Віктимологічна профілактика порушень правил безпеки дорожнього руху (ст.215 КК України): Автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук / О.М. Мойсюк, НАН України.

6

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i. A.I. EI?AOeUeEIAI

IIENTHE Ieaa Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 943.988

A?EOEIIEIA?*IA I?IO?EAEOEEA

II?OOAIUe I?AAEE AACIAEE AeI?IAEIUeIAI ?OOO

(no.215 EE Oe?a?ie)

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 12.00.08 — e?eiiiaeueia i?aai oa e?eiiiieiaiy;

e?eiiiaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeaii? aioo?ioiio ni?aa
Oe?a?ie (I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie).

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,
Oeeaoeaiei Oaia?a Aeieo??aia, Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeaiiy aioo?ioiio ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeooeia Aaea??e
Ieaenaiae?iae/,

I?aea?aeii/ee iaeiai-aeine?aeiee oeaio? c i?iaeai ai?ioueae c
i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth i?e Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiio eii?oao? ii ai?iouea?
c ei?oioe??th ? i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie,
ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eo;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe I?eea? Aiaoie?e Eineiiae/, ?inoeooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Ee?a.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «04»aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.236.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe
i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee «31»na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe __________________ ?.I. EO*A?AIEI

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ai?ioueaa c? cei/eiaie i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo ? iaei??th c aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?i na?oo. Aiia
aeeth/aia aenia?oaie III a ia?ae?e iniiaieo i?iaeai ethaenoaa ii?yae c
oaeeie, ye aeieia?y, aeei?enoaiiy aia?ai?ano?n?a, ai?ioueaa c ?aeiaeie
caoai?thaaiiyie. I?iaeaia aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? iane?aeeii
i?ioeano aaoiiia?e?caoe??, yeee iaaoa a XX noi??//? oaeaeeeo oaii?a ?
i?ei?n c niaith oaeee iaaaoeaiee nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai, ye
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi? i?eaiaee.

Aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi? i?eaiaee noaee ieoiiei na?aaeiaeuai aeey
cei/eiieo ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? a?ae??ciythoueny
a?ae cei/eiieo ii?ooaiue eeoa nooiaiai noni?eueii? iaaaciaee. Iaea?eueo
iioe?aieie na?aae cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? ae?yiiy,
ia?aaeaa/ai? no.215 E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeaa iaaacia/i?noue cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c ii?ooaiiyi i?aaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ia o?eueee iinyaathoue ia
aaciaeo aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aea e caiiae?ththoue oeiaeo caei?ia’th oa
aeeooth a?iiaaeyi. Iieacieee AeA? IAN Oe?a?ie ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a
na?ae/aoue, ui a e?a?i? noaeiny aeecueei 200 oen.
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae, a yeeo caaeioei iiiaae 35 oeny/
/ieia?e, a a?eueo ye 220 oeny/ ii?aiaii.

C iaoith caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a aaoiiia?e?caoe?? noai?ai?
niaoe?aeuei? aea?aeaai?, i?aeaea?aeaai? oa na?oia? i?aai?caoe??, ui
?ic?iaeythoue eiiieaene ??ciiiai?oieo caoiae?a, aea i?iaeaia aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith, ui aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai
iaoeiaiai iiooeo iiaeo oi?i oa cania?a c iaoith caaaa/aiiy a?naiaeo
caoiae?a ai?ioueae c i?aaiii?ooaiiyie o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

?icaeoie iaeiiai c oaeeo iai?yie?a iiaeiia caaacia/eoe a?eoeiieia?y —
aaeocue e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee, ui aea/a? aea?oao i?aaiii?ooaiiy.
Nueiaiaei? caeaa?eueoiai ?niothoue caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
oeueiai iai?yieo, oiae? ye aeeooy aeiaaa? i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie a ??cieo
noa?ao noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

A?eoeiieia?y — naia oa aaeocue e?ei?iieia??, yea caeaoia ?ic?iaeyoe
caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue o noa??
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ine?eueee a?ae o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo —
aiae??a, ianaaee??a oa i?oioiae?a caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee noai
aaa??eiino?, aea e ioi?iia ethaeeie ye aeui? oe?iiino? a noni?euenoa?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?eoeiieia?/ieo i?iaeai noa?e aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
aeicaieeoue oaeineiiaeeoe ?? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiao ioi?iio, ?ica’ycaoe
aeaye? ieoaiiy th?eaee/ii? ioe?iee noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo ae?yiue. Iiaee
E?ei?iaeueiee eiaeaen Oe?a?ie iiaeiai i?noeoe a?eueoa iieiaeaiue, ye? a
a?aoiaoaaee iniao iioa?i?eiai, ?ieue ? oa?aeoa? eiai iiaaae?iee a
neooaoe?? cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy, i?e i?ecia/aii? aeiiiio iiea?aiiy oa
eiai ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??.

A?aenooi?noue a th?eaee/i?e iaooe? i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie i?iaeaie,
a?aeiia?aeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ne?ae/i? oa noaeiai? i?aeoeee ii
aea/aiith iniae iioa?i?eiai a?ae ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo, caoiae?a uiaei ?o iiia?aaeaeaiiy, iaiaaeo? iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a i?iaaaeaii? ia iaeaaeiiio ??ai?
a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo.

Ii/aoe?aoeai aieoeiieiai/iiai iai?yieo na?aae a/aieo e?a?i NIAe
aaaaea?oueny E.O?aie, ia?o yeiai iaeaaeaoue ia?oi a th?eaee/iie
eioa?aoo?i i?aoei c aieoeiieiai/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. ?iciiiaiioii noi?iie
oei?? aaaaoiieaiiai? i?iaeaie io?eiaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a i?aoeyo
oaeeo a/aieo, ye A.Aaaianiaa, A.Aaiaeeoaaa, ?.Iioa?aa, A.Iiiieiiiaa,
N.Ino?ioiiaa, A.Iieoaeinueeiai, I.?acii/aiea, Ae.?iaiaia, E.?iiaiiai?,
A.?eaaeuenueei?, N.Niaie?aa, I.Oaa?aei? oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

Aaeeeee aeeaae c?iaeee aeey ?icaeoeo e?ei?iieia?/ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?
oae? a/ai?, ye I.Ieoaeeaiei, ?.Eaiiaaiei, O.Eiiooainueeee, I.Na?oeia,
?.Oo?eaae/, A.Caeaiaoeueeee, ?.Aeaiueoei, I.Einoaiei, A.Cae?ineee,
E.Aaa??e-Oaoiaoia, TH.A?ioaaie, A.Noaoen, A.Oaoe?e, A.Neeaeoeueeee,
I.Ei?aeaineee, N.ssoeaiei, I.Iaiia, I.Aaiaeo?ei, A.Ii?, ?.No?aeueoeia,
A.Caeaethe, A.Oaeoi, A.Aeooeia, A.E?oieia, A.Ni?o??iei, I.Aeaeoaea,
O.Oeeaoeaiei, A.Ieneeaee, A.AEaioio?e, I.Aiae?ooei, A.I?eea?,
E.Aiaieaaa, N.Inoaiaoeue oa ?io? oao?aoe? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa
e?ei?iieia??.

Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith iioa?i?eiai o cei/eiao i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ?icaeyaeaeenue a ?iaioao I.Aeaaaey, A.AEoeueiaa,
A.Eaaoena, I.Ei?ia??aa, A.Eoe’yiiaa oa ?ioeo a/aieo. A?eoeiieia?/iei
i?iaeaiai aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo cei/ei?a aoee i?enay/ai? ?iaioe
E.O?aiea, ?.Ia?ooeueeiai, E.Noaiaiiai?, iaae?oeiaai? a ?in?enuee?e
Oaaea?aoe?? oa Oaaeaeeeenoai?. Aiie aecia/eee iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
iioa?i?eiai o cei/eiao i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aea ia ae??oeee
aaaaoueio ieoaiue i?iaeaie.

Cacia/aia i?iaeaia a Oe?a?i? ia aoea i?aaeiaoii aeiaeiiai iiiia?ao?/iiai
aai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?nioth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
ai?ioueae c? cei/eiaie a noa?? aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo noinoaaeeny,
ia?aaaaeii, e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo oa caaaeueieo e?ei?iieia?/ieo i?iaeai
oeeo i?aaiii?ooaiue, eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii oi?eath/enue ieoaiue
a?eoeiieia??. Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy a?eoeiieia?/ieo i?iaeai o
noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? ia io?eiaei iaiao?aeiiai nooiaith
?ic?iaee, caeaoiiai ?aaeueii aieeaaoe ia noai iiia?aaeaeaiiy
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?aaiii?ooaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a?aeiia?aeii ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o eaoaae?e e?ei?iieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie (IAN Oe?a?ie) ? aeeiiaia ca?aeii c iniiaieie iai?yieaie
Eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia 1996-2000
?iee, caoaa?aeaeaii? I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie 17 aa?aniy 1996 ?ieo, iaeacii
IAN Oe?a?ie a?ae 20 aeiaoiy 1996 ?ieo ?722 “I?i i?aai?caoe?th aeeiiaiiy
Eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth ia 1996-2000 ?iee” oa
ia?niaeoeaiei ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy aea?oae (iioa?i?eiai) a?ae
cei/eiieo ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ia iniia? ??
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co c iiceoe?e e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ? e?ei?iieia?/ii?
iaoee oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?io?eaeoeee oeeo cei/ei?a oa ?ioeo
i?aaiii?ooaiue o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e
uiaei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeacaieo caoiae?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaio iinoaaea oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?icaeyiooe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe ?noi?eei-i?aaia? aeaea?aea a/aiiy i?i
aea?oao cei/eio;

— ?icaeyiooe no/aniee iiiyo?eiee aia?ao a?eoeiieia?? oa iiiyooy aea?oae
cei/eio;

— a?aeie?aieoe iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe i?iaeaie iioa?i?eiai, ui
aea/athoueny e?ei?iaeueiei i?aaii ? e?ei?iieia??th, c o?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae oe??? i?iaeaie o cei/eiao i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— aecia/eoe iiiyooy iniae iioa?i?eiai a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe e?ei?iieia?/i?, i?aaia? oa ?io? yeino? ? ?ene
iioa?i?eiai a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— aecia/eoe cia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee aea?oae a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo c iiceoe?? ?o aieeao ia neooaoe?th a/eiaiiy oeeo
cei/eiieo iinyaaiue;

— ia iniia? aiae?co iiieeie, ui iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny a ne?ae/?e oa
noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?, ?icaeyiooe oeyoe ?o caiia?aaiiy;

— anoaiiaeoe aieea iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eiai ia eaae?o?eaoe?th cei/ei?a, ui
aiae?cothoueny oa i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy iniaai, aeiiei o ?o a/eiaii?;

— c’ynoaaoe oi?ie oa ci?no iai?yie?a ? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caiia?aaiiy cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie a?aeiinii cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— cai?iiiioaaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a o ai?iouea? c?
cei/eiaie i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Iaoiaeieia?/io oa oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoiaee
ae?aeaeoe/iiai i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a yaeu, a oaeiae
oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, ?noi?e/iee, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee oa
nioe?aeueii-th?eaee/iee iaoiaee aiae?co ae?th/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/iee oa ?io? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ci?no ?iaioe iaoiiaea iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, oeea?eueiiai caeii?a Oe?a?ie, ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe?? oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa (ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee aniaeo), a?aeii/?
ii?iaoeai? aeoe oa ?io? aeieoiaioe, ui ?aaoeththoue a?aeiineie a noa??
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie,
a oaeiae a?aeiia?aei? iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo eieeoiueiai
Nithco ?N? oa ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??.

A i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aeena?oaoe??, ii?yae c ?iaioaie c e?ei?iieia??,
oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaeanue e?oa?aoo?a c e?ei?iaeueiiai,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai, oeea?eueiiai i?aaa, e?ei?iae?noe/ia,
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia, o?einionueea, nioe?ieia?/ia, ineoieia?/ia,
oaoi?/ia oa ?ioa niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a, yea noino?oueny oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue noi?ioeueiaaieo a aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?
aeniiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aaicanoiniai?e i?aeoeoe? a?oioo?oueny ia
aii??e/i?e aac?. Anueiai ca niaoe?aeueiith i?ia?aiith aoei aea/aii 256
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa (no.215 EE Oe?a?ie), 311 iaaeioaaeueieo aeniiae?a,
120 ae?ie?a, 123 iinoaiiae i?i cae?eooy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, a oaeiae
168 iaoa??ae?a i?i aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi? i?eaiaee, ii yeei a?aeiiaeaii
a ii?ooaii? e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa ca 1991-1996 ??. (Ee?anueea,
Aeiiaoeueea, Caii??cueea, Iaeanueea iaeano?).

I?iaieaoiaaii 308 ?aniiiaeaio?a c ieoaiue oaie aeena?oaoe?? (ne?ae/?,
noaeae?, i?aoe?aieee i?e?oe??, o/anieee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oa ?io?
iniae).

A aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? noaoenoe/i? aeai? I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe??,
Oi?aae?iiy AeA? IAN Oe?a?ie, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oeaio?o aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo IAN Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee ne?ae/eo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aai?a
aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa ae?ciaiiy, noaeia? iaeyaee oa ?io? iaoa??aee, ui
noinothoueny oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?iaioa ?
ia?oei a Oe?a?i? eiiieaeniei iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
a?eoeiieia?/ieo i?iaeai iioa?i?eiai a?ae cei/eiieo ii?ooaiue i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ine?eueee ia iaoeiaiio ??ai? i?iaeaia
iioa?i?eiai a e?ei?iieia?/iiio oa e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaiio ieai?
niaoe?aeueii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeany. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeena?oaioii
?ic?iaeai? ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno iieiaeaiiy, o yeeo:

— c?iaeaii aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aniaeoo ?icaeoeo ?
no/aniiai noaio e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaeyaeo ia
a?eoeiieia?/i? i?iaeaie oe??? aaeoc? th?eaee/ii? iaoee;

— iiaeeaeaia ?ic?iaea iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo a?eoeiieia?/iiai a/aiiy a
iaaeao no/anii? e?ei?iieia?? oa aianai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei onoiaiiy
?nioth/eo i?ioe??/;

— aecia/aii iiiyooy, ci?no oa iciaee iioa?i?eiai (aea?oae) a?ae cei/eio,
iia’ycaiiai c ii?ooaiiyi i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae
cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iioa?i?eeo (aea?oa) a?ae oeeo cei/ei?a;

— aia?oa eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeaia ?ieue iioa?i?eiai a aaiacen? cei/eio
i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oa aieea iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eiai ia
neooaoe?th a/eiaiiy oeeo cei/eiieo iinyaaiue;

— iiaeeaeaii aea/aiiy e?ei?iieia?/ieo, i?aaiaeo oa ?ioeo yeinoae ? ?en
iioa?i?eiai a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— ae??oaii ie?ai? ieoaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aeiiiai oa
iioa?i?eiai, a oaeiae ia?ae?e ianoaaei, ui iaoyaeothoue aai
iii’yeoothoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, i?i eaae?o?eaoe?th oa i?ecia/aiiy
iiea?aiiy aeiiiio;

— oaeineiiaeaii ia?aiao?e oa?aeoa?enoee iioa?i?eiai a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo aeey aecia/aiiy ?o aieeao ia i?e/eie oa oiiae
oeeo cei/eiieo iinyaaiue;

— c iiaeo iiceoe?e c’yniaaii oi?ie oa ci?no iai?yie?a ? caoiae?a,
ni?yiiaaieo ia caiia?aaiiy cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— aianai? i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
uiaei cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— aianai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a ?icne?aeoaaiiy oa noae?a o ai?iouea? c? cei/eiaie
i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

— ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o ai?iouea? c? cei/eiaie i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe
iieyaa? o oaeoe/iiio aeei?enoaii? noa’?eoaie i?io?eaeoeee ?ic?iaeaieo
aeena?oaioii iieiaeaiue aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ieoaiue a?eoeiieia?/ii?
i?iaeaiaoeee, iie?ioaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?, aaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaie e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaeo ii?i uiaei cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo o iiaiio E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie.

Ie?ai? i?iiiceoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaai? aei iinoaiiae Ieaioio
Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie “I?i i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy noaeaie Oe?a?ie
caeiiiaeaanoaa o ni?aaao i?i o?ainii?oi? cei/eie” noiniaii ieoaiue
a?eoeiieia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oe? noni?eueii
iaaacia/i? ae?yiiy.

I?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? aeena?oaioa aeciaii aeioe?eueieie aeey
iioei?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? (i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, noaeo oa ?ioeo) i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaei aiae?cii, eaae?o?eaoe??th oa
iiia?aaeaeaiiyi cei/ei?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo no.215 EE Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? th?eaee/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa oaeoeueoao?a c?
niaoe?aeueiino? “i?aaiciaanoai” i?e aea/aii? eo?no “E?ei?iieia?y”,
“E?ei?iaeueia i?aai Oe?a?ie” oa a?aeiia?aeieo niaoeeo?n?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii?eethaeiaii ia i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia?? (Ee?a –
1997, Caii??aeaey – 1997, Ee?a – 1998), a oaeiae a iaaiai?aiiyo ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e e?ei?iieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a 4 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a c n?iiia i?ae?icae?eaie, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e a e?eueeino? 153 aeaea?ae, aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya
?iaioe noaiiaeoue 203 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, aena?oeth?oueny ??
aeooaeuei?noue, ??aaiue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue, iieacaia
ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1 “A?eoeiieia?/i? i?iaeaie aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo”
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, ui i?noyoue caaaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei
i?iaeaie a/aiiy i?i aea?oao, iniiai? eiai eaoaai???, a oaeiae
a?eoeiieia?/i? aniaeoe oeueiai ieoaiiy o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. A
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy a/aiiy i?i aea?oao cei/eio oa
eiai iiiyo?eiee aia?ao” ia i?aenoaa? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aiae?co
?icaeyaea?oueny oi?ioaaiiy a?eoeiieia?? – a/aiiy i?i aea?oao cei/eio,
ii/aoee yeiai neeaaeaeeny o noni?euenoa? noiniaii ethaeae, ye? /a?ac
nai? iniaeeaino? aai iiaaae?ieo caciaaaee oeiaee. AEa?oaa
a?aeia?aaeaeanue o oieueeei??, aaaaoiaieia?e eioa?aoo?? ii/eiath/e a?ae
eaaaiaea?ieo i?o?a aei ooaeiaeiuei? eeaneee nueiaiaeaiiy, a yeeo aea?oaa
iinooiiai aecia/eeanue ye na?eicia nioeiaeueia yaeua.

Aeena?oaio i?inoaaeo? oeyo ?icaeoeo caoenoo aea?oae a?ae ia??iaeo
?aiiuei? i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e aei iei?oiueiai aeiy. A ?iaio? iaaiaeyoueny
iieiaeaiiy ?aaiaeanieoeueeiai oa oaiaeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa noiniaii
aca?iiaiaeiinei iioa?iieiai ? iniae, yea caaaeaea oeiaeo aea?oa?.
Aea?aeaaa iaiaaaeany caaacia/eoe ioi?iio iaeaaaeeea?oeo noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, aea aei na?aaeeie XVIII noi??//y e?ei?iaeueiee caeii, ye ?
aeieo?eia a ?onueeiio i?aa?, ciaee in?a (ae?iaeee, oieiie, oeeaaie
oiui), ye? aoee aea?oaaie iinyaaiue, ui ia aaaaeaeenue cei/eiaie.

Aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui a e?ioe? XIX no. iaaoea naiai iioe?aiiy
e?ei?iieia?/ia aeoiea, a a 1947 ?ioe? io?eiaea “eaa?oeii?noue”
a?eoeiieia?y, yea noaea iiaei iaoeiaei iai?yieii (A.Iaiaeaeuenii,
A.Aaioea oa iio?). A 70-o? ?iee ?aaeyinueeee a/aiee E.O?aie aeaeaa ia?oi
i?aoei c aieoeiieiai?, eiioeaiooaeuei? ?aea? yei? ?icaeee I.Aeaaaeue,
N.Ino?ioiia, A.Iieoaeinueeee oa iio? a/ai?. ?icii/aeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea?oa ie?aieo aeae?a i?aaiii?ooaiue.

Aecia/eaoe iniiai? iai?yiee no/anii? aieoeiieiai?, aeena?oaio,
ai?iaeiaae i?ae?icae?eo cina?aaeaeo? oaaao ia aiae?c? iiiyo?eiiai
aia?aoo. A?i aaaaea?, ui aea?oaa cei/eio aoiaeeoue a i?aaeiao
e?ei?iieia??, ine?eueee e?eiiiieiaiy, ia eiai aeoieo, — oea
nioeiieiai-i?aaiaa iaoea, ui aea/a? cei/eiiinoue, i?e/eie oa oiiae
cei/eiiinoi, iniaenoinoue cei/eioey, iniaenoinoue aea?oae cei/eio oa
caoiaee i?ioieaeoeee cei/eiiinoi.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? iniiai? aieoeiieiai/i? iiiyooy: aea?oaa,
aieoeiiinoue, aieoeiicaoeiy oa a?eoeiiaaiia neooaoe?y. AEa?oaa —
ethaeeia, yea /a?ac noa’?eoeaia aaaeaiiy cei/eioey aai c ia’?eoeaieo
ianoaaei, ui neeaeeny, cacia? o?ce/ii?, ii?aeueii? aai iaeiiai? oeiaee,
iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai /e aeciaii ?? a onoaiiaeaiiio caeiiii ii?yaeeo
iioa?i?eith /e i?.

Eaoaai???th a?eoeiieia?? ? a?eoeii?noue, yea, ia iiaeyae aeena?oaioa, ?
iioaioeieiith aai ?aaeiciaaiith i?aeaeuaiith aeanoeainoth iniae,
iaoiiaeaiith ?? noa’?eoeaieie iniaeeainoyie noaoe aea?oaith aecia/aiiai
aeaeo cei/eiia a eiie?aoiie aieoeiiaaiiie ianoaiiaoei (neooaoei?).
Ii?aoeueiaoth/e oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee (E.O?aie, Ae.?iaiai oa ?io?),
aeena?oaio iiaiaeaeo?oueny, ui a noni?euenoa? ?nio? ianiaa a?eoeii?noue
— nioeiaeueia yaeua, ae?aaeaia o noeoiiinoi aea?oa ? oaeo?a caiiae?yiiy
?i oeiaee cei/eiaie ia iaai?e oa?eoi??? o aecia/aiee ia??iae /ano.
Aeena?oaio caa?oa? oaaao ia ?ioo eeth/iao eaoaai??th — aieoeiicaoeith,
oiaoi i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy iioaioeieii? aea?oae a oaeoe/io aea?oao, ?
aaaaea?, ui oeae ?acoeueoao, yeee ia? i?noea i?e a/eiaii? cei/eio
a?aeiinii ia?, e?aua aecia/aoe ye ?aaeiciaaio aieoeiiinoue.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iioa?i?eee aiane?aeie ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” aeena?oaio aiae?co? a?aeiineie, ui aeieeee o
noni?euenoa? c iiyaith aaoiiia?ey, aeaco? ia iaiao?aei?noue caiia?aaiiy
o?ainii?oieo eiioe?eo?a. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ?
iniiaith i?aai?caoe?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Anoia?a/ oeueiio a eieeoiueiio
N?N? iaeaea i’yoaeanyo ?ie?a ia ?nioaaei ?aeeieo i?aaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo, aoea a?aenooiy iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia ii?i e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, yea
a /?oei ?aaoethaaea aaciaeo aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Neooaoe?y ii/aea ci?ithaaoeny a 60-o? ?iee, aea aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui
cacia/ai? oaeoi?e iaaaoeaii aieeioee ia noai aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
ia anueiio i?inoi?? eieeoiueiai N?N?, ianaeaiiy yeiai aeyaeeiny ia
aioiaei aei oaeaeei c?inoath/i? aaoiiia?e?caoe??, ca ui oaia? eiaeai ??e
ieaoeoue aeanyoeaie oeny/ aea?oa, ui cia/ii a?eueoa i?ae o aoaeue-ye?e
e?a?i? na?oo. Ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? a
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiaeao caaeioei iiiaae 35 oeny/ /ieia?e.
Oeae ??aaiue aaa??eiino? i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a caeeoa?oueny
noaa?eueiei.

Aiae?c iieaco?, ui cei/eii? ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
noaiiaeyoue i?eaeecii 7,0% a?ae caaaeueiiai ??aiy cei/eiiino? a Oe?a?i?.
Ieoiia aaaa ae?yiue, ui i?noyoue iciaee cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a?ae on?o aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae noaiiaeoue
43,5%, a aeiey ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ui inoaoi/ii
aeciai? noaeaie cei/eiaie a?aeiinii caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae — 12,4%.

Aei?iaei? i?eaiaee iathoue caaaeuei? ?ene ? eeaneo?eothoueny a Oe?a?i?
ca oaeeie aeaeaie: c?oeiaiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a — 22,0%; ia?aeeaeaiiy
o?ainii?oieo cania?a — 10,3%; ia?cae ia o?ainii?oiee can?a, ui noi?oue —
2,8%; ia?cae ia ia?aoeiaeo — 9,5%; ia?cae ia i?oioiaea — 46,1%; ia?cae
ia aaeineiaaeenoa — 7,8%; ia?cae ia aoaeiaee o?ainii?o — 0,7 %; ia?cae
ia oaa?ei — 0,1%; iaae?iiy ianaaee?a — 0,6%, iaae?iiy aaioaae?a – 0,1%.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui e?euee?noue i?eaiae, a yeeo ae?? aiae??a
aoei aeciaii cei/eiieie, a oe?eiio ei?eaothoueny c
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieie i?eaiaeaie, ui ia iathoue iciae cei/eio:
c?oeiaiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a — 43,6%, ia?aeeaeaiiy o?ainii?oieo
cania?a — 8,9%, ia?cae ia ia?aoeiaeo — 6,9%, ia?cae ia i?oioiaea —
37,6%, iaae?iiy ianaaee?a — 2,0%, ui ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa aea?
iiaeeea?noue ocaaaeueithaaoe a e?ei?iieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo cei/eii?
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi?
i?eaiaee (oiiiaa yaeua, ieoiia na?aaeiaeua) ye iaoa??ae, ui ia? iaaio
aacaeiaaii?noue.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, a oaeiae c? ci?noo e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio (no.215
EE), yeee ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae a iaaeao oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaio
aaaaea?, ui i?ae aea?oaith ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
ne?ae ?icoiioe oice/io iniao, yeie a ?acoeueoaoi
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee caiiae?yii oice/io, iaoa??aeueio oa
ii?aeueio oeiaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, aea?oaa – oea oaeoe/ii caaaeaee o/aniee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo:
aiae?? — 19,4%, ianaaee?e — 37,3%, i?oioiaee — 40,4%, aaeineiaaeenoe —
1,9%, iiaiie/? oaa?ei oa ?io? iniae — 1,0%.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “A?eoeiieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea iioa?i?eeo aiane?aeie
ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?eoeiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iioa?i?eeo, o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo:
aiae??a, ianaaee??a, i?oioiae?a, aaeineiaaeeno?a oa ?ioeo in?a. A
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aiae?e ye aea?oaa ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” aeena?oaio aecia/a? aiae?y ye iniao, yea ia iiiaio
a/eiaiiy aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee aeeiioaaea ooieoe?th
ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oiei caniaii.

Aiae?e iiaea aenooiaoe ye iioa?iieee aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy i?aaee aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ?ioeie o/anieeaie aai ye iioa?iieee-cei/eiaoeue.
Aeena?oaioa oe?eaaeee ia?aaaaeii iioa?i?e? ia?oi? a?oie.

Aeiione aei ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oii ? iaiaaeaiei, ine?eueee ia eiaeia
iniaa caeaoia aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? ea?oaaiiy aeaea?aeii i?aeaeuaii?
iaaaciaee, oiio iioa?i?eei i?eoaiaii? ie?ai? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene. Oae, ca
a?eii iaea?eueoa ?o e?euee?noue — a?ae 20 aei 40 ?ie?a (52,2%).
Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ia? iaiiaio na?aaeith oa na?aaeith ina?oo, yea
noa? ana a?eueo aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Ca
nioe?aeueiei noaoonii aiae??, ye? noaee aea?oaaie, ?iciiae?eythoueny
oaeei /eiii: ?ia?oieee — 43,4%, i?aoe?aieee aa?a?iiai naeoi?o — 27,7%,
neoaeaiaoe? — 18,1%, i?aei?e?ioe? — 7,3%, iain?iia?e — 1,3%, o/i? —
1,7%, ?io? — 0,5%. Ae?yeuei?noue aeecueei 38,0% iioa?i?eeo iia’ycaia c
?iaioith ia o?ainii?o?, aea ana /ano?oa iioa?i?eeie noathoue aiae??
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai o?ainii?oo. I?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? i?aaenoaaieee
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, aaeeeiai a?ciano, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue caoiaee
aeio?eiaiiy aaciaee.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea? iiaaae?ieo aea?oae aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii a iaoai?ci?
aei?iaeiueiai cei/eio (i?eaiaee) ? ?icaeyaea? ?? ye iiceoeaio (ianeaia ?
aeoeaia) ? ye iaaaoeaio (iaiaeaaeia ? i?ioei?aaia). Aiae?c na?ae/eoue,
ui a 76,5% aaa??e iiaaae?iea aiae?y-iioa?i?eiai aoea iiceoeaiith, a?i ia
ni?eya cei/eiiiio ii?ooaiith i?aaee aaciaee ?ooo.

Iaiaeaaeia iiaaae?iea noino?oueny aiae??a a?eii a?ae 18 aei 40 ?ie?a, ??
a?eoeiieia?/ia caaa?aeaiiy a iaoai?ci? cei/eio iieyaa? a oiio, ui,
ae?th/e a iaaeao i?aaee (i?i?cae ia?ao?anoue, iaa?i, oiui), aiie ia
i?iyaeythoue i?aeaeuaii? oaaae aei iaaaciaee, aiioe?? ia?aaaaeathoue
iaae aiae?cii neooaoe?? (niiae?aaiiy ia oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe??, i?ioan?eio
iaenoa?i?noue e o. ?.), yea aeiaaa? aaeeooy caoiae?a ii ?? caiia?aaiith.
A?eoeiia iiaaae?iea oeeo aiae??a, aacoiiaii, iia’ycaia c a?eiaith
aeoeai?noth, ia?aioe?ieith nai?o ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo iiaeeeainoae,
iaaoooyi i?ioan?eiiai aeina?aeo, oiui.

I?ioei?aaia iiaaae?iea iioa?i?eiai, iia’ycaia c ii?ooaiiyie i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ui ia ciaoiaeyoueny a aaciina?aaeiueiio
i?e/eiiiio ca’yceo c iiae??th cei/eio, ?iciiae?ey?oueny ca oaeeie
aeaeaie: ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oieie caniaaie a noai? ni’yi?iiy (0,1%),
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee noiyiee (1,2%), ea?oaaiiy iani?aaiei o?ainii?oii
(9,4%), ii?ooaiiy neaiae?a oa ciae?a (15,7%), ia?aaeuaiiy oaeaeeino?
(73,6%). Oe? oieni? ii?ooaiiy iioa?i?eeo ? yne?aaei i?iyaii a?eoeiiino?.
Iioeae ii?ooaiue, yeeie aiie ea?oaaeeny i?e ii?ooaii? i?aaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ia iathoue i?eioeeiiai? a?aei?iiino? a?ae ii?ooaiue
noa’?eo?a oeeo cei/ei?a, a naia: a/anii anoeaiooe ia ?iaioo, neoaeao,
iaa/aiiy, nei??oa caaa?oeoe ii?caeeo, ae?eiaee ?aen, io?eiaoe
aeiaeaoeiaee i?eaooie, oiui.

Ia iiaeeea?noue aiae?y noaoe iioa?i?eei aieeaa? eiai noai, yeee ia?
oe?ieee niaeo? iieaciee?a. Iniaeeai iaaacia/iei oaeoi?ii aaa??eiino?
caeeoa?oueny ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oieie caniaaie a noai? ni’yi?iiy.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a noai? ni’yi?iiy aoa eeoa iaeei
aiae?e-iioa?i?eee (ca?aeii c aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?eoyaaany 1,0% iioa?i?eeo), aoaeue-yea ni’yi?iiy
aiae?y, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaoiiaeth? iioaioe?eio iiaeeea?noue noaoe
ye aea?oaith, oae ? cei/eioeai.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e “Iniaeeaino? a?eoeiieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?oioiae?a” i?enay/aiee i?oioiaeai ye ia?aaaaei?e /anoei? o/aniee?a
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ?, aiaeii/an, iaea?eueo o?aceea?e, ia caoeuai?e a?ae
caiiae?yiiy o?ce/ii? oeiaee. A?ae ?o iiaaae?iee caeaa?eueoiai caeaaeeoue
noai aaa??eiino?. Aea??eiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui ieoiia aaaa
i?oioiae?a-iioa?i?eeo aeineoue aaeeea ? noaiiaeoue ui??/ii iaeaea 40,0%.
Oaea noaiiaeua iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?oioiaeai ia i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai
/ano ia i?eae?eyeiny iaiao?aeii? oaaae, ? oea iaaaoeaii aieeioei ia
??aaiue ?o i?aeaioiaee aei oiia no/aniiai aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Aeineoue oa?aeoa?iei aeey cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo c? caiiae?yiiyi oeiaee
i?oioiaeai, ? ?iciiae?e inoaii?o ca a?eii, a naia: aei 7 ?ie?a — 7,4%,
7-18 — 15,8%, 19-29 — 13,5%, 30-39 — 16,8%, 40-49 — 15,4%, 50-59 -16,3%,
60 ? a?eueoa — 14,8%. Cia/io /anoeio noaiiaeyoue iaiiaiie?oi? (23,2%).
Oae, a 1997 ?ioe? a/eiaii 5973 i?eaiae, o yeeo caaeioei 386 ae?oae ?
5994 iaea?aeaee o?aaie. O a?aeii/?e noaoenoeoe? ? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oea o?aa?/ia yaeua io?eiaei iacao «aeeoy/ee
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oiee o?aaiaoeci». Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui aiii
iaei?aeoia, ine?eueee iiiyooy «aeeoy/ee» ni?iuo? oyaeaiiy i?i oeae aeae
aaa??eiino? ? ia a?aoiao? no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? eiai aea?oa. Aenieee
??aaiue iaiiaiie?oi?o iiynith?oueny oei, ui iaea?eueo o?aceeaeie (7,4%)
? ae?oe a?eii aei 7 ?ie?a, ye? ia caeaoi? ioe?ieoe
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oio neooaoe?th. Iaiiaiie?oi? noa?oeo a?eiaeo a?oi
a?eueo i?aeaioiaeai? aei oiia aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aea aiie, iaaiaee,
ona?aeiieaii i?iyaeythoue eaaeiaaaei?noue /e a?oao ciaaaao aei aaciaee.

Iniae, ye? ia?anoaathoueny ii aei?ic? ia eiacaiao, eeaeao, ?ieeeiaeo
aeioeao oiui, oaeiae a?aeiinyoueny aeena?oaioii aei i?oioiae?a. Ae??
inoaii?o iniaeeai a?aeia?aaeathoue a?eoeiieia?/i? aeanoeaino?. Ie?aio
a?eoeiiaaiio a?oio ooai?ththoue i?aee?oee, ye? iaaeathoue iineoae
aiae?yi (ieooy, aeoe?aiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a), ine?eueee oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao aeao?oeeoo /ano ia ae?eyieao aei??a c
?ioaineaiei ?ooii.

I?eaeecii 45% i?oioiae?a — oea iniae, a?e yeeo noaiiaeoue a?ae 18 aei 50
?ie?a, oiaoi iioaioe?eii na?aeii? ethaee c aeinoaoi?i aeeoo?aei
aeina?aeii, ni?iiiaei? oieeiooe eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e. Aea cia/ia ?o
/anoeia — oea iin?? iaaaoeaii? iiaaae?iee.

Aiae?c aeicaiey? aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe iiaaae?ieo i?oioiae?a-iioa?i?eeo ia
iaeo?aeueio, i?aaii??io, iaaaoeaio, a inoaiith — ia iaiaeaaeio oa
i?ioei?aaio. Ieoiio aaao eiaeiiai c iacaaieo aeae?a iiaeia oi?iae?coaaoe
ianooiiei /eiii: iaeo?aeueia — 4,0%, i?aaii??ia 29,0%, iaaaoeaia —
67,0%, c yeeo e?euee?noue iioa?i?eeo c iaiaeaaeiith iiaaae?ieith
noaiiaeoue 15,0%, a c i?ioei?aaiith — 85,0%. Ia aeiionoeee aoaeue-yeeo
ae?e, ui ni?eyee a ?aae?caoe?? aaa??eii? ianoaiiaee, 33,0% i?oioiae?a,
oiaoi ?o iiaaae?iea a?aeiia?aeaea aeiiaai aaciaee ?ooo. Iaaaoeaiith
iiaaae?iea iioa?i?eeo ? o aeiaaeeao, eiee i?oio?ae ae?ya a iaaeao I?aaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aea ia a?aoiaoaaa ia’?eoeaieo ianoaaei neooaoe??
(?ic?aoiaoaaa ia naith ia?aaaao, oi/a oaeee ?ic?aooiie aoa ia
iaa?oioiaaiei).

Aei iioa?i?eeo-i?aaiii?ooiee?a a?aeiinyoueny i?oioiaee c yaii
aecia/aiith a?eoeii?noth. Iieooaaiiy na?ae/aoue, ui iae/ano?oa aiie
aeiioneathoue oae? ii?ooaiiy: ia?aoeiaiiy aei?iae o iaanoaiiaeaiiio
i?noe? — 83%, ia?ao?ae aei?iae ia caai?iiiee neaiae na?oeioi?a — 25%,
aeo?ae ia i?i?cio /anoeio ?c-ca ia?aoeiaee — 15%, oiui. Ii?ooaiiy
iioa?i?eei I?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, oiaoi a/eiaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, aenooia? ye ?aae?ciaaia a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea, ui
a?ae??ciy? oe? aeae?eoe a?ae i?aaiii?ooaiue, aea iiaaae?iea aea?oae
ii?aeiaia c ?aii?oaaiiyi ii?i ii?ae?, aoeee, oiui. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioeaaoe?? aecia/eei ni?yiiaai?noue iiaaae?iee i?aaiii?ooiee?a, ye?,
na?aeiii ii?oooth/e i?aaeea, ?ic?aoiaoaaee ia?aaaaeii ia iniaeno? yeino?
(ni?eoi?noue, ?aaeoe?y) – 64,0%, uaneeaee aeiaaeie – 28,0%, iaia’ycie
?ioeo o/aniee?a ?ooo caiia?aoe oeiae? – 2,0%, oiui. Iaaei?aaaeai?noue
oaeeo iioea?a ? i/aaeaeiith.

Ocaaaeueiai? aeai? i?i iaaaoeaio iiaaae?ieo iioa?i?eeo aeicaieythoue
iieacaoe nooi?iue ?? i?iyao a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oiao: aei 7 ?ie?a —
90,0%, 7-18 — 60,0%, 19-29 — 40,0%, 30-39 — 45,0%, 40-49 — 50,0%, 50-59
— 70,0%, 60 ?ie?a ? a?eueoa — 95,0%. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue iioa?i?eeo
i?eiaaea? ia iaiiaiie?oi?o oa in?a a?eii iiiaae 60 ?ie?a. Iioeaaoe?y
inoaii?o aecia/a?oueny niaoeeo?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai
noaio, iaoiiaeaiiai a?eiaeie iniaeeainoyie. I?oioiaee iioeeiai a?eo
/anoi aeiioneathoueny iiieeie, ia?aioe?iththoue nai? iiaeeeaino?. Aiie
iia?eueii ioe?iththoue neooaoe?th, a i?eeiyaoe ??oaiiy, ?aioiai
?ioaineo?eothoue coneeey, ui noa? ianiiae?aaiei aeey aiae?y ?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy aaa??eii? neooaoe??.

Iaea?eueoa ia?cae?a ia i?oioiae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a e?oiuei-in?ii?e
ia??iae c “i?eii” aaa??eiino? a iaaeao na?iiy – aa?aniy – aeiaoiy, a
iaeiaioa — a ceiia? i?nyoe? (n?/aiue, ethoee). Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
ia?cae?a ia i?oioiae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeaii? aiaeeie i’yoieoe?, a
iaeiaioa — a oeae aea /an o iiiaae?eie. A oe?eiio, caaaeueiee ??aaiue
aaa??eiino? c i?oioiaeaie caeeoa?oueny iaeaeuei o i’yoieoeth.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “A?eoeiieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ianaaee??a oa
?ioeo o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” aeena?oaio iaa?oioiao? ? iaaea?
i?iiiceoe?th i?i iaiao?aei?noue ooi/ieoe a I?aaeeao aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
iiiyooy ianaaee?a ye iniae, yea ei?enoo?oueny o?ainii?oiei caniaii, ?
ciaoiaey/enue ia (a) iueiio ia aeeiio? ooieoe?? ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oiei
caniaii.

Ieoiia aaaa iioa?i?eeo ianaaee??a noaiiaeoue aeecueei 39% na?aae ?ioeo
o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi? cei/eie, iia’ycai?
c caiiae?yiiyi oeiaee ianaaee?ai, a caeaaeiino? a?ae noao? inoaii?o,
?iciiae?eythoueny ianooiiei /eiii: /ieia?ee – 78,0%, ae?iee – 22,0%.
Iaoa aea??eiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaco? oaeee ?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo ca
a?eiaeie a?oiaie: aei 7 ?ie?a — 3,2%; 7-18 — 15,1%; 19-28 — 15,8%; 30-39
— 17,3%; 40-49 — 12,7%; 50-59 — 11,4%; 60 ? a?eueoa — 1,2%. Aeaui
ieae/ith na?aae ieo ? o?aceea?noue ae?oae oa ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo.
Ianaaee?e, ii??aiyii c i?oioiaeaie, e?aua caoeuai? a?ae aaa???, aea
iathoue iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? caiia?aaoe aaa??eieo neooaoe?e, ine?eueee
caeaaei? a?ae iiaaae?iee aiae?y.

Iiaaae?ieo ianaaee??a, iioa?i?eeo a?ae aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae
? cei/ei?a, ie oaeiae aecia/a?ii ye iiceoeaio (87,1%) ? iaaaoeaio
(12,9%). I?e oeueiio, e?euee?noue ianaaee??a, iiaaae?iea yeeo aoea
iaaaoeaiith a iaaeao iaiaeaaeiino? (ia noia?a/eea i?aaeeai aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo), aea ia ni?eyea ?o aeio?eiaiith, noaiiaeoue 95,2%, a ae?? 1,2%
iioa?i?eeo iineee i?ioei?aaiee oa?aeoa? ? ni?eyee aaa??ei?e ianoaiiaoe?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eeo aeicaiey? iieacaoe i?iya
a?eoeiiino? a ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oiao oaeei /eiii: 7-18 — 75,0%, 19-29 —
63,0%, 30-39 — 34,0%, 40-49 — 12,0%, 50-59 — 2,0%.

Aeena?oaio aecia/ea ?iciiae?e iioa?i?eeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoai?cio
i?eaiaee: c?oeiaiiy — 48,1%, ia?aeeaeaiiy — 15,8%, ia?cae ia ia?aoeiaeo
— 27,4%, iaae?iiy ianaaee?a — 3,7%, ?ioee aeae — 5,0%. I?e oeueiio
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ianaaee??a noathoue iioa?i?eeie i?e oe?eeii
i?aaii??i?e iiaaae?ioe?.

I?ioean aeei?enoaiiy o?ainii?oiiai caniao ianaaee?aie aeeth/a?:
i/?eoaaiiy — iinaaeeo — iiaiaeaeaiiy a o?ainii?oiiio cania? – aenaaeeo.
I?e i/?eoaaii? e iinaaeoe? a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea ianaaee??a iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?ia aeey i?noeue coieiie o?ainii?oo, ?icoaoiaaieo ia na?aaeei?
i?i?cii? /anoeie, ine?eueee i?e oeueiio ia a?aoiao?oueny: oe?eia
i?i?cii? /anoeie ? ciie iinaaeee, u?euei?noue ianaaee?iiioie?a, o?ce/iee
noai aai a?eia? iniaeeaino? ianaaee??a. ?ioeie neiaaie, iaiaaath/enue
cae?enieoe iinaaeeo a o?ainii?oiee can?a, aiie ii?ooothoue i?aaeea, /ei
noai?ththoue iaaaciaeo, a aiae??, iath/e ia?aaaao ia ?oo,
ia?aoai?ththoue ?? a aaa??eio neooaoe?th.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? e ?io? neooaoe??, eiee, iai?eeeaae, ianaaee?,
ao?o/a?oueny a ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oii, uia ci?ieoe iai?yi ?ooo, coieieoe
iaoeio, oiui, aaaaeath/e, ui eiio caa?iaeo? iaaaciaea aai c-ca noaio
ni’yi?iiy /e i?e cei/eiieo iinyaaiiyo.

Ca oiia aia?aaoe/ieo e?eciaeo yaeu ca?eueoeeeny ia?caee ia
aaeineiaaeeno?a ? aoaeiaee o?ainii?o, ye? a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeyoue 7,8%
? 1,0% (Aieeinueea, Euea?anueea oa ?io? iaeano?). I?e/eiaie ? ea?oaaiiy
a noai? ni’yi?iiy, iecueea aeeiai?ea ?ooo a oiiaao iaaeinoaoiuei?
aeaeeiino?, iaaeio?eiaiiy aacia/ieo ?ioa?aae?a, iiaaia ciaiiy oa
iaaeio?eiaiiy aiae?yie oeeo o?ainii?oieo cania?a aeiia aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui a?eoeii?noue iioa?i?eiai i?e ii?ooaii?
i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo — oea noeoii?noue iaaaoeaieo
aeanoeainoae iniae o/anieea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo (aiae?y, i?oioiaea,
ianaaee?a oa ?ioeo in?a), yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaiaeaaeiei noaaeaiiyi
aei i?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo aai iaiaeaaeiith iiaaae?ieith a noa??
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? noai?th? iaaaciaeo noaoe aea?oaith.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “A?eoeiieia?/i? aniaeoe caaaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee
iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” 3 ?icae?eo “I?io?eaeoeea
a?eoeiii? iiaaae?iee o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” iaaieioo?oueny, ui a
iiia?aaeaeaii? cei/eiiino? i?eeiyoi ?ic??ciyoe caaaeueio e
?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?io?eaeoeeo. A?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea
?icaeyaea?oueny aeena?oaioii ye /anoeia nenoaie iiia?aaeaeaiiy cei/ei?a,
ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeiiii?/i?, oaoi?/i?, i?aai?caoe?ei?, aeoiai?, i?aaia? oa
?io? caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia cieaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa a?oiiai?
a?eoeiiino? o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a iaaiiio ?aa?ii?.

?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a ii caiia?aaiith ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo iaiiaeeeaa aac caeo/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaaiiai ia aaeineiiaeaiiy na?aaeiaeua ?ooo —
aoae?aieoeoai e oo?eiaiiy aaoioeyo?a oa ?ioeo aei?iaei?o eiioi?eaoe?e,
ine?eueee iaaeie?ee a oe?e noa?? i?aeaeuothoue iiaeeea?noue o/aniee?a
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo noaoe aea?oaaie aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae.

Caiia?aaiiy oeiaee, ui caiiae?th?oueny aiae?yi, i?oioiaeai ? ianaaee?ai,
aeiaaa? caoiae?a oaoi?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ii/eiath/e c? canoinoaaiiy
?aiai?a aaciaee aei iaeaaeiaiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a ai?oiaeie
eiii’thoa?aie, ye? ni?iiiaei? ea?oaaoe, aecia/aoe ia?o?oo oa ?aaeei
i?ioiaeaeaiiy, neaioaaoe ? ?ici?ciaaaoe ioi/oth/o aei?iaeith ianoaiiaeo,
caa/anii iia?aeiieyoe aiae?y i?i iaaaciaeo. I?e/eiith aaaaoueio
aei?iaei?o i?eaiae ? ia?aaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? ?ooo, a oiio aeey
i?io?eaeoeee oeeo ii?ooaiue aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeei?enoiaoaaoe
i?ae?icae?eaie AeA? oaoi?/ieo cania?a oa?iiiai aaoiiaoe/iiai
aeenoaioe?eiiai a?aeaieiio?ieth aeey aeyaeaiiy ii?ooiee?a oa
iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?o a?eoeiii? iiaaae?iee.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui a nenoai? a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee iathoue
aooe caoiaee i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaiao?aeii iie?auaoe ?iaioo
neoaea aenieoaoaoe?? oa aaciaee ?ooo a o?ainii?oieo onoaiiaao an?o oi?i
aeaniino?, a oaeiae iaaee/iiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii aiae??a.

Aeiaaa? oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaia i?ioan?eiiai aeiai?o oa iaa/aiiy aiae??a,
ia??iaee/ia ineoieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy, iniaeeai i?e a/eiaii? aaa??e,
noai?aiiy ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo eaai?aoi??e, canoinoaaiiy eiiieaenieo
iaoiaeee ianoaaeaiiy. Iaaaeueieie ? oi?ie, iaoiaee oa ci?no iaa/aiiy
aiae??a, eaae?o?eaoe?y ?ino?oeoi??a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oai?aoe/ii? oa
i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee, aaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiaeee
iaa/aiiy (o?aiaaea?e, aeaeo?iii? aecaiaiaoi?e ? o. i.).

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a i?io?eaeoeoe? iaeaaeeoue aeoiaiei caoiaeai. Iaea?eueo
o?aceeaei o noa?? aaciaee ?ooo caeeoa?oueny “ethaenueeee oaeoi?”.
Ii?aacueeee e?ei?iieia ?.Aiaeaian c i?eaiaeo iioe?aiino? ii?ooaiue
i?aaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo cacia/a?, ui «a oeeo aeiaaeeao i?aeoe/ii an?
ie – iioaioe?ei? cei/eioe?”. A oe?e th?eaee/i?e a?ia?aie? — nooue
iaiao?aeiino? i?aeaeuaiiy eoeueoo?e, i?aaina?aeiiino?,
aeenoeeie?iiaaiino? o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. I?aaiaa aeoiaaiiy
iiaeiii caaacia/eoe: aeio?eiaiiy aeiia aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ciaiiy oa
iaaeee iiaaae?iee a iaaieo neooaoe?yo oa ?io? aniaeoe i?aaii??ii?
iiaaae?iee, ine?eueee, ye iieacaei iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?eaeecii 20,0%
iieoaieo ia ciaeii? c I?aaeeaie aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oa ?ioeie
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeie aeoaie Oe?a?ie.

Nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea iiaeiia aooe
ni?yiiaaiith ia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? –
i?ane, ?aae?i, oaeaaa/aiiy, a?aeaii?iaeoeoe??, ui ?ice?eaa? i?e/eie
a?eoeiii? iiaaae?iee aea?oa. I?ia?aie i?i aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi?
i?eaiaee ii/aee ai?iaaaeaeoaaoeny ia oe?a?inueeiio oaeaaa/aii?, ui
iaoeia cia/iee i?io?eaeoe/iee aoaeo. Oiio oe? i?ia?aie caneoaiaothoue ia
anyeo i?aeo?eieo. Aaoiiia?euei? aeo?iaee oa aacaoe iiaeii? i?noeoe
a?eueoa ioae?eaoe?e c ieoaiue aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, caiia?aaiith
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?aaiii?ooaiue.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “A?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea ii?ooaiue i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai?”, aeoiaey/e c
iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? ia?aaaaeii caoiaee i?aaiaiai
oa?aeoa?o. A?i cacia/a?, ui e?ei?iaeueiee caeii ia caaaeaee ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aooaaiiy aeie iioa?i?eiai, iii’yeoaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oiia
iaiaeaaeii? iiaaae?iee iioa?i?eiai, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeiiei oeiaee, oiui.
I?iaeo E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie oaeiae ia i?noeoue na?aae
cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo (no.no.261–267)
caioi/oaaeueieo ii?i aai ianoaaei, ui iii’yeoothoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca oe? ae?yiiy (aiaeia?/ia neooaoe?y niinoa??aa?oueny a /eiiiio EE
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??).

Aeena?oaio aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia ia?aaeaa/eoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i ? noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny na?aaeiaeua
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo (aiaeia?/ii /eii?e no.215-5 EE). AEa?oaaie oaeeo
cei/ei?a ? aiae??, iiaaae?iea yeeo a oeeo neooaoe?yo /anoi ia? a?eoeiiee
oa?aeoa?. Aiia iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoenue ye iii’yeooth/a ianoaaeia.
Aeena?oaioii ia i?aeo?eio?oueny i?iiiceoe?y noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo ii?i
i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?oioiae?a aai i?i ?o ??aio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue c aiae?yie, ine?eueee ?aaeueia ?icieaoa aea?oae ca
nai? ii?ooaiiy ? oae aeineoue noai?a — a?ae eae?oeoaa aei caaeaae?.
A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aiae?y a?eueo noai?a, ine?eueee a?i aenieoaoo?
aeaea?aei i?aeaeuaii? iaaaciaee, a oiio ciaia’ycaiee aeio?eioaaoeny
i?aeaeuaieo caoiae?a iaa?aaeiino?.

Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeeth/eoe niaoe?aeueio noaooth i?i
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca caeeoaiiy a iaaaciaoe? iioa?i?eiai a?ae
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee, yea iiaeiia i?noeoe caioi/oaaeueio
ii?io, ui aoaea ni?eyoe ni?aaaaeeeaino? iiea?aiiy aeiiiai oa caoenoo
aea?oa aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae.

O a?aeiia?aei?e iinoaiia? Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie aeena?oaio
aaaaea? ca iaiao?aeia ia?aaeaa/eoe iieiaeaiiy, ui noinoaaoeiooueny
a?eoeiieia?/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie yea ?icaeyaea?oueny, a naia, ye?
aiae?e ia i?aeeyaa? e?ei?iaeuei?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, yeui iane?aeee
ianoaee ia a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy iei i?aaee aaciaee ?ooo /e
aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oo, a /a?ac a?oao iaiaa?aaeiinoue naiiai
iioa?i?eiai. Aeia iioa?i?eiai o aeiaaeeao, eiee aiae?e ii?ooea i?aaeea
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ? oae? ii?ooaiiy ciaoiaeeeenue o i?e/eiiiio ca’yceo
c iane?aeeaie, ia ca?eueiy? aiae?y a?ae e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aea iiaea aooe a?aoiaaia ye iii’yeooth/a ianoaaeia.

Aiaeie, aeiiee o ii?ooaiii i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ? yeee
caiiaeiya iioa?iieiio oieanii ooeiaeaeaiiy oa na?aeiii caeeoea eiai aac
aeiiiiiae, yeui iioa?iieee ciaoiaeeany a iaaacia/iiio aeey aeeooy noaii,
iiaeiai ianoe aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoue ca noeoii?noth cei/eiia. I?e oeueiio,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aiae?y ianoa? iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai /e iiaea aooe
iaaeaia aeiiiiiaa iioa?i?eiio ?ioeie iniaaie.

Aac anyeiai noii?ao, aeiaaa? oaeineiiaeaiiy ??aaiue a?eoeiieia?/ii?
i?io?eaeoeee i?aai?a ?icne?aeoaaiiy oa noaeo, aeey /iai iaiao?aeii
ia?aaeaa/eoe a caeii? ?o iaia’ycie aea/aoe iniao iioa?i?eiai.
Iio?aaothoue oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ei?iieia?/i? iaoiaeeee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
oeueiai i?eaiaeo. Aea/aiiy ni?aa iieaco?, ui ?icne?aeoaaiiy cina?aaeaeo?
a?eueoo oaaao ia caeioaa/aiiio, oiae? ye iioa?i?eee caeeoa?oueny ca ??
iaaeaie, ui ? ia?aaeoiiaith iaia’?eoeaiiai ae??oaiiy ni?aae.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, a iaoa??aeao ni?aae iiaeiia aeaaaoeny i?aaiaa
ioe?iea iiaaae?ioe? iioa?i?eiai c iaeyaeo ia ?? a?aeiia?aei?noue
i?aaeeai aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Iineeaiiy ia oa, ui “ae?? iioa?i?eiai ia
i?aeeyaathoue e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e ioe?ioe?”, aai “ioe?iea
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aaiii?ooaiue ia ? eiiiaoaioe?th ne?ae/iai”, ia ?
aei?aaaeaieie.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaae aeiaaaoe oaeineiiaeaiiy
canoinoaaiiy iiaeeeainoae e?ei?iae?noeee ? aenia?oieo aeine?aeaeaiue.
Ne?ae/a ? noaeiaa i?aeoeea na?ae/aoue, ui aeniiaee i?i iiaeeea?noue
ii?ooieea aai iioa?i?eiai caiia?aoe aaa???, ye i?aaeei, ia a?oioothoueny
ia iniaenoeo ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo iieacieeao (/an ?aaeoe??, oiui).
Aeena?oaio ia a?aeiineoue aecia/aiiy /ano ?aaeoe?? aiae?y aei
eiiiaoaioe?? aenia?oa-aaoioaoi?ea, yeee ?ica’yco? oaoi?/i? ieoaiiy.
Iaia?aeiieeaith ? oaeiae aeoiea i?i ?? anoaiiaeaiiy ne?ae/ei aai
noaeaeath i?e i?ecia/aii? aenia?oece, ine?eueee aecia/aiiy oeueiai
a?iineoieia?/iiai yaeua — i?a?iaaoeaa ineoieiaa.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui oeae oaeoi? ? iin??i a?eoeiieia?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?
aieeaa? ia ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, aeena?oaio
aaaaea? ca aeioe?eueia anoaiiaeaiiy /ano ?aaeoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith
niaoe?aeueieo iaaee/ieo iaeyae?a. Ciaiiy aiae??i nai?o
ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoaea iiceoeaii aieeaaoe ia eiai
iiaaae?ieo a aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?yo, a iayai?noue iaaieo aaae aoaea
eiiiainoaaoeny i?aeaeuaiith iaa?aaei?noth.

Iaoa??aee i?eaeecii 5,0% e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
i?aaie ?icne?aeoaaiiy ? noaeo a?ae/oaathoue neeaaei?noue o ae??oaii?
ieoaiue, ye? aeiaaathoue a?aooaaiiy ? i?aaiai? ioe?iee
ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai noaio aiae?y (iiaeeea?noue ae?yoe iaaiei /eiii a
eiie?aoi?e aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oi?e neooaoe??). Oiio aeena?oaio
i?aeo?eio? aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece ineoio?c?ieia?/iiai
noaio aiae?y c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy eiai ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae,
noa’?eoeaieo aeanoeainoae, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei aai iia?/ii ni?eythoue
ianoaiith aaa??eieo iane?aee?a.

Iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea cacia/aieo ieoaiue aeiiiiiaea ?ice?eoe a?eueo?
iiaeeeaino? a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee.

Aeniiaee

Caaa?oo?oueny aeena?oaoe?y i?aenoieiaeie aeniiaeaie noiniaii
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? iathoue oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeey oai??? ? i?aeoeee a?eoeiieia??, iaea?eueo cia/i? c yeeo aeeeaaeai?
o oaeno? aaoi?aoa?aoo. Oae, c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui a?eoeiieia?/ia
i?io?eaeoeea ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? aaaeeeaith
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaith i?iaeaiith, oaeoe/ii ia ?ic?iaeaiith a Oe?a?i?;
aecia/aii iiiyooy oa iciaee aea?oae aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oiiai cei/eio, a
oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iioa?i?eeo (aea?oa) a?ae oeeo
cei/ei?a; aecia/aii cia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee aea?oae a?ae cei/ei?a i?ioe
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo c iiceoe?? ?o aieeao ia neooaoe?th a/eiaiiy
oeeo cei/ei?a; aecia/ai? iniiai? nioe?aeuei?, a?ieia?/i?, o?ce/i? oa
ineoieia?/i? yeino?, a?ae yeeo iniaa noa? aea?oaith ii?ooaiiy i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo; aianai? i?iiiceoe?? i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
aeiiiai oa iioa?i?eiai, i?i eaae?o?eaoe?th oa i?ecia/aiiy iiea?aiiy
aeiiiio, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaii ia?ae?e ianoaaei, ui iaoyaeothoue aai
iii’yeoothoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Aianai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa
i?iiiceoe??, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaoeaii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
c aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
ne?ae/eo i?aai?a oa noae?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?io?eaeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iieo
i?aai?a o ai?iouea? c? cei/eiaie i?ioe aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue:

1. AEa?oaa aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oiiai cei/eio. Ooi aiia? // Iaoeiaee
a?niee Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa. — 1998. — ? 2. —
N.152-157.

2. I?i a?eoeiieia?/io i?io?eaeoeeo aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo cei/ei?a //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?6. — N.63-66.

3. A?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 3. — N.54-60.

4. Aei ieoaiiy i?i e?ei?iieia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo cei/eioey aiane?aeie
ii?ooaiue i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
?icaeoeo noni?eueii? aeoiee ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy: ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. – Aei.3. – Caii??aeaey: ?AI “Aeaeaaaoeue”, 1997. – N.89-92.

Iienthe I.I. A?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea ii?ooaiue aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo (no.215 EE Oe?a?ie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai oa e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee ii?ooaiue
i?aaee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii
ii/aoee a?eoeiieia?? (a/aiiy i?i aea?oao cei/eio), ?icaeyiooi eiai
iiiyo?eiee aia?ao. Iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny iiaiio iai?yieo —
a?eoeiieia?/iei i?iaeaiai aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Ia aac?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c’yniaaii iiiyooy ? iciaee aea?oae ii?ooaiue i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, iniaeeaino? a?eoeiieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aiae??a, i?oioiae?a, ianaaee??a oa ?ioeo o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.
?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy a?eoeiieia?/ii? i?io?eaeoeee o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo ia caaaeueiiio oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??aiyo, cai?iiiiiaaii caoiaee
oa oeyoe ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? i?noyoue aiae?c e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, noaeiai? i?aeoeee uiaei cei/ei?a i?ioe aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a i?iaeo? EE Oe?a?ie oa i?iiiiothoue oeyoe ??
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?oaa, a?eoeiieia?y, iioa?i?eee, ii?ooaiiy i?aaee
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a?eoeiieia?/ia i?io?eaeoeea.

Iienthe I.I. Aeeoeiieiae/aneay i?ioeeaeoeea ia?ooaiee i?aaee
aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey (no.215 OE Oe?aeiu). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie nooiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 – oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey aioo?aiieo
aeae Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeeoeiieiae/aneie i?ioeeaeoeee
ia?ooaiee i?aaee aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia.

A aeenna?oaoeee iaiauaiu enoiee aeeoeiieiaee – o/aiey i aea?oaa
i?anooieaiey, ?anniio?ai iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao yoiai o/aiey a
e?eieiieiae/aneie iaoea, a oaeaea iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aai nia?aiaiiiai
?acaeoey.

Iniiaiia ianoi a ?aaioa i?eiaaeeaaeeo aeeoeiieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai
aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. I?iaiaeece?iaaii ?acaeoea noa?u
aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia e aai ii?iaoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea,
oaieiaii-i?aaiaay io?aia, a oaeaea nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea yoie i?iaeaiu.
A aeenna?oaoeee aeaeathony auaiaeu ia yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey noa?u aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.

A ?iaioa i?eaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiuo i?ienoanoaee,
aiaeece?othony eo iniiaiua iieacaoaee, /enei iioa?iaaoeo ca iineaaeiea
aiaeu. N o/aoii iaoa?eaeia enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeeaaaaony iiiyoea aea?oau
ia?ooaiee i?aaee aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Oeaio?aeueiay /anoue ?aaiou iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeoeiieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae aea?oa ia?ooaiee i?aaee aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey
(iaoaoiaeia, aiaeeoaeae, iannaaee?ia e eiuo o/anieeia aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey). I?e yoii no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe iioa?iaaoeo ?anniao?eaaaony
enoiaey ec nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo,
i?aanoaaiii-i?aaiauo naienoa ee/iinoe (iie, aic?ano, ia?aciaaiea,
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea e o. ae.).

Aiaeec ee/iinoiuo no?oeoo?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee aea?oau i?aaie/anee
aeiiieiyaony ?acoeueoaoaie ?anniio?aiey iauaeoeaiuo i?eciaeia,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo iiaaaeai/aneee aniaeo iioa?iaaoaai, aai ?ieue a
neooaoeee aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?anooieaiey. Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua
aeatho iniiaaiea auaeaeeoue iiceoeaioth e iaaaoeaioth oi?iu iiaaaeaiey
iioa?iaaoaai. Iiceoeaiia iiaaaeaiea icia/aao, /oi iioa?iaaoee
aeaenoaiaae a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie i?aaee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey,
a iaaaoeaiay, iai?ioea, io?aaeaao yoi ianiioaaonoaea a aeaea
iaiaaeeaaeauaai eee i?ioeaii?aaiiai iiaaaeaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieaa iianiui a noa?a aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey yaeyaony i?ioeaii?aaiia iiaaaeaiea aea?oau, iineieueeo iii
“i?iaioee?oao” i?anooieaiea eeai aiineo “aeeaae” a ii?aaeaeaiioth
neooaoeeth, oai naiui niinianoaoy niaa?oaieth i?anooieaiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?ioeaii?aaiia iiaaaeaiea aea?oau a aeaea ia?ooaiey i?aaee
aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaie
aeaeeeo, eioi?ue auaeaeyao aeeoeiiia iiaaaeaiea aea?oau
aei?iaeii-o?ainii?oiiai i?ienoanoaey n?aaee eiuo i?anooieaiee, aea?oau
eioi?uo ia?ooatho ii?iu ii?aee, i?aanoaaiiinoe e o. ae.

Iaeiia?aiaiii a aeenna?oaoeee aeaeaaony auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aiaeeca
e ioeaiee ia oieueei iauaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey aea?oau, ii e aai
iioeaaoeee, iineieueeo iia yaeyaony ?aaoeyoi?ii iiaaaeai/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe eeoea a noa?a aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiea
iioeaia ia?ooaiee i?aaee aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, ia?yaeo n
oa?aeoa?enoeeie iiaaaeaiey iioa?iaaoaai, iaiieiyao iiiyoea aeeoeiiinoe
aieaa i?aaeiaoiui niaea?aeaieai.

Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a ?aaioa oaeaeyaony aii?inai aeeoeiieiae/aneie
i?ioeeaeoeee, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony eae /anoue nenoaiu
e?eieiieiae/aneiai i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i?anooieaiee e inouanoaeyaony ia
iauai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii o?iaiyo. I?e yoii iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi e iauei
ia?ai aeeoeiieiae/aneie i?ioeeaeoeee ioiinyony yeiiiie/aneea,
oaoie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, ainieoaoaeueiua e eiua ia?ii?eyoey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia nieaeaiea aeeyiey aeeoeiieiae/aneeo naienoa ee/iinoe eee
iiaaaeaiey o/anieea aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey.

?anniao?eaaaony oaeaea eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
aeeoeiieiae/aneie i?ioeeaeoeee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, — i?aaiaiai
oa?aeoa?a. Aiinyony i?aaeeiaeaiey i aeeth/aiee a oaieiaii-i?aaiaua ii?iu
iiiu?eoaeueiuo ninoaaia e niya/athueo aeio ianoiyoaeuenoa, a oaeaea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii aoiaiecaoeee noaeaaiie i?aeoeee i?e iaee/ee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeeoeiieiae/aneeo naienoa ee/iinoe eee aeeoeiiaaiiuo
neooaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aea?oaa, aeeoeiieiaey, iioa?iaaoee, ia?ooaiea i?aaee
aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, aeeoeiieiae/aneay i?ioeeaeoeea.

Moisyuk O.M. Victimological prevention of traffic safety
violations (Art.215, Criminal Code of Ukraine) . Manuscript.

Candidate thesis in law, speciality 12.00.08 — criminal law
and criminology, criminal executive law. — National Academy of Internal
Affairs of Ukraine, Kyiv , 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to the problems of victimological
prevention of traffic safety violations in Ukraine. The thesis studies
the sources of victimology (teaching about victim of crime), its
notions. Special attention is devoted to a new direction —
victimological problems of traffic safety. The definitions and signs of
victim as a result of traffic safety violations, peculiarities of
victimological characteristics of drivers, pedestrians, passengers and
other participants in traffic are suggested in the thesis. The problems
of victimological prevention in the sphere of traffic on general and
individual levels and measures of improving them are also suggested in
the work.

The thesis contains analysis of criminal legislation and criminal
procedures as to cases of traffic safety violations in the draft
Criminal Code of Ukraine and gives some recommendations as to improving
them.

Key words: victim, victimology, traffic safety violations,
victimological prevention.

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