Високочастотні явища у двошарових двовимірних електронних системах у квантуючому магнітному полі: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / Ю.О. Аверков,

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

Iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iee eiioea?i “?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a”

?INOEOOO IIIIE?ENOAE?A

Aaa?eia TH??e Ieaaiae/

OAeE 537.87

AENIEI*ANOIOI? ssAEUA O AeAIOA?IAEO AeAIAEI??IEO AEAEO?IIIEO NENOAIAO O
EAAIOOTH*IIO IAAI?OIIIO IIE?

01.04.02 — oai?aoe/ia o?ceea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ?aae?io?ceee oa aeaeo?ii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,
i.Oa?e?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

A?eaoeueeee Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ??A IAI Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

??iiea?a Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

Oaeueei ?ai? ?aaiiae/,

aeioeaio Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e eaaioiai? oai???
iieaeoe oa e?enoae?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 17 » « aa?aciy » 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. 00 oa ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.169.01 a ?inoeooo?
iiiie?enoae?a IOE “?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a” IAI Oe?a?ie (310001, Oa?e?a,
i?iniaeo Eai?ia, 60).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iiiie?enoae?a IOE “?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a” IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 30 » « n?/iy » 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Ao?iuaiei E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

c naeaeoeaiei eaaoaaiiyi. No/ania oaoi?ea iieaeoey?ii-i?iiaiaai?
ai?oaen?? oa naeaeoeaiiai eaaoaaiiy aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe no?oeoo?e c
iaeiioa?iaeie, aeaioa?iaeie oa aaaaoioa?iaeie AeAN. A oeeo c?aceao
niinoa??aa?oueny ?yae oe?eaaeo ? ??ciiiai?oieo o?ce/ieo yaeu, oaeeo ye
eaaioiaee aoaeo Oieea (EAO), oeeeeio?iiiee oa iaai?oioiiiiiee ?aciiaine,
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aa?y/eo aeaeo?ii?a a aeaeaeiio ?io?a/a?aiiiio
ae?aiacii?, ?aciiainia eiia?iaoe?eia ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea,
?iciianthaeaeoaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, ni?iiaa eaaioiaa aeooy,
ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue ca?yaeii oa ?i.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueo a?aeiieo ? cia/ieo o?ce/ieo yaeu o AeAN ? EAO, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny no?eaeiiiae?aieie ci?iaie oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino?
AeAN i?e ci?i? aai aaee/eie iaai?oiiai iiey, aai eiioeaio?aoe??
aeaeo?ii?a [1]. A oiiaao EAO niinoa??aa?oueny ?yae oe?eaaeo yaeu, oaeeo
ye eaaiooaaiiy oaciaeo oa a?oiiaeo oaeaeeinoae iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
[2], ooai?aiiy no?eae?a ia oi?i? e?i?? oeeeeio?iiiiai ?aciiaino (Oe?)
[3], no?eaeiiiae?aia ci?ia aiie?ooaee oa oe?eie e?i?? Oe? [4].

. O oaeiai ?iaeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?ao aeyaeaii ?yae oe?eaaeo
aoaeo?a, ye? iia’ycai? c iayai?noth oeoeooaoe?e eieaeueii? aeaeo?iiii?
aonoeie a eaaiooth/eo iaai?oieo iieyo. Oae, a ?iaio? [5] aoei
iieacaii, ui a ?aaeei? oe?ei/enaeueiiai EAO (OeEAO) oe? oeoeooaoe??
i?eaiaeyoue aei cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo ieaoi c iaia?ieie cia/aiiyie
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao. E??i oeueiai, ?icuaieaiiy iniiaiiai
noaio aeaeo?ii?a, ui iiyaey?oueny a iane?aeie ?o ooiaethaaiiy o
aeaioa?ia?e AeAN, i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icuaieaiiy e?i?? Oe? a iioeeiio
iaai?oiiio iie? oa iiyae aeiaeaoeiai? aioeneiao?e/ii? iiaee a
iaai?oiiieaciiiiiio niaeo?? [6,7].

?acii c oei, a no/ani?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii aeine?aeaeaii
aieea iniaeeainoae aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a o aeaioa?iaeo AeAN
ia aeniei/anoioi? (A*) aeanoeaino? aeaiaei??ieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
no?oeoo?. Oey caaea/a o?nii iia’ycaia c aaee/eiith g -oaeoi?a
aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN, oae ye aiia aecia/a? aeaoaeueio no?oeoo?o
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a.

O oeueiio ca’yceo ia?aaeaa/aiiy aoaeue-yeeo yaeu, ui aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ae?enia cia/aiiy aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o
AeAN, ? aeooaeueiith ? aaaeeeaith caaea/ath. Iia? A* aoaeoe o
aeaioa?iaeo AeAN, ye? aeine?aeaeai? oa iienai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeicaieythoue ia?oei?aiei caniaii aecia/eoe aaee/eie oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy
??ai?a Eaiaeao ? g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN. E??i oiai, oe? yaeua
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoiaai? aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo no/anieo i?eeaae?a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? iaiiaeaeo?ii?ee, ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie yei?
niinoa??aa?oueny a iao /an.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eio
?iaioo i?iaaaeaii ca?aeii c eiiieaeniith iaoeiaith i?ia?aiith
«Aeaeoiiaai?oi? ? aeonoe/i? yaeua IA*-ae?aiaciio a oaa?aeio?eueieo
no?oeoo?ao» ca ieaiii oaie «Eaioaa?-1» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
01.96.E006109), yea aeeiio?oueny a ??A IAI Oe?a?ie.

? ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?. Ia iniia? aea/aieo
A* yaeu i?iiiio?oueny ?yae i?eioeeiiai iiaeo aaceiioaeoieo iaoiae?a
aecia/aiiy aaee/eie oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? aaee/eie
g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? ae??oai? ne?aeoth/? caaea/?:

Ciaeaeaii aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aeaeo?ii?a o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e
AeAN ? aea/aii eiai aieea ia oieeianueeo i?ia?aei?noue oe???
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? no?oeoo?e.

Aeine?aeaeaia oi?ia e?i?? Oe? o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN a
?aaeei? OeEAO.

Aea/aii eaaiooaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie?.

Aeine?aeaeaii eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ca?yaeii, ui
ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN o ?aaeei? OeEAO.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia?aaeaa/aii aoaeo
cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo ieaoi c oe?ei/enaeueieie cia/aiiyie oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao (ye c ia?ieie, oae ? c iaia?ieie) o
ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN o ?aaeei? OeEAO. Iieacaii, ui oeae aoaeo
iaoiiaeaiee ia?aoeiaiiyi aeaio ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai?
Oa?i?. Aia?oa aea/aii aieea oeueiai aoaeoo ia oae? aeniei/anoioi? yaeua
o ianeiao?e/ieo aeaioa?iaeo AeAN, ye Oe?, iiaa?oiaa? iiey?eoiie oa
ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui aoaeo cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo
ieaoi ni?ey? oe?eiio ?yaeo i?eioeeiiai iiaeo A* aoaeo?a, ye? iiaeooue
aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao iiaeo aaceiioaeoieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN. Nai
ii nia? aoaeo cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo ieaoi iiaea neoaeeoe iiaei
eiioaeoiei iaoiaeii aecia/aiiy aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN.
Aei iiaeo A* aoaeo?a o ianeiao?e/ieo aeaioa?iaeo AeAN a?aeiinyoueny:

Aoaeo c’yaeaiiy no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oi?i? e?i?? Oe?
aiane?aeie

ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yei? ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia
??ai? Oa?i?. Iieacaii,

ui aaee/eia g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca
iieiaeaiiyi oeueiai

no?eaea.

Aoaeo eaaiooaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a, ye? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ocaeiaae ianeiao?e/ii?
aeaioa?iai? AeAN a ?aaeei? OeEAO. Iieacaii, ui caeaaeiino?
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy ? caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae
aaee/eie iaai?oiiai iiey iathoue no?eaeiiiae?aiee (ieeeiiiae?aiee)
oa?aeoa? a iane?aeie eaaiooaaiiy eiiiiiaio oaici?a i?ia?aeiino?
aeaeo?ii?a o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN. Ciaeaeaii, ui cia/aiiy
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ca
iieiaeaiiyie oa aaee/eiaie no?eae?a ia oeeo caeaaeiinoyo. Onoaiiaeaii,
ui aaee/eia noeae?a ? iaeneiaeueiith, i?e oiia? ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yei?
ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i?. Aaee/eia g-oaeoi?a
aeaeo?ii?a iiaea aooe aecia/aia ca iieiaeaiiyi oeeo iaeneiaeueieo
no?eae?a.

Aoaeo eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ca?yaeii, ui
ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN. Iieacaii, ui eaaioiaee oa?aeoa?
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui
niaeo?aeueia aonoeia ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?aaenoaaey? niaith
aeene?aoiee iaa?? e?eaeo, a caeaaei?noue aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey ia? ieeeiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?.
Ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yei? ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai?
Oa?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy e?eai? niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie aeey
aeayeiai cia/aiiy oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? iiyae no?eaea
iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia caeaaeiino? aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui iaeaeaa oe? aoaeoa
iiaeooue aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao iiaeo aaceiioaeoieo ia?oei?aieo
iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy aaee/eie oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ?
aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a a AeAN.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe??
cai?iiiiiaai? iia? aaceiioaeoi? ia?oei?ai? A* iaoiaee aecia/aiiy oaeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ia?aiao??a AeAN, ye oaeoi? caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ?
g-oaeoi? aeaeo?ii?a. Ciaiiy oeeo aaee/ei aeicaiey? aeeaoa c?icoi?oe
eaaioiao i?e?iaeo iae?ineii?/ieo aoaeo?a, ui niinoa??aathoueny o AeAN.
Aoaeoe, ui iieeaaeai? a iniiao iiaeo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a, iiaeooue
niinoa??aaoeny aenia?eiaioaeueii ca aeiiiiiaith aeia?a inai?ieo cania?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ai a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei — iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe aoea i?iaaaeaia ?iaioa, yea iia’ycaia c
iiooeii oa aiae?cii iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, ui i?enay/ai? oai? aeaii?
aeena?oaoe??. Aeeiiaia no?oeoo?ecaoe?y oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy —
noi?ioeueiaai? i?aecaaea/?, ae??oaiiy yeeo aeicaieeei aeinoaoiuei iiaii
?ice?eoe iniiaio oe?eue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. A naia, caaea/a
aeine?aeaeaiiy A* yaeu o ianeiao?e/ieo aeaioa?iaeo AeAN o ?aaeei? OeEAO
aoea ?icae?eaia caeiaoaa/ai ia o?e iaea?eueo cia/ieo a iaoeiaiio oa
i?aeoe/iiio aniaeoao i?aecaaea/?: aeine?aeaeaiiy Oe?,

aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ocaeiaae
aeaioa?iai? AeAN ? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ca?yaeaeaiith /anoeith, yea ia?aoeia? aeaioa?iao
AeAN. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiaoaa/ai aoei ia?aaeaa/aii oe?eee ?yae
iiaeo aoaeo?a, ye? aoee iioae?eiaai? o /ioe?ueio noaooyo:

O ia?o?e noaoo? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? Oe? o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN
o ?aaeei? OeEAO caeiaoaa/ai aoei ia?aaeaa/aii aoaeo iiyae no?eaea
iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oi?i? e?i?? Oe?, yeee iaoiiaeaiee
ia?aoeiaiiyi aoaeue-yei? ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai?
Oa?i?.

O ae?oa?e oa o?ao?e noaooyo i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ocaeiaae iiiaeeiiei? oa iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iaeo
AeAN o ?aaeei? OeEAO caeiaoaa/ai aoee ia?aaeaa/ai? aoaeoe eaaiooaaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, a
oaeiae, a ?ac? iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN, ia?aaeaa/aia iiyaa
aeiaeaoeiai? aeenia?n?eii? a?oee o niaeo?? iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a.
Caeiaoaa/ai aoei onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ia?aoeiaii? aoaeue-yei? ia?e
ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i? ia caeaaeiinoyo
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae
iaai?oiiai iiey iiyaeythoueny no?eaee iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie.

O /aoaa?oi? noaoo? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ca?yaeaeaiith /anoeith, yea ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN,
caeiaoaa/ai aoei ia?aaeaa/aii eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa
aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a. Aoei
iieacaii, ui ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yei? ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a
Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy iaei??? c e?eaeo
niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? iiyae no?eaea
iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia caeaaeiino? aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaieo A* aoaeo?a caeiaoaa/ai aoee ?ic?iaeai? iia?
aaceiioaeoi? ia?oei?ai? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy oaeeo aaaeeeaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee AeAN, ye oaeoi? caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? g-oaeoi?
aeaeo?ii?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeieeaaeaeenue ia ne?aeoth/eo eiioa?aioe?yo: 10-oa
i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y c iaae?ao?oie, i?e?ino?oeoo? oa
i?e?ii?eno?i?a ICSMM-10 (E?ieieuei, Iaa?anea, NOA, 1997); \\ 22-a
i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y ii ?io?a/a?aiiei oa i?e?iao?iaei oaeeyi
(A?ioa?a??i, A??aeaeei?y, NOA, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeai aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? /ioe?e noaoo?:
noaooy o Ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ??A IAI Oe?a?ie, noaooy a
Oe?a?inueeiio O?ce/iiio AEo?iae? oa aea? noaoo? o Aeiiia?aeyo
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. Aeieeaaei? iineeaiiy ia oeacai?
?iaioe iaaaaeai? a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui
aeeth/a? 133 iaeiaioaaiiy. Aiia i?noeoue 20 ?enoie?a. Caaaeueiee ia’?i
aeena?oaoe?? — 133 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ei?ioei iaaiai?th?oueny ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oioiao?oueny
aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, oeacothoueny oe?e? ? caaea/? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe??. Iaaiaeeoueny ia?ae?e iioae?eiaaieo ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?? noaoae ? iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, ia yeeo aoee aeieeaaeai?
iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ciaoiaeeoueny oaici? A* i?ia?aeiino? ianeiao?e/ii?
aeaioa?iai? AeAN, yea ienoeoueny o eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?, ui
ni?yiiaaia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aeaiaei??iei aeaeo?iiiei oa?ai.
Aeine?aeaeo?oueny aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aeaeo?ii?a o aeaioa?ia?e
ianeiao?e/i?e AeAN ? aecia/a?oueny eiai aieea ia oi?io e?i?? Oe?. Aeey
?ic?aooieo oaici?a A* i?ia?aeiino? ianeiao?e/ii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN o
eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie? aeei?enoiao?oueny oi?iae?ci a?aia?ianueei?
ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo. Ae??oo?oueny e?iaoe/ia ??aiyiiy aeey a?aia?ianueei?
ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo ? ciaoiaeeoueny ia??aiiaaaeia eiiiiiaioa
a?aia?ianueei? ooieoe??, yea aea? aeeaae o A* no?oi. ?c iaoa??aeueiiai
??aiyiiy, yea iia’yco? A* no?oi o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN c A*
aeaeo?e/iei iieai, ciaoiaeeoueny oaici? A* i?ia?aeiino?. Ciaoiaeeoueny
oaeoi? caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao o iaai?oiiio iie? oeyoii ona?aaeaiiy
??aiiaaaeii? a?aia?ianueei? ooieoe?? o i?inoi?? ?iioeuen?a.
Aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea iniaeeainoae aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a o
ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN ia aeae no?eaeiiiae?aieo caeaaeiinoae
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ? oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino?
aeaeo?ii?a a?ae aaee/eie eaaiooth/iai iaai?oiiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui o
ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN a?aenoaiue i?ae ??aiyie ?ici??iiai
eaaiooaaiiy ii?yaeeo aaee/eie ni?iiaiai ?icuaieaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao. A
?acoeueoao?, i?e ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie iaai?oiiai iiey c’yaey?oueny
iiaeeea?noue ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aeaio ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a
Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i? i?e iii??ii neeueieo iaai?oieo iieyo (5 T — 10
T). Ciaeaeaii, ui ia?aoeiaiiy ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai?
Oa?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy iaeiiai ?c ieaoi ia caeaaeiinoyo oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao oa oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? aeaeo?ii?a a?ae
iaai?oiiai iiey. Aeine?aeaeai? caeaaeiino? oaeoi??a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a
Eaiaeao cieeeeo ieaoi a?ae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ianeiao?e/ii?
aeaioa?iai? AeAN ? aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui cia/aiiy
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue cieeeei ieaoi,
ooai?ththoue iaa?? e?eaeo o eii?aeeiaoao (a,g), aea a — iai?aoe?eia
iioaioe?eiiai aa?’??a, ui ?icae?ey? aea? AeAN. Eiaeia e?eaa g(a)
iia’ycaia c oe?eeii iaaiei cia/aiiyi oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao,
i?e yeiio cieea? oieeianueea ieaoi. Ia?aaeaa/aii aoaeo iiyae no?eae?a
ia oi?i? e?i?? Oe? o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN. Iieacaii, ui oeae
aoaeo ? iane?aeeii no?eaeiiiae?aii? iiaaae?iee oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy
??ai?a Eaiaeao i?e ci?i? iaai?oiiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui aoaeo cieeiaiiy
ieaoi ia caeaaeiino? oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao a?ae iaai?oiiai
iiey (aai ia caeaaeiino? oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? a?ae iaai?oiiai
iiey) i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oi?i?
e?i?? Oe?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi no?eaea iaeneiaeueii?
aaee/eie ia oi?i? e?i?? Oe?. Oea iiaeia c?iaeoe c io?eiaieo
caeaaeiinoae, ye? c’?aeiothoue aaee/eio g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a c
iai?aoe?eiith

i?aeoa?iaiai iioaioe?eiiai aa?’??a oa aaee/eiith oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy
??ai?a Eaiaeao, ui a?aeiia?aea? ieaoi, yea cieeei.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeai? niaeo? oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a, ye? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ocaeiaae iiiaeeiiei? oa
iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iaeo AeAN o iiia?a/iiio eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?.
I?eioneaeiny, ui aea? aeaioa?ia? AeAN, ye? ooai?ththoue iiaea?eio
aeaioa?iao AeAN ciaoiaeyoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii? ia a?aenoai? ii?yaeea
aeiaaeeie oaee? iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a. Aea/ai? aeenia?n?ei?
aeanoeaino? iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, aecia/ai? caeaaeiino?
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a o iiiaeeiie?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN a?ae aaee/eie iaai?oiiai
iiey. Iieacaii, ui eaaiooaaiiy oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? aeaeo?ii?a
i?eaiaeeoue aei eaaioiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o niaeo?a iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a.
Ciaeaeaii, ui a?i yaey? niaith iaa?? aeenia?n?eieo e?eaeo, eiaeia c
yeeo a?aeiia?aea? iaaiiio cia/aiith oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao.
Cieeiaiiy oieeianueeiai ieaoi i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy aeenia?n?eii?
e?eai? c a?aeiia?aeiei cia/aiiyi oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao.

Aeey iiiaeeiiei? aeaioa?iai? AeAN aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino?
eaaiooaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a, ui i?iyaeythoueny o no?eaeiiiae?aieo (ieeeiiiae?aieo)
caeaaeiinoyo oeeo eiao?oe??io?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey. Onoaiiaeaii, ui
aaee/eia niia?eueiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a o aeaioa?iaeo AeAN iiaea
aeinyaaoe aaeeeeo cia/aiue (oaciaa oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
iiaea aooe o 20 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a iaioa oaeaeeino? na?oea o
ae?aeaeo?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, ui ioi/o? aeaioa?iao AeAN). E??i oeueiai,
onoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue i?ioean?a aeeneiaoe?? o AeAN i?eaiaeeoue aei
c?inoaiiy niia?eueiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a. Iieacaii oaeiae, ui
ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aeaio ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai?
Oa?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia
caeaaeiinoyo eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee
can?a aecia/aiiy aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi
no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oeacaieo caeaaeiinoyo.

Aeey iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN aea/ai? aeenia?n?ei? aeanoeaino?
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, aecia/ai? caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a
niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae
aaee/eie iaai?oiiai iiey. Aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino?
eaaiooaaiiy aeenia?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a aeey
aeiaaee?a neiao?e/ii? oa ianeiao?e/ii? iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN.
Aeey neiao?e/ii? oa ianeiao?e/ii? iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN io?eiai?
aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey a?oiiai? oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
iaaeiei Oe?. Iieacaii, ui a?oiiaa oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
cacia? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? no?eaee, ye? i?iii?oe?ei? noae?e oiiei?
no?oeoo?e. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeenia?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeey iiiaeeiei? oa iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN. Iieacaii, cie?aia, ui a
?ac? iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN c’yaey?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa aeenia?n?eia
a?oea iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, yea ia? oi/eo cae?i/aiiy niaeo?a ia
na?oeia?e e?i??. Io?eiaii aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey eii?aeeiao oi/ee
cae?i/aiiy niaeo?a oe??? a?oee. Aeey iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN
aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? eaaiooaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a
niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, ye? i?iyaeythoueny o
no?eaeiiiae?aieo (ieeeiiiae?aieo) caeaaeiinoyo oeeo eiao?oe??io?a a?ae
iaai?oiiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui a ?ac? iiaea?eii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN eiaeia
c oeacaieo caeaaeiinoae ?icuaieth?oueny ia aea? a?oee. A?aenoaiue i?ae
oeeie a?oeaie ca?eueoo?oueny c ?inoii aeiaaeeie oaee? iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a. Oaeiae, ye ? a ?ac? iiiaeeiiei? aeaioa?iai? AeAN aaee/eia
niia?eueiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei aaeeeith
(oaciaa oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a iiaea aooe o 20 ? a?eueoa
?ac?a iaioa oaeaeeino? na?oea o ae?aeaeo?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, ui ioi/o?
aeaioa?iao AeAN). Ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aeaio ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a
Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i? i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae no?eae?a iaeneiaeueii?
aaee/eie ia eiaei?e c a?oie caeaaeiinoae eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa
caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iiaee aaceiioaeoiee can?a aecia/aiiy aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o
AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi oeeo no?eae?a. E??i oeueiai, aeey iiaea?eii?
aeaioa?iai? AeAN ?icaeyaeaeany iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy ?? neiao???
(i?enoaei?no? aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a aeaio aeaioa?iaeo AeAN).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii?
aonoeie oa aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
ca?yaeii, ui ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN, yea ciaoiaeeoueny
o iiia?a/iiio eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?. Aecia/ai? aeaeo?e/i? oa
iaai?oi? iiey ca?yaeo oa ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Ciaeaeai? ao?aoe
aia?a?? ca?yaeo ia ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
ca aanue /an eiai i?ieueioo. Aeey oeueiai ia/eneth?oueny iio?e aaeoi?a
Iieio?iaa /a?ac aieiao iiaa?oith e?oaiaiai oeee?iae?a c a?nnth, yea
ni?yiiaaia ocaeiaae o?a?eoi??? /anoee. I?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c iniaeeainoae
eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, ye? iia’ycai? c iniaeeainoyie aia?aaoe/iiai
niaeo?a aeaioa?iai? AeAN. Aeieeaaeii ?icaeyiooi aeiaaeie eaaiooaaiiy
aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey ? no?eaeiiiae?aiith
(ieeeiiiae?aiith). Io?eiaii i?inoee aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey aia?a??
ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yeee aeinoaoiuei oi/ii iieno? oeacaio
caeaaei?noue. Iieacaii, ui a ?ac? ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aeaio
ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i? aia?a?y ia?ao?aeiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a cacia? no?eaie iaeneiaeueii?
aaee/eie. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee can?a aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao oa aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o
AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia caeaaeiino?
aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe.

AENIIAEE

A ?iaio? o ?aieao oi?iae?cio a?aia?ianueei? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo
aeine?aeaeai? aia?aaoe/iee niaeo?, oaici? i?ia?aeiino? oa A*
aeanoeaino? ianeiao?e/ii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN o iiia?a/iiio eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie?. Iieacaii, ui iayai?noue iniaeeainoae aia?aaoe/iiai
niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey ianeiao?e/ii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN,
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?yaeo iiaeo o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a: aoaeoo cieeiaiiy ieaoi ia
caeaaeiino? oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey, iiyae
no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oi?i? e?i?? Oe?, aoaeoai eaaiooaaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a, a
oaeiae aei aoaeo?a eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa aia?a??
ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ca?yaeii, ui
ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN. Oe? aoaeoe iiaeooue aooe
iieeaaeai? a iniiao iiaeo aaceiioaeoieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao, a oaeiae iaeii? c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee AeAN — g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a.

Noi?ioeth?ii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Ia?aaa/aii aoaeo cieeiaiiy ieaoi c oe?ei/enaeueieie cia/aiiyie oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao (ye ia?ieie, oae ? iaia?ieie) ia caeaaeiino?
oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey o ianeiao?e/i?e
aeaioa?ia?e AeAN, yea ciaoiaeeoueny o ?aaeei? OeEAO. Onoaiiaeaii, ui
i?e/eiith oeueiai aoaeoo ? ia?aoeiaiiy aoaeue-yei? ia?e
ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia ??ai? Oa?i?. Ciaeaeaii, ui aeey
niinoa??aaiiy aoaeoo cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo ieaoi iaiao?aeia iaaia
a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aaiiao?e/ieie ?ici??aie ianeiao?e/ii? aeaioa?iai?
AeAN oa aaee/eiith g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui ca iieiaeaiiyi
no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia caeaaeiino? oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino?
aeaeo?ii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey iiaeia aecia/eoe aaee/eio g-oaeoi?a
aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN.

Ia?aaeaa/aii aoaeo iiyae no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia oi?i? e?i??
Oe? o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN. Iieacaii, ui eiai iiyaa iia’ycaia
c ia?aoeiaiiyi aoaeue-yei? ia?e ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia
??ai? Oa?i?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi oeueiai no?eaea.

Ciaeaeaii, ui niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iia?eueieo iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a o ianeiao?e/i?e aeaioa?ia?e AeAN ? no?eaeiiiae?aieie
(ieeeiiiae?aieie) ooieoe?yie ciai?oiueiai iino?eiiai iaai?oiiai iiey.
Iieacaii, ui niia?eueiaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie? iiaea aeinyaaoe aaeeeeo cia/aiue (oaciaa oaeaee?noue
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a iiaea aooe o 20 ?ac?a iaioa oaeaeeino? na?oea o
ae?aeaeo?e/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, ui ioi/o? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN).
Ciaeaeaii, ui aaee/eie no?eae?a ia caeaaeiinoyo eiao?oe??io?a
niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey
i?iii?oe?ei? noae?e oiiei? no?oeoo?e ? aaee/ei? no?eaea oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao. Oeacaia iiaeeea?noue aecia/aiiy cia/aiue
oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao ca iieiaeaiiyi oa aaee/eiaie no?eae?a
ia oeeo caeaaeiinoyo. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia no?eaea ia caeaaeiinoyo
eiao?oe??io?a niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a a?ae
ciai?oiueiai iino?eiiai iaai?oiiai iiey ? iaeneiaeueiith, yeui
aoaeue-yea ia?a ni?i-?icuaieaieo ??ai?a Eaiaeao ia?aoeia?oueny ia ??ai?
Oa?i?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN ca iieiaeaiiyi no?eaea iaeneiaeueii?
aaee/eie ia oeacaieo caeaaeiinoyo.

Ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy aeaio a?oie iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a o iiaea?ei?e
aeaioa?ia?e AeAN, iaeia c yeeo ia? oi/eo cae?i/aiiy niaeo?a ia
na?oeia?e e?i??. Iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??ioe niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a i?e ci?i? iaai?oiiai iiey caciathoue no?eaee.
A?aenoaiue i?ae aeaiia a?oeaie iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ciaioo?oueny ye
c ?inoii aaee/eie oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?a, oae ? c ?inoii a?aenoai? i?ae
aeaiia aeaioa?iaeie AeAN.

Aeine?aeaeaii ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a
ca?yaeii, ui ia?aoeia? ianeiao?e/io aeaioa?iao AeAN o eaaiooth/iio
iaai?oiiio iie?. Iieacaii, ui eaaiooaaiiy oieeianueei? oa
iiacaeiaaeiuei? i?ia?aeiinoae ianeiao?e/ii? aeaioa?iai? AeAN
i?eaiaeeoue aei eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa aia?a??
ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a. Ciaeaeaii, ui
niaeo?aeueia aonoeia ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoii?a o iaai?oiiio iie? yaey? niaith iaa?? e?eaeo, eiaeia c yeeo
a?aeiia?aea? iaaiiio cia/aiith oaeoi?a caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao.
A?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeiai ieaoi ia caeaaeiino? oieeianueei?
i?ia?aeiino? aeaeo?ii?a a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey i?eaiaeeoue aei cieeiaiiy
iaaii? e?eai? aeey niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ? aei iiyae no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie ia
caeaaeiino? aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae iaai?oiiai iiey.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aaceiioaeoiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaee/eie oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao oa aaee/eie g-oaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a o AeAN, yeee
aeei?enoiao? iniaeeaino? eaaiooaaiiy niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie ? aia?a??
ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a o ianeiao?e/i?e
aeaioa?ia?e AeAN.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aaa?eia TH.I., A?iiia E.A., Aaeaoeeee I.I. Oeeeeio?iiiue ?aciiain a
aeaooneieiie yeaeo?iiiie nenoaia, iaoiaeyuaeny a neeueiii iaaieoiii
iiea // Nai?iee o?oaeia E?Y IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — O.2, ? 1 — N.80-85.

Aaa?eia TH.I., Aaeaoeeee I.I. Iiaa?oiinoiua iiey?eoiiu a aeaooneieiie
aeaoia?iie yeaeo?iiiie nenoaia, iaoiaeyuaeny a neeueiii iaaieoiii iiea
// AeAIO. — 1997. — ? 12 — N.76-82.

Averkov Yu.O., Beletskii N.N. Surface polaritons in a double two-layer
two-dimensional electron system placed in strong magnetic field // OOAE.
— 1997. — O.42, ? 11-12 — N.1408-1415.

Aaa?eia TH.I., Aaeaoeeee I.I., sseiaaiei A.I. Ia?aoiaeiia eceo/aiea
iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia ca?yaeii, ia?anaeathuei aeaooneieioth
aeaoia?ioth yeaeo?iiioth nenoaio a neeueiii iaaieoiii iiea // AeAIO. —
1998. — ? 1 — N.96 -102.

Aronov I.E., Averkov Yu.O., Beletskii N.N. Integer quantum Hall effect
in the double two-dimensional electron system // Abstr. of 10th
International Conference on Superlattices, Microstructures, and
Microdevices, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. — 1997.

Aronov I.E., Averkov Yu.O., Beletskii N.N. High-frequency properties of
the double layer electron system // Abstr. of 22nd International
Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Wintergreen, Virginia,
USA. — 1997.

NIENIE OeEOIAAII? O AAOI?AOA?AO? E?OA?AOO?E

von Klitzing K., Dorda D., and Pepper M. Realization of a resistance
standard based on fundamental constants // Phys.Rev.Lett. — 1980. —
V.45, ? 6. — P.494-497.

Aronov I.E., Beletskii N.N. Fundamental steps of the group velocity for
slow surface polaritons in the two-dimensional electron gas in a high
magnetic field // J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. — 1996. — V.8. —
P.4919-4936.

Jiang D.S., Goiran M., Leotin J., Askenazy S., Zhang Y.H., Ploog K.
Filling-factor-depend cyclotron resonance in GaInAs/AlInAs
modulation-doped single quantum wells // Phys. Stat. Sol.(B).— 1993. —
V.179. — P.91 -100.

quantum wells // Phys. Rev. B. — 1997. — V.55, ? 3 — P.1617-1636.

Boebinger G.S., Jiang H.W., Pfeiffer L.N., and West K.W.
Magnetic-field-driven destruction of quantum Hall states in a double
quantum well // Phys. Rev.Lett. — 1990. — V.64, ? 15. — P.1793-1796.

Arnone D.D., Marlow T.P., Foden C.L., Linfield E.H., Ritchie D.A., and
Pepper M. Cyclotron-resonance studies of strongly coupled double
quantum wells in tilted magnetic fields near the quantum and
semiclassical limits //Phys. Rev. B. — 1997. — V.56, ? 8. —
P.R4340-4343.

Aizin G.R. and Godfrey Gumbs. Tunneling magnetoplasmon excitations in
the semiclassical limit and integer quantum Hall regime for
double-quantum-well systems // Phys. Rev. B. — 1995. — V.52, ? 3.-
P.1890-1904.

Aaa?eia TH.I. Auniei/anoioiua yaeaiey a aeaooneieiuo aeaoia?iuo
yeaeo?iiiuo nenoaiao a eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.02 — oai?aoe/aneay
oeceea. — Einoeooo iiiie?enoaeeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

e iaoiaeyueony a eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea. Eco/aii aeeyiea
oeaei/eneaiiiai eaaioiaiai yooaeoa Oieea a oaeiai ?iaea nenoaiao ia
oeeeeio?iiiue ?aciiain, i?ioeannu ?ani?ino?aiaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo
iiey?eoiiia e eo ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey ca?yaeaiiie /anoeoeae.
Eneeaaeiaai yia?aaoe/aneee niaeo? yeaeo?iiia e iaeaeai oaici?
i?iaiaeeiinoe ianeiiao?e/iie aeaooneieiie aeaoia?iie yeaeo?iiiie
nenoaiu.

?an/ao oaici?a auniei/anoioiie i?iaiaeeiinoe ianeiiao?e/iie
aeaooneieiie aeaoia?iie yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu i?iaaaeai a ?aieao
oi?iaeecia aeaia?ianeie ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Oaeoi? caiieiaiey
o?iaiae Eaiaeao a iaaieoiii iiea iieo/ai iooai on?aaeiaiey ?aaiiaaniie
aeaia?ianeie ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii i?ino?ainoao eiioeuenia.
Iieacaii, /oi yooaeo en/aciiaaiey oieeianeeo ieaoi eae n /aoiuie, oae e
n ia/aoiuie cia/aieyie oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae Eaiaeao iiaeii
iauynieoue n iiiiuueth yaeaiey ia?ana/aiey aeaoo niei-?anuaieaiiuo
o?iaiae Eaiaeao ia o?iaia Oa?ie. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea aaiiao?e/aneeo
?acia?ia e aaee/eiu g-oaeoi?a yeaeo?iiia ianeiiao?e/iie aeaooneieiie
aeaoia?iie yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu ia cia/aiey oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae
Eaiaeao en/acioaoeo ieaoi. Enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe ?anuaieaiey oi?iu
eeiee oeeeeio?iiiiai ?aciiaina i?e iaee/ee yooaeoa en/aciiaaiey
oieeianeeo ieaoi. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo iniaaiiinoae i?aaeeiaeai iiaue
aaneiioaeoiue niinia ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae
Eaiaeao e aaee/eiu g-oaeoi?a yeaeo?iiia a aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo
nenoaiao.

Enneaaeiaaiu niaeo? e caoooaiea iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia,
?ani?ino?aiythueony aaeieue iaeeii/iie e aeaieiie aeaooneieiuo
aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo nenoai a ?aaeeia oeaei/eneaiiiai eaaioiaiai
yooaeoa Oieea. Aeaieiay aeaooneieiay aeaoia?iay yeaeo?iiiay nenoaia
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie aeaa aeaooneieiua aeaoia?iua yeaeo?iiiua nenoaiu,
ionoiyuea ae?oa io ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee ii?yaeea aeeeiu aieiu
iiaa?oiinoiiai iiey?eoiia. Ii?aaeaeaiu caaeneiinoe eiyooeoeeaioia
caiaaeeaiey e caoooaiey iaaeeaiiuo iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia io
aaee/eiu iaaieoiiai iiey. Enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe eaaioiaaiey niaeo?a
iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia e eiyooeoeeaioia caiaaeeaiey e caoooaiey i?e
iaee/eee yooaeoa en/aciiaaiey oieeianeeo ieaoi. I?iaaaeai
n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec aeenia?neiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey iaeeii/iie e
aeaieiie aeaooneieiuo aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo nenoai. Iieacaii, /oi a
neo/aa aeaieiie aeaooneieiie aeaoia?iie yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu iiyaeyaony
aeiiieieoaeueiay aeenia?neiiiay aaoaue iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia,
eiathuay oi/eo ieii/aiey niaeo?a ia naaoiaie eeiee. Iiae?iaii
enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe eaaioiaaiey

aeenia?neiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia aeey neo/aaa
neiiao?e/iie e ianeiiao?e/iie aeaieiie aeaooneieiie aeaoia?iie
yeaeo?iiiie nenoaiu. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue aaneiioaeoiue niinia
ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae Eaiaeao e aaee/eiu
g-oaeoi?a yeaeo?iiia, iniiaaiiue ia aiaeeca caaeneiinoae eiyooeoeeaioia
caiaaeeaiey e caoooaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia io iaaieoiiai iiey.

Enneaaeiaaii eaaioiaaiea niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe e yia?aee
ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia ca?yaeii,
ia?anaeathuei ianeiiao?e/ioth aeaooneieioth aeaoia?ioth yeaeo?iiioth
nenoaio, iaoiaeyuothny a iiia?a/iii eaaioothuai iaaieoiii iiea.
Ii?aaeaeaiu yeaeo?e/aneea e iaaieoiua iiey ca?yaea e ia?aoiaeiiai
eceo/aiey. Iaeaeaiu iioa?e yia?aee ca?yaea ia ia?aoiaeiia eceo/aiea
iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia ca ana a?aiy aai i?ieaoa. Aeey yoie oeaee
au/eneyaony iioie aaeoi?a Iieioeiaa /a?ac aieiaoth iiaa?oiinoue
e?oaiaiai oeeeeiae?a n inueth, iai?aaeaiiie aaeieue o?aaeoi?ee
/anoeoeu. I?iaiaeeony aiaeec iniaaiiinoae eaaioiaaiey niaeo?aeueiie
ieioiinoe e yia?aee ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey, naycaiiuo n iniaaiiinoyie
yia?aaoe/aneiai niaeo?a yeaeo?iiia a aeaooneieiie aeaoia?iie
yeaeo?iiiie nenoaia. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo iniaaiiinoae i?aaeeiaeai iiaue
aaneiioaeoiue niinia ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae
Eaiaeao e aaee/eiu g-oaeoi?a yeaeo?iiia a aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo
nenoaiao.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e enneaaeiaaiee noaoe/aneeo e auniei/anoioiuo
naienoa ianeiiao?e/iuo aeaooneieiuo aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo nenoai,
iaoiaeyueony a ?aaeeia oeaei/eneaiiiai eaaioiaiai yooaeoa Oieea,
i?aaeneacaiu neaaeothuea iiaua yooaeou: yooaeo en/aciiaaiey oieeianeeo
ieaoi eae n /aoiuie, oae e n ia/aoiuie cia/aieyie oaeoi?a caiieiaiey
o?iaiae Eaiaeao, yooaeo iiyaeaiey nea/ea iaeneiaeueiie aaee/eiu ia
oi?ia eeiee oeeeeio?iiiiai ?aciiaina, yooaeo eaaioiaaiey eiyooeoeeaioia
caiaaeeaiey e caoooaiey iiaa?oiinoiuo iiey?eoiiia, yooaeo eaaioiaaiey
niaeo?aeueiie ieioiinoe e yia?aee ia?aoiaeiiai eceo/aiey iiaa?oiinoiuo
iiey?eoiiia ca?yaeii, ia?anaeathuei aeaooneieioth aeaoia?ioth
yeaeo?iiioth nenoaio.

Ia iniiaa auoaoeacaiiuo yooaeoia i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua aaneiioaeoiua
ia?ac?ooathuea niiniau ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?a caiieiaiey o?iaiae Eaiaeao
e g-oaeoi?a yeaeo?iiia a aeaoia?iuo yeaeo?iiiuo nenoaiao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaoia?iay yeaeo?iiiay nenoaia, oeaei/eneaiiue
eaaioiaue yooaeo Oieea, oeeeeio?iiiue ?aciiain, iiaa?oiinoiua
iiey?eoiiu, ia?aoiaeiia eceo/aiea, g-oaeoi? yeaeo?iiia.

Averkov Yu. O. High frequency phenomena in two-layer two-dimensional
electron systems in quantizing magnetic field. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the scientific degree of candidate of physical and
mathematical sciences, speciality 01.04. 02 — theoretical physics. —
Institute for Single Crystals of National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine, Kharkiv, 1998.

The dissertation is dealing with energy spectrum of electrons, Hall’s
conductivity and the high frequency properties of non-symmetrical
two-layer two-dimensional electron systems in quantizing magnetic field
in the regime of integer quantum Hall effect. It has been found out
that the peculiarities of energy spectrum of electrons in such systems
lead to the effect of vanishing Hall’s plateaux both with even and odd
integer values of the Landau’s level filling factors. It has been shown
that this effect is the cause of a number of new high frequency
effects: the emergence of the step of maximum value on the line of
cyclotron resonance, quantizing of the coefficients of deceleration and
damping surface polaritons and quantizing of spectrum density and the
transition surface polaritons radiation energy by the charge,
intersecting the structure investigated.

Key words: two-dimensional electron system, integer quantum Hall
effect,

cyclotron resonance, surface polaritons, transition radiation, electron
g-factor.

Aaa?eia TH.I. Aeniei/anoioi? yaeua o aeaioa?iaeo aeaiaei??ieo
aeaeo?iiieo nenoaiao o eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.02 — oai?aoe/ia
o?ceea. — ?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a, 1998 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a
aeaeo?ii?a, oieeianueei? i?ia?aeiino? oa aeniei/anoioieo aeanoeainoae
ianeiao?e/ieo aeaioa?iaeo aeaiaei??ieo aeaeo?iiieo nenoai o
eaaiooth/iio iaai?oiiio iie? o ?aaeei? oe?ei/enaeueiiai eaaioiaiai
aoaeoa Oieea. Aeyaeaii, ui iniaeeaino? aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a aeaeo?ii?a
o oaeeo nenoaiao i?eaiaeyoue aei aoaeoo cieeiaiiy oieeianueeeo ieaoi ye
c ia?ieie, oae ? c iaia?ieie oe?ei/enaeueieie cia/aiiyie oaeoi?a
caiiaiaiiy ??ai?a Eaiaeao. Iieacaii, ui oeae aoaeo iaoiiaeth? oe?eee
?yae iiaeo aeniei/anoioieo aoaeo?a: iiyao no?eaea iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie
ia oi?i? e?i?? oeeeeio?iiiiai ?aciiaino, eaaiooaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a
niia?eueiaiiy oa caaanaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ? eaaiooaaiiy
niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie oa aia?a?? ia?ao?aeiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaa?oiaaeo iiey?eoii?a ca?yaeii, ui ia?aoeia? aeaeo?iiio nenoaio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaiaei??ia aeaeo?iiia nenoaia, oe?ei/enaeueiee
eaaioiaee aoaeo Oieea, oeeeeio?iiiee ?aciiain, iiaa?oiaa? iiey?eoiie,
ia?ao?aeia aei?ii?ithaaiiy, g-oaeoi? aeaeo?ii?a.

I?aeienaiee aei ae?oeo ( 28 ( n?/iy 1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60×84 1/16. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0

Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii RISO Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Oa?e?a, 310077, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4

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