ia/eneeoe iii?aaeo ca aoiinoa?o Drm ia iniia? aei??yieo iacaiieo
cia/aiue iaoaiia?aiao?ia P0, T0, W0 a oi/oei niinoa?aaeaiue (ia iiaa?oii
Caieiiaea?aeaia aeey noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ii? iiaeaei aoiinoa?e i aea? iiaio
aoiinoa?io iii?aaeo, oiaoi aeeth/a? iii?aaeo Dr1S ca ciiio oaeaeeinoi
iioe?aiiy eaca?iiai iiioeueno /a?ac aoiinoa?o i ca aee?eaeaiiy
o?aaeoi??? Dr2. Ca aeaieie aa?ieiai/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e oieueee
o ?aaiiii NOA aoei i?iaaaeaii ia?aai?eo aiaeiinii? oi/iinoi oei??
oi?ioee.

Dr1S iaoiaeii /enaeueiiai iioaa?oaaiiy ca aeaieie aa?ieiai/iiai
ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e, iaoiiaeaia iioeaeith aeii?thaaiiy
iaoaiia?aiao?ia ? noaiiaeoue a?ey 2 ii i?e z=0° ? 9ii i?e z=80°.
Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e ia
a?aeaeaeai??i? eaca?i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC a i?/iee oa aeaiiee /an aeiae
iieacaei, ui cia/aiiy Dr1S aaeaiue ? iaioei i?ae aii/? (ia 4 ni i?e
z=80°).

Oaaeeoey 1. Na?aaeii aaee/eie iii?aaie Dr1S (i) ia aea?aieo caiioieo
aiaenoaiyo a aeineiaeaeoaaieo ioieoao.

Ioieo h0,ei z, a?aae

0 35 55 70 75 80

Iaeana 0.040 2.383

±0.004 2.908

±0.004 4.148

±0.006 6.911

±0.010 9.080

±0.013 13.302

±0.020

Oaeai?iae 0.120 2.366

±0.002 2.885

±0.003 4.120

±0.004 6.873

±0.006 8.987

±0.009 13.214

±0.014

Ee?a 0.170 2.350

±0.003 2.867

±0.003 4.088

±0.005 6.818

±0.008 8.953

±0.011 13.117

±0.016

*a?i?aoe? 0.210 2.349

±0.002 2.866

±0.003 4.086

±0.004 6.814

±0.007 8.943

±0.009 13.107

±0.014

N?ioa?iiieue 0.280 2.318

±0.001 2.829

±0.002 4.033

±0.004 6.725

±0.006 8.414

±0.008 12.926

±0.015

Oaiao?aea 0.280 2.328

±0.004 2.858

±0.005 4.044

±0.007 6.744

±0.012 8.857

±0.015 12.975

±0.023

Euea?a 0.330 2.303

±0.002 2.811

±0.003 4.007

±0.004 6.602

±0.007 8.777

±0.009 12.845

±0.013

Aoaeaiaoo 0.150 2.355

±0.002 2.873

±0.002 4.097

±0.003 6.832

±0.005 8.968

±0.006 13.140

±0.015

Aaee/eia iii?aaee Dr2 caeaaeeoue a?ae z. I?e z = 80? iii?aaea i?eeia?
na?aaei? cia/aiiy i?eaeecii 3 ni ? i?e no/anieo aeiiaao aei oi/iinoi
aeii?thaaiue, cia/aiiy Dr2 iio?iaii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?aaeoeoe?? ii/ieo i
aeaiieo eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC. Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia aiaeoeeaiiy
Dr2 aiae na?aaeiueiai ca ?ie ia ia?aaeuo? 2ii i?e Z = 80?.

A ?iaio? aeeiiaii ia?aa??eo oi/iino? oi?ioee Ia??i?-Ith??ae ia iniiai
268 aeaiieo cia/aiue aa?ieiai/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e ia i?ioyaii
?ieo aeey naie ioieoia Oe?a?ie i ioieoa Aoaeaiaoo. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
iacaiii cia/aiiy P0, T0, W0, ia/eneaii cia/aiiy iii?aaee ca oi?ioeith
Ia?iii- Ith??ae aeey ?icieo ioieoia ciiaeoaaiiy i i?iaaaeaii
ii?iaiyiiy ?o ic cia/aiiyie aoiinoa?ii? iii?aaee Dr = Dr1S + Dr2 ,
iaea?aeaieie iaoiaeii /enaeueiiai iioaa?oaaiiy aeaieo. Oi?ioea
Ia?iii-Ith??ae aea? ci?uaia, a naia caaeuaia cia/aiiy iii?aaee Drm.
Aaee/eia ciiuaiiy aaeaiue o 1.5 — 2 ?ace ? aieueoith, iiae aii/i. I?e Z
=0? aiia noaiiaeoue 0.38 ni, a i?e Z = 80? aiaeiiaiaeii 2.7 ni. Eeoa
aeey ioieoo *a?iiaoei aii/i i aaeaiue Drm < Dr. ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iiyniththoueny oei, ui: ii-ia?oa, oi?ioee Ia?iii-Ith??ae aoee aeaaaeaii aeey noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ii? iiaeae? aoiinoa?e; ii-ae?oaa, o oi?ioei Ia?iii - Ith??ae oaiia?aoo?iee a?aaei?io (( = -6 /ei) aaaaea?oueny noaeei ia ?icieo aenioao h, ii-o?ao?, i?eeiaeany oiiaa a?ae?inoaoe/ii? ??aiiaaae. ? e iioi iaaeeaeaiiy e aeiionee. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui ?icieoei iii?aaie (Drm -Dr) ? ciiuaieie o anio ioieoao ?aaiiio Oe?a?ie oa Aoaeaiaooi, ye a aeaiiee oae i a ii/iee /an aeiae, aeey aeinyaiaiiy iio?iaii? oi/iinoi i?iaaaeaii ooi/iaiiy oi?ioee Ia?iii-Ith??ae oeyoii aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a, ui a?aoiaothoue ?aaiiiaeuei? i eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? aoiinoa?e o ioieo? niinoa?aaeaiiy. Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a iaaaaeai? o oaaeeoe? 2. Oaaeeoey 2. Eiao?oe??ioe A1, A2, A3, A4, ye? a?aoiaothoue eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? ioieo?a niinoa?aaeaiiy. Ioieo A1 A2 A3,o10-4 A4,o10-5 Euea?a 1,00067 0,00968 1,936 7,34 N?ioa?iiieue 1,00040 0,00968 1,200 4,79 Ee?a 1,00053 0,00968 1,530 5,95 Oaiao?aea 1,00032 0,00968 0,895 3,38 Oaeai?iae 1,00051 0,00968 1,480 5,82 Na?aaei? aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie 1,00049 0,00968 1,410 5,45 ciaioo?oueny o 4 ?ace (?en.1). Ioaea, aeey ?aaiiio Oe?a?ie oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy E i?e ia/eneaiii iii?aaee ia a?aenoaiue ii oi?ioei Ia?iii - Ith?ae iiaeia caienaoe o oaeee niinia: K = 1.00049 - 0.00968 cos2( - 1.410·10-4 T0 + 5.45·10-5 P0 (5) Ooi/iaio oi?ioeo Ia?iii-Ith??ae iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?e ia/eneaii? iii?aaee ia a?aenoaiue aei ONC a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie. Aoee aeine?aeaeai? a?aeoeeaiiy i?io?e?a ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? N a?ae noa?e/ii? neiao???. Ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? N iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy iii?aaee o a?aeaeaeue Drg, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae cai?oii? a?aenoai? z, aceiooa ONC ? aenioe h. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?eciioaeueieo a?aae??io?a ?ao?aeoe?? a iai?yieo ia?eae?aia Nj i ia?aeae? Nl', iio??aii iaoe neio?iii? aa?ieia?/i? ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e ia iaioa, i?ae a o?ueio ioieoao, ?ici?uaieo a iaaeao ?aae?onii 150-200 ei. Ine?eueee i?eeiyoa oiiaa, ui Ng e?i?eii ci?iththoueny a ai?eciioaeueiiio iai?yieo, oi iii?aaea Drg aeeth/a? aoaeo o?eueee e?i?eii? aa??aoe?? Ng a ai?eciioaeueiiio iai?yieo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei neioni?aeaeueii? caeaaeiino? Drg a?ae aceiooa. Oiio ia/eneaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue aeey ??cieo iai?yie?a ii aceiooo a?ae A=0° aei 360° ?c e?ieii DA=10° ? aeey cai?oieo a?aenoaiae z= 10°, 50°, 70°, 80°. A aeaiiee ia??iae aeiae caeaaei?noue Drg a?ae aceiooo /?oei i?iyaey?oueny i?e z=70°. ??cieoey aeno?aiaeueieo cia/aiue neeaaea? 5.4 ni, ui iaeaea o aeaa ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae a i?/iee /an aeiae. Ia aaee/eio cia/aiue oace ? aiie?ooaee iii?aaie Drg aaeeeee aieea aiinyoue oiiia?ao?/i? oiiae ?ici?uaiiy ioieo?a niinoa?aaeaiue, oiaoi oa?aeoa? iiaaae?iee iiey oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo, a oaeiae oiiae (/an aeiae, oia?i?noue), i?e yeeo aoee i?iaaaeai? aa?ieia?/i? ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e. Ioaea, a ?iaio? ca aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e aeine?aeaeaii aieea aoiinoa?e i?e eaca?ieo aei??thaaiiyo a?aeaeae? aei ONC a iaaeao noa?e/iiai e ianoa?e/iiai iaaeeaeaiiy, aeine?aeaeaii ? a?aoiaaii ?aa?iiaeuei? oa eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? aieeao aoiinoa?e. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaoaeiae eieaeueieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o i?e ano?iiiii- aaiaeace/ieo aei??thaaiiyo. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii aieea ia??a aiaee a aoiinoa?? ia ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC. Cao?eieo ?aae?ineaiaeo a o?iiinoa?? iiaeia iiaeaoe noiith aeaio /eai?a, iii?aaee ca aieea nooi? aoiinoa?e Drc ? iii?aaee ca aieea ia??a aiaee Drb : , (6) - neeaaeiaa ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? a noo?e iaeo?aeuei?e aoiinoa??; -neeaaeiaa ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe??, ni?e/eiaia ia?aie aiaee; p1=p - l - ia?oe?aeueiee oene nooiai iia?o?y, iaa?; a - ia?oe?aeueiee oene aiaeyii? ia?e, iaa?. ? - aoiinoa?iee oene, iaa?; O - oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, °E. A aeai?e ?iaio? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia??a aiaee ia ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC aoei aeei?enoaii 260 aeaieo aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e a i’yoe ioieoao ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie. Iii?aaeo Drb ia/eneaii ia iniia? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ca aei??yieie o?eueee ia iiaa?oi? Caie? iaoaiia?aiao?aie oaiia?aoo?a O0, °E; oene ?0,iaa?; a?aeiinia aieia?noue W0, %. Cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y O? ? oeneo ?? ia aenio? h? ae?aaeathoueny a oaeee niin?a : Ti = T0 - bihi (7) (8). ?iaeaene 0, ? - icia/athoue, ui cia/aiiy aaee/ei a?aeiinyoueny aei iiaa?oi? Caie?, a oaeiae aei ?- ? aenioe aoiinoa?e a?aeiia?aeii. R- oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa noaea. ): , (9) aea g- i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy. A caeaaeiino? a?ae aaia?ao?/ii? oe?ioe j oa aenioe ioieoo niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ??aiai ii?y h0 ae?ac aeey g iiaeia iaienaoe oae : gi = 9,806 [1- 0,0026 cos2j - 0,00031(h0+hi)], [i/n2] (10) Ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue aieiaiai iia?o?y ??aia: Npi = 1.005·107(1+0.96Si), [ni2/n2a?aae] (11) Aea?aaeaioio iieaeoey?io aaao m0 aieiaiai iia?o?y iiaeia ia/eneeoe ca oi?ioeith: m0=29·18/(18+11S0) (12) Ieoiia aieia?noue iia?o?y ia iiaa?oi? Caie? S0, oiaoi e?euee?noue aiaeyii? ia?e a a?aiao, ui i?noeoueny a iaeiiio a?ai? aieiaiai iia?o?y ae?aaea?oueny oae: S0=0.622e0/(P0-0.378eo) (13) Ia?oe?aeueiee oene a0 aiaeyii? ia?e ia/eneth?oueny ca oi?ioeith Iaaiona. Ia?oe?aeueiee oene a?, ae?aaeaiee /a?ac ai?no aiaeyii? ia?e S? ia aenio? aoiinoa?e hi, ??aiee: ei={29·Si/(18·11Si)}Pi, [iaa?] (14) A oa?iiaeeiai?/i?e iiaeae? S? i?aaenoaaeaii oae: , (15) aea h? - a e?eiiao?ao. Ioaea, i?io?eue ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? acaeiaae oeyoo iioe?aiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? iaea?aeo?oueny ?c ??aiyiue (7) - (15), a eiai ?ioaa?ae a?ae iiaa?oi? Caie? h0 aei aenioe hb =12 ei aea? cia/aiiy iii?aaee Drbo . Aeey ioe?iee oi/iino? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? aoei i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy cia/aiue iii?aaie Drbo ?c cia/aiiyie Drb aecia/aieie ca ?aaeueieie ieoo?aeie i?io?eyie iaoaiia?aiao??a, ye? iaea?aeai? i?ae /an niinoa?aaeaiue ONC. ?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ne?aeo?, ui ia z=75° iaeneiaeueia ??cieoey iii?aaie noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii ±16 ni, a ia z=0° - ±4ni. Oae? ?icoiaeaeaiiy ia?o ca ana iiyniththoueny oei, ui aenioiee ?iciiae?e ai?noo aiaeyieo ia??a iaiiaeeeai oi/ii i?aaenoaaeoe iaaieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie ?c-ca eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aoiinoa?e. A oa?iiaeeiai?/i?e iiaeae? i?eeia?oueny, ui aenioiee o?ae ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e iieno?oueny aeniiiaioe?aeueiith caeaaei?noth (15), aea eiao?oe??io a=0.42ei-1 i?eeia?oueny noaeith aaee/eiith. Aeey a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e o aoiinoa?? ca oi?ioeith (13) aoei ciaeaeaii S? ia eiaei?e aenio? h? a 5-oe aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao, a ii ieo aei aenioe hn=16 ei aoee aecia/ai? ieoo?a? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a ca oi?ioeith: a = ln(Si/S0) / hi (16) Ia ?en.2 i?aaenoaaeaii ?aaeuei? ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa a c aenioith hi i?ioyaii ?ieo a aacoia?i? aei? aeey Oaeai?iaea. Aeey ?ioeo ioieo?a ?acoeueoaoe aiaeia?/i?. ?c aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeaeii, ui aei aenioe hi= 6 ei, niinoa??aathoueny aaeee? ci?ie a (a?ae -0.14 aei +0.93) ei-1. Eeoa ia aenioao h=(8-11)ei a ? aeinoaoiuei noaa?eueiei o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao i?ioyaii ?ieo ? i?eaeecii ??aiee a » 0.42ei-1 . Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy ai, ia iniia? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? aoei ia/eneaii DrbT* ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?c aiaeia?/ieie aoaeiiieie cia/aiiyie Drb. ?c aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ne?aeo?, ui oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? aecia/eoe DrbT i?e z=75° ?c oi/i?noth ±5ii, yeui a ? ?aaeueieie. Ioaea, i?e oeueiio c’yniao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae ii?e ?ieo ? a?ae /ano i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue (aeaiue /e i?/). INIIAI? AENIIAEE O ca’yceo ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi INIC, aeeiiaiiyi i?aeia?iaeieo i?ia?ai "Aeeiai?ea oaa?aei? Caie?", AAAAIA?-IAAeEAN, Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie "Noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoie neoaeae ?aeeiiai /ano ? aoaeiiieo /anoio Oe?a?ie" oa ?ioeo, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ino?oiaioaeueii? oi/iino? a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ooo/ieo noiooiee?a Caie? aei 1-5 ii iaeiei ?c aeooaeueieo caaaeaiue ? ioe?iea ? oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaeae aoiinoa?ieo ?aaeoeoe?e i?e aiae?c? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ano?iiiii- aaiaeace/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeeiiaii aiae?c ? ioe?ieo aieeao aoiinoa?e ia eaca?i? ? ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie oa a Aoaeaiaoo? ca aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e. I?e oeueiio aeine?aeaeaii ?aa?iiaeuei? oa eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaea?aeaii oae? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe: 1. Aea/aii ? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieeao aoiinoa?e, a eiaei?e oi/oe? yei? ?iaeaen ?ao?aeoe?? N i?aaenoaaeaiee ooieoe??th noa?e/ieo eii?aeeiao. Oea aeicaieeei ioe?ieoe ie?aii aieea noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ii? aoiinoa?e ? ai?eciioaeueieo a?aae??io?a i?e eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC. Aeey noa?e/ii- neiao?e/ii? aoiinoa?e ia/eneaii iii?aaee o a?aenoaiue aei ONC Dr, ye noie iii?aaie ca ci?io oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy Dr1S ? aee?eaeaiiy o?aaeoi??? ?c-ca ?ao?aeoe?? Dr2 (aaiiao?e/ii? iii?aaee). Ia/eneaiiy iii?aaee Dr i?iaiaeeeinue aeey l =0.694iei ? l=0.532iei i?e z=0°, 35°, 55°, 70°, 75°, 80° c aeei?enoaiiyi 468 ieoo?aeo iaoaiia?aiao??a (?, O, W). Ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e i?iaiaeeeinue aei aenioe 25-35 ei i?ioyaii ?ieo a i’yoe ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ? a Aoaeaiaoo? i?aeoe/ii a iaei? ? o? ae iiiaioe /ano (12hUT) a yni? aei?- (oia?i?noue iaioa 2 aae?a). Aeiaaeeiaa iioeaea ia/eneaiiy N ia ia?aaeuo? 0.5 N- iae., a iioeaea ia/eneaiiy iii?aaee Dr, ui coiiaeaia iioeaeaie aei??thaaiiy iaoaiia?aiao??a, noaiiaeoue a?ey 2 ii i?e z=0° ? 9 ii i?e z=80°. Iii?aaea Dr1S a na?aaeiueiio aeey ?aa?iia Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue 2.340i i?e z=0° ? 13.09i i?e z=80°. Na?aaei? ??/i? cia/aiiy Dr1S aaeaiue ? iaioeie, i?ae aii/?, ui ne?aeo? ?c caeaaeiino? ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. Cia/aiiyi Drb i?eoaiaii? naciii? eieeaaiiy c aiie?ooaeith (6-8) ni. Oe? eieeaaiiy iaoiiaeai? naciiieie aa??aoe?yie iaoaiia?aiao??a ? caeaaeaoue a?ae aaia?ao?/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy ioieoo aa?ieia?/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy. Cia/aiiy Dr1S oaeiae caeaaeaoue a?ae aenioe ioieoo niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ??aiai ii?y h, oiaoi ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aenioe h. Aaiiao?e/io iii?aaeo Dr2, i?e no/anieo aeiiaao aei oi/iino? aei??thaaiue, iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e ?aaeoeoe?? i?/ieo ? aeaiieo eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC. Cia/aiiy Dr2 i?e z=80° aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie iaaoaa? na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy i?eaeecii 3 ni. Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy Dr2 a?ae na?aaeiueiai ca ??e ia ia?aaeuo? 2 ii i?e z=80°. 2. INIC aeey ia/eneaiiy aaee/eie aieeao aoiinoa?e i?e eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC ?aeiiaiaeo? oi?ioeo Ia??i?-Ith??ay. Aiia iaea?aeaia aeey noa?e/ii-neiao?e/ii? iiaeae? aoiinoa?e ? aea? iiaio iii?aaeo Drm=Dr1S +Dr2. Aeeiiaii ia?aa??eo oi/iino? oi?ioee Ia??i?-Ith??ae ia iniia? 468 aeaiieo ieoo?aeo cia/aiue aa?ieia?/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioea Ia??i?-Ith??ae aea? caaeuaia cia/aiiy iii?aaee Drm. I?e/iio aaee/eia ci?uaiiy aaeaiue o 1,5-2 ?ace a?eueoa, i?ae oii/?. Aeey l=694.3ii a na?aaeiueiio aiia noaiiaeoue 0.38 ni i?e z=0° i 2.7ni i?e z=80°. Aeiaaeeiaa iioeaea Drm noaiiaeoue a?ae 1ii i?e z=0° ? aei 7 ii i?e z=80°. I?iaaaeaii ooi/iaiiy oi?ioee Ia??i?-Ith??ae aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie oeyoii a?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo oa eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aoiinoa?e. Ciaeaeaii ooi/iai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a o oi?ioe? Ia??i?-Ith??ae c o?aooaaiiyi eieaeueii - oiiia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae aeey eiaeiiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ioieoo cie?aia, ? aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio. Aaee/eia ci?uaiiy i?e z=70° ciaioeeanue o 4 ?ace. Ioiae aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? a?aooaaiiy aieeao caiii? aoiinoa?e ia ?acoeueoaoe eaca?ii? a?aeaeaeaiao??? a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ooi/iaio oi?ioeo Ia??i?-Ith?a?e. 3. Ca aeaieie aeaiieo neio?iiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue aoiinoa?e i?ioyaii ?ieo a 5 ioieoao Oe?a?ie, ?icoaoiaaieo ia a?aenoai? 150-200 ei iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, aecia/aii aaeeeiianooaai? ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe ?ao?aeoe?? Drg aeey ??cieo aenio h iaae caiiith iiaa?oiath ? ioe?iaii ?o aieea ia eaca?i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC. Iii?iei ioieoii aea?aii Euea?a. Ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? iaoiiaeththoue nenoaiaoe/io iioeaeo. Oiio aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy iii?aaee Drg o a?aenoaiue, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?eciioaeueieo eii?aeeiao ? aceiooa ONC. Iii?aaea Drg o a?aenoaiue ia? neioni?aeaeueio caeaaei?noue a?ae Drg, a na?aaeiueiio aei??aith? (2.5-3.0) ni i?e z=70° oa ciaioo?oueny aei e?eueeio i?e?iao??a iiaeeco cai?oa. Iaae? ci?ie cia/aiue ai?eciioaeueieo a?aae??io?a ?ao?aeoe?? i?e aeaiieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC o 2-3 ?ace a?eueo?, i?ae i?e i?/ieo. 4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cao?eiee ?aae?ineaiaeo Dr i?e iioe?aii? a caii?e aoiinoa?? oa ?? a?aooaaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaii? aenieioi/ieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC ana ua caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei. O?oaeiiu? aeieeathoue i?e aecia/aii? iii?aaee ia a?aenoaiue aiane?aeie ci?ie ai?noo ia??a aiaee a aoiinoa??. A ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iaeo?aeueii? aoiinoa?e ia ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC. Ia/eneaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ca aeaieie 260 aeaiieo ieoo?aeo aa?ieia?/ieo i?io?e?a iaoaiia?aiao??a a 5 ioieoao ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie i?e z=0°, 35°, 55°, 70°, 75°. A na?aaeiueiio aeey ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie Dr i?e z=0° noaiiaeoue (2.29-2.38) ni ? c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi cai?oii? a?aenoai?. I?e z=75° Dr aeinyaa? (8.84-9.93)ni. Iii?aaea ca ai?no aiaeyii? ia?e o aoiinoa?? Drb o an?o ioieoao ia ia?aaeuo? (4-5)% a?ae noia?ii? iii?aaee Drb, aea aieea ia aecia/aiiy a?aenoai? aei ONC ? nooo?aei ?c-ca cia/ieo i?inoi?iai- /aniaeo aa??aoe?e. Oae, o an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao a ceiiaee ia??iae, eiee oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y ? iecueeith, a ioaea, ia?oe?aeueiee oene aiaeyii? ia?e oaae iaeee, Drb i?e z=75° noaiiaeoue (0.1-0.2) i, ? iaaiaee, ae?oeo, caaaeyee aaeee?e oaiia?aoo?? ieaei?o oa??a aoiinoa?e, Drb noaiiaeoue (0,7-0,9) i. Iioeaea ia/eneaiiy iii?aaee Dr iaoiaeii /enaeueiiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy noaiiaeoue a?ey 2 ii a cai?o?. Iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui ia aeyaeaii caeaaeiino? iii?aaee Drb a?ae aenioe ioieoo iaae ??aiai ii?y, ui na?ae/eoue i?i eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? aieiai? aoiinoa?e. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeaaeo ??cieo i?ioa?e?a aoiinoa?e a iii?aaeo Drb ca aeaieie aa?ieia?/iiai ciiaeoaaiiy a on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao ia/eneaii cia/aiiy ?iaeaena ?ao?aeoe?? oa ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo ia ??cieo aenioao h aoiinoa?e. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe a eiaeiiio ioieo? i?ioyaii ?ieo aenioe hb, ii/eiath/e c yeeo aieeaii aiaeyii? ia?e iiaeia iaoooaaoe. Aeey Ee?aa aenioa hb i?ioyaii ?ieo eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao (8.5-13) ei, a aeey Eueaiaa (7-15)ei. Ioaea, aenioa hb ? ia iino?eiith, iineoue eieaeueiee oa?aeoa?. 5. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaii aiae?c cia/aiiy iii?aaie, ia/eneaieo ii iiaeae? ia iniia? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue DrbT, ii iiaeae? Oiio?eueaea DrbOI ? ii ieoo?aeo i?io?eyo iaoaiia?aiao??a a i’yoe aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao Oe?a?ie. I?ae iiaeaeueiei i?aaenoaaeaiiyi iii?aaee (DrbO, DrbOI) oa cia/aiiyie Drb, iaea?aeaieie ia iniia? ieoo?aeo i?io?e?a iaoaiia?aiao??a, ci?uaiue iaia?, aea ? cia/i? ?icoiaeaeaiiy. Oae, i?e z=75° iaeneiaeuei? ?icoiaeaeaiiy (Drb-DrO) noaiiaeyoue i?eaeecii ±16 ni, a i?e z=0° oe? ??cieoe? iii?aaie aeinyaathoue ±4 ni. Oae? ?icoiaeaeaiiy iiyniththoueny eieaeueieie iniaeeainoyie aoiinoa?e. A oa?iiaeeiai?/i?e iiaeae? i?eeia?oueny, ui aenioiee o?ae ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e iieno?oueny aeniiiaioe?aeueiith caeaaei?noth, aea eiao?oe??io a i?eeia?oueny noaeith aaee/eiith (a=-0.42ei-1). Ca ?aaeueieie ieoo?aeie i?io?eyie iaoaiia?aiao??a a on?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ioieoao a eiaei?e oi/oe? ciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e aei aenioe h=16ei aoee aecia/ai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a aeniiiaioe?aeueii? caeaaeiino? ieoiii? aieiaino? iia?o?y ?c aenioith. ?c aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aeaeii, ui aei aenioe hi=8ei niinoa??aathoueny aaeee? ci?ie a (a?ae -0,14 aei +0.93ei-1). Eeoa ia aenioao h8-11ei cia/aiiy a aeinoaoiuei noaa?euei? ? noaiiaeyoue i?eaeecii 0,42 ei-1. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a o aoiinoa??, oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? aecia/eoe DrbO i?e z=75° c oi/i?noth ±5ii. Ioaea, iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeinyaiooa: i?aeaeuaii oi/i?noue a?aooaaiiy aieeao aoiinoa?e ia ?acoeueoaoe aeaiieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie oeyoii a?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo oa eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aoiinoa?e. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?: a) i?e ia?iaoe? a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC a ioieoao noai?thaaii? i?aeaoc?anueei? ia?aae? eaca?ii-eieaoe?eieo noaioe?e a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie; a) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aoiinoa?e aeey iaea?aeaiiy iii?oi?eiao aieiai? eiiiiiaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao: I.O.Ie?iiia, I.E.Eaaeae, A.E.Eeeiee, E.A.Oaaeaaei. Eciaiaiey eiyoeoeeaioa i?aeiieaiey caiiie aoiinoa?u a ?aaeiia Ea?iao e eo aeeyiea ia eaca?iua ii?aaeaeaiey ?annoiyiee aei ENC // Oeceea Eoiu e ieaiao: Iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee.- Oa?ueeia,1994.- n.94. I.?.Eaaeae, A.?.Ee?i?e, I.A.Oooai, ?.A.Oaaeaa?i. Aecia/aiiy aaiiao?e/ii? iii?aaee o a?aeaeaeue i?e eaca?i?e eieaoe?? ONC // Iaoa??aee iaoe.eiioa?aioe?? aei 225-??//y AI Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- Euea?a,1994.- n.72-73. I.O.Ie?iiia, I.?.Eaaeae, ?.A.Oaaeaa?i. Aieea caiii? aoiinoa?e ia eaca?i? aei??thaaiiy a?aenoaiae aei ONC // ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue OAA- Ee?a,1995.- ?7. -n.79. N.Mironov, I.Shvalagin, N.Kablak. Validation of the IERS standard tropospheric model // Earth rotation, reference systems in geodynamicsand solar system.-Varshava, 18-19 September 1995.- pp.161-164. N.Kablak. The influence of atmosphere into radiorangefinder observation of Artificial Earth Satellites (AES)// Odessa astronomical publications.- 1996. - vol.9.- p.132-133. I.Ie?iiia, I.Eaaeae. Aieea o?iiinoa?e i?e ?aae?ioaoi?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC. // Iao?ieia?y a aaiaeac??: Iaoa??aee Oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe??.- Oa?e?a,1996.- n.30. I.Ie?iiia, I.Eaaeae. Ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe ?ao?aeoe?? a eaca?i?e a?aeaeaeaiao??? // Iao?ieia?y a aaiaeac??: Iaoa??aee Oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai- oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe??.- Oa?e?a,1996.- n.11. N.I.Kablak. Influence of the neutral atmosphere on measurement distance to satellite // ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue OAA- Ee?a,1998.- ?12.- n.76. I.O.Ie?iiia, I.?.Eaaeae. Aieea aoiinoa?e ia aei??thaaiiy a?aenoaiae i?e aeaiieo eaca?ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ONC.// Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaaaniuo oae.- 1998.- o.14,?1. - n.77-81. I.?.Eaaeae, I.O.Ie?iiia. Aieea ia??a aiaee a aoiinoa?? ia ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC // Eeiaiaoeea e oeceea iaaaniuo oae.- 1998. -o.14, ?3. -n.288-291. ?.A.Oaaeaa?i, I.?.Eaaeae, I.I.Ineiaiei. Iiaeaethaaiiy ai?noo aiaeyii? ia?e a aoiinoa??..// Iaoeiaee a?niee OaeAeO. Na??y:O?ceea.- 1998.- ?3, n. . Eaaeae I.?. Aieea aoiinoa?e ia a?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ooo/ieo noiooiee?a Caie?. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai noaiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ?c niaoe?aeueiino? 01.03.01 - Ano?iiao??y e iaaania iaoai?ea. Aieiaia ano?iiii?/ia iana?aaoi??y Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? a?aooaaiiy aieeao caiii? aoiinoa?e ia ?acoeueoaoe aeaiieo a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ooo/ieo noiooiee?a Caie?. Ca iaea?aeaieie ai?iaeiaae ?ieo aeaieie aeaiieo aa?ieia?/ieo ciiaeoaaiue a ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie oa a Aoaeaiaoo?, aeei?enoiaoth/e noa?e/io neiao?e/io oa ianoa?e/io iiaeae? aoiinoa?e, aecia/aii iii?aaee, ?o i?inoi?iai-/ania? aa??aoe??. I?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo oa aiae?c iiaeaeae ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiieo INIC aeey ia?iaee a?aeaeaeai??ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ONC. Aeine?aeaeaii ? oaeineiiaeaii iiaeae? ?aaeoeoe?e ca aoiinoa?o ia iniia? aeyaeaieo ?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae aieeao aoiinoa?e ia eaca?i? oa ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ONC. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?iiaai?oiee ?iioeuen, aoiinoa?ia iii?aaea, eaca?i? oa ?aae?ia?aeaeaeai??i? niinoa?aaeaiiy. Kablak N.I. Influence of the atmosphere on the distance ranging observations of the Earth artificial satellites. Thesis for Candidate of Science Degree in Physics and Mathematics. 01.03.10- astrometry and skycelestial mechanics. The Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,Kiev,1999. Dissertation is devoted to the problem of accuracy increasing in allowing for Earth’s atmosphere influences on results of daily ranging observation of the Earth artificial satellites. Atmosphere delays and their spatial-timely variations for spherical-symmetrical and nonspherical models of atmosphere were determined radiosounding data gathered during a year in a regions of Ukraine and Budapest using. Developed valuing and analysis of models reductions to over of atmosphere, which recommended of IERS for processing distance ranging observation of the Earth artificial satellites. Investigated and improved models of reductions to over of the atmosphere on the basis of discovered regionals and local peculiaritys of influence atmosphere on the laser and radio ranging observations of the of the Earth artificial satellites. Keywords: electromagnetic impulse, atmosphere delay, laser and distance ranging observations Eaaeae I.E. Aeeyiea aoiinoa?u ia aeaeueiiia?iua iaaethaeaiey eneonnoaaiiuo niooieeia Caiee. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.03.01 - ano?iiao?ey e iaaaniay iaoaieea. - Aeaaiay ano?iiiie/aneay iana?aaoi?ey Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iiauoaiey oi/iinoe o/aoa aeeyiey caiiie aoiinoa?u ia ?acoeueoaou aeiaaiuo aeaeueiiia?iuo iaaethaeaiee eneonnoaaiiuo niooieeia Caiee. Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea aeaiiuo ay?ieiae/aneiai ciiaee?iaaiey aoiinoa?u a naie ioieoao Oe?aeiu (Iaeanna, Oaeai?iae, Eeaa, *a?iiaoeu, Neioa?iiieue, Oaiaoiaea, Eueaia) e a Aaia?ee (Aoaeaiaoo), eniieuecoy noa?e/ii-neiiao?e/ioth iiaeaeue aoiinoa?u, ii?aaeaeaiu cia/aiey iii?aaie e eo i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua aa?eaoeee ia ?aciuo caieoiuo ?annoiyieyo. Auiieiai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oi/iinoe ii?aaeaeaiey iii?aaie a ecia?aiea ?annoiyiey einie/aneeo iauaeoia. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeinoaaeee aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey oeaeinoiie ea?oeiu ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae aeeyiey aoiinoa?u ia ?acoeueoaou eaca?iie eieaoeee ENC a ii/iia e aeiaaiia a?aiy nooie. Iaoeeiiaeueiia oi?aaeaiea ii enneaaeiaaieth einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa (NASA) NOA e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay neoaeaa a?auaiey Caiee (INAC) aeey ia?aaioee aeaeueiiia?iuo iaaethaeaiee ENC a aeiaaeueiie naoe noaioeee ?aeiiaiaeotho a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa oi?ioeo Ia?eie-Ith??ae. Iiyoiio nouanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aieaa no?iaie ioeaiee oi/iinoe aeaiiie oi?ioeu aeey ?aciuo ?aaeiiia Caiee, a oaeaea, aeey oao iiaiaeiuo oneiaee e oao iiiaioia a?aiaie, eiaaea i?iaiaeyony eaca?iua iaaethaeaiey ENC. I?iaaaeaii aiaeec e iieo/aii ioeaieo oi/iinoe oi?ioeu Ia?eie-Ith??ae ia iniiaaiee 468 aeiaaiuo cia/aiee ay?ieiae/aneiai ciiaee?iaaiey aoiinoa?u ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea aeey naie ioieoia Oe?aeiu aeey l=0,694iei e l=0,532 iei. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iieacuaatho, /oi oi?ioea Ia?eie-Ith??ae aeaao caauoaiiia cia/aiea aoiinoa?iie iii?aaee o anao enneaaeoaiuo ioieoia. Aaee/eia niauaiey a aeiaaiia a?aiy nooie a iieoi?a- aeaa ?aca aieueoa /ai a ii/iia. I?iaaaeaii ooi/iaiea oi?ioeu Ia?eie-Ith??ae iooai ii?aaeaeaiey eiyooeoeeaioia, /oi o/eouaatho ?aaeiiaeueiua e eieaeueiua iniaaiiinoe aoiinoa?u a ioieoao iaaethaeaiey. Ooi/iaiioth oi?ioeo Ia?eie-Ith??ae iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aeey eniieueciaaiey i?e ia?aaioea eaca?iuo iaaethaeaiee ENC a ioieoao Oe?aeiu. Enneaaeiaaii ioeeiiaiea eiaeaenia ?ao?aeoeee io noa?e/iie neiiao?ee. Ii aeaiiui aeiaaiuo neio?iiiuo ay?ieiae/aneeo ciiaee?iaaiee aoiinoa?u ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea a iyoe ioieoao Oe?aeiu, iaoiaeyueony ia ?annoiyiee ia iaiaa 150-200 ei iaeei io ae?oaiai, ii?aaeaeaiu e?oiiiianooaaiua ai?eciioaeueiua a?aaeeaiou ?ao?aeoeee aeey ?aciuo aunio iaae caiiie iiaa?oiinoueth e ioeaiaii eo aeeyiea ia eaca?iua iaaethaeaiey ENC. Iii?iui ioieoii eca?ai ioieo Eueaia. Ai?eciioaeueiua a?aaeeaiou eiaeaena ?ao?aeoeee iaoneaaeeaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaaaeaiey iii?aaee a aeaeueiinoue, eioi?ay caaeneo io ai?eciioaeueiuo eii?aeeiao e aceiooa ENC. Ia aaee/eio cia/aiee oacu e aiieeooaeu iii?aaie, iaoneiaeaiiuo nouanoaiaaieai ai?eciioaeueiuo a?aaeeaioia ?ao?aeoeee, aieueoia aeeyiea aiinyo oiiia?aoe/aneea oneiaey ?aniieiaeaiey ioieoia iaaethaeaiey, o.a. oa?aeoa? iiaaaeaiey iiey oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeaiey, a oaeaea oneiaey (a?aiy nooie, iaea/iinoue), i?e eioi?uo auee i?iaaaeaiu iaaethaeaiey. I?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey iaeo?aeueiie aoiinoa?u ia ?aaeeiaeaeueiiia?iua iaaethaeaiey ENC. Ii?aaeaeaii niaea?aeaiea e naciiiua eciaiaiey aiaeyiuo ia?ia a aoiinoa?a e eo aeeyiea ia oi/iinoue aeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee a iyoe ioieoao Oe?aeiu. ?acoeueoaou auee iieo/aiu i?e eniieueciaaiee 260 aeaiiuo aeiaaiuo i?ioeeae ay?ieiae/aneiai ciiaee?iaaiey aoiinoa?u. Iii?aaea ca aeeyiea aiaeyiuo ia?ia a aoiinoa?a ia i?aauoaao 4-5% io noiia?iie iii?aaee, ii aa aeeyiea ia oi/iinoue ii?aaeaeaiey aeaeueiinoe aei ENC nouanoaaiii ec-ca cia/eoaeueiuo i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo aa?eaoeee. Aeey enneaaeiaaiey noaiaie aeeyiey ?aciuo neiaa aoiinoa?u ia iii?aaeo, au/eneaiu cia/aiey eiaeaena ?ao?aeoeee e ia?oeeaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ia ?aciuo aunioao ai anao ioieoao. Yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue aeey eaaeaeiai ioieoa ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea cia/aiey i?aaeaeueiie auniou aoiinoa?u, auoa eioi?ie aeeyieai aiaeyiuo ia?ia ia oi/iinoue aeaeueiiia?iuo ecia?aiee iiaeii i?aiaa?a/ue. I?iaaaeai aiaeec cia/aiee iii?aaie ca aeeyiea aiaeyiuo ia?ia, iaeaeaiiuo ii oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie iiaeaee n eniieueciaaieai oieueei iacaiiuo cia/aiee iaoaiia?aiao?ia. Iaaeaeo iiaeaeueiui i?aaenoaaeaieai iii?aaie e cia/aieyie iii?aaie, au/eneaiiuo ii iaiiaaiiui i?ioeeyi iaoaiia?aiao?ia, niauaiey iao, ii anoue ?anoiaeaeaiey, iaee/ea eioi?uo iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi aunioiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea niaea?aeaiey aiaeyiuo ia?ia a aoiinoa?a iaaiciiaeii oi/ii i?aaenoaaeoue ii?aaeaeaiiuie niioiioaieyie ec-ca eieaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae aoiinoa?u. Aeey iaeaieaa oi/iiai o/aoa aeeyiey aiaeyiuo ia?ia aoiinoa?u ia aeaeueiiia?iua iaaethaeaiey ENC ioaeii iaueaaeeieoue ecia?aiey iaoaiaeaiiuo auiieiaiuo ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee e n iiiiuueth ?aaeeiciiaeia. Iiyoiio aeey eaaeaeie noaioeee iaaethaeaiey iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue naiy iiaeaeue, eioi?ay o/eouaaao ?aaeiiaeueiua, oiiia?aoe/aneea, eeeiaoe/aneea e eieaeueiua iniaaiiinoe aeaiiiai ioieoa. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?iiaaieoiue eiioeuen, aoiinoa?iay iii?aaea, eaca?iua e ?aaeeiaeaeueiiia?iua iaaethaeaiey. PAGE PAGE 22 OAeE 521.2+520.16 A) A) A)

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