Відтворення та ефективність використання трудових ресурсів в колективних сільськогосподарських підприємствах (на матеріалах Чернігівської області): Ав

Oa?e?anueeee i?aeaia O?oaeiaiai *a?aiiiai I?aii?a

aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.A-Aeieo/a?aa

Aii/a?aiei Ienaia A?eai??aia

OAeE 631.158:331.522:[631.115.6

A?AeOAI?AIIss OA AOAEOEAI?NOUe AEEI?ENOAIIss O?OAeIAEO ?ANO?N?A A
EIEAEOEAIEO N?EUeNUeEIAINIIAeA?NUeEEO I?AeI?E?INOAAO

(ia iaoa??aeao *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.02 – “Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? AIE

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
A.A-Aeieo/a?aa ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio OEUessI*AIEI
Ieaenaiae? A?eoi?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?iaoeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee NOAIAIAIEI ?aai Oiie/, aieiaiee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ; nioe?aeueia iie?oeee oa
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo

ca’yce?a ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAeI;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AI?EAAEE Aieiaeeie? Eocueie/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e noaoenoeee ? aiae?co Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iieoaanueeee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo,
eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee, ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ? ia?eaoeiao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 9 /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 12.aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.803.01 a Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa ca aae?anith:
312131, i. Oa?e?a, i/a ‘Eiioi?no“, o/aiaa i?noa/ei OAeAO ei?ion 1, aoae.
1-1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.A.Aeieo/a?aa.
;

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” ea?oiy1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee IAEAAeIINUeEEE A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aino?a e?eciaa neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i?, .cie?aia a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? oa a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? naea, iineeeea
caa?ico i?iaeiaieue/i? iaaaciaee. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ?oeioaaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, ia?ae?/ nenoaie ieaoaae?a
? a?ioiaiai ia?ao aeaoi?iothoue iae?i- ? i?e?iainiiaea?nueeo no?oeoo?o,
i?ae?eaathoue iioeaaoe?th naeyi aei aoaeoeaii? i?aoe? oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa? ? iaiine?aeiai?noue aa?a?ii?
?aoi?ie a inoaii? ?iee i?ecaaee aei ?noioiiai nei?i/aiiy oiaa?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa e?ioeaaeo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy.

I?iaeoeoeai? neee AIE ioiieththoue i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai (iaiao?aei?
oaoiieia??), noa?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?a?iaii?
i?iieneiaino?, caa??aaiiy ne?iaeie oa aioiai? i?iaeoeoe??, eiioi?eaoe?e,
i?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo. ?o ianeoaiaothoue aaie?anueei-o?iainia?,
?iaanoeoe?ei? oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? ?inoeoooe, nioe?aeueia ? ?eieiaa
?io?ano?oeoo?a. Ana oea ?aeeia nenoaia c? nai?ie aeanieeaie, oi?iaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa iineoa, iaiaaeaea?aie. Aiie ? aieiaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiith neeith, ui ae?? o aeanieo ? noni?eueieo ?ioa?anao,
aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai, c iaeiiai aieo, aaee/aci? i?e?iaei?
?ano?ne (caieth, ?ineei ? oaa?ei, aiaeo, iia?o?y, niiy/io aia?a?th), c
?ioiai — ??ci? ae?iaie/? oiiaee: aoae?ae?, nii?oaee, ia?aaeaaaeuei?
i?eno?i?, onoaoeoaaiiy, iaoeii? nenoaie, iaoa??aeuei? oa aia?aaoe/i?
caniae, o?i?/i? ae?iae, i?iaeoeoeaio ooaeiao, aaaaoi??/i? ianaaeaeaiiy
oa ?io? caniae ae?iaieoeoaa, ui a?aeoai?ththoueny aaciina?aaeiuei
ethaeeiith.

Ia aeaeue, ae?th/a iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca AIE aiane?aeie e?eciai?
neooaoe?? aeineoue oaeaeei noa??? ? ?oeio?oueny. Aeaiia?ao?/ia e?eca, o
naith /a?ao, aeeeth/a? aeoeai? a?aeoai?aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iio??aii?
no?oeoo?e o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo. I?e?iaei? ?ano?ne oaeiae ia?aaoaathoue
o noai? aeieia?/ii? e?ece, iniaeeai o ca’yceo c *i?iiaeeueneith
eaoano?ioith, caa?oaeiaiiyi caiaiaaeath/eo aa?a?ieo oa?eoi??e oa
iinaeaiue. A oeeo oiiaao ?aaoethaaiiy caeiyoino? oa ?eieo i?aoe? ia nae?
ia? a?aoiaoaaoe ??ciiiai?oi?noue oiia i?e?iaeiiai ? iaoai?/iiai ?ooo
ianaeaiiy o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie (aino?o aeaiiioeyoe?th naea oa eiai
aeie?aiiy a iaeieo ? iaiiaio caeiyo?noue, aac?ia?ooy a ?ioeo),
caaacia/oaaoe noaa?e?caoe?th /enaeueiino? oa iie?ioaiiy ye?niiai neeaaeo
n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, noai?aiiy iiaiioe?iiiai aeeoo?aiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey an?o n?euenueeeo aeeoae?a iacaeaaeii a?ae i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy.
Naeyie iiaeii? a?ae/ooe naaa iiaiioe?iiith /anoeiith oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, oaiiaaieie a?iiaaeyiaie, a n?euenueea i?noeaa?noue — noaoe
oe?eeii oeea?e?ciaaiith, no/aniith, i?anoeaeiith noa?ith aeeooy ethaeae.

O cae?eniaii? aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie oa no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ae??oaeueia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue naeyinoao, eiai aeiiii?/iei
?ioa?anai ? ae?yi. Noai?aiiy ia nae? aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee aeiaaa?
aoaeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee n?euenueeeo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a,
caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy ?o aeioiaeiino?, oi?ioaaiiy iioeaaoe?eieo
iaoai?ci?a i?aoe?.

Aa?ii?iieneiaee eiiieaen ? naei ye eiai oa?eoi??aeueiee iacen i?aai?/ii
iia’ycai? i?ae niaith. Oni?oiee ?icaeoie AIE ia iiaeeeaee aac
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea. Naei ia?aaoaa? o noai? aeeaiea” aeaiia?ao?/ia?
e?ece, yea ?icii/aeany iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a. Aeaiia?ao?/ia e?eca a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? ? iaa?aeai?ioiei iane?aeeii aeene?ei?iaoe?? naea ?
naeyi, yea cae?enithaaeany ai?iaeiaae aeanyoee?oue.

?iceaaeiaiee aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui ?ioa?ane
iniaenoino? anooiathoue o noia?a/i?noue ?c noni?eueieie ?ioa?anaie.
?eieiaa aeiiii?ea a?oioo?oueny ia ?aoe?iiaeuei?e aca?iiae?? o?ueio
aeaiaio?a: eai?oaeo, caie?, i?aoe?. A iao?e e?a?i? i?iaeaiai aeiiii?ee
i?aoe? ia i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeii? oaaae. Oea caaaea? aaeeei? oeiaee,
ine?eueee ? eai?oae ? caiey ooieoe?iiothoue aoaeoeaii eeoa oiae?, eiee
noni?euenoai ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiao? nai? o?oaeia? ?ano?ne. A
iei?oi?e neooaoe?? eaae?o?eiaai? ? noie?ii? -i?aoe?aieee ia iiaeooue
?aae?coaaoe na?e o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae, ia iiaeooue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia
a?aeio iieaoo ca aoaeoeaio i?aoeth. A?ae/oaath/e naith aacii?aaei?noue,
ethaee aaeaeoae? aei ?aoi?i ? ianeai? ia ae?iaieoeoa?. Aaaeea aeiiii?/ia
neooaoe?y aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaae nie?aoeny ia iane i?aoe?aiee?a /a?ac
?o iaoa??aeueio caoe?eaaeai?noue, yea niiioeaoeia aei aenieiaoaeoeaii?
i?aoe?.

Noai aea/aiy i?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy ?
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aa?a?iiai naeoi?a iino?eii
ia?aaoaathoue a oeaio?? oaaae a/aieo-aa?a?iee?a. Cia/iee aianie a
?ic?iaeo oe??? i?iaeaie c?iaeee E.IEyiei, Ae.I.Aiaeiy, I.?.Aiiaea?aiei,
IAAoaooeueeee, A.E.Ai?eaaee, O.?.Eoiaeiaa, AEEeoeeaiei, A.O.Iaoaieia,
I.E.I?eaoee, E.N.Ianoaaa?, I.O.Naaeoe, I.O.Nieiaeia, E.?.Oaiioueei,
A.E.Oeyi, E.?.sseoaa oa ?i. Aea a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue noinoaaeany
ieaiiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? aeiiii?ee. Oiio ne?ae a?oioiaii ia?ainieneeoe
iaoeiaa iaaeaaiiy ? aeei?enoaoe eiai a iiaeo oiiaao.

Aaaeeea?noue ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie ? coiiaeea aea?? oaie oa
eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia iaoeiai-aeine?aeia” oaie
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo «I?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy aa?i?ano?naie a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei
aeaniino? oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy», caoaa?aeaeaii? o/aiith ?aaeith
oi?aa?neoaoo 27.06.1996 ?. (i?ioieie ? 5 o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie ia 1996-2000 ?iee 03.13. «?eieiaa
o?ainoi?iaoe?y aa?a?ii? noa?e aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo ieoaiue
a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, ?o /enaeueiino? oa neeaaeo;
?ic?iaea caoiae?a, ye? ni?eyee a iiai?oiio ? aoaeoeai?oiio
aeei?enoaiith o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa /a?ac i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iae?aneai? oae? caaea/?:

• oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iai?yiee aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa
a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa;

• i?inoaaeeoe oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
?aa?ii? ia oii? caaaeueieo i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?,
i?iaiae?coaaoe noai ae?iaieoeoaa ia no/aniiio aoai?;

• ia/eneeoe aaeain o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ii eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aeiio;

• ?ic?iaeoe aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaee ?ano?n?a a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ia iniia?
iioei?caoe?? ?o ae?iaie/i-aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e;

• aea/eoe aieea ii?aeueieo ? iaoa??aeueieo noeioe?a ia i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?;

• oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo ?iciiae?eo cao?ao i?aoe? i ae?iuoaaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, a oiio /ene? o i?eia? ia??iaee;

• ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio caoiae?a uiaei iie?ioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a aaeoc? ia no/aniiio aoai? ? a ia?niaeoea?.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
i?aei?e?inoaa *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?. Ie?ai? ?ic?iaee oa ?o
aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aeeiiai? ia i?eeeaae? ainiiaea?noa
Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith oa
iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae
i?ciaiiy, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo yaeu, iaoeia?
i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c ieoaiue a?aeoai?aiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ? c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee:
?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiee, iiaoaeiae ?yae?a aeeiai?ee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aiae?oe/ieo i?eeii?a ?o ae??aithaaiiy, ?iaeaeniee, a?ao?/iee,
ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa ?i.

Noaoenoe/ia oa iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?? cae?enithaaeany a
ia/enethaaeueiiio oeaio?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo c aeei?enoaiiyi AII «AN-1061» oa ia?niiaeueiiai
eiii’thoa?a.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee noaoenoe/i? aeai?
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee
Oe?a?ie ca 1986-1997 ??., ??/i? ca?oe i?aei?e?inoa, aeai?? ia?aeiiiai
iae?eo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo, ? i?aeoe/ieo aniaeo?a a?aeoai?aiiy oa
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

• 3 o?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aecia/aiiy ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio, a
yeeo ae?iuothoueny o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey ciie Iie?nny
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e.

— Aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
?aa?ii?.

• Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?iciiae?eo cao?ao i?aoe? ia ae?iuoaaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, a oiio /ene? o i?eia? ia??iaee.

• ?ic?aoiaaii aaeain o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ii 20 eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

• Aecia/aii aieea ii?aeueieo ? iaoa??aeueieo noeioe?a ia i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

— Iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio caoiae?a uiaei iie?ioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?aae?caoe?y i?iiiceoe?e oa
caoiae?a ii a?aeoai?aiith oa aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey Iie?nny eueiio oa ea?oiie?, ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie caeiyoino? ia nae?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeothoueny o ae?iaieoeoai a
ainiiaea?noaao Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiaio /anoeio ?iaioe aeeiiaii naiino?eii.
Iaoiaeeeo oa noaio aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii ni?eueii c iaoeiaei
ea??aieeii. ?c ni?eueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ioae?eaoe?e caeiaoaa/
aeei?enoaa aeey aeena?oaoe?? o?eueee aeanio /anoeio ?acoeueoao?a.

O ni?eueieo ioae?eaoe?yo aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue iaoa??ae, yeee
noino?oueny cae?aiiy oa ia?iaee aeaieo, ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee,
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio
ioe?ieo ia eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo,
iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a oa ani??aio?a Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.A.Aeieo/a?aa a 1995-1998 ??., ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «?ioaineo?eaoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeiaieue/iai
?eieo Oe?a?ie a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy» o 1995 ?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o oanoe iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo
caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,4 ae?oe. a?e.; c ieo /ioe?e — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e. Aeeeaaeaia ia 172 noi??ieao
eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, ia? oaaeeoeue 35, aeiaeaoe?a 9. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 190 iaeiaioaaiue.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi. ?icae?e ?. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a.
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?. 1.1. Aa?a?i? ia?aoai?aiiy a aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie. ?ieue ? cia/aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 1.2. Oaeoi?e ? oiiae
aoaeoeaiiai a?aeoai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a ?eieiaeo
oiiaao. 1.3. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oa
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?. ?icae?e 2. Aiae?c caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 2.1. No/aniee noai ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio. 2.2. Aiae?c
caaacia/aiino? ?aa?iio o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie. 2.3. Aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 2.4. Oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo
i?aoe?. ?icae?e 3. Iniiai? iai?yie a?aeoai?aiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 3.1.
I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 3.2. Iioei?caoe?y aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e ye oaeoi?
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. 3.3. Oi?ioaaiiy
iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?. 3.4. Nioe?aeuei?
oiiae i?aoe? oa iiaooo n?euenueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeniiaee oa
i?iiiceoe??. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, oi?ioeththoueny caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny eiai i?aaeiao, ia’?eoe, iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa oa iaoiaee, a?aeia?aaeathoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ai?iaaoe?y oa ?aae?caoe?y ?o ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/i? iniiae a?aeoai?aiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?» ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
aniaeoe a?aeoai?aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno.

?icaeoie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?iaeueiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy i?aoeacaeaoii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy. O aoaeue-ye?e
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i?e oi?iaoe?? a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee ?
iaeaaaeeea?oith neeaaeiaith anueiai i?ioeano noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy.
Aiii aeeth/a? a naaa a?aeiiaeaiiy, i?aeo?eieo ? caa?aaeaiiy caeaoiino?
?iai/i? neee aei i?aoe?, ye?ni? oa e?euee?ni? ci?ie ?? neeaaeo,
?iciiae?e ca aaeocyie ae?iaieoeoaa oa oa?eoi???th e?a?ie.

N?euenueea iinaeainueea ia?aaea — oea noeoii?noue iaoa??aeueieo ia’?eo?a
? ianaeaiiy, yea a ieo i?iaeeaa? ? ia? iaai? ?noa?e/i? o?aaeeoe??,
ia?yaee, cae/a? oiui. N?euenuee? ianaeai? ioieoe ?c nioe?aeueii? oi/ee
ci?o ? na?aaeiaeuai a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy, o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo.
Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c

i?iaeai ?icnaeaiiy caiaeeeeny aieiaiei /eiii aei aea/aiiy i?nueeeo
iinaeaiue. ? o?eueee a inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y oaaaa a?o/eciyieo
a/aieo A.?.Aeioeaiea, A.I.Ee?naiiaa, ?.A.I?ieiie,
A.I.?iaiaeeia,A.N.Ooiiiaa, E.I.Oaiioueei oa ?ioeo aoea caa?iooa aei
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiue n?euenueeiai ?icnaeaiiy.

*enaeuei?noue n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, yea ? i?e?iaeiith iniiaith
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, i?ioyaii
inoaii?o o?ueio aeanyoe??/ nei?i/oaaeany a iaaeao 150-200 oen. ia ??e.
Ca oeae /an ia nae? ia 46% ciaioeeany /enaeuei?noue ae?oae aeioe?eueiiai
a?eo, ia 37% — oeiey??a, ia 39% — iaoeaioe?a a?eii aei 40 ?ie?a. Oiaoi
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean noa??iiy n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, ui iaoiiaeth?
iino?eia nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? oa ?o
a?ae a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao.

A?eiaee neeaae i?aoe?aiee?a aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie aeaeaeee
a?ae iioeiaeueiiai, ai a?eueoa /anoeia i?aoethth/eo i?eiaaea? ia noa?o?
a?eia? a?oie. O na?aaeiueiio 57% i?aoethth/eo iathoue a?e a?eueoa 40
?ie?a, o oiio /ene? 33,6% — a?eueoa 50 ?ie?a. Oae, na?aae caeiyoeo o
oaa?eiieoeoa? 33,9% neeaaeathoue iniae noa?oa 50 ?ie?a, o ?ineeiieoeoa?
— 47,3%. Eeoa in?a iain?eiiai a?eo na?aae o?aeoi?eno?a-iaoei?no?a ?
eiiaaeia??a 13%, na?aae aeiy?ie — 25,4, naeia?ie — 48,4, i?aoe?aiee?a
?ineeiieoeoaa — 21%, a in?a o a?oe? ca i’youe ?ie?a aei iain?? na?aae
o?aeoi?eno?a-iaoei?no?a 11,4%, na?aae aeiy?ie — 15,3, neioa??a — 18,6,
oaeyoieoeue — 23,2%. Ioaea, a na?aaeiueiio aeecueei i’yoi? /anoeie
i?aoe?aiee?a oaa?eiieoeoaa ? ?ineeiieoeoaa a iaeaeeae/? i’youe ?ie?a
aeeaeooue ia iain?th; iieiaea iiiiaiaiiy noaiiaeoue eeoa 0,3-0,5% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? i?aoethth/eo.

?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i? neee iia’ycaia c aaaaoueia
aeiiii?/ieie, nioe?aeueieie oa aeaiia?ao?/ieie i?iaeaiaie. Ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? aeeoae?a naea coiiaeaii cia/iei cieaeaiiyi ia?iaeaeoaaiino?
oa c?inoaiiyi nia?oiino?. Aeniea caaaeueia nia?oi?noue, niaae
ia?iaeaeoaaiino?, ??cea ciaioaiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy, aeaiiioeyoe?ei?
yaeua ioiieee iaeaea anth iinaeainueeo ia?aaeo. A oe?eiio ii Oe?a?i? a
1997 ?. e?euee?noue ia?iaeaeaieo noaiiaeea 167,6 oen. /ie., a
e?euee?noue iiia?eeo — 309,7 oen. /ie. Iniaeeai e?eoe/ia neooaoe?y
neeaeany a *a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano?, aea aiane?aeie cia/iiai ia?aaeuaiiy
nia?oiino? iaae ia?iaeaeoaai?noth i?e?iaeiee i?e??no a n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? ? iaea?eueoith a?ae’?iiith aaee/eiith (-12 oen. /ie.). A
iaeano? iaia? aeiaeiiai ?aeiio, aea a e?euee?noue ia?iaeaeaieo
ia?aaeuoaaea e?euee?noue iiia?eeo.

I?ioyaii cia/iiai ia??iaeo *a?i?a?anueea iaeanoue i?aeoe/ii ia ia?
i?e?iaeiiai i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy. Oea iaoiiaeth? iino?eia nei?i/aiiy
/anoee ianaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo ye iniiae oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a.

Aioo??oiueiiaeania i?a?aoe?y ?icaeiooa a *a?i?a?anuee?e i?ae?aeiii?e
eieaeuei?e nenoai?. Ia ?iaioo a i?noi *a?i?a?a o?eueee c *a?i?a?anueeiai
?aeiio i?a?o? 27% ianaeaiiy, caeiyoiai a noni?eueiiio ainiiaea?noa?.
Iniiaia iana i?a?aio?a i?eiaaea? ia i?ei?nuee? ianaeai? ioieoe. Oaea
i?a?aoe?y a?aee?eaa? iiaeeeaino? iie?eooy aeao?oeeoo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
o i?iieneiaeo oeaio?ao, caeaaeaeo? aino?ioo i?iaeaie aeeoea a i?noao,
noai?th? oiiae aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? oeo, ooi c
iaaieo i?e/ei a?aeaea? ia?aaaao i?iaeeaaiith a nae?. Iaaaeyea cia/aiiy
ia? ? oie oaeo, ui caaaeyee oaeei ^o?oaeiaei i?a?aioai» ia i?nuee?
aaca?e iaaeoiaeyoue caeeoee i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a. ?acii c oei oaea
i?a?aoe?y noai?th? o?oaeiiu? aeey n?euenueei? i?noeaaino?.

Aeey ae??oaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?iaeai oeueiai ?aa?iio iaiao?aeii
yeiaeoaeaeoa aeinyaoe iie?ioaiiy oiia caeiyoino? a?iiaaeyi, yea ?
iaiao?aeiei aaaeaeai i?a?aoe?eiiai i?e?inoo ianaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Aiae?c caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a» ?icaeyaea?oueny no/aniee noai ?icaeoeo n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio ? aiae?co?oueny eiai
caaacia/ai?noue o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie oa aoaeoeai?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

*enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a, caeiyoeo o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa? iaeano?, ca inoaii? 12 ?ie?a ciaioeeany ia 9.6%, ui
noaiiaeoue iaeaea 18 oen. /ie. (oaae. 1). *enaeuei?noue i?aoeacaeaoieo
/ieia?e?a ciaioeeany ia 9.4%, ae?iie — ia 9.8%, i?aoeacaeaoieo
i?aoethth/eo ia i?aei?e?inoaao oa a i?aai?caoe?yo — ia 5 oen. /ie.
(17.8%), i?aoethth/eo iain?eiiai a?eo — ia 5.5%, oi/ a no?oeoo??
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a oey eaoaai??y caeiaea 21.8% a 1997 ?., a a 1986-1990
??. -20.5%.

Oaaeeoey 1

*enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a, caeiyoeo a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa?

*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?, /ie.

IieacieeeA na?aaeiueiio ca ??e199619971991-1995 a % aei 1986-19901997 a
% aei1986-19901991-19951986-19901991-1995I?aoeacaeaoi? –
anueiai18691217343317219616913492.890.497.5A oiio /ene?: /ieia?ee (a?ae
16 aei 60 ?ia?a)1093201019361022129913093.290.697.2ae?iee (a?ae 16 aei
55 ?ie?a)7759271497709847000492.190.297.9I?aoeacaeaoi? i?aoethth/?, ye?
? ?ia?oieeaie ? neoaeaiaoeyie aea?aei?aei?e?inoa ? onoaiia oa
i?iaeeaathoue ? i?aoethaaee a
eieaini?2810324913239182310288.682.292.7Iai?aoeacaeaoi? o
i?aoeacaeaoiiio a?oe?479242984190401389.783.793.4Iniae iain?eiiai
a?eo6348561543609176000996.994.597.5I?aee?oee aei 16
?ie?a2991019976192161840380.273.892.1Anueiai30820228416328043727456192.2
89.096.6I?iaeaia o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aeieea? ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?,
ine?eueee naia ooo oi?io?oueny ?ano?niee iioaioe?ae, a ?aaeueia
aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y, iayaia iaoa??aeueii-ne?iaeiia aaca, nooi?iue
aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo eiie?aoii?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueii? iaeeieoe? ? aecia/aeueieie oaeoi?aie o
aeei?enoaii? oeeo ?ano?n?a ? a i?ioeanao a?aeoai?aiiy.

A oaae. 2. ai?uaii aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai ?eieo i?aoe? a
*a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano? i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a.

Ia iiiaio noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i? *a?i?a?anueea iaeanoue
aaea oniaaeeoaaea na?eici? i?iaeaie o aaeainoaaii? iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?e
ia ?eieo i?aoe?.

Oaaeeoey 2

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?eieo i?aoe? *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?

IIEACIEEE19911995199619971997 a % aei 1991Na?aaeiuei??/ia /enaeuei?noue
iayaiiai ianaeaiiy, oen. /ie.1398,81358,41341,41325,994,8I?nueea
ianaeaiiy, %55.256,757.057.7oN?euenueea ianaeaiiy
%44,843,343,042.3oO?oaeia? ?ano?ne, oen. /ie.743.5799,8794,1787,4105,9A
oiio /ene? i?aoeacaeaoia ianaeaiiy o i?aoeacaeaoiiio
a?oe?680,0666,1659,9652,695,9Ianaeaiiy noa?oiai
a?eo401.2399.4395.7390.397.2Caeiyoi anueiai (aac o/i?a), oen.
/ie.632.1647.7613.8583.492.3A oiio /ene?: o noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa474.7488.5455.4429.990.5% aei caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?75.575.475.273,7oo iaae?iaie/?e noa??157.2159.2158.4153,597.6%
aei caaaeueii? e?eueeino?24.524.625.826.3o*enaeuei?noue aac?ia?oieo ia
e?iaoeue ?ieo: oen. /ie.-5.316.127.9o% aei i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy o
i?aoeacaeaoiiio a?oe?-0.772.424.2oA oiiaao aeao?oeeoo ?iai/i? neee a
ainiiaea?noaao aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith aeiiii?ee i?aoe? ? oaeineiiaeaiiy
ieai?a ii i?aoe?, ye? a aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe ??aaiue ?
aaniethoiee ?ici?? i?aoeacaeaoiino? a ie?aieo aaeocyo ? ae?iaieoeoaao, a
oaeiae i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee caian?a ?iai/i? neee ? iio?aae ?? aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a o?niiio ca’yceo c oaiiaie
?inoo i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? ianyaaie ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Iniiai? iai?yie a?aeoai?aiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a» ia??oioiaothoueny iniiai?
iai?yie oa oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? a?aeoai?aiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Aecia/eoe ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie, e?euee?nii ae?aceoe aeao?oeeo /e iaaeeeoie ?iai/i?
neee iiaeia o?eueee ii??aiyiiyi iioaioe?eieo caian?a ?iai/i? neee a
ainiiaea?noaao c ?o iio?aaith o ?ano?nao i?aoe?. Oiio aaeain o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a, ye ? aoaeue-yeee ?ioee, neeaaea?oueny c aeoeao ? ianeao, aai c
i?eaooeiai? oa aeaeaoeiai? /anoeie(oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3

Aaeain

o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ii 20 eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo

i?aei?e?inoaao Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano? ca 1997 ?.

?i/iIieacieeeIayaia /enaeuei?noue ?iai/i? neee (i?aoeacaeaoieo
eieainiiee?a)*enaeuei?noue iino?eii i?aoethth/eo o iai?aoeacaeaoiiio
a?oe? (iniae iain?eiiai a?eo ?
i?aee?oee)Anueiai/ieia?e?aae?iieanueiai1. Caian o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?aA. Ca
??e1.*enaeuei?noue o?ce/ieo in?a22122410462238850102.Iioaioe?eiee caian
?iai/i? neee (oe?ei??/i? i?aoe?aieee211723814498824580A. A i?nyoeue
«i?e»3.*enaeuei?noue o?ce/ieo in?a221224104622318078024.Iioaioe?eiee
caian ?iai/i? neee (oe?ei??/i? i?aoe?aieee)211723814498824580I.
Aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?aA. Ca ??e5.*enaeuei?noue eieainiiee?a,
ye? a?aee o/anoue o ?iaioao: o?ce/i? iniae1864210339673884355oe?ei??/i?
i?aoe?aieee1801199437958238776.A?aei?aoeueiaaii ethaeeii-aei?a ca ??e,
oen.504,3498,51002,812,31015.07.Na?aaeiuei??/ia /enaeuei?noue
i?aoethth/eo -oe?ei??/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a173817193457423499A. A i?nyoeue
“i?e”8.*enaeuei?noue eieainiiee?a, ye? a?aee o/anoue o ?iaioao: o?ce/i?
iniae1864210339673884355oe?eii?ny/i?
i?aoe?aieee140113852786O27869.A?aei?aoeueiaaii ethaeeii-aei?a,
oen.42,041,583,51,084,610.Na?aaeiueii?ny/ia /enaeuei?noue i?aoethth/eo –
oe?eii?ny/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a161615983214393253O. Iaaeei?enoai? ?aca?ae (+)
aai aeao?oeeo (-) o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a11.?aca?ae aai aeao?oeeo o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a-anueiai3796221041O1041a oiio /ene? ??/i? ?aca?ae: /a?ac iaiiaia
caeo/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoieo o eieaeoeaia ainiiaea?noai316387703X703/a?ac
iaiiaia aeei?enoaiiy oiiaeo ?iai/iai /ano
i?aoethth/eo185396581X581naciiiee ?aca?a-122-121-243X-243Iaa?oiooaaiiy
iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ia iniia? iioei?caoe??
aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa c?iaeaii iaie
ia i?eeeaae? Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio ? aaco?oueny ia ae??oaii?
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue ia? aei/iee
oa?aeoa?. Ie?aiei aeieii ? iaaia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea i?aei?e?inoai,
ca’ycoth/ei aeieii — a?oia iaiaaeaiue, yea a?aoiao? iiaeeea?noue
caeo/aiiy naciiii? ?iai/i? neee aeey aoaeue-yeiai ainiiaea?noaa. A
ainiiaea?noaao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe ci?ie a
no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu ? iiaie?a’? oaa?ei. Ia?o ca ana i?iiiio?oueny
a?aeiiaeoe o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey ciie Iie?nny aaeoc? — eueiia?noai oa
ea?oiiey?noai. Oae, ieiuo i?ae eueiiii-aeiaaoioeai aeioe?eueii
ca?eueoeoe aei 2500 aa i?ioe 1780 aa o 1997 ?., ui noaiiaeoeia o
no?oeoo?? iin?a?a 8,5%. Ieiuo ea?oiie? i?iiiio?oueny ca?eueoeoe aei 4500
aa i?ioe ?nioth/eo 4040 aa, ui noaiiaeoeia o no?oeoo?? 15,1%.

Oaaeeoey 4

Oaeoe/i? oa i?iaeoi? cao?aoe i?aoe? ia ae?iuoaaiiy n.-a. eoeueoo? a

ainiiaea?noaao Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio a 1997 ?.

Eoeueoo?eOaeoe/ia ieiuaI?iaeoia ieiuaCao?aoe i?aoe?,

ethae.-aei?aA?aeoeeaiiy +;-aa%aa%oaeoe/i?i?iaeoi?ii iiiu?, aaii cao?aoao
i?aoe?,

ethae.-aei?aCa?iia? ca?iiaiaia?
–anueiai1326845,21250742,03675034968-761-1782A oiio /ene?: icei?
ca?iia?653222,3683222,91827819130+300+852y??
ca?iia?564819,3457515,41412011438-1073-2682ca?iiaiaia?10883,811003,74352
4400+12+48Eueii-aeiaaoiaoeue17806,125008,56158886500+720+24912Ea?oiiey4I
I13,8450015,1256540285750+460+29210Ei?iia?
–anueiai?I?I34,41002233,7152765164659-92+11894A oiio /ene?:

ei?iia? ei?aiaieiaee7132,58002,7104811117600+87+12789aaaaoi??/i?
o?aae4E?15,5450015,21657516425-41-150iaeii??/i?
o?aae24198,323007,71209511500-119-595eoeo?oaeca ia neein ? caeaiee
ei?i24418,424228,11928419134-19-150Iai/?1770,61800,72672727180+3+453?aci
i2937910029709100524370559057+33064687I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iieooaaiiy oao?aoe?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiaeeea?noue ao?eaiiy iaoeo
i?iiiceoe?e o ae?iaieoeoai. Cai?iiiiiaaia ieiua ia ii?ooo? nenoaie
n?aici?i, a, iaaiaee, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?? iie?auaiiy. Uiaei ?ioeo
aaeocae iao? i?iiiceoe?? oae?: ieiuo ca?iiaeo ciaioeoue ia 761 aa, oiaoi
cieceoe ?o ieoiio aaao o no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu c 45,2% aei 42%,
i?e/iio ca ?aooiie y?eo ca?iiaeo, ieiuo ei?iiaeo ciaioeoe ia 92 aa ca
?aooiie n?yieo o?aa. I?iiiio?oueny oaeiae aeiaeaoeiai aaanoe 330 aa
??ee?, yea o 1997 ?. aoea oei/aniai aeeo/aia ?c n?aici?ie (oaae.4.). O
oaa?eiieoeoa? iiaeia ca?eueoeoe iiaie?a’y aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ia
3730 aie?a, naeiae — ia 1658 aie?a.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ci?ie aeiiiiiaeooue ia o?eueee i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue
ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, a e ae??oeoe
i?iaeaio caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Ai ca?aeii c ?ic?aooieaie,
aeeiiaieie ca

iaoiaeeeith i?ioani?a I.A.Aoaooeueeiai (aeea. oaae.C.), o Ninieoeueeiio
?aeii? caeaa ?iai/a neea neeaaea? 703 /ie. Oeth oeeo?o aoei iieeaaeaii a
iaiaaeai?noue iiaeae?.

Oiio i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa o?oaeii?noeeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa iiaie?a’y oaa?ei iaa?oioiaai? ? c
aieo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, ui ? iaeiei c aaaiieo
iaiaaeaiue. Ca?aeii c i?iaeoii, cao?aoe ii aaeocyo ?ineeiieoeoaa
c?inoooue ia 64 oen. ethaeeii-aei?a, a oiio /ene? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
ieiu? eueiio — ia 24,9 oen. ethaeeii-aei?a, ieiu? ea?oiie? — ia 29,2
oen. ethaeeii-aei?a. Oea ia?aaeaa/a? caeo/aiiy aei ae?iaieoeoaa 223 oen.
/ie. Ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy iiaie?a’y aaeeea”’ ?iaaoi? ooaeiae oa naeiae
cao?aoa ca?eueoothoueny ia 139,2 oen. ethaeeii-aei?a, ui aaaea aei
caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiai 480 /ie.

Aeey ?nioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa i?ioean ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeiai
iino?eii iiaoi?thaaoeny ? a?aeiiaethaaoeny. A uia ae?iaieoeoai
a?aeaoaaeiny ?iai/a neea iiaeiia ae?yoe, niiaeeaaoeny o ae?iaieoeoa?.
Niiaeeaaiiyi ?iai/i? neee ? i?aoey, oiaoi i?ioean na?aeiii?,
aeioe?eueii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? aiie
aeaeici?iththoue i?aaeiaoe i?e?iaee ? i?enoiniaothoue ?o aeey
caaeiaieaiiy nai?o iio?aa.

Aein? ethaeeia ?icaeyaeaeany iaie eeoa ye noa’?eo i?aoe? oa aeaiaio
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, ine?eueee eiaeia eiie?aoia ethaeeia aeeaa ? i?aoeth?
ia a yeiionue aano?aeoiiio, a o iaaiiio noni?euenoa?. Oaia? aea
?icaeyiaii ethaeeio a ?io?e ieiuei?, a nenoai?, aea aiia ? noa’?eoii
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei, ?icaeaa?oueny ?acii c ieie o neeaaei?e
ae?aeaeoe/i?e ?aeiino?.

?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe? ia eiaeiiio ?iai/iio i?noe? coiiaeth? ??aaiue
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eieaeoeao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa. Aoaeoeaia ae?iaie/a
ae?yeuei?noue eieaeoeao ? aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a eiai
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Oiio ieoaiiy iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e naea iiaeii? ?icaeyaeaoeny a o?niiio ca’yceo c
aeiiii?/iei noaiii aa?a?iiai naeoi?a ye aaaeeeaa oiiaa
aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?.

Ineoieiae noaa?aeaeothoue, ui ethaeeia a?ae/oaa?, eiee ?e /iainue
a?aeo?. Oae? iio?aae iiaeooue aooe ia?aeiieie ? aoi?eiieie. Ia?aeiieie
ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? o?c?ieia?/i? (?aea, aiaea, iia?o?y), aoi?eiieie
— iio?aae ineoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o (oni?o, iiaaaa, aeaaea). I?e
iacaaeiaieaii? ia?aeiieo iio?aa ao?a/athoue ci?no aoi?eii?, oiaoi
nioe?aeuei? iio?aae — aeuiai ii?yaeeo ? iathoue caaeiaieueiyoeny o
eia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?.

Iaea?eueoith i??ith noai caei?ia’y ? i?aoeacaeaoi?noue ethaeeie
caeaaeaoue a?ae oiai, ye aiia oa?/o?oueny, /ei aeeoa?, a yeeo
aeeoeiai-iiaooiaeo oiiaao aeeaa. An? oe? oaeoi?e inoaii?i /anii aeoaea
iia??oeeeny.

Caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii? noa?e ii Oe?a?i? ?
*a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano? a?aeia?aaeaia a oaae.5.

A 1990 ?. aia?aaoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeiaiaiai ?aoe?iio
na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/iiai aeeoaey e?a?ie ia?aaeuoaaea 3500 eaei??e, ui
a?aeiia?aeaei iieacieeai iae?icaeioo?oeo: e?a?i na?oo, a ia ii/aoie 1937
?. aiia ciaioeeany aei 2600 eaei??e. Oiaoi ciaioaiiy niiaeeaaiiy
i?iaeiaieuenoaa ae?eoei aei e?eoe/ii? iaae?, ca yeith ii/eia?oueny
iai?aaieiaeia ?nioaaiiy cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 5

Caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy ia’?eoaie nioe?aeueii? noa?e (noaiii ia 1
n?/iy)

Iieacieee19911997Ii Oe?a?i?I0 *a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano?Ii Oe?a?i?Ii
*a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano?*enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy, /ie.:

ia 1 ei2 ieiu?86,014,084,341,8ia iaeei ianaeaiee
ioieo1720,0897,01686,0860,0Caaacia/ai?noue:

iino?eieie aeioe?eueieie caeeaaeaie (i?noeue ia1000 /ie.)75,0
.-48,041,931,0oeieaie (i?noeue ia 1000
/ie.)137,1125,8140,0131,8iie?ee?i?/ieie caeeaaeaie (a?aea?aeei ca ci?io
ia 1000 /ie.)17,816,119,017,4e?ea?iyieie caeeaaeaie (e?aeie ia 1000
/ie.)13,514,111,513,7eeoaieie onoaiiaaie (i?noeue ia 1000
/ie.)120,0178,2110,0180,0ianiaeie a?ae?ioaeaie (oen. i?ei??iee?a eiea ia
1000 /ie.)8,19,07,129,35Nei?i/o?oueny ??aaiue niiaeeaaiiy iaeoe?ii?oeo
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy — i’yna, iieiea, y?oeue oiui. Ii??aiyii c 1990 ?.
?o niiaeeaaiiy ciaioeeiny o o?e-/ioe?e ?ace. A?aeiii, ui i?aai?cio eeoa
aeey eiai ?nioaaiiy iaiao?aeii niiaeeaaoe uiaeaiii 2300 eaei??e, a
i?aoethth/?e ethaeei? — 3600 eaei??e. Cieaeaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a
coiiaeth? ia eeoa iia??oaiiy noaio caei?ia’y, aea e ciaioaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Nei?i/aiiy iieacieea niiaeeaaiiy eaei??e eeoa ia
10-20% aaaea aei cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia 25-78%. Aeao?oeeo
a?ee?a (iei? a?i noaiiaeoue 35-40%) ? a?oai?i?a (50-60%)
niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeoe/ii a on?o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

Aeey ioe?iee oiia iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? iaie aoea aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea,
?ic?iaeaia aeieoi?ii aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?ii I.I.A?naae?iei,
cie?aia iaoiae aieaoiiai iieooaaiiy. Ia aieaoo aeiia?aeaee niaoe?ae?noe
Ninieoeueei? ?aeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? oa ?aeiiiiai oi?aae?iiy
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, ye? aenooiaee ye aenia?oe i?e aea/aii?
nenoaie iioea?a aei i?aoe?. Ioe?iea i?iaiaeeeany ca i’yoeaaeueiith
oeaeith.

A eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
?aeiio iecueeee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe?. Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??
c ?ieo a ??e ciaioo?oueny, ? a 1997 ?. a ii??aiyii? c 1986-1990 ??. ??
aoei ae?iaeaii ia 52,5% iaioa. Aea oaiie ?inoo iieaoe i?aoe?
aeia?aaeaeathoue ??no ?? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, eiao?oe??io a?aeiioaiiy 1997
?. aei 1986-1990 ??. noaiiaeoue 1,12, a aei 1996 ?. — 1,08. I?e/eiith
oaei? aeeni?iii?oe?? ? iaaeineiiaeee iaoai?ci iaoa??aeueieo ? ii?aeueieo
noeioe?a, ye? ni?eyee 6 i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
o?oae?aiee?a.

AENIIAEE

1. A *a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano? aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y iaaoea oa?aeoa?o
aino?i? e?ece, iniiaieie iieacieeaie yei? ? iani?eyoeea? ci?ie ? a
e?euee?niiio, ? a ye?niiio neeaae? ianaeaiiy. E?euee?noue ianaeaiiy a
iaeano? ii/aea ciaiooaaoeny aaea i?ney 1950 ?., ? ca inoaii? 10 ?ie?a
nei?i/aiiy noaiiaeoue iaeaea 65 oen. /ie. Iaeanoue i?aeoe/ii ia ia?
aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee; e?euee?noue ia?iaeaeaieo ia ia?aaeuo?
e?eueeino? iiia?eeo. Ca 1997 ?. a iaeano? ia?iaeeeiny 9,5 oen. /ie.,
iiia?ei 22 oen. /ie. Aeaiiioeyoe?y ioiieea an? ?aeiie iaeano?. Iniaeeai
caa?iceeaeo ianooaa?a aiia iaaoea a Aaoiaoeaeiio, Aia?iaeoeueeiio,
Ai?iaeiyinueeaio, ?/iyinueeiio, Naiai?anueeiio, Oaeaea?anueeiio ?aeiiao.
Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie nia?oiino? ianaeaiiy caeeoathoueny oai?iae nenoaie
e?oaiia?ao (62,2% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? iiia?eeo),, ??ci? iiaiooai?aiiy
(12,2%), iauani? aeiaaeee, aaeanoaa, naiiaoanoaa oa ?io? ciai?oi? ae??
(9%), oai?iae i?aai?a aeeoaiiy (6%). Ca 1997 ?. /enaeuei?noue ianaeaiiy
iaeano? ciaioeeany ia 12,5 oen. /ie.

2. A n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? aeii?iothoue noa?o? a?eia?
a?oie ianaeaiiy, a aiie, ye a?aeiii, ca nai?th i?aoeacaeaoi?noth
ia’?eoeaii iinooiathoueny iieiaeoei a?eiaei a?oiai. A aeine?aeaeoaaiiio
?aa?ii? iniae iain?eiiai a?eo neeaaeathoue 29,1% aeeoae?a (i?ioe 26,5% o
1984 ?.). Oea iaeaeuee iieaciee a Oe?a?i?. E?euee?noue ae?oae o a?oe? 16
?ie?a ciaioeeany ia 20% (iaeieae/ee iieaciee a Oe?a?i?). Oea, a naith
/a?ao, iaoiiaeaii nei?i/aiiyi ca 1985-1997 ??. /enaeueiino? ae?iie
ae?oi?iaeiiai a?eo (16-49 ?ie?a) a?eueoa i?ae ia 10%. O n?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? iniae, noa?o? ca i?aoeacaeaoiee a?e, neeaaeathoue a?ey 42%,
a a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao — iiiaae 50%. Oa?aeoa?ieie ? cia/i? aeeni?iii?oe??
a no?oeoo?? ianaeaiiy ca noaooth: ia 1000 ae?iie i?eiaaea? 808 /ieia?e?a
(865 — a i?noao, 758 — a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?).

A?eiaee neeaae i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa aecia/a?oueny, c
iaeiiai aieo, a?eiaith no?oeoo?ith ianaeaiiy, yea i?iaeeaa? ia oa?eoi???
ainiiaea?noaa, c ?ioiai — nioe?aeueieie oiiaaie ?icaeoeo eieaeoeao.
A?eueo?noue iaoai?caoi??a a ainiiaea?noaao iaeano? iathoue a?e 31-50
?ie?a. Na?aaei?e a?e aeiy?ie 41-50 ?ie?a, a iieiaeeo ethaeae o a?oe? aei
CI ?ie?a, ye? iathoue oeth i?ioan?th, eeoa 13%.

3. I?iaaaeai? iaie iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca ia??iae 1986-1997 ??.
iieacaee, ui ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeiiai
na?aaeiuei??/iiai i?aoe?aieea a ainiiaea?noaao *a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?
noaiiaeei a 1997 ?. 4047 a?i., ui ia 1207 a?i. a?eueoa, i?ae a
ainiiaea?noaao Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio. A eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio
ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a 1997 ?. a ii??aiyii? c 1986 ?.
nei?ioeeiny ia 70.4%, ui noaiiaeoue 27580 a?i. Ia 1779 /ie. ciaioeeany
na?aaeiuei??/ia /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a ui noaiiaeoue 30,0%, i?e/iio
a ?ineeiieoeoa? — ii 33,0% (721 /ie.), O oaa?eiieoeoa? — ia 28,5% (1008
/ie.). Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai
i?aoe?aieea ciaioeeiny ia 57,7%, ui noaiiaeoue 3808 a?i., a oiio /ene? a
?ineeiieoeoa? oeae iieaciee ciaioeany a?eueoa i?ae iaiieiaeio — c 8739
a?i. a 1986-1990 ??. aei 4818 a?i. o 1997 ?., ui noaiiaeoue 55,1%; o
oaa?eiieoeoa? oeae iieaciee ciaioeany ia 3622 a?i. (71,1%).

4. Ca 1997 ?. *a?i?a?anueeith iaeaniith neoaeaith caeiyoino?
ca?a?no?iaaii 53 oen. in?a, ia caeiyoeo o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth. O
caaaeuei?e e?eueeino? aac?ia?oieo 34,2% noaiiaeoue iieiaeue a?eii aei 28
?ie?a, c ieo 2,2 oen. /ie. (23%) — aeioneieee o/aiaeo caeeaae?a. ??aaiue
io?oe?eii ca?a?no?iaaiiai aac?ia?ooy c??n c 0,77 (noaiii ia 1.01.1996
?.) aei 4,22 (noaiii ia 1.01.1998 ?.). I?ioyaii 1997 ?.
i?aoeaaeaoooaaeiny 10,7 oen /ie., c ieo 4,8 oen. -ae?iee, 4,9 oen. —
iieiae?^?A?oe?aei28 ?ie?a. Iniaeea?noth ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? ?
c?inoaiiy /anoee iain?iia??a o no?oeoo?? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. sseui a
1990 ?. o caaaeuei?e /enaeueiino? i?aoethth/eo aiie neeaaeaee 8,6%, oi o
1996 ?. — 16,8%, a o 1997 ?. -17% (134 oen. /ie.). Oe? i?ioeane aeanoea?
on?i aaeocyi iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa iaae?iaie/i? noa?e.

5. ?ic?iaeaiee iaie aaeain o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a ii 20 eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ninieoeueeiai ?aeiio aecia/ea
iaaeeeoie ?iai/i? neee a e?eueeino? 1041 /ie., a o./. /a?ac iaiiaia
caeo/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoieo o eieaeoeai? ainiiaea?noaa — 703 /ie. Oe? aeai?
iieeaaeai? a iaiaaeaiiy ii o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? c aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? aaeocaai? no?oeoo?e aeaieo
ainiiaea?noa.

6. I?iaaaeaia iaie ca aeiiiiiaith AII ? AII iioei?caoe?y aaeocaai?
no?oeoo?e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/eoue i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ei?eaoaaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu. Oae, ca?aeii c
i?iaeoiei ??oaiiyi i?iiiio?oueny ?icoe?eoe o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey Iie?nny
aaeoc? — eueiia?noai oa ea?oiiey?noai. Ieiuo i?ae eueiiii-aeiaaoioeai
i?iiiio?oueny ca?eueoeoe aei 2500 aa, ui noaiiaeoeia a no?oeoo?? iin?a?a
8,5%, ieiuo ea?oiie? — a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoeoe aei 4500 aa (15,1%).
Cai?iiiiiaaia ieiua ia ii?ooo? nenoaie n?aici?i, a, iaaiaee, ni?ey? ??
iie?ioaiith. O oaa?eiieoeoa? iiaeeeaa ca?eueoaiiy iiaie?a’y aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? naeiae. Oe? ci?ie i?aeaeuaoue ??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ? iiai?noth ae??oaoue i?iaeaio
caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

7. Caaaeyee aenia?oi?e ioe?ioe? oiia iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? anoaiiaeaii, ui a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ?aa?ii? iaoa??aeueia oa ii?aeueia noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?
ia ni?ey? iaeneiaeuei?e ?aae?caoe?? o?ce/iiai oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
iioaioe?aeo i?aoe?aiee?a. Aaaaea?ii, ui a no/anieo oiiaao aieiaiei o
noeioethaaii? i?aoe? ? noai?aiiy oaeeo aeiiii?/ieo oiia aeey
i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? a aa?aiooaaee ?i a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue aeeooy. C
oe??th iaoith i?iiiio?ii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe a ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiio
i?ia?aneai? oi?ie iieaoe i?aoe? (a?ae aaeiaiai aeioiaeo,
aei?aeii-i?ai?aeueio.. iieaoo i?aoe? ca e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe oa ?i.), a
oaeiae i?aiaeiee i?ae?yae. Oiiae ca?ieaoe a?aeaeaoe a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
eieaeoeao, ca?ia?oie ?iciiae?eyoe c o?aooaaiiyi aeeaaeo i?aoe?aiee?a, ?o
eaae?o?eaoe??, noaaeo ?iaioe oiui.

8.3 iaoith ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie caeiyoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?ioyaii
?ieo i?iiiio?oueny ?icaeaaoe o naeao oa naeeuao i?nueeiai oeio iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaio noa?o i?eeeaaeaiiy i?aoe? — ia?a?iaeo aeanii? ne?iaeiii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ia i?noe?, ?icaeaaoe nioe?aeueio ?io?ano?oeoo?o, aaeaeaaoio
aeiiaai ? iio?aaai ??cieo a?oi ianaeaiiy.

9.3 iaoith a?eueo ae?eiaiai aieeao ia i?ioeane a?aeoai?aiiy oa
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ne?ae aianoe nooo?a? ci?ie o
ieaioaaiiy iio?aa a ?iai/?e nee? oa o neeaaeaiiy aaeain?a o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a, i?iaiaeeoe aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo eaoaai??e
i?aoe?aiee?a a a?iiaaenueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii
i?iaanoe ci?ie a noaoenoe/i?e ca?oiino?: aaanoe iaia’yceiao ui??/io
ca?oi?noue i?i /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a, a?aei?aoeueiaaiee ieie /an,
??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe?, a?eiaee oa noaoaaee neeaae, eaae?o?eaoe?eiee
??aaiue oiui.

10. A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee iniiaio oaaao ne?ae cina?aaeeoe ia
iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aaeeeeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.
?aoi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia iiaeiii
i?ecaiaeeoe aei ?oeiaoe?? ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/ieo eiiieaen?a. I?ioeane
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeii noi?iaiaeaeoaaoe oi?ioaaiiyi ae?eiaiai
iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio, yeee noai?ea ae iaeaaei? iaoa??aeuei? oa
ii?aeuei? noeioee aei aenieiaoaeoeaii? i?aoe?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Iineaeaiei A.I„ Aii/a?aiei I.A. Eueiia?noai: no/aniee noai ?
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo //Iao-ee iaoe. eiio. — Oa?e?a, 1995. Aaoi?ii
aeine?aeaeaii ae?iaieoeoai eueiio-aeiaaoioey a cii? Iie?nny. (Aao. 50%).

2. Oeueyi/aiei I.A„ Aii/a?aiei I.A. ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao iiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy
//A?niee OAeAO, na?. «Aeiiii?ea AIE ? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy» — 1997. —
?1. -N.60-64. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo
?ano?n?a oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a cii? Iie?nny. (Aao. 80%).

3. Aii/a?aiei I.A. Aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a ?eieiaeo oiiaao
//A?niee OAeAO, na?. «Aeiiii?ea AIE ? i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy». — 1998. —
?4.-N. 160-162 (0,2 iae?e.-aeae. a?e.).

4. Aii/a?aiei I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?eieo i?aoe? (ia i?eeeaae?
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?) //A?niee OAeAO, na?. «Aeiiii?ea AIE ?
i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy». — 1998. — ?4.-N.162-170 (0,5 iae?e.-aeae. a?e.).

5. Aii/a?aiei I.A. No/aniee noai ? ia?niaeoeae a?aeoai?aiiy ianaeaiiy a
*a?i?a?anuee?e iaeano? /Oa?e. aea?ae. aa?a?. oi-o. — Oa?e?a, 1999. -16
n, — A?ae?ia?.: 9 /aca. — Oe?. — Aeai. a AeIOA.-?20-Oe 99.

6. Aii/a?aiei I.A. Aniaeoe nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo naea
//Aecian-eioi?i., — 1999.-?2. (0,4 iae?e.-aeae. a?e.)

AIIOAOe??

Aii/a?aiei I.A. A?aeoai?aiiy ? aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a
a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao (ia iaoa??aeao
*a?i?a?anueei? iaeano?). Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.02 — Aeiiii?ea n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
AIE. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.A.A.Aeieo/a?aa,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny caaacia/ai?noue o?oaeiaeie
?ano?naie, ?o a?aeoai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiini?e c n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. ?ic?aoiaaii aaeain
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?aa?iio. Ia iniia? aaeaino ? ?acoeueoao?a ae??oaiiy
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? caaea/? ?ic?iaeai? eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? c
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aoey, a?aeoai?aiiy, iioei?caoe?y, iioeaaoe?y,
aoaeoeai?noue.

(Goichaaaiki O.G. Oha reproduction and effective use of labour resources
in collective agricultural enterprises (on the base of Chernigiv
region).

The thesis is the author’s manuscript for a Candidate degree of Economic
Science, speciality 08.07.02 – Economy Agricultural and Agro-Industrial
Complex. –The Kharkiv State Agrarian University after V.V.Dokychaev,
1999.

In the manuscript the providence of agricultural enterprises with labour
resources in the condition of transition to market relations in
agricultural is analysed. The balance of labour resources of collective
agricultural enterprises of the region which is investigated has been
caculuted.

Definite suggestions touching upon the rational usage of labour
resources have been carried out on the base of the balance and the
results of the solution of the economic and mathematic sum.

Key words: labour, reproduction, optimization, motivation,
effectiveness.

Aii/a?aiei I.A. Aini?iecaiaenoai e yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia a eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo (ia
iaoa?eaeao *a?ieaianeie iaeanoe). Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ?oeiienueth.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.02 — Yeiiiieea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e AIE.
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao eiaie A.A.Aeieo/aaaa,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa aiaeece?oaony iaania/aiiinoue o?oaeiauie
?ano?naie, eo aini?iecaiaenoai e eniieueciaaiea a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e
?uii/iui ioiioaieyi a naeueneii oicyenoaa. ?ann/eoai aaeain o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee enneaaeoaiiai
?aaeiia. Ia iniiaa aaeaina e ?acoeueoaoia ?aoaiey
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneie caaea/e ?ac?aaioaiu? eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey
ii ?aoeeiiaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi aeey inouanoaeaiey aa?a?iie
?aoi?iu e no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee naeueneiai oicyenoaa ?aoathuay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e?anoueyinoao, aai yeiiiie/aneei aeaenoaeyi. Aaoi?
enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aa?ii?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen ia iiaeao oniaoii
?acaeaaoueny aac aic?iaeaeaiey naea. A iuiaoiae neooaoeee
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua e i?eeaaeiua ?aaioieee ia iiaoo ?aaeeciaaoue naie
o?oaeiaie iioaioeeae, ia iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoue ia aeinoieioth iieaoo ca
yooaeoeaiue o?oae.

Iniiaiie oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e
iaoiaee/aneeo aii?inia aini?iecaiaenoaa e eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, eo eiee/anoaa e ninoaaa,
a oaeaea ia? ii aieaa iieiiio e yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth o?oaeiaiai
iioaioeeaea eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a iiauo
oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey. Nouiinoue iao/iie iiaeciu iniiaiuo ?acoeueoaoia
enneaaeiaaiey caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee oai?aoe/aneeo, iaoiaee/aneeo e
i?aeoe/aneeo aniaeoia aini?iecaiaenoaa e yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a oneiaeyo ?aoi?ie?iaaiey aa?a?iiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee
Oe?aeiu; a ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee (n o/aoii ?aaeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae)
ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a eioi?uo au?aueaathony
o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey ciiu Iieanuey naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eoeueoo?u; a
ii?aaeaeaiee oaiaeaioeee oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?uiea o?oaea; a
oniaa?oainoaiaaiee iaoiaeeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey cao?ao ia au?aueaaiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, a oii /enea a ieeiaua ia?eiaeu; a
ii?aaeaeaiee aeeyiey ii?aeueiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia ia iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Ia iniiaa nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth i?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioaiu
eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii aini?iecaiaenoao e yooaeoeaiiio
eniieueciaaieth o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua iaania/ao iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eieeaeoeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa eoeueoo?, o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
aeey Iieanuey, — eueia e ea?oioaey, ?aoaiea i?iaeai caiyoinoe a
naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aiaae?aiea iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee aeenna?oaoeeiiiie
?aaioa a i?iecaiaenoai ia o?aaoao aeiaeaiee n?aaenoa e iniiauaaaony ia
nouanoaothuae ?ano?niie aaca. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?ythony a
i?iecaiaenoai a oicyenoaao ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?oae, aini?iecaiaenoai, iioeiecaoeey, iioeaaoeey,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

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