Внутрішні й прикордонні війська в Україні у 1917 — 1941 рр. (Історико-правовий аспект): Автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук / Л.В. Бородич, Нац. юрид. ак

IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?iai? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

Ai?iaee/ Eaii?ae Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 340. 0 (09)

AIOO??OI? E I?EEI?AeIII? A?ENUeEA A OE?A?I?

o 1917 – 1941 ??.

(?NOI?EEI-I?AAIAEE ANIAEO)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;

?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie ?
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai?
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aii/a?aiei Aieiaeeie? Aeieo?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie ? ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaae?i Aieiaeeie?
Aeieo?iae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio *aoiae/ Aaea??e Aiaoie?eiae/,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia
O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 27 » aa?aniy 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.02 a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
th?eaee/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai ca aae?anith:
310024, i. Oa?e?a, aoe.Iooe?inueea, 77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Iooe?inueea,77).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 26 » na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aii/a?aiei A.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy
aea?aeaae, ye na?ae/eoue ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, ? cae?eniaiiy iath nai?o
ooieoe?e oeyoii aeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aia?aoo (iaoai?cio), yeee, o
naith /a?ao, neeaaea?oueny c iecee aeaiaio?a. Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo
aeaai?o ?c ieo ? niaoe?aeuei? caaiie ica?i?ieo ethaeae (a?i?y, iie?oe?y,
aeaiaea?ia??y, ?io? aiaeia?/i? oi?ioaaiiy), i?aai?ciaaieo ia aeeiiaiiy
aie? aeanoae. O na?oia?e iaoeia?e ?noi??ia?ao?? uiaei ieo iaio?
iaeiinoaeia aeoiea: aiie oae? ae noa??, ye ? aea?aeaaa. Ii??aiyii aeaaii
c’yaeeeny oaeiae i?aaie aaei?i?no?aoe??, noaee, aeaui i?ci?oa –
a’ycieoe?, o?neaeuei? onoaiiae, i?aaie oeaico?e oiui.

Aeii?ioth/a noaiiaeua “caaii?a ica?i?ieo ethaeae” o aea?aeaaiiio
aia?ao? e?a?i na?oo, cie?aia ?in?enueei? ?iia???, aei neeaaeo yei?
aoiaeeea Oe?a?ia, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ia?aa?aii ?o ?icaeoeo. Iaaoaath/e
c /anii a?eueo aeoii/aieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ? aeina?aeo ?iaioe,
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ea?aeuei? i?aaie oa ?o ca?iei? oi?ioaaiiy, nie?ath/enue
o nai?e ae?yeueiino? ia a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii a?ae?aaoeueiaaio ?in?enueeei
naiiaea?aeaanoaii i?aaiao aaco, noaee iin?aeaoe a iaoai?ci? ?iia???
aeaaeae? aaaeeea?oa i?noea. I?e oeueiio ?o iniiaia oaaaa
cina?aaeaeoaaeany a ia?oo /a?ao ia ioi?ii? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith oeyoii i?eaeooaiiy iii?o iaaaeiaieaieo ? eeoa iio?i ia ioi?ii?
a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo (ai?ioueaa c? cei/eii?noth, caaacia/aiiy
iiaeaaeii?, nai?oa?ii? aaciaee oa ?i.). A?aeiia?aeii aei oeeo iai?yie?a
oi?ioaaeenue ? ?icaeaaeenue iniaeea? ea?aeueii-i?aaiioi?iii? onoaiiae –
i?aaie iie?oe/ii? e caaaeueii? iie?oe??, aeaiaea?ia??y, ioi?iii?
i?ae?icae?ee oiui.

Iiaee aoai o noai?aii? ??ciiaeaeo niaoe?aeueieo oi?ioaaiue, cie?aia
a?enueeiaiai c?aceo, ?icii/aany a ia?o?e /aa?o? OO no. ?o iiyaa aoea
aeeeeeaia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie, ye? aaaaoi a /iio noaee
aecia/aeueieie a ?icaeoeo ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa, iiyaith ia
oa?aiao ?iia???, cie?aia a Oe?a?i?, iiaeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue, eiaeia
c yeeo, aeei?enoiaoth/e ? caaaa/oth/e ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, ?acii c
?aaoey?iith a?i??th ia oeyoo aei oni?oo ii/aei oe?iei caeo/aoe
niaoe?aeuei? /anoeie e i?ae?icae?ee. Iniaeeai oa?aeoa?iei oea noaei a
ia??iae ae?yeueiino? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

Oiio ia’?eoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo canaae ooai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino?
a ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae a Oe?a?i? /eneaiieo niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue, aecia/aiiy ?o cia/aiiy o aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioean?, o
ci?oeiaii? a ?aaeyinuee? /ane iniia eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, a caiaeii ? ?aaeeio oioae?oa?ecio ?
ei?eniei ? iiaea canoa?aaoe a?ae iiieeie o i?ioean? no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, cie?aia, ia oeyoo ?icaoaeiae Ca?ieieo
nee, aioo??oi?o ? i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee, Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae??.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi inoaiiueiai ? e oie oaeo, ui ?noi?eei-i?aaiaa aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ??ci? ia??iaee ?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai niaoe?aeueieo
i?ae?icae?e?a ia i?eieiy?oueny ? a ?ioeo e?a?iao na?oo, cie?aia a
Aiae??, I?ia//ei?, ?oae??, O?aioe?? oa ?i.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
a?aeiia?aea? caaaeaiiyi eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie ? 0186.0.070872
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?noi??? Oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy”.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?: o aena?oeaii? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a
ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aioo??oi?o ?
i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee, ?ioeo ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo niaoe?aeueieo
i?ae?icae?e?a a oiiaao iiyae e ci?oeiaiiy ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie ??cieo oi?i
iaoe?iiaeueii? e ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?; a iai?aoethaaii? iaaieo
i?iiiceoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? e i?noey
aioo??oi?o ? i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee o ni?aa? noaa?e?coth/iai /eiieea
aea?aeaae, caoenoo eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa ? naiaiae a?iiaaeyi.

Aeoiaey/e c iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaoi? iinoaaea caaaeaiiy:

–aeine?aeeoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco, ooieoe??, ?ieue
a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O- ii/aoeo OO no.;

–aecia/eoe i?aaiaee noai, i?noea e ?ieue niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a oa ?o
ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue aeiae Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaoueiaiaoo
e Aee?aeoi???;

–anoaiiaeoe a oiiaao ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e aca?iica’ycie ? aieea
i?aaiaiai iiey ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa ?aaeyinueei? ?in?? ia iiyao a
Oe?a?i? ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo i?aai?a ? niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a, i?iaiae?coaaoe nooi?iue aeei?enoaiiy ?o
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace;

–i?iaiae?coaaoe iie?oe/i? oa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? canaaee noai?aiiy a
oiiaao ia?aiiae ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a?enueeiaeo /anoei, ye? iaea?aeaee
caiaeii io?oe?eio iacao “aioo??oi? oa i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea”, aecia/eoe
?o ooieoe??, ?ieue oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo a caaaeuei?e
ioi?iiii-ea?aeuei?e nenoai? e?a?ie;

–ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aieiai? iai?yiee, oi?ie oa iaoiaee ae?yeueiino?
i?eei?aeiiieo ? aioo??oi?o a?enuee o ia??iae ca?iaeaeaiiy e ci?oeiaiiy
eoeueoo iniae, iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai iaoai?cio;

–aeaoe ?noi?eei-i?aaiao ioe?ieo ooieoe?iioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue AeIO (IAeIO)–IEAN ye neeaaeieea
ioi?iiii-ea?aeueii? nenoaie oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae;

–nie?ath/enue ia na?oiaee ? a?o/eciyiee ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aeina?ae,
cie?aia ia iaoeiai-e?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy e aiae?c caeiiioai?/i? oa
ii?iioai?/i? ?iaioe ?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo noiniaii aaiaceno e
aaiethoe?? a?enueeiaeo /anoei niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, aecia/eoe
oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino?
e ci?oeiaiiy a oiiaao ?nioaaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? iniiae
aaiaceno, aaiethoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ca?ieieo
oi?ioaaiue. Iniaeeaei i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? aeaea?aeueia
aaca e ?noi?eei-i?aaiaa e?oa?aoo?a.

Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue aioo??oi? e i?eei?aeiii?
a?enueea ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia ioi?iiiiai e ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai
iaoai?cio aea?aeaae.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae c aa?aciy 1917?. — aei
/a?aiy 1941?. ?acii c oei o ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyiooi
iniiai? ?noi?eei-i?aaia? ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo i?aai?a ? i?ae?icae?e?a ?in?enueeiai oea?ecio e?ioey
O?O- ii/aoeo OO no., ui aeicaiey? aeeaoa c?icoi?oe i?aaiao i?e?iaeo
a?enuee niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? noai?thaaeeny e ae?yee a
ianooii? /ane.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? caaaeueiiiaoeiaee ae?aeaeoe/iee
iaoiae i?ciaiiy aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo i?ioean?a ? yaeu. O i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae canoiniaoaaeenue ?noi?e/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee,
nioe?ieia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee oa ?io? caaaeueiiiaoeia? e
niaoe?aeueii-iaoeia? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy iaoeiai? ?noeie.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee a?aeiia?aei? iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny a ?iaioao no/anieo o/aieo o aaeoc? oai???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, a oaeiae o?, ui ciaeoee ao?eaiiy a i?aoeyo
oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo-th?eno?a, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue i?iaeaie ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa: A.Ae.Aaae?ia, A.Ae.Aii/a?aiea, E.I.Caeoeaaa,
I.E.Eiieeaiea, A.N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, E.I.Iaeianeoeiaa, I.I.Ie?iiaiea,
E.E.Iioa?ee?ii?, A.E.?iaiaeeia, A.I.?oiyioeaaa, ?.I.Nao?iiiai?,
I.Ae.Nayoioeueeiai, I.I.No?aoiaa, A.E.Oeueea, ?.A.Onaiea, A.A.*aoiae/a,
I.I.Oaa/aiea, I.I.ss?ieoa. Aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa oaeiae oe?ieee niaeo?
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iie?oieia??.

??aaiue ? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? aioo??oi?o ? i?eei?aeiiieo
a?enuee a Oe?a?i? aecia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ia?aaeon?i noaiii
iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e c oe??? i?iaeaie.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c ?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo iiooe?a o eiioaeno?
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie iaaea? iiaeeeaino? i?ine?aeeoaaoe o?e iniiai?
aoaie – aei?aaiethoe?eiee, ?aaeyinueeee ? no/aniee. Eiaeiiio c ieo
i?eoaiaii? a?aeiia?aei? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene e iniaeeaino?. Cie?aia, aeey
ia?oiai – oea, aeania, a?aenooi?noue ?noi??ia?ao??, i?enay/aii?
aaciina?a?aeiuei ?icaeyaeoaaiei ieoaiiyi. Aeiyoie o oeueiio aeiaaeeo
noaiiaeyoue eeoa iaioa?e ?.O.Eiia?ianueeiai.

?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y iiaeaia cia/iei ianeaii i?aoeue ??ciiai
aeai?o. Ia aeaeue, iac??aeea ?i aeanoeaa ?aeaieia?/ia, eeaniaa
ni?yioaaiiy a aa/aii? ?icaeyaeoaaieo iiae?e. Iniaeea?noth oeueiai
ia??iaeo ? oa, ui cia/ia /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiue, ianaiia?aae iaoeiaeo,
i?ae a?eoii “oa?iii” aai “oe?eeii oa?iii” iaee cae?eoee oa?aeoa?. Oea
iiynithaaeiny iaaaaeaiiyi aeaaee aeiineoe ia oe?ieee caaae iaaaoeai?
oaeoe, iniaeeai o?, ui iia’ycai? c ca?iaeaeaiiyi oa ci?oeiaiiyi
oioae?oa?ecio, c o/anoth e ?ie? a oeueiio ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueieo i?aai?a,
?o ica?i?ieo /anoei oa i?ae?icae?e?a. Na?aae ieo iniaeeao oaaao
i?eaa?oathoue o?e oiie ca??ieea aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a i?ae
caaaeueiith iacaith “Ec enoi?ee niaaoneeo iia?aie/iuo aiene”, iecea
eieaeoeaieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?aoeue, ia?aaeon?i aeine?aeaeaiiy ?.
A. Aei?ioaiea ? A. O. Iae?aniaa.

Ii/aoie a?aee?eoeo ioae?eaoe?e c ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie aoei iieeaaeaii
o 20-30-o ?ieao. Caaaeueia ?o aaaea iieyaa? o a?aenooiino? aeeaiei?
aeaea?aeueii? aace, o ?o iie?oeciaaiino?. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui i?eei?aeiii? e
aioo??oi? a?enueea ?icaeyaeathoueny a ieo ye iaa?ae’?iia no?oeoo?ia
iaeeieoey Ia’?aeiaiiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oe/iiai oi?aae?iiy (IAeIO).
E?iaoeue 30-o oa 40-a? ?iee ia i?eianee aeiei??iiiai ia?aeiio o
aena?oeaii? ?noi?e/ieo ieoaiue, ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i ?noi?eei-i?aaia?
ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy /anoei ? i?ae?icae?e?a a?enuee niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy. Oea iiynithaaeinue ye ia’?eoeaieie ianoaaeiaie, ia?o ca ana
ai?iiei eeoie?ooyi, oae ? iineeaiiyi eoeueoo iniae, ianoaiiaeith i?aeic?
? ?ai?an?e. Aeineoue iaaaaeaoe, ui a aeaiee ia??iae, o ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo oey oaia ia ii?oooaaeany (aeiyoie neeaaeathoue
i?iiaaaiaeenonuee? iaoa??aee).

Acaaae? ae aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace ia eeoa c ?icaeyaeoaaii? oaie, a
e o oe?eiio uiaei ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ae?yeueiino?
ioi?iiii-ea?aeueii? nenoaie, o ia?oo /a?ao c oi/ee ci?o
aea?aeaaii-th?eaee/ieo aniaeo?a, i?e iayaiino? aaee/acii? e?eueeino?
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, na?ae/eoue i?i iaaecae/aeii iaaeinoaoith iaoeiao
?ic?iaeo aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ocaaaeueiai? i?aoe? c
?noi??? a?enuee A*E–IAeIO–IEAN aoee ii?eethaeiaii? eeoa iai?ee?ioe?
50-60-o ?ie?a. *a?ac aeanyoee ?ie?a i?ney ?o iiyae aoee caoeuai? e ia?o?
aeena?oaoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy. C /anii c’yaeeeny iiiia?ao?/i? e
aeo?iaeuei? ioae?eaoe?? ?.?.Iao?iaa, I.?.Niaeiaiai, A.Ae. Oa?aioue?aa,
A.Nooeiaa, E. I.Iaeianeoeiaa, A.E.?iaiaeeia, A.A.Noaoena,
TH.E.No?eaeeiaa, I.?.Oeeio?aiea oa ?i.

Oeaio?aeueiith iiae??th aeaiiai ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aoaio noaea
ioae?eaoe?y a?aee?eoeo ca??iee?a aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a i?i aeieeiaiiy
oa ae?yeuei?noue i?eei?aeiiieo ? aioo??oi?o a?enuee. Onueiai aoei
iioae?eiaaii a?aeiia?aeii i’youe ? o?e ca??ieee. Aacia?a/iei iiceoeaii
oeeo i?aoeue ? iayai?noue o eiaei?e ?c ieo aeiiii?aeiiai aeia?aeeiaiai
iaoa??aeo, ?iaiieo aeac?aiee?a, o oe?eiio aeaaaeaieo ia?aaeiia oa
aeniiae?a. ?acii c oei i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ?o
?aeaieia?/ii–i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ni?yioaaiiy, a?aenooi?noue e?eoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a, aoee “caaoo?” iaaaaeai? ?iaia oiui. O ieo iaeaea a?aenooi?
aeieoiaioe uiaei aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? oa ii?iaoeaii? aace iiyae e
?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe?? a?enuee, ?o iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiai? ae?yeueiino? oa
?i.

C’yaeythoueny c /anii ? eieae iaoeiaiai oa iaoeiai-iiioey?iiai aeai?o.
Aieiaia ?o aaaea – iaiaaeaia aaaaeaiiy aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iiaeo
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, iae?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei iayaieo. Iaoeiaa
e?oa?aoo?a c ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie 80-o ?ie?a i?/ei ia caiai’yoaeany.

Aiae?coth/e a oe?eiio noai ?ic?iaee ?aaeyinueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, o?aaa caa?iooe oaaao uiiaeiaioa ia aeae?eueea
oa?aeoa?ieo ?en. Iaeaieiai?oith c ieo ? oa, ui ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie, cie?aia ca o/anoth niaoe?aeueieo /anoei ?
i?ae?icae?e?a, o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ciaeoei iaaia a?aeaeooy. Iaeiae oea
noinoaaeiny eeoa ia??iaeo ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Ui ae aei i?ioean?a ?
iiae?e aeiae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, oi aiie acaaae? ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue. Aei oiai ae, i?e ?icaeyae? oiai /e ?ioiai ieoaiiy
iniiaia oaaaa cina?aaeaeoaaeany eeoa ia caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo aniaeoao.
Aea?aeaaii-i?aaia? aniaeoe ia ?icaeyaeaeeny aai ae aena?oethaaeeny eeoa
/a?ac i?ecio ae?yeueiino? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? oa ?? ina?aaee?a ia
i?noeyo. ?ioith, ia iaio aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth ? oie oaeo, ui
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ae?yeuei?noue ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a oe?a?inueeeo
niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo nee ia aea/aeeny acaaae? aai a e?auiio
aeiaaeeo

oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae iiaeaaaany ia caaaeueiinithciiio ?noi?e/iiio oii? ye
i?eeeaae ?o aaiaceno e aaiethoe??.

sse?nii iiaee noai ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie niinoa??aa?oueny ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?noi?e/ieo ? i?aaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Iiaa/eea na?o ? iecea
ioae?eaoe?e, ui o?aaiaioa?ii noinothoueny oaie aeena?oaoe??. Oea
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? e eieaeoeai? iiiia?ao??, ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a, noaoo?, aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeiee?a TH. ?. Oaiiaaea, ?.A.
A?eana, A.N. N?aeaea, ?.N.Ioeoea?aa, A. O. Iae?aniaa, A.N.*aeeianueeiai,
I.A.Ua?aaea, I.A.Oeiiuoea, I.I.Aaiaeo?ee oa ?i. Oe? i?aoe?
ia??aiicia/i?. sseui a ie?aieo c ieo iiaea?oueny eeoa iaaiee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, oi a ?ioeo, cie?aia o aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.N.N?aeaea,
A.O.Iae?aniaa, I.A.Oeiiuoea, ?icaeyaeathoueny a?aeiia?aei? aoaie
aoae?aieoeoaa e ae?yeueiino? ioi?iiieo ? ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueieo i?aai?a
oa ?o a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aecia/eoe i?aaiaee
noai inoaii?o, aeaoe iaoeiaee aiae?c ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

O oe?eiio ae ?noi??ia?ao?y uiaei aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie na?ae/eoue
i?i a?aenooi?noue ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoe?, ui noino?oueny ianaiia?aae
?noi?eei-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? o ?icaeyaeoaaiee
ia??iae ye a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie acaaae?, oae ? iaeiiai c ??
neeaaeiee?a – i?ae?icae?e?a niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoa??aee aeieoiaioaeueieo
oiiae?a, a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a?o?a?a, cie?aia ?in?enueeiai oeaio?o
caa??aaiiy e aea/aiiy aeieoiaio?a iia?oiuei? ?noi???, ?in?enueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ai?iiiai a?o?ao, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, a?o?ao IAN Oe?a?ie, a?o?ao Aioo??oi?o a?enuee IAN
Oe?a?ie, a?o?a?a Aieiaieo oi?aae?iue IAN Oe?a?ie a Oa?e?anuee?e oa
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeanoyo.

Cia/io a?oio aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae ia?oiaeaea?aea, ii?eethaeiaii? i?ioyaii inoaii?o
aeaio noie?oue. Na?aae ieo – “Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee
n 1649 aiaea”, “Naiae caeiiia 1857 aiaea”, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe aeiae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? (“A?no? c Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee”,
“A?niee Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo OI?”, “Aea?aeaaiee a?niee”),
caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? e a?aeii/? caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe
(iieiaeaiiy, ?ino?oeoe??) ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo (“Nuacaeu Niaaoia a
aeieoiaioao 1917-1936aa.”, “Nia?aiea ocaeiiaiee e ?anii?yaeaiee
?aai/a-E?anoueyineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu”, “Ia caueoa ?aaiethoeee.
Ec enoi?ee Anaoe?aeineie /?acau/aeiie eiiennee 1917-1922 aa.”) oa ?i.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aeaii? ?iaioe iineoaeeee caaaeai?
a?aee?eo? e iniaeeai cae?eo? ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a, i?enay/ai?
aaciina?aaeiuei i?eei?aeiiiei ? aioo??oi?i a?enueeai, iaoa??aee, ui
i?noyoueny a aeo?iaeao oa ia??iaeeoe?. I?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?aoe? iaaiei
/eiii aeei?enoai? e oaeoe/i? aeai?, ui iathoue i?noea a aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ii nii??aeiaieo oaiao.

Iayai?noue oeacaieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae iaaeaea ciiao ?icaeyiooe a
?noi?eei-th?eaee/iiio aniaeo? aecia/aio oaio, i?iaiae?coaaoe
a?aeiia?aeio ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco, aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee e
canaaee noai?aiiy e ooieoe?iioaaiiy niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue, aeaoe ?o ae?yeueiino? ?noi?eei-i?aaiao ioe?ieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? ia?o ca ana a oiio, ui aeena?oaoe?y ?
ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?eei-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo?? eiiieaeniei
iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?aai?caoe?? oa ae?yeueiino? aioo??oi?o ?
i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee, ye? ooieoe?iioaaee a Oe?a?i? o?eaaeee /an
(e?iaoeue O?O no. – 1941 ?.), ? ia?aaeaa/a? aeaa iai?yiee –
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iee ? eiie?aoii-th?eaee/iee. Caaaeueiioai?aoe/ia
iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? – a oiio, ui a i?e oia?oa a
?noi?eei-i?aaia?e ?ao?iniaeoea? ?icaeyaeathoueny ia eeoa aaiacen oa
aaiethoe?y a Oe?a?i? a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy,
aea e aecia/athoueny ?ieue ? i?noea inoaii?o a oiiaao a?aeiia?aeiiai
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio, i?ine?aeeiao?oueny iaoai?ci aeei?enoaiiy
?o aeaaeith a ci?oeiaii? aea?aeaaieo onoi?a, aiae?co?oueny iaaaciaea
ia?aoai?aiiy ia cia?yaeaey ?ai?an?e ? ianeeuenoaa; eiie?aoii-th?eaee/ia
(i?eeeaaeia) – a iaiaaaii? cae?enieoe e?eoe/iee aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa e
a?aeii/eo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a iacaaiiai ia??iaeo uiaei ?icaeyaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, aeyaeoe caeiiii??io caeaaei?noue iiyae, ?icaeoeo e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo neeiaeo no?oeoo? oa ?o a?enueeiaeo nee, a
oaeiae aeaoe ?i ?noi?eei-i?aaiao ioe?ieo. Anaa?/ia aeei?enoaiiy
a?o?aiiai iaoa??aeo, cia/ia /anoeia yeiai aia?oa aaiaeeoueny a iaoeiaee
ia?a, oaeiae iaaea? iiaecie aeaiee iaoeia?e i?aoe?.

Iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeco?oueny o iecoe?
i?aenoieiaeo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy, aaiethoe?y oa i?aaiaa iiea ae?yeueiino?
aeaiaea?inueei-iie?oeaenueeeo nee ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a Oe?a?i?
?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo a?aeaoaaeeny a o?niiio ca’yceo ?c ci?iaie ??
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai eaaeo, iie?oe/ii? e aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
e?a?i?. Ci?oeiaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa aaa/aeiny o ia?iuoaaii? e iineeaii?
ea?aeueii-?ai?aneaii? nenoaie, iniiaieie aeaiaioaie yei? aoee aeu?,
oeaio?aeuei? e i?noeaa? aea?aeaai? onoaiiae oa ?o aeeiiaa/? aia?aoe. sse
ia iaa?ae’?iio /anoeio neeiaeo no?oeoo? ia niaoe?aeuei? ca?iei?
oi?ioaaiiy iieeaaeaeiny aeeiiaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo caaaeaiue, ui
ia?aaeaa/aeenue ioi?iiii-ea?aeueiith iie?oeeith iiia?o??.
A?enueeiai-ioi?iiia nenoaia ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia
oa?aiao Oe?a?ie ca o/anoth niaoe?aeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a oa ?o
??ciiaeae?a, aoea ni?yiiaaia ianaiia?aae ia ci?oeiaiiy
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, e?ea?aeaoe?th aai ae i?eaeooaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, caaacia/aiiy a aea?aeaa? «ii?yaeeo e
niieith». TH?eaee/ii-i?aaiaith iniiaith ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoee caeiie
?iia???, a oaeiae a?aeii/? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeieoiaioe.

2. Ia ii/aoeo ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e a Oe?a?i? (1917-1920??.), ?acii c
?ioeie aea?aeaaioai?/eie caoiaeaie niinoa??aaeiny iaiaaaiiy noai?eoe e
iaeaaiaeeoe iaoe?iiaeueio i?aaiioi?iiio nenoaio. A?aenooi?noue aeanii?
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, iaiine?aeiai?noue, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ?aii?oaaiiy
?ie? e i?noey ca?ieieo nee, cie?aia a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, noaei iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo i?e/ei ao?aoe
aeaaee Oe?a?inueeith Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith.

3.O ia??iae Aaoueiaiaoo e Aee?aeoi??? neooaoe?y aeaui ci?ith?oueny.
Nie?ath/enue ia aeina?ae ? i?aaiaa iiea ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa,
aaoueiai I. Nei?iiaaenueeee, a caiaeii ? eiai iie?oe/i? iiiiaioe
cae?eniththoue e?iee ii ?aoi?ioaaiith aeanieo ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo
i?aai?a oa ?o a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue. Iaeiae ooo/ia ia?aianaiiy ia
iaoe?iiaeueiee a?oio ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai iaoai?cio
?iia???, ?aii?oaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, ca?ieia i?ioenoiyiiy
?ioa?an?a ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee o ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo, ?o iaiaaaiiy
caeo/eoe ia na?e a?e ?iicaii? a?enueea, iineeaiiy ?ai?an?e, ?io?
ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? /eiieee i?ecaaee aei iaae?iiy aaoueiainueeiai
?aaeeio, a caiaeii ? Aee?aeoi???.

4.I?e oi?ioaaii? niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a ? a?enueeiaeo nee ?aaeyinueeee
o?yae Oe?a?ie oe?iei aeei?enoaa ia eeoa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco e
aeina?ae ?aaeyinueei? ?in??, aea ? ?? iaoa??aeuei? oa ethaenuee?
?aca?ae. I?ioyaii 1918-1922??. a Oe?a?i? e??i ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo /anoei
oa ?o i?ae?icae?e?a ooieoe?iiothoue e ?io? ai?i?ciaai? oi?ioaaiiy
?ai?aneaiiai oeio (*II, i?iaecaaiie oa ?i.). ?o ae?yeuei?noue iac??aeea
aoea cina?aaeaeaia ia ia «aoea? caeiio», a ia «iio?aaao i?ieaoa?nueei?
aeeeoaoo?e»,»caeii? iaiao?aeiino?», ui i?ecaiaeeei aei aace?/? ii?ooaiue
caeiiiino?, ianeeuenoaa oa ?ai?an?e. O oeae ia??iae niinoa??aa?oueny e
iaaia aaoiiii?y aea?aeaaieo aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie a cae?eniaii?
ea??aieoeoaa i?aaiioi?iiiith oa ea?aeueiith nenoaiith, cie?aia /anoeiaie
e i?ae?icae?eaie niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui iaea?aeaee iacao
«a?enueea AeIO». Ia ieo ca?aeii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii aoee iieeaaeai?
ye aioo??oi? oae ? ciai?oi? ooieoe??, cie?aia ioi?iia aea?aeaaieo
ei?aeii?a. Inoaii? iaaeaei ciiao cae??ieoe ca ieie io?oe?eio iacao
«aioo??oi?, i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea».

5. I?ney ooai?aiiy N?N? ? aei /a?aiy 1941?. aioo??oi? e i?eei?aeiii?
a?enueea, cie?aia a Oe?a?i?, i?ieoee neeaaeiee aaiethoe?eiee oeyo. O
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo aiie noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Ca?ieieo nee
N?N?. Oeae, a oaeiae ?io? /eiieee (ca o/anoth IEAN N?N?) iaoiiaeee ?o
iiaia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oeaio?o. A?aeiia?aeii aei oa?aeoa?o neoaeaiai?
ae?yeueiino? cae??ieththoueny e aeaee aioo??oi?o a?enuee – eiiaiei?,
iia?aoeai? e ioi?iii?.

6. O 30-o? ?iee i?ae?icae?ee aea?aeaaii? aaciaee oaeoe/ii aeeoee c-i?ae
eiio?ieth aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee e oi?aae?iiy, ia?aoai?eeeny
ia cae?eoo nenoaio, aoee iaae?eai? ooieoe?yie iicanoaeiaiai ea?aeueiiai
i?aaio, ui iineoaoaaei iaei??th c ia?aaeoiia aeey i?iaaaeaiiy,
ianaiia?aae a Oe?a?i?, oe?ieiianooaaieo ?ai?an?e. A iniia? ae?yeueiino?
a?enuee IEAN eaaeaei aeeiiaiiy ieie aioo??oiuei-iie?oeaenueeeo
caaaeaiue. Aieiai? iai?yiee ?o neoaeaiai-iia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? – oea
o/anoue o ?ai?aneaieo caoiaeao; eiiaithaaiiy a?aooiaaieo, canoaeaeaieo;
ioi?iia i?noeue a?aeaoooy iiea?aiue, iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo i?iieneiaeo oa
iai?iiieo ia’?eo?a oiui.

7. Cae?enithth/e ioi?iio aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a, i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea,
?acii c aioo??oi?ie oaeiae iac??aeea caeo/aeeny aei aeeiiaiiy
?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueieo caoiae?a, iniaeeai o i?eei?aeiii?e nioc?. O
aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii ocaaaeueithth/ee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui cacia/ai?
oa ?io? oaeoe na?ae/aoue i?i iaaeiionoei?noue aoaeoaaoe i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? aaciaee oa ?o a?enueeia? oi?ioaaiiy ia ?aeaieia?/ieo /e
iie?oe/ieo canaaeao. C o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueieo iio?aa caaacia/aiiy
aea?aeaaii? aaciaee aiie iathoue ae?yoe eeoa ia i?aaiaeo canaaeao.

Oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaa/athoueny
a oiio, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a iueiio aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue
aooe a?aoiaai? a ?iaio? c iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ae?yeueiino? a?enuee niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ui ooieoe?iiothoue o nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio
no/anii? Oe?a?ie. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe, oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe oaeiae o i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue ?c oai??? oa ?noi??? aea?aeaae oa i?aaa, ?noi??? i?aaiioi?iiieo
? ea?aeueieo i?aai?a, o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a
“?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie”, “Noaeia? ? i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie”,
“?noi??y i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa”.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeena?oaoe??
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiia?aeyo ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa Oe?a?ie ? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, o aenooiao ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Ee?a (1998?.), N?ioa?iiieue (1999?.)).
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oanoe iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a
(oanoe i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? –155 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia?aoiao?
a?ey 137 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 50% a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O anooi? ?ice?eaathoueny aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aii ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? eiai iaoa e iniiai? caaaeaiiy, aena?oeththoueny
iaoiaeieia?/i? e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaoeiaa
iiaecia, iaea?eueo nooo?a? e iia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, a
oaeiae oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ai?iaaoe?y,
?aae?caoe?y e ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca’ycie ?iaioe c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie e iaa/aeueieie ieaiaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Aaiacen oa aaiethoe?y /anoei ? i?ae?icae?e?a
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy (e?iaoeue O?O no. – ii/aoie OO no.)”
?ice?eaathoueny ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy, aeeiai?ea e iniiai?
aoaie ?icaeoeo e ae?yeueiino? niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue o
cacia/aiee ia??iae, cie?aia, ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii?
nenoaie oea?ecio a Oe?a?i? aei aa?aciy 1917 ?., i?aaiaee noai ?
ae?yeuei?noue niaoe?aeueieo oa ioi?iiieo i?ae?icae?e?a aeiae
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae e Aee?aeoi???,
aecia/athoueny ?ieue ? i?noea aioo??oi?o, i?eei?aeiiieo /anoei, ?ioeo
niaoe?aeueieo ai?i?ciaaieo oi?ioaaiue ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie aei ooai?aiiy
N?N? (a?oaeaiue 1922?.).

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia ?aoi?ie 60-70-o
?ie?a O?O no. (aaaaeaiiy a aea?aeaaiee ono??e ?in?enueei? ?iia???
aeayeeo aeaiaio?a aeaiie?ao?? – noai?aiiy cainueeeo oa i?nueeeo i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy iniia ao?aeoaciiai noaeiono?ith oa
noaei/einoaa, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio ananoaiiaino? a eiiieaeooaaii?
a?i?? oiui), e?a?ia caeeoaeany naiiaea?aeaaiith iiia?o??th, yea
nie?a?oueny ia aaee/acio a?i?th, iie?oe?th oa ath?ie?aoe/iee aia?ao.

Iniiaia aioo??oiy ooieoe?y oea?aoo iieyaaea a caoeno? i?aeaaeei
?nioth/iai aaoi?eoa?iiai iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio oa i?eaeooaii? aecaieueiiai
?ooo, iniaeeai a Oe?a?i?. Oea coiiaeei iineeaiiy ?ai?aneaii? iie?oeee
naiiaea?aeaanoaa ca o/anoth ianaiia?aae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oeaenueeiai
aia?aoo. Ia iaio aaaeeeaith aoea e ?ioa ooieoe?y – caoiieaiiy /oaeeo
oa?eoi??e, ioi?iia aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a.

Oeaio?aeueia ?ieue o aeeiiaii? oeeo caaaeaiue a?aeaiaeeeany caaaeuei?e
iie?oe??, Ie?aiiio ei?iono aeaiaea?i?a, Ei?iono aioo??oiuei? aa?oe,
Ie?aiiio i?eei?aeiiiiio ei?iono, eiiaieiei eiiaiaeai, ?ioei
niaoe?aeueiei /anoeiai ? i?ae?icae?eai. Caa?aaeaiiy a e?a?i?
oaiaeaeueieo ia?aaeeoe?a coiiaethaaei ia eeoa noia?a/iino? o aioo??oi?e
iie?oeoe? oea?ecio, aea e noai?thaaei iiaeeea?noue ia?aoiaeo aei
?aaeoe??, ui a?ae/oeiny iai?ee?ioe? O?O no., eiee o?yae cae?eniea ieceo
caoiae?a, ye? cia/iith i??ith iiaa?ioee a ?in?? aei?aoi?iai? ii?yaeee.
A iane?aeie oeueiai aeaeici?ithaaeiny e i?aai?caoe?eia oii?yaeeoaaiiy
oeaio?aeueieo onoaiia, ianaiia?aae IAN, eiai aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a ?
niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue ia i?noeyo. O ieo aoea anoaiiaeaia
iaaecae/aeii aei?noea oeaio?ae?caoe?y ?icii?yae/i? e aeeiiaanueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeai yne?aaee i?iya oea ciaeoei a Oe?a?i?.

A?aei?oiith ?enith ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie oea?ecio
a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo OO no. aoei cia/ii oe?oa i?ae aoaeue-aea caeo/aiiy
?aaoey?ieo a?enuee aeey i?eaeooaiiy aenooi?a ia?iaeieo ian. O oeae
ia??iae o caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo cae?eniththoueny caoiaee, ni?yiiaai?
ia ci?oeiaiiy i?aai?a iie?oe??, niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo nee oaeaeeiai
?aaaoaaiiy. Iniaeeai oe?iei oea i?iyaeeiny i?ney 19 na?iiy 1906 ?.,
eiee ca?aeii c no. 87 “Iniiaiiai caeiio ?in?enueei? ?iia???” c’yaeany
oeac Ieeiee ?? i?i a?enueeiai-iieueia? noaee. ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiee
aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci ?iia??? eeoa ca 1903-1912??. eeoea aeeooy 135 oen.
ethaeae, ui ao?e/? a?eueoa, i?ae aoei cieuaii ca /an?a oea?thaaiiy
/ioe?ueio iiia?aaeiee?a inoaiiueiai naiiaea?aeaaoey i?ioyaii iaeaea
noie?ooy (1810-1894??.). O oth?iao, ia eaoi?c? aei 1917?. oiieeeny
iiiaae 1,2 iei. /ie.,1 a?eueoo /anoeio yeeo neeaaeaee iie?oe/i? a’yci?.

O aeiao Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ?acii ?c iaiaaaiiyi canioaaoe ?aaoey?io
a?i?th aaeeaathoueny iaai? e?iee uiaei noai?aiiy i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aaciaee e aioo??oi?o ni?aa, ?o a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a. Iiyaa inoaii?o
aeeeooaaeany iio?aaith ?icaoaeiae iiaiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
ooai?aiiy, iaiao?aei?noth caoenoo eiai a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ioi?iie a?iiaaenueeiai ii?yaeeo e niieith.

Aei ea?oiy 1918?. ca o/anoth Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee (Oe?) e o?yaeo c oe??th
iaoith aoei aaeeoi ieceo caoiae?a, ye? iaeiae, aoee iaiine?aeiaieie e
iaeiaoaeoeaieie. Aiae?c caeiiioai?/i? e ii?iioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
caeiiiaeaa/iai e aeeiiaa/iai i?aai?a na?ae/eoue, ui ?acii c ?ioeie
iaaeie?eaie o ieo aoei a?aenooi? /?oea oyaeaiiy i?i noaoon, ooieoe??,
eiiiaoaioe?th, no?aoaa?th e oaeoeeo ae?e neeiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? aaaaoi a
/iio iaee aecia/aoe i?oei?noue aea?aeaae, iaae?eia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a. Aieiaia oaaaa aoea cina?aaeaeaia ia noai?aii?
Ca?ieieo Nee, a uiaei ieoaiiy niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a ? a?enueeiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a caeeoeeiny iaae??oaiei. Oea noaei iaei??th c i?e/ei ao?aoe
Oe? na?aae ia?iaeieo ian nii/aoeo iiioey?iino? e aieeao, a caiaeii ?
aeaaee. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany a?oaei ao?o/aiiyi o aioo??oi? ni?aae
OI? ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee oa ?o i?aai?a, iiyaith a Oe?a?i? ??cieo ca
iie?oe/iei ni?yioaaiiyi nee ? ?o ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue, e?ei?iaeueieo
oa?oiiaaiue oiui.

Iaaeineiiae?noue, a a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ? a?aenooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueii?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace a ai?iouea? c oeeie yaeuaie ii?iaeaeoaaee
anaaeicaieai?noue, oain ? aia?o?th.

29 ea?oiy 1918 ?. aiane?aeie a?enueeiaiai ia?aai?ioo uieii noai?aio
Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao i/ieea I. Nei?iiaaenueeee. Aaoueiai acya ia naaa
anth iiaiioo aeaaee, ia?aoai?eaoenue oei naiei ia aa?oiaio
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiao ?inoaioe?th. Ii??aiyii c ia??iaeii Oe?
aaoueiainueeiio i?aae?iith a ieoaii? noai?aiiy i?aaiioi?iiieo ?
ea?aeueieo i?aai?a aoee i?eoaiaii? oae? a?aei?oi? ?ene:

–oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ?in?enueei? ?iia??? c
iaeii/aniei iai?aoethaaiiyi aeanieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a;

–oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean eaae?iaiai e iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy niaoe?aeueieo oi?ioaaiue, anaa?/ia iaa/aiiy ?o iniaiaiai
neeaaeo;

–caeo/aiiy aei o/ano? a ?iaio? niaoei?aai?a ? ?o i?ae?icae?e?a oao?aoe?a
oea?nueeiai ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai aia?aoo.

Iiceoeaio ?ieue o ae??oaii? oe??? i?iaeaie a?ae?a?aee e iniaeno? yeino?
aaoueiaia, cie?aia a?enueeiaee aeina?ae, ?icoi?iiy aaaeeeaino? ?ie? e
i?noey ioi?iiii-ea?aeueiiai iaoai?cio a aea?aeaa?. Na?e aianie o ni?aao
ci?oeiaiiy niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a ? i?ae?icae?e?a aaoueiainueeiai ?aaeeio
c?iaeee i?iaoeueei-aano??enuee? a?enueea, cie?aia, o caaacia/aii?
ca?i?th, iaeyaii, nii?yaeaeaiiyi oiui. Iniiaieie neeaie
a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? no?oeoo?e Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae I.
Nei?iiaaenueeiai aoee Aea?aeaaia aa?oa, Iniaeeaee a?aeae?e, iniaenoa
ioi?iia, aa?oa aaoueiaia, Iniaeeaee ei?ion, iia?oia? ioi?iii?
eiiaiaeaionuee? nioi? oa ?i.

Oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ca?ieieo nee i?e i?aeo?eioe?
ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee aaoueiainueeee ?aaeei ciaeoia ianaiia?aae o
i?eaeooaii? aenooi?a ia?iaeieo ian. O noai?aii? aeanii? niaoeneoaeae –
Iniaeeaiai a?aeae?eo, yeiio aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai? an? ?io? neeia?
no?oeoo?e, yne?aai i?iyaeany aaoi?eoa?iee oa?aeoa? I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai,
eiai aaaeaiiy ca aoaeue-yeo oe?io ao?eiaoeny i?e aeaae?.

Aioeaaoueiainuee? iianoaiiy i?ioyaii e?oa — inai? 1918?. caaa?oeeeny 14
a?oaeiy 1918?. c?a/aiiyi I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai e acyooyi aeaaee
Aee?aeoi???th. Aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci aaoueiaiueie, cie?aia ??
?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueio e i?aaiioi?iiio nenoaio, aoei c?oeiiaaii. Ii?yae c
?ioeie caoiaeaie, ui cae?enithaaeeny Aee?aeoi???th oa ?? o?yaeii
(?aaeith I?i?no??a) c iaoith ci?oeiaiiy aeaaee, i?iaeaia ?icaoaeiae
neeiaeo a?aeiinoa aoea iaei??th c iaaaeueieo. Iaeiae, oi/a ca /an
?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? 1918-1920 ??. ia??iae
ciaoiaeaeaiiy a ?oeao aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? aoa iaeo?eaae?oei, iath aoee
aeiiouai? aiaeia?/i? iiieeee. A oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino? iniiai? iaae?? a
ai?iouea? c iie?oe/iei aeno?ai?ciii ? ea?iith cei/eii?noth Aee?aeoi??y
iieeaaeaea ia IAN, cie?aia, ia Iie?oe/iee aeaia?oaiaio oa iie?oe/i?
a?aeae?ee i?e aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo eii?na?ao, a oaeiae ia Ei?ion
ioi?iie, yeee caiaeii iaea?aeaa iacao “E?o ioi?iie ?anioae?eainueeiai
eaaeo”. O caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo Iie?oe/iee aeaia?oaiaio ? eiai
no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee ia aoee ioi?ieai?, a ae?yee ia i?aenoaa?
i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a, a?aeii/eo oee?eoey??a oa ?ino?oeoe?e. E??i
ioi?iiieo, ia ieo iieeaaeaeeny ne?ae/? e ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeuei? ooieoe??,
cie?aia, i?ae /an i?eaeooaiiy ca?ieieo aenooi?a. ?ioith iniaeea?noth
a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie aeiae Aee?aeoi??? noaei caeo/aiiy
niaoei?ae?icae?e?a ?aaoey?ieo a?enueeiaeo /anoei, ye? iaee oe?ie?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy. Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaith iniiaith ?o ae?yeueiino? noaee
“Iooo?iaee noaooo aeey i?oioe”, “Noaooo aioo??oiuei? neoaeae” oa “Noaooo
caeiaiai? neoaeae”. Aei ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue Aee?aeoi??? iaeaaeaee e
i?ae?icae?ee iieueiai? ?ica?aeee ei?iono N?/iaeo no??eueoe?a,
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ath?i i?e ei?ion? a?enueeiai? aeaiaea?ia???, caaiie
iieueiai? oa cai?eueii? aeaiaea?ia???. ?acii c a?enueeiaeie ia ieo
iac??aeea iieeaaeaeeny e ioi?iii? oa aeaiaea?inueei-iie?oeaenuee?
caaaeaiiy. O oeae ia??iae cia/ii aeoeai?oa i?ioiaeeoue iai?aoethaaiiy
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace aeey noai?aiiy a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii? nenoaie e
aea?aeaaii? aaciaee iiiaeaii? OI?.

Iaeiae o a?eueoino? aenooi?a oaeeaai? caoiaee cae?enithaaeeny aac
eii?aeeiaoe?? ?iaioe ia ??ai? aeueo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. Oea i?ecaiaeeei
aei aeoaethaaiiy e ia?aeae?cio ae?yeueiino? uieii noai?aieo i?aai?a ?
i?ae?icae?e?a, ao?o/aiiy o ooieoe?? e iaia’ycee iaeei iaeiiai.
Niinoa??aa?oueny iineeaiiy ?ie? e i?noey IAN. sseui ca aeiae Oe? ?
Aaoueiaiaoo oey aea?aeaaii-aeeiiaa/a no?oeoo?a, cae?enithth/e
ae?oai?yaei? ooieoe??, aoea iii?iaeueiith, oi oaia? neooaoe?y iii?oii
ci?ith?oueny ianaiia?aae oeyoii th?eaee/iiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?e
ea?aeueii-?ai?aneaieo ? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, a na?aae ieo ?
niaoe?aeueieo ca?ieieo /anoei.

Caeiiiaeaa/o aaco noai?aiiy a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a
? a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue aoei iieeaaeaii 27 a?oaeiy 1918?., eiee,
iie?ath/enue ia i?aaiaa iiea ??ON?, o neeaae? IEAN ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith
o?yaeo aoei noai?aii Anaoe?a?inueeo Iaaecae/aeio eii?n?th (AOIE), aei
ooieoe?e yei? aoiaeeea ai?ioueaa c eiio??aaiethoe??th, niaeoeyoe??th,
aaiaeeoeciii, neoaeaiaeie cei/eiaie oiui. IE cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny oaeiae o
aoaa?i?yo, iia?oao.

Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaei i?aea?oioyi iiyae a?enuee AOIE, ye? i?ci?oa
iaea?aeaee iacao aioo??oi?o, iineoaeea aeina?ae Ana?in?enueei? IE (AIE).
5 n?/iy 1919 ?. I?aceae?y AOIE ooaaeeea ??oaiiy i?i oi?ioaaiiy
aeaniiai Iniaeeaiai ei?iono a?enuee (IEA) AOIE. Aei eiai neeaaeo aa?eoee
o?e iieee ? 14 caaaeaieo no??eaoeueeeo aaoaeueeii?a, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue o
?icii?yaeaeaii? aoaa?inueeeo ? iia?oiaeo IE. I?ioyaii 1918-1920??.
oi?ioaaeeny ie?ai? niaoe?aeuei? i?ae?icae?ee ii ioi?ii? cae?cieoeue,
aiaeiiai e cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, oeyo?a niieo/aiiy, noiaeu, neeaae?a
oiui. O oeae aea /an oi?ioaaany ??ciiaeae ioi?iiii? neoaeae – eiiaieia
aa?oa, yea o aa?ani? 1922?. noaea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a?enuee AeIO.
Caaaeai? e ?io? niaoe?aeuei? a?enueeia? (iai?aa?enueeia?) oi?ioaaiiy
ciaoiaeeeenue o i?aeii?yaeeoaaii? ??cieo aea?aeaaieo a?aeiinoa, ui
aeeeeeaei aace?/ i?iaeai ? iaii?icoi?iue, nooo?ai iia??ooaaei
aoaeoeai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy, i?ecaiaeeei aei aeoaethaaiiy
ae?yeueiino?, ciaiooaaei a?enueeiao aeo/eo e aioiai?noue. O a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a i?aaiaith i?aenoaaeth ?o iiyae e ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoee eeoa
i?aecaeiii? aeoe.

28 o?aaiy 1919?. ?aaea I?aoe? e Iai?iie (?II) ??ON? ooaaeeea iinoaiiao
i?i ia’?aeiaiiy niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue o a?enueea
aioo??oiuei? ioi?iie ?anioae?ee (AAI?) IEAN. Iinoaiiaa iaaoea /eiiino? e
ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. O ?icii?yaeaeaii? Ia?eiiaoo a?enueeiaeo ni?aa
(IAN) caeeoeeeny eeoa /anoeie e i?ae?icae?ee ii ioi?ii? cae?cieoeue,
i?eei?aeiiii? oa ioi?iiii? aa?oe.

Ia oa?eoi??? ON??, ye ? ??ON?, yea ni?aiaaeaea c ei?aeiiaie a?enueeiaeo
ie?oa?a, noai?thaaeeny naeoi?e AAI?. ?o e?euee?noue ia aoea iino?eiith e
ci?ithaaeany caeaaeii a?ae a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ianoaiiaee. Cie?aia, a
?aeiiao Oe?a?ie, i?aeeiio?ieueieo ?aaeyinuee?e aeaae?, i?ioyaii
1919-1920??. aoei noai?aii Ee?anueeee ? Oa?e?anueeee naeoi?e a?enuee
aioo??oiuei? ioi?iie1. Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi AAI? (ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith
?II “I?i a?enueea aioo??oiuei? ioi?iie ?anioae?ee” a?ae 21.04.1920?.)
aoea: ioi?iia: a) aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo (oeyoii ca?ieii? ai?ioueae c
eiio??aaiethoe?eieie aenooiaie); a) aaaeeeaeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa
onoaiia, i?iieneiaeo, o?ainii?oieo ? aiaeieo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy oa ?o
nii?oae; a)ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueeeo aaioaae?a; a) i?iieneiaeo ?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oiui. Aei na?aaeeie 1920?. o
neeaae? AAI? Oe?a?inueeiai naeoi?a (ooaa eiai ciaoiaeeany o Oa?eia?)
ia?aoiaoaaeiny 10 a?eaaae. Iai?ee?ioe? ?ieo /enaeuei?noue a?enuee
noaiiaeea 50 oen. /ie. Ie??i i?oioe, a no?oeoo?? AAI? aoee
eaaaea??enuee? i?ae?icae?ee, a?iiaaaoiiia?e? e iaa?oue e?oaee.

Aeey i?eaeooaiiy iianoaiue ? caeieio?a oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iieueia?
a?enueea. Eeoa i?ioyaii 1921-1922 ??. i?aaiaie AOIE-AeIO
Oe?a?ie ca ?o o/anoth aoei e?ea?aeiaaii 89 aaeeeeo iie?oe/ieo ?
aaiaeeonueeee oa?oiiaaiue caaaeueiei /eneii 56 oen./ie. *enaeuei?noue
a?enuee aioo??oiuei? ioi?iie aei na?aaeeie 1921?. c?inea aei 80 oen.
iniaiaiai neeaaeo.

Ia?oiai aa?aniy 1920?. ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith ?II AAI? iaea?aeaee iiao
iacao – a?enueea aioo??oiuei? neoaeae ?anioae?ee (AAION). E??i a?enueea
AAI? aei ?o neeaaeo aa?eoee niaoe?aeuei? /anoeie e i?ae?icae?ee ?ioeo
a?aeiinoa. Oi?ioaaiiy AAION cae?enithaaeiny ca oeiiaeie ooaoaie *a?aiii?
A?i??: aeea?c?y, ie?aia a?eaaaea, iiee. Iaeiae ?o i?aaiaee noai
caeeoaany inoaoi/ii ia ae??oaiei: a iia?aoeaiiio a?aeiioaii? aiie
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue IEAN, c on?o ?ioeo ieoaiue – IAN. Iniaeeaee
i?aaiaee noai eeoeany ca /anoeiaie (i?ae?icae?eaie) Anaoe?a?inueei?
(aoaa?inueeeo) IE. Aiie oi?ioaaeeny ca niaoe?aeueieie ooaoaie e ae?yee a
?ioa?anao ? ca caaaeaiiyie inoaii?o. Ia?aaaaith iiaiaaaaeaiiy aoea
i?aai?caoe?y oa cae?eniaiiy ioi?iie aaaeeeaeo ia’?eo?a e?a?ie a
no?oeoo?? ie?aiiai aeeiiaa/iai i?aaio.

19 n?/iy 1921?. ?II ooaaeeea: “…A?enueea aioo??oiuei? neoaeae
?anioae?ee, ca aeeeth/aiiyi a?enuee AIE, a oaeiae cae?cie/ii? e aiaeii?
i?e?oe??, ia?aaeaoe o a?enueeiaa a?aeiinoai”. O i?aeii?yaeeoaaii? AOIE
caeeoaeeny eeoa o? i?ae?icae?ee, ui ianeoaiaoaaee ?? IE. A?ae oeueiai
/ano AAION i?eieieee naiino?eia ?nioaaiiy. Iaeii/anii ci?oeieee i?aaiaee
noai a?enueea Anaoe?a?inueei? IE, ye? o nai?e ae?yeueiino? nie?aeeny ia
i?aecaeiiiee aeo AIE a?ae 28.01.1921?. “Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? a?enuee AIE”.

11.05.1921?. c’yaeeiny iiaa “Iieiaeaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th a?enuee AIE”,
yea ?icaeaaei e ooi/ithaaei ii?yaeie ?o ?aaoethaaiiy, neoaeaiao
ae?yeuei?noue, i?aaiaee noaoon, a oaeiae ooieoe??. I?ioyaii 1921-1922??.
i?aaiaee noai a?enuee AIE (AOIE), ?o i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a,
/enaeuei?noue, nenoaia oi?aae?iiy e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iaiaeii?aciai
ci?ithaaeeny, ui aoei aeeeeeaii ye ia’?eoeaieie, oae ? noa’?eoeaieie
i?e/eiaie.

Oi?ioaaiiy e ae?yeuei?noue o ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? i?eei?aeiiii? ioi?iie
aoee iiae?aiith aaiethoe?? aioo??oi?o a?enuee. A?aei?oi?noue iieyaaea a
oiio, ui i?ioyaii 1918-1920??. i?aai?caoe?ei? caoiaee a oeueiio iai?yieo
i?aeoe/ii ia cae?enithaaeenue. I?i oea, cie?aia, na?ae/aoue iinoaiiaa
AOOeAE i?i Anaoe?a?inueeo e i?noeaa? IE, aeae?ao
?IE ON?? i?i ?o

no?oeoo?i? ci?ie e eiiiaoaioe?th (o?aaaiue 1919?.), ?io?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeieoiaioe. Iiynithaaeiny oea aeae?eueeiia
ianoaaeiaie: a?aenooi?noth ei?aeiio i?ae ??ON? e ON??, i?enooi?noth a
Oe?a?i? ieoiaoe?eieo a?enuee, a?enueeiaith ?ioa?aaioe??th, aieiaeie
ae?yie a oiiaao a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie.

19 n?/iy 1921?. ?II ooaaeeea iinoaiiao i?i oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai aeaeo
niaoe?aeueieo a?enuee – i?eei?aeiiieo. Ea??aieoeoai ieie, cie?aia a
Oe?a?i?, iieeaaeaeiny ia AOIE. 15 ethoiai aoei caoaa?aeaeaii
“?ino?oeoe?th /anoeiai a?enuee AIE, ui ioi?iiythoue ei?aeiie ??ON?”. ??
ae?y iioe?thaaeany ia i?eei?aeiii? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, ? aecia/aea ?o
i?aaiaee noai o nenoai? a?enuee AIE (AOIE), iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiao
ae?yeuei?noue, iaia’ycee iinaaeiaeo in?a oiui. Oea aoa ia?oee
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeieoiaio uiaei ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eei?aeiiieo
a?enuee ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo. Iniiai? ?? iieiaeaiiy caa?aaee nai?
cia/aiiy iaaiee /an ? ciaeoee ?icoe?aia a?aeaeooy a ianooiieo
aeieoiaioao, cie?aia a “Iieiaeaii? i?i ioi?iio ei?aeii?a”,
caoaa?aeaeaiiio AOeAE o eeii? 1921?. O aeiaoi? 1922?. ?II ooaaeeea
“Iieiaeaiiy i?i ie?aiee i?eei?aeiiiee ei?ion a?enuee AeIO”.

1922 ??e aaaaoi a /iio noaa aecia/aeueiei o iiaeaeueo?e aaiethoe?? nee
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e, cie?aia Oe?a?ie.
Ia?aaea/ath eiiaieii? aa?oe c Ia?eiithnoa, a caiaeii ? i?eei?aeiiieo
/anoei c IAN aei IEAN i?aeoe/ii caaa?oeany i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?enuee
AeIO iaia?aaeiaei? ooai?aiiy N?N?. No?oeoo?ii oea aeaeyaeaei oaeei
/eiii: a) aioo??oi? a?enueea (/anoeie e i?ae?icae?ee, cae??ieai?
aaciina?aaeiuei ca i?aaiaie AeIO); a) eiiaieia aa?oa; a) i?eei?aeiiia
ioi?iia. Caaaeueia ?o /enaeuei?noue nyaaea ca 100 oen. /ie. A?ey 30% c
ieo aeeneieoaaeeny a Oe?a?i?. A?ae oeueiai /ano a?enueea noaee
iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?aaiioi?iiiiai e
?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio.

?icae?e ae?oaee – “I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?eei?aeiiieo oa aioo??oi?o a?enuee a Oe?a?i? (1923?.-/a?aaiue1941)”
i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo iniia ae?yeueiino? oa
ooieoe?yi a?enuee AeIO-IEAN. O eenoiiaae? 1923?. aoei noai?aii
Ia’?aeiaia aea?aeaaia iie?oe/ia oi?aae?iiy N?N?. Ca?aeii c iieiaeaiiyi
i?i IAeIO o eiai ?icii?yaeaeaii? ciaoiaeeeenue iniaeea? a?enueea
/enaeuei?noth, anoaiiaeaiith ?aaeith I?aoe? e Iai?iie Nithco ?N?. O
aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a?ae oeueiai /ano ?icii/aeeny
i?eioeeiiaa ?ai?aai?caoe?y i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aaciaee oa aioo??oi?o
ni?aa, i?ioean noai?aiiy caaaeueiinithcii? ioi?iiii-ea?aeueii? nenoaie c
aei?noeei oeaio?ae?ciaaiei oi?aae?iiyi, aaaeeeaa ?ieue o ye?e
a?aeaiaeeeany aioo??oi?i ? i?eei?aeiiiei a?enueeai. Ia?oei
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaei aeieoiaioii, ui ii?eethaeiea ?o ooieoe?? oa
caaaeaiiy, noaa “Noaooo niaoe?aeueii? neoaeae a?enuee IAeIO” (1924?.).

I?ioyaii 1923-1925??. cae?eniththoueny e?iee ii iiaeaeueo?e
?ai?aai?caoe?? a?enuee, cie?aia i?eei?aeiiieo. Aaiaeeoueny ioia?aoe?y e
oi?iothoueny i?eei?aeiii? ie?oae (na?aae ieo Oe?a?inueeee),
anoaiiaeth?oueny ?o aeeneieaoe?y. 7 aa?aniy 1923?. OeAE caoaa?aeaeo?
«Iieiaeaiiy i?i ioi?iio ei?aeii?a N?N?», ca?aeii c yeei ia
iia?aiioi?iio1 iieeaaeaeenue iaia’ycee ai?ioueae c iie?oe/iith e
aeiiii?/iith eiio?aaaiaeith, caaacia/aiiy iaii?ooiino? ei?aeii?a, caoeno
ianaeaiiy i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeii?a oiui. Oea aoa ia?oee
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaee aeieoiaio, yeee aeaoaeueii aecia/ea ooieoe?? e
caaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue ii ioi?ii? ei?aeii?a. O /a?ai? 1927?.
OeAE ? ?IE N?N? caoaa?aeeee iiao ?aaeaeoe?th «Iieiaeaiiy…», a yeiio
ciaeoee a?aeaeooy oae? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? iiiyooy, ye iie?oe/ia e
nai?oa?ia ioi?iia aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a, aecia/aany ii?yaeie ?o
ia?aoeiaiiy oiui. Iaeiae o iueiio, ye ? a iiia?aaeiueiio, ia aoei
i?aaiaiai aecia/aiiy aeania iiiyooy «aea?aeaaiee ei?aeii». A ciaeoei
aiii a?aeaeooy eeoa a «Iieiaeaii? i?i aea?aeaaiee ei?aeii N?N?» 1960?.

?ioei iai?yieii i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?eei?aeiiii?
ioi?iie noaei ii?aeiaiiy a iaeiiio i?aai? (aia?ao?)
aaaioo?ii-iia?aoeaii? e a?enueeiai? neoaeae. O caaacia/aii? iaae?eiino?
ioi?iie aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a aieiaio ?ieue noaee a?ae?a?aaaoe
aaaioo?ii-?ioi?iaoe?ei? (iaaeani?) iaoiaee ?iaioe ca o/anoth oe?iei?
ia?aae? oa?iieo ?aceaeaio?a, aaaio?a, aea?aeoaa/?a oa ?i. Iai?ee?ioe?
20-o ?ie?a iiooe iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii? oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? ioi?iie
aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a o oe?eiio aoei caaa?oaii. I?eei?aeiiia ioi?iia
iaea?aeaea aeineoue aeaaaeaio e ae??ao no?oeoo?o, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa
caaacia/aiiy, a iniaiaee neeaae – aeina?ae iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiai? e
aieiai? ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaiaa noaiiaeua a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue IAeIO ci?oei?ei i?ney ooaaee 18
aa?aniy 1925?. OeAE ? ?IE N?N? Caeiio «I?i iaia’yceiao a?enueeiao
neoaeao». No.2 oeueiai Caeiio, cie?aia, aecia/eea, ui aei neeaaeo
*a?aiii? A?i?? aoiaeyoue oaeiae a?enueea niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy —
Ia’?aeiaiiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oe/iiai oi?aae?iiy e eiiaieia aa?oe
N?N?2.

Oaeei /eiii, ia eeoa aecia/eeiny i?aaiaa iiea ae?yeueiino? a?enuee, a
caeiiiaeaa/i cae??iethaaeiny i?aai IAeIO N?N? ia ?o no?oeoo?io
ia?aaoaeiao, oa?eoi??aeueia ?ici?uaiiy e oeaio?ae?ciaaia oi?aae?iiy.
?anioae?eainueeei i?aaiai, cie?aia AeIO-IEAN Oe?a?ie, caeeoeeeny
iiaiiaaaeaiiy eiiieaeooaaiiy (ca a?aeiia?aeieie ?icia?yaeeaie),
iia?aoeaia ea??aieoeoai e aeei?enoaiiy aeeneieiaaieo ooo /anoei.

10 eeiiy 1934?. noai?th?oueny caaaeueiinithciee IEAN. O nithcieo
?anioae?eao, cie?aia a Oe?a?i?, ?icii/aee ?iaioo ?anioae?eainuee?
ia?eiiaoe, ui ae?yee ia i?aenoaa? «Iieiaeaiiy i?i IEAN N?N?». Caaaeueia
ea??aieoeoai a?enueeaie nithciee ia?eiiao caeeoea ca niaith. C oe??th
iaoith aoei noi?iiaaia Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy i?eei?aeiiii? oa aioo??oiuei?
ioi?iie (AOIAI IEAN N?N?). A Oe?a?i? ooieoe?? inoaii?o aeeiioaaei
Oi?aae?iiy i?eei?aeiiii? oa aioo??oiuei? ioi?iie (OIAI) IEAN
Oe?a?inueeiai ie?oao1.

sse na?ae/aoue aeieoiaioe, iineeaiiy a 30-o? ?iee ?ie? e cia/aiiy IEAN o
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?a?ie, ca?eueoaiiy ia oe?e iniia? eiai a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue i?aeooiaooaaee aei iiooe?a iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
caaaeueiiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy e ea??aieoeoaa i?eei?aeiiieie e
aioo??oi?ie a?enueeaie, ye? c 1934?. i?ae io?oe?eiith iacaith «a?enueea
IEAN» noaee ia?aeaeueiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith nithciiai Ia?eiiaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa. A inoaii? o?e ia?aaeai?ii? ?iee ?o caaaeueia
/enaeuei?noue neeaaeaea i’yoo /anoeio ?N*A (iiiaae 300 oen. /ie.
iniaiaiai neeaaeo). 2 ethoiai 1939?. ?IE N?N? ooaaeeea iinoaiiao
noiniaii a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue IEAN. AOIAA iiae?eyeiny ia 6 oi?aae?iue:
i?eei?aeiiieo, eiiaieieo a?enuee, a?enuee ii ioi?ii? cae?cie/ieo
nii?oae, ii ioi?ii? iniaeeai aaaeeeaeo i?aei?e?inoa i?iieneiaino?,
oi?aae?iiy a?enueeiaiai caaacia/aiiy, a?enueeiai-aoae?aaeueia oi?aae?iiy
a?enuee IEAN N?N?.

O ?acoeueoao? oeeo caoiae?a ci?ith?oueny i?aaiaee noai aeeneieiaaieo a
Oe?a?i? i?eei?aeiiieo /anoei, iniaeeai i?ney i?e?aeiaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue (1939?.). E??i Oe?a?inueeiai i?eei?aeiiiiai
ie?oao ooai?th?oueny Cao?aeiee, ca?eueoo?oueny ?o caaaeueia
/enaeuei?noue, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy, ica?i?iiy oiui.
I?eioeeiiai aeaeici?ith?oueny e nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? neoaeae. O oie aea
/an ea??aieoeoai aioo??oi?ie a?enueeaie ( ii ioi?ii? cae?cie/ieo
nii?oae, i?aei?e?inoa, i?iieneiaino?, eiiaieieo oa ?i.) iaaoei
iaaecia/aiino?, ui aeeeeeaei na?eici? ia??eaiiy. Iiae?e IEAN ia aeaa
ia?eiiaoe – aioo??oi?o ni?aa ? aea?aeaaii? aaciaee (ethoee 1941?.)
neooaoe?th ia e?aua ia ci?iea.

Aoaeo/e neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Ca?ieieo Nee N?N?, a?enueea IEAN
iaia?aaeiaei? a?eie yaeyee niaith aeineoue
/enaeueiee, neeaaeiee ca i?aai?caoe?eiith oa oi?aae?inueeith
no?oeoo?ith a?enueeiaee i?aai?ci. ?o i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue neeiaei
no?oeoo?ai ? aieiaia ni?yiiaai?noue i?ioyaii iiiaae 2-o aeanyoee?oue ia
cae?eniaiiy ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo caoiae?a aecia/aee ia eeoa ?o
niaoeeo?eo, ooieoe?? e caaaeaiiy, aea e i?e?iaeo, oa?aeoa?, a aieiaia –
oi?ie e iaoiaee neoaeaiai-iia?aoeaii? ?iaioe. Aeania niaoeeo?ea
ae?yeueiino? a?enuee, iniaeeai aioo??oi?o, iac??aeea aeeeeeaea na?aae
iniaiaiai neeaaeo no?ania? neooaoe?? c oyaeeeie ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie
iane?aeeaie. Ia aeeooy e ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?enuee cia/iee aieea ni?aaeyea
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ianoaiiaea a e?a?i?, iniaeeai a ia??iae ianiaeo
?ai?an?e ? ia?ane?aeoaaiue, ye? ii?iaeaeoaaee o a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a
iaaiaaiai?noue, cieaeaiiy a /anoeiao ? i?ae?icae?eao aeenoeeie?ie,
i?aai?ciaaiino? e ii?yaeeo, a a ?acoeueoao? – iia??oaiiy ?o
ai?aioiaiino?.

Aieiaiith oa?aeoa?iith ?enith c’?aeiaiue, /anoei, ui aeeneieoaaeeny a
Oe?a?i?, i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoeny ?o iiaia caeaaei?noue a?ae oeaio?o.
?acii c oei oeaio?aeuei? ?anioae?eainuee? e i?noeaa? aeeiiaa/? i?aaie
aeaaee, ianaiia?aae IEAN e eiai iaeani? oi?aae?iiy, iniaeeai a inoaii?
ia?aaeai?ii? ?iee coi?ee aeaui iioe?eoe na?e aieea ia eeoa ia iia?aoeaia
ea??aieoeoai /anoeiaie ? i?ae?icae?eaie a?enuee, a e
i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao oa caaaeueia oi?aae?iiy.
Ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaith ae iniiaith ooieoe?iioaaiiy e cae?eniaiiy ieie
neoaeaiai-aieiai? ae?yeueiino? caeeoaeeny aeieoiaioe, i?aeaioiaeai? IEAN
N?N?, eiai aieiaieie oi?aae?iiyie. Ia?eiiao aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie iaa
eeoa i?aai cae?enithaaoe iia?aoeai? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia iineeaiiy
iaae?eiino? ioi?iie cao?aeieo ei?aeii?a oa ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo ooieoe?e, ui noiyee ia?aae a?enueeaie.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaio ocaaaeueith? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O oe?eiio aiii na?ae/eoue, ui aaeocue aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia caaacia/aiiy aacoiiaiiai e iianyeaeaiiiai
aeeiiaiiy aae?iue aea?aeaae, ? iaiao?aeiei eiiiiiaioii ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ? noaiiaeoue caaaeueiee ?ioa?an. C ?ioiai aieo,
ana iia’ycaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi neee e ca?i?, c ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi ieie (a
oiio /ene? e ocaeiiaieie) iac??aeea caeaoia aeoiaeeoe ca iaae?
ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ia?aoai?thaaoeny ia iaaecaeiiiee ?ino?oiaio
i?aeo?eiee canoa??eiai i?ioe iiaiia?iaeaeoaaiiai, aeaniioe/iiai – i?ioe
caaaeueiiethaenueeiai, /oaeeinueeiai – i?ioe a?o/eciyiiai. Oea
cana?ae/eee iiae?? oa oaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. ?ioei, ia iaio
aaaeeeaei aeniiaeii ? oa, ui ioi?iiia e ea?aeueii-i?eioniaa iie?oeea
aea?aeaae iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoeny e ioe?ithaaoeny ia naia ii nia?, a
ia?aaeon?i ?c iiceoe?? ?? ni?yiiaaiino? ia aeinyaiaiiy iaoe,
coiiaeaii? iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa noni?euenoaa, a?aeiia?aeii
i?aaiaiiyi ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy. I?e ?? iayaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy neee oa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo iaoai?ci?a, caaacia/aiiy ii?yaeeo
e iineooo, a oaeiae ae?? oiiaiiaaaeaieo ia oa i?aai?a, cie?aia e ca
o/anoth niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a, ? aei?aaaeaiei. Iaia ??
– ? o? ae nai? ni?iae cae?eniaiiy aeaaee, o? ae nai? ea?aeuei? ae??
iaaoaathoue i?ioeeaaeiiai ci?noo e cia/aiiy (naia oae ? o?aieeinue o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo). Oiio canoinoaaiiy
aea?aeaaith aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa ioi?iiii-i?eioniaeo caoiae?a a
?ioa?anao noni?eueiiai iinooio e aeaniiai ia?iaeo ? ia?oith caii?oeith
?? neee e ae??caeaoiino?, a ?iaeoa aiia i?e?a/aia ia caaeaaeue, ui
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue iaoa ?noi?e/ia ieioea.

Aeoiaey/e c iio?aa ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae,
aeena?oaio aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia aeneiaeoe ieceo i?iiiceoe?e. Oae, a
oiiaao ?icaoaeiae Oe?a?ie ye aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae
iaiao?aei?noue ?nioaaiiy a?enuee niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ia cieea?.
Aoaeo/e oe?e?nieie e ai?caeaoieie iaeeieoeyie neeiaeo no?oeoo?, aiie
iiaeii? ?icaeyaeaoeny ye aaaiiee noaa?e?coth/ee /eiiee o ianooaaao
aea?aeaae, aenooiaoe iaae?eiei aa?aioii caoenoo eiinoeoooe?eieo i?aa ?
naiaiae a?iiaaeyi. Oea ia?aeiieeai i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeina?aeii ?ioeo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa na?oo.

Iniiaith e iaeiei c aieiaieo oeyo?a ye?niiai iie?ioaiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie, cie?aia aioo??oi?o ? i?eei?aeiiieo
a?enuee, iiaeiia noaoe i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y ?o iniaiaiai neeaaeo,
eaae?o?eiaaia i?aeaioiaea io?oea?nueeeo eaae??a, aa?aio?y caoenoo ai?i?a
i?aaiii?yaeeo.

O no/anieo oiiaao, caaaeath/e ia ?noi?e/iee, na?oiaee ? a?o/eciyiee
aeina?ae, ni?euei? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ae?yeueiino? aioo??oi?o,
i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee ? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae?? o ae??oaii? ieie
aioo??oi?o ooieoe?e aea?aeaae, aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe ieoaiiy i?i
i?aai?caoe?th ?o ae?yeueiino? a iaaeao I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe:

1.Ai?iaee/ E.A.I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee a?enueeiai-ioi?iiii?
nenoaie oea?ecio ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie //Iaoe.a?ni.Iaoe.aeaae.aioo?.ni?aa
Oe?a?ie .-1999.-?1.-N.199-205.

2.Ai?iaee/ E.A. I?aaiaee noai niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a o
no?oeoo?? i?aaiaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (ea?oaiue —
a?oaeaiue 1918?.) //A?ni. Oi-oo aioo?.ni?aa.-1999.-?7.-*. ??.-N.35-42.

3.Ai?iaee/ E.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th oa i?aaiaa noaiiaeua
niaoe?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo oa ioi?iiieo i?ae?icae?e?a o ia??iae
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1917-1920 ??.) // A?ni.Iaean.?i-oo
aioo?.ni?aa. – 1999. — ? 3. – N. 3-11.

4.Ai?iaee/ E.A. I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae ae?yeueiino? a?enuee
IAeIO-IEAAe ia Oe?a?i?. // A?ni. Ee?anuee. oi-oo. TH?eaee/i? iaoee. –
1999. — ? 39. – N. 56-58.

5.Ai?iaee/ E.A. A?enueeiai-ioi?iiia nenoaia ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie o O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO no. //?noi??y
Oe?a?ie.-1999.-?6.-N.1-3; ?7.-N. 3,4.

6.Ai?iaee/ E.A. Niaoe?aeuei? a?enueeia? e ioi?iii? i?ae?icae?ee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaoueiaiaoo ? Aee?aeoi???// ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie.-1999.-?17.-N.6-8.

Ai?iaee/ E.A. Aioo??oi? e i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea a Oe?a?i? o 1917-1941??.
(?noi?eei-i?aaiaee aniaeo). ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa;
?noi??y iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo a/aiue .- Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia
aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. — Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaie ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icaeoeo
oa i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aioo??oi?o, i?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee, ?ioeo
ioi?iiii-ea?aeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a a oiiaao iiyae e ci?oeiaiiy ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ??cieo oi?i iaoe?iiaeueii? (1917-1920 ??.) oa
?aaeyinueei? (1917-1941??.) aea?aeaaiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??y aea?aeaae ? i?aaa; ioi?iiii-ea?aeueia nenoaia
(iaoai?ci), AIE, AOIE, AeIO (IAeIO), IEAN, i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea,
aioo??oi? a?enueea, niaoe?aeuei? oi?ioaaiiy.

Ai?iaee/ E.A. Aioo?aiiea e iia?aie/iua aienea a Oe?aeia a 1917-1941 aa.
(Enoi?eei-i?aaiaie aniaeo). ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa;
enoi?ey iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay th?eaee/aneay
aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. – Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeai ca?iaeaeaiey, ?acaeoey e
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aioo?aiieo, iia?aie/iuo aiene, eiuo
io?aieoaeueii-ea?aoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a oneiaeyo iiyaeaiey e
oe?aieaiey ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu ?acee/iuo oi?i iaoeeiiaeueiie
(1917-1920 aa.) e niaaoneie (1917-1941aa.) ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa,
io?aieoaeueii-ea?aoaeueiay nenoaia (iaoaieci), A*E, AO*E, AIO (IAIO),
IEAAe, iia?aie/iua aienea, aioo?aiiea aienea, niaoeeaeueiua
oi?ie?iaaiey.

Borodich L.V. Internal and frontier troops in Ukraine in 1917-1941 years
(law-historic aspect). Manuscript.

Thesis (dissertation) for Candidate degree (Ph.D) — law sciences — on
specialty 12.00.01.- Theory and History of the State and Law; History of
Political and Law Studies.-National Law Academy of Ukraine named after
Yaroslav Mudry.- Kharkiv, 1999.

The thesis (dissertation) is devoted to the problem of establishment,
development and practical activities of internal, frontier troops,
other public order guarding and punitive units during establishment and
shaping different types and forms of national (1917-1920 years) and
Soviet (1917-1941years) statehood.

Key words: history of the state and law, public order guarding and
punitive system (mechanism), VCHK (All- Russian Extraordinary
Commission), VUCHK (All-Ukrainian Extraordinary Commission), GPU (State
Political Administration), OGPU (United State Political
Administration), NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs),
frontier troops, internal troops, special purpose detachments.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione — ae.th.i., aeioe. ?oiyioeaa A.I.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.08.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.
A?aeae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?. Oiiai.ae?oe.a?e. 0,6. Iae?e.-aeae.a?e. 1,0

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 625.

_________________________________________________________________

Ae?oea?iy

Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

310024, Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77

Ec enoi?ee niaaoneeo iia?aie/iuo aiene, 1921-1927aa.: Aeieoiaiou e
iaoa?eaeu. –I., 1963.-667n.;1928-1934aa.-I.,1972.-773n.; 1935-ethiue
1941aa. -I., 1973.-653n.

1 Aeea.:Ie?iiaiei I., Aaiueei I.Iie?oe/i? ?ai?an?? a Oe?a?i?
OOno.//O?ii?ea 2000. –E., 1998. — ? 27-28.-N.390.

1 O o?aai? 1920?. ia ?o aac? aoei noai?aii ? Oe?a?inueeee naeoi?.

1 Oea iiiyooy aeeth/aei i?eei?aeiii? a?enueea e i?eei?aeiii? a?aeae?ee
AeIO-IAeIO.

2 O oeae Caeii 13 na?iiy 1930 ?. aoei aianaii ooi/iaiiy.
Cie?aia, i?aee?anethaaeiny, ui ?o iniaiaee neeaae i?e??aith?oueny o an?o
a?aeiioaiiyo aei a?iiaaeyi, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ae?eni?e a?enueeia?e
neoaea?.

1 Iai?ee?ioe? 1937?. AOIAI, (a?aeiia?aeii OIAI) aoee ia?aeiaiiaai? ia
Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy (oi?aae?iiy) i?eei?aeiiieo ? aioo??oi?o a?enuee AOIAA
(OIAA) IEAN N?N? (IEAN O?N?).

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