Вибірковість дії інсектицидів в системі комах фітофаг-ентомофаг в агробіоценозах: Автореф. дис… канд. с.-г. наук / Т.В. Захарова, Нац. аграр. ун-т.

20

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Caoa?iaa Oaoyia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 632.9+595.7

AEA??EIA?NOUe Ae?? ?INAEOEOeEAe?A A NENOAI?

EIIAO O?OIOAA-AIOIIIOAA A AA?IA?IOeAIICAO

03.00.09 — aioiiieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? oieneeieia?? ianoeoeeae?a ?inoeoooo
caoenoo ?ineei OAAI

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Naeoi Ieeiea Iaaeiae/,

?inoeooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI,

caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th
oieneeieia?? ianoeoeeae?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oaeanoiaa Aaeaioeia Na?a??aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aioiiieia?? ?
a?icaoenoo ?ineei

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ieanooi ?aai Ieeieaeiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iee

?inoeooo «Aa?i?ano?ne»,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, I?i?noa?noai
AIE

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny » 18 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.02 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a-41,
aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 15 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iaiaeaeoe A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Niieo/aiiy ?ioa?an?a ?ioaineaiiai caiea?ianoaa e
ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy
oaeeo nenoai ?aaoethaaiiy /enaeueiino? oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a a
aa?ia?ioeaiicao, ye? caaacia/oaaee a caa?aaeaiiy a?iaeath e eiai ye?noue
i?e ?aoe?iiaeueiiio canoinoaaii? ianoeoeeae?a ? iaeneiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaii? aioiiioaa?a. Iaea?eueo iiaii oeae i?eioeei ?aae?co?oueny a
?ioaa?iaaieo i?ia?aiao caoenoo ?ineei, ye? caniiaai? ia
caaaeueiiaeciaiiio a?ioeaiioe/iiio i?aeoiae?, i?e yeiio caaea/a iiaiiai
cieuaiiy oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a cai?ith?oueny aeiiaaie cieaeaiiy ?o
/enaeueiino? aei ainiiaea?nueei iaa?ae/ooiiai ??aiy. A oaeiio ?ac?
ia?oi?yaeiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oieneeieia?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ?inaeoeoeeae?a, aea/aiiy aea??eiaino? (naeaeoeaiino?) ae??
oiene/ieo niieoe oa ?o i?aia?aoeaieo oi?i ia aioiiioaoio aa?ia?ioeaiico
? iiooeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aea??eiaino? i?aia?ao?a.

I?e iiooeo e noai?aii? naeaeoeaieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a iaiao?aeii iaoe aeai?
i?i ii??aiyeueio oiene/i?noue ? iaoai?ci ae?? i?aia?ao?a aeey oe?aeeeai?
e ei?enii? aioiiioaoie aa?ioeaiico. A e?oa?aoo?? aaea ? aeai? i?i
naeaeoeaio oiene/i?noue oinoi?i?aai?/ieo, ea?aaiaoieo ? i??ao?i?aeieo
iinaeoeoeeaeia aeey ??cieo nenoaiaoe/ieo a?oi oe?aeeeaeo eiiao:
iiiaeeoeue, yaeoiaai? ieiaeiaea?ee, aaaiaiyii? niaee, eiei?aaenueeiai
aeoea, iaaooeiiiai ee?ua; na?aae aioiiioaa?a — aeey o?eoia?aie,
o?ecii?ae, oeaeeo eeii?a, eieoeeiae?ae.

Iiia?aaeiiie aeineiaeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeai?eiaa oiene/iinoue
iinaeoeoeeaeia aeey eiiao iaoiiaeth?oueny eiiieaenii oaeoi?ia, na?aae
yeeo aaaeeeao ?ieue iathoue i?iieeiaiiy ?o /a?ac iie?eae, aeaiiioaaiiy
oa ?iciiaeie a oeaieiao oa i?aaiao ?icieo ?a/iaei, iaoaaieici i
aeaeieaiiy, aeoeaiinoue iniiaieo oa?iaioieo nenoai aeaoieneeaoei?
(Ieeaii?iaa, 1986; Iiaiaeeeia, 1972,1977; Iaeeioeia, 1970; Oa?/aiei,
1986; 1987). Aeineiaeaeaiiy e aiaeic i?e/ei aeai?eiainoi ianoeoeeaeia ia
aeeai i?aaiicie ? iaeii?th c oeaio?aeueieo i?iaeai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
oiii/ieo caoiaeia caoenoo ?ineei. Aea ?c cia/iei iiiaeaiiyi ani?oeiaioo
o?i?/ieo niieoe aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue iiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oeueiio
iai?yieo.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aoiaeeoue aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio ?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI ?
aeeiioaaeanue ca aea?aeaaiith i?ia?aiith «Noi?ioaaoe ani?oeiaio iiaeo
ianoeoeeae?a, ?ic?iaeoe oa oaeineiiaeeoe oaoiieia?? ?o canoinoaaiiy».
Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 019700 12336.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aea??eiai? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a no/aniiai
ani?oeiaioo ??cieo eean?a o?i?/ieo niieoe a nenoai? eiiao
o?oioaa-aioiiioaa a aa?ia?ioeaiic?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) aea/aiiy ii??aiyeueii? oiene/iino? no/aniiai ani?oeiaioo
?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? oa ?o
aioiiioaa?a, aecia/aiiy i?aia?ao?a naeaeoeaii? ae?? aeey aioiiioaa?a;

2) aeine?aeaeaiiy o?c?ieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a a ca’yceo c
/ooeea?noth iniiaieo a?oi oa?iaio?a (oie?ianoa?ac ? ea?aieneeanoa?ac)
oe?aeeeaeo ? ei?enieo aeae?a eiiao;

3) aea/aiiy cia/aiiy iie?ea?a eiiao ye oaeoi?a o?c?ieia?/ii?
aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a;

4) aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia aeieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?
iie?oiene/ieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a;

5) aecia/aiiy aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a a nenoai? eiiao
o?oioaa-aioiiioaa ? iiaeeea?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy a ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno?
?ineei a?ae oe?aeiee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aea/aia ii??aiyeueia
oiene/i?noue ?yaeo oinoi?i?aai?/ieo, i??ao?i?aeieo oa ea?aaiaoieo
?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey ??cieo oaeniiii?/ieo a?oi ainiiaea?nueei aaaeeeaeo
eiiao-o?oioaa?a oa ?o aioiiioaa?a. Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aea/ai? oaeoi?e i?iyao o?c?ieia?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?
?inaeoeoeeae?a noiniaii o?oioaa?a oa aioiiioaa?a. Anoaiiaeaia aeaeiaa
/ooeea?noue eiiao aei ?inaeoeoeeae?a ? ?? caeaaei?noue a?ae oa?aeoa?o
i?iieeiaiiy i?aia?aoo a i?aai?ci. Ia i?eeeaae? eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai
ia?aceoa aiaioaeana aea/aia ae?y ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia aiaeiaaiieo ia?aceo?a
a ca’yceo c i?ioeanii i?iieeiaiiy oiene/ieo niieoe /a?ac iie?eae
oacy?ia. ?icaeiooa oyaa i?i aeieia?/io aea??eia?noue ?inaeoeoeeae?a a
aa?ia?ioeaiicao ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia aeaeeaaiiy aioiiioaa?a i?e
o?i?/ieo ia?iaeao.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai aea/aiiy oaiieia?? eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai ia?aceoa
aiaioaeana a iioiaaiac? e iniaeeainoae oiene/ii? ae?? ia ieo aacoaeeia e
A?-58 iiaiai c iiceoe?e aeieia?/ii? e o?c?ieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?
i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iniaeeainoae aea??eiai? ae?? oeeo i?aia?ao?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
oieneeieia?/ii? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia o?oioaa?a oa aioiiioaa?a aeaee
iiaeeea?noue aaea a eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeao i?iaanoe a?aea?? i?aia?ao?a
aeey ?ioaa?iaaieo nenoai caoenoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a?ae
oe?aeiee?a. Ca eiao?oe??ioii aioeoie?ianoa?acii? ae??, yeee ? iniiaiei
iieacieeii aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia a?io?i?/iiio ??ai?, a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao i?iaaaeaia iiia?aaeiy ioe?iea o?i?/ieo niieoe.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy oiene/iino? e aea??eiai? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a
aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aoeoaeo e i??eii?o a ?ioaa?iaaiiio
caoeno? ai?ioo a?ae ai?ioiai? iiiaeeoe?. A?-58 iiaee oa aacoaeei ?
aenieiaoaeoeaieie i?ioe eaionoyiiai a?eaia, aea aiane?aeie aeniei?
ii/aoeiai? oiene/iino? e ia?nenoaioiino? aiie ia i?iyaeee aea??eiai?
ae?? ia aiaioaeana a aa?ia?ioeaiic? eaionoe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
oaeoi??a aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?ae /an
neioaco iiaeo i?aia?ao?a ?c caaeaieie aeanoeainoyie, e aeey ?ic?iaee
?aaeaiaio?a canoinoaaiiy oieneeaio?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a
niinoa?aaeaiiyo, i?aeaioiaoe? oa i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aenia?eiaio?a, aiae?oe/i?e ?iaio?, ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aei ae?oeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y e ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia ?icoe?ai?e
ia?aae? eaai?aoi??? oieneeieia?? ianoeoeeae?a (1996-1998 ?.?.) oa
a/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI, 5 c’?cae? aioiiieia?/iiai
oiaa?enoaa (i.Oa?e?a, 1998), iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Noaeee
?icaeoie aa?iaeieia?/ieo nenoai a oiiaao iaiaaeaiiai ?ano?niiai
caaacia/aiiy» (i.Ee?a, 1998?.). Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaai? a 4 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 120
coi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c caaaeueii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iaioe, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 15 iaethieaie oa 17 oaaeeoeyie. Ia?ae?e
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ioiieth? 215 iaeiaioaaiue, na?aae yeeo 66
?iicaiieo.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

1. AEA??EIAA Ae?ss ?INAEOEOeEAe?A A NENOAI? EIIAO O?OIOAA-AIOIIIOAA
(IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?E)

Iiaea?oueny iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e uiaei iaei??? c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo
i?iaeai a caoeno? ?ineei — naeaeoeaii? oiene/iino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a oa
oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeththoue o?c?ieia?/io e aeieia?/io aea??eia?noue
o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a. ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a a
ca’yceo c aeei?enoaiiyi ?o a ?ioaa?iaaieo i?ia?aiao caoenoo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a.

Aiae?cothoueny ?acoeueoaoe a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a uiaei
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae o?c?ieia?/ieo i a?io?i?/ieo nenoai i?aaiicio,
ui ?aaaothoue c enaiiaiioeeaie, iiaiai?oaaiiy yeeo inoaii?ie ?
iaei??th c i?e/ei eaoaeueiiai aoaeoo. Aena?oeth?oueny ?ieue eiiieaeno
oaeoi??a, iia’ycaieo c o?i?/iith i?e?iaeith e ?aaeoe?eiith cae?ai?noth
i?aia?ao?a, ?o i?iieeiaiiyi, iaeiie/aiiyi, ?iciiae?eii a i?aaiao i
oeaieiao i?aai?cio, iia’ycaieo c iniaeeainoyie ciai?oi?o iie?ea?a eiiao;
iai?aaeai?noth i oaeaee?noth iaoaaie?cio oieneeaioa a i?aai?ci?
/eaienoiiiaeo, aeanoeainoyie iaoaaie?o?a.

2. IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a eaai?aoi?i? oieneeieiai? ianoeoeeaeia
?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe
ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee i?e?iaei? oa eaai?aoi?i? iiioeyoe??
ne?aeoth/eo aeae?a eiiao:

1) *a?aioiai-ceaeiaa iiiaeeoey — Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera,
Aphididae);

2) Niia/ei 7-e?aieiaa — Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera,
Coccinellidae);

3) Eaionoyia niaea — Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae);

6) O?eoia?aia cae/aeia — Trichogramma evanescens Westw.

(Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae);

5) Aieai eaionoyiee — Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Piridae);

6) Aiaioaean — Apanteles glomeratus L. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaee iinaeoeoeeaee o?ueio eeania oiii/ieo niieoe:

— oinoi?i?aaii/ii: aieaoii (oienei), 50 % e. a., aeai?oie, 10 % e.a.,
aeo?naai (oei?i??eoin), 40,8 % e. a., aacoaeei (ae?aceiii), 60% a. a.,
ea?aioin (iaeao?ii), 50 % e.a., oicaeii (cieii), 35% e. a., A?-58 iiaee
(aeeiaoiao), 40% e.a.

— ea?aaiaoe: aoeoae (o?eacaiao), ii?eii? (ie?ei?ea?a),25% a. a.,
oinoaea?e, 94% e.a.;

— ii?ao?i?aee: aiaoo, 25 % e.a., aeaoeen (aeaeueoaiao?ei), 2,5% e.a.,
ea?aoa (eyiaaeaoeeaaeio?ei), 5% e.a., iaa?ee 2F (oaooethaae?iao),
22,3% oei, oanoae (aeueoaoeeia?iao?ei), 10% e.a., 14 % e.a., ?ooano, 15
% e.a., noi?-aeueoa (anoaiaaea?ao), 5 % e.a.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ii??aiyeueii? oiene/iino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a
canoiniaoaaee caaaeueiii?eeiyoi iaoiaee a?oiiai? ia?iaee eiiao:
caio?aiiy a aiaeyiee ?ic/ei i?aia?aoo ?icii? eiioeaio?aoei? oa io?o?ieo
ae?aiia (Aa?, 1963). A?aenioie nia?oiino? aecia/aee /a?ac 1, 12, 24
aiaeeie. Aeey ?ic?aooieia ?acoeueoaoia aeei?enoiaoaaee eiii’thoa?io
i?ia?aio PROBAN oa Quattro Pro for Windows 6.0. (Naeoi e ae?., 1997).
Eiao?oe??io aeai?eiainoi ?inaeoeoeeae?a ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca aiaeiioaiiyi
aaee/eie NE50 aeey ciioaaa aei NE50 aeey oioioaaa.

Eaoae?oe/io aeoeai?noue anoa?ac (aoeaoeeoie?ianoa?ac ?
ea?aieneeanoa?ac) eiiao aea/aee eiei?eiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ca Oano??iei
(Naciiiaa, 1967), a?iieaeoey?io eiinoaioo oaeaeeino? aca?iiae??
?ia?a?oi?a (?inaeoeoeeaea) c oie?ianoa?acith eiiaoe — ca iaoiaeii A.ss.
sseiaeaaa (1965). Iieaciee aea??eiaino? aioeoie?ianoa?acii? ae?? ( E AOA
) ae?aoiaoaaee ca a?aeiioaiiyi a?iieaeoey?ii? eiinoaioe oaeaeeino?
aca?iiae?? ?inaeoeoeeaeo c anoa?acith o?oioaaa aei oaeiai ae iieacieea
aeey aioiiioaaa (Ieeaii?iaa, 1986).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii i?iieeiaiith ?inaeoeoeeae?a /a?ac oe??yi?
iie?eae eiiao i?iaiaeeeenue a eaai?aoi??yo aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? oa
oieneeieia?? ianoeoeeae?a ?C? OAAI ca iaoiaeeeith ?.A. Oa?/aiei (1987).
Eiinoaioo oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a c o?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaeieo
ao?ao i?aia?aoo aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith A.D. Tomlin, A.F. Forgash (ca
Oa?/aiei, 1987).

Iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aoaeoeaiino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a i?ioe
oe?aeiee?a oa ?o aioiiioaa?a ia iin?aao eaionoe i?iaiaeeee a ENI
“Niaee” , a ia ai?in? — a ENI “A?eiai?iaenueeee” Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai
?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? a 1997-1998 ?ieao. Caeeaaeeo aeine?ae?a
cae?enithaaee ca A.I. Aeini?oiaei (1985) oa A.I. Iiaethoith (1986).
Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeeiai?eith /enaeueiino? ? oaiieia??th oe?aeiee?a oa
aioiiioaa?a i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ia?o?ooieo ianoaaeaiue (Oanoeaoe, 1971;
Iniieianeee, 1968). Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
cae?enithaaee iaoiaeii aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee ca I.E. A?e?iueeei (1963)
oa A.I. Aeini?oiaei (1985) ia IAII.

3. II??AIssEUeIA OIENE*I?NOUe NO*ANIEO ?INAEOEOeEAe?A AeEss OE?AeIEE?A
OA ?O AIOIIIOAA?A

A caaea/o iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoiaeeei:

— i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueio ioe?ieo oiene/ii? ae?? aeayeeo ?inaeoeoeeae?a ?c
??cieo eean?a o?i?/ieo niieoe ia ainiiaea?nueei aaaeeea? aeaee
oe?aeiee?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo?, oa ?o aioiiioaa?a;

— aeae?eeoe aenieioiene/i? ?inaeoeoeeaee aeey oe?aeeeaeo aeae?a eiiao,
aea iaio iaaacia/i? aeey aioiiioaa?a.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiy oieneeieia?/ii? ioe?iee ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ?c
??cieo eean?a o?i?/ieo niieoe ia eiiao na?ae/aoue i?i ??cieoeth o
aeaeia?e /ooeeaino? eiiao oa iniaeea?noue ae?? i?aia?ao?a. Oiene/i?noue
?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey aonaieoeue o?aoueiai a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia
ciaioo?oueny a oae?e iine?aeiaiino?: aieaoii >oanoae >aeaoeen >iaa?ee
>A?-58 iiaee>ea?aioin; a aeey ?iaai aiaioaeana: aieaoii >A?-58 iiaee
>ea?aioin >aeaoeen >iaa?ee >oanoae. An? oe? i?aia?aoe iicaaaeai?
aea??eiai? ae??. Eiao?oe??io aea??eiaino? aeey ieo iaioa 10.

Aeey iiiaeeoe? ca cieaeaiiyi oiene/iino? ?inaeoeoeeaee ?ici?uai? a
iine?aeiaiino?: aacoaeei >iaa?ee >i??eii? >A?-58 iiaee>aoeoae >oicaeii;
a aeey ?iaai niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai oiene/i?noue i?aia?ao?a ciaioo?oueny a
?yaeo: aacoaeei >A?-58 iiaee>oicaeii>iaa?ee >aoeoae >i??eii? (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1 — Ii??aiyeueia oiene/i?noue ?inaeoeoeeae?a

aeey /a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe? e niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai

?inaeoeoeeaeNE50, % ae.?.Eiao?oe??io aea??eiaino?*a?aioiai-ceaeiaa
iiiaeeoeyNiia/ei

7 — e?aieiaaAacoaeei, 60 % a.a.4,23 10-46,42 10-315Iaa?ee 2F,22,3%
oei1,03 10-31,45 10-1141I??eii?, 25 % a.a.1,75 10-39,8
10-1560Oicaeii, 35 % e.a.2,78 10-31,1 10-24Aoeoae, 14% e.a.2,1
10-38,8 10-1419A? — 58 iia., 40 %e.a.1,9 10-37,6 10-34

A nenoai? /a?aioiai-ceaeiaa iiiaeeoey — niia/ei 7-e?aieiaa aei
?inaeoeoeeae?a c aenieith aea??eiaith ae??th noiniaii ?iaai
eieoeeiae?aee a?aeiinyoueny i??eii?, aoeoae, iaa?ee 2F, ye? iathoue
eiao?oe??io aea??eiaino? (EA) 560, 419, 141 a?aeiia?aeii. Aei iaio
iaaacia/ieo aeey aioiiioaa?a iiaeia a?aeianoe A?-58 iiaee, oicaeii,
aacoaeei.

Oaeei /eiii, ca aaee/eiith eiao?oe??ioa aea??eiaino? aaea iiia?aaeiuei
iiaeia i?iaanoe a?aea?? i?aia?ao?a aeey canoinoaaiiy ?o a ?ioaa?iaaieo
nenoaiao caoenoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a?ae oe?aeiee?a.

4. OAI?AOE*IA IAA?OIOOAAIIss AEA??EIAI? Ae??

?INAEOEOeEAe?A IA EIIAO

Aieea ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia aeoeai?noue oie?ianoa?ac ? ea?aieneeanoa?ac

eiiao

Iaoai?ci naeaeoeaii? ae?? ia eiiao a?eueo aeaoaeueii aea/aii ia
oinoi?i?aai?/ieo niieoeao (Iaeeioeia, 1970, 1972). Aaaeeeaa ?ieue i?e
oeueiio iaeaaeeoue niaoeeo?/iino? ?o ae?? ia aeaye? anoa?ace (Iaoeao,
1957).

Ia ia?oiio aoai? aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aea/aiith aeoeaiino?
oie?ianoa?ace e ea?aieneeanoa?ace a ii?i? e i?e io?o?ii? ?inaeoeoeeaeaie
o aonaieoeue 3 a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia e /a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe?,
oa ?o aioiiioaa?a — aiaioaeana e niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai (oaae.2).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeoeai?noue OA a ii?i? aa??th? a?ae 57 aei 199 iiieue/a
aiae, ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o aeaeo, a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, iiaaae?iee
oiui.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Oie?ianoa?acia aeoeai?noue ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey
/a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe? e niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai

Aeae eiiaoAeoeai?noue OA, iiieue AO/ a aiaeA?-58 iia.,

E??, I-1oa-1EAOAAoeoae,

E??, I-1oa-1EAOA*a?aioiai-ceaeiaa iiiaeeoey57+2,9(3,7+0,2)*10
2(2,9+0,15)*10 58*10-3118,9Niia/ei 7-e?aieiaa, ?iaai95+4,7(4,54+0,22)*10
4(2,44+0,12)*103

Io?eiai? iaie aeai? i?i ??ciee ??aaiue aeoeaiino? oie?ianoa?ac ?
ea?aieneeanoa?ac o aeine?aeaeaieo aeae?a ni?aiaaeathoue c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie aeey ?ioeo aeae?a eiiao (Naciiiaa, 1965; AEo?aaneay, Aiae?aaa,
1968). Ni?anoaaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c iaoa??aeaie ii oiene/iino?
aeaco?, ui iecueeee ??aaiue aeoeaiino? anoa?ac na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoo
no?ee?noue aei ?inaeoeoeeae?a, ? iaaiaee, aeniea oiene/i?noue
?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey aiaioaeana ei?aeth? c aenieei ??aiai aeoeaiino?
eiai oie?ianoa?ac.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui eaoae?oe/ia aeoeai?noue
anoa?ac o?oioaa?a ? aioiiioaa?a a ii?i? ia caaaeaee iia’ycaia c
/ooeea?noth eiiao aei ?inaeoeoeeae?a. *ooeea?noue oa?iaio?a eiiao aei
enaiia?ioee?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca iieacieeii a?iieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae??
?inaeoeoeeaeo c iaaiith anoa?acith, ca yeei aecia/aii, ui na?aae
aeine?aeaeaieo aeae?a eiiao iaea?eueoo /ooeea?noue aei A?-58 iiaiai ia?
oie?ianoa?aca ?iaai niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai (4,54*10 4 I-1oa-1 ). Aoeoae
aeeeeeaa iaeaeuo aeoeaaoe?th oie?ianoa?ace /a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe?.

Ea?aieneeanoa?aca aonaieoeue 3 a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia aeyaeeanue
iaea?eueo /ooeeaith aei iaa?eea 2O (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3 — Ea?aieneeanoa?acia aeoeai?noue ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey
eaionoyiiai a?eaia e aiaioaeana

Aeae eiiaoAeoeai?noue EA, iiieue IA/ a aiaeA?-58 iia.,

E??, I-1oa-1EAEAIaa?ee 2F,

E??, I-1oa-1EAEAA?eai eaionoyiee, aonaieoe? 3
a?eo72+3,5(5,37+0,27)*103(4,89+0,25)*10414,880Aiaioaean,
?iaai87+4,3(3,62+0,18)*102(6,12+0,31)*102

A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo /?oei i?ine?aeeiao?oueny aeaeiaa niaoeeo?/i?noue
eiiao noiniaii /ooeeaino? ?o oa?iaioieo nenoai aei aieeao enaiia?ioee?a.

Ca eiao?oe??ioaie aea??eiaino? anoa?acii? ae?? aecia/aiee iaoai?ci
aea??eiai? oiene/iino? aeine?aeaeaieo i?aia?ao?a:

1) Aea??eiaa oiene/i?noue niaoeeo?/iiai ao?oeeaeo aoeoaeo a nenoai?
/a?aioiai-ceaeiaa iiiaeeoey — niia/ei 7-e?aieiaa iaoiiaeth?oueny
aioeoie?ianoa?aciith aeoeai?noth niieoee (EAOA =118,9).

2) A iaoai?ci? aea??eiai? oiene/iino? A?-58 iiaiai a nenoai? eiiao
iiiaeeoe? — niia/ei ? eaionoyiee a?eai — aiaioaean aieiaia ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue ea?aieneeanoa?acai (EAEA =23 ? 14,8 a?aeiia?aeii).

3) Aioeea?aieneeanoa?acia aeoeai?noue iaa?eea 2O eaaeeoue a iniia?
iaoai?cio eiai oiene/iino? aeey nenoaie eaionoyiee a?eai — aiaioaean,
oi/a aeaiee ?inaeoeoeeae ? ia i?iyaea naeaeoeaii? ae?? (EAEA =80).

Oaeei /eiii, naia aeoeai?noue ea?aieneeanoa?ace aeii?ioaaea a
iaoai?ci? aea??eiai? oiene/iino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a eean?a OIN ?
i??ao?i?ae?a. Aeey i?aaenoaaieea eeano ea?aaiaoieo niieoe — aoeoaea —
aieiaiith aoea OA. Eiao?oe??io aioeoie?i(-eaaienee)anoa?acii? ae?? ?
iniiaiei iieacieeii aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia a?io?i?/iiio ??ai?,
ca yeei aaea a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe iiia?aaeith ioe?ieo
o?i?/ieo niieoe.

Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i i?aaii??i?noue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo i?e
aea/aii? i?e/ei aea??eiaino?. Ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaeii/aniei
aecia/aiiyi oieneeiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a ? aea/aiiy aieeao ?inaeoeoeeae?a
ia a?io?i?/i? e o?c?ieia?/i? nenoaie i?aai?cio eiiao caaacia/othoue
a?eueo iiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i neeaaei? iaoai?cie, ui eaaeaoue a iniia?
aea??eiai? /ooeeaino? eiiao.

Cia/aiiy iie?ea?a eiiao ye oaeoi?a o?c?ieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?

Iie?eae eiiao neoaeaoue aa?’??ii ia oeyoo i?iieeiaiiy oiene/ieo niieoe a
i?aai?ci ? ? iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue aea??eiao ae?th
?inaeoeoeeae?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a aeaye?e i??? noiniaii
oinoi?i?aai?/ieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia i?eeeaae? aeayeeo aeae?a
eiiao-oe?aeiee?a.

A na??? aeine?ae?a c aonaieoeyie 3 a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia,
/a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe?, aiaioaeana, ?iaai niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai
aeyaeaia aeaeiaa niaoeeo?/i?noue i?iieeiaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a /a?ac
iie?eae, ui iia’ycaii c aoaeiaith ciai?oi?o iie?ea?a eiiao, nooiaiai
neea?ioecaoe??, o?i?/iei eeanii niieoee.

?ic?aoiaai? eiinoaioe oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey oeeo
aeae?a eiiao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy A?-58
iiaiai oaeoe/ii iaeiaeiaa ? aei??aith? 22,0 (oa-1 *10-3) aeey aonai?
eaionoyiiai a?eaia ? 16,6 (oa-1 *10-3)- aeey aiaioaeana, 19,5 (oa-1
*10-3)- aeey iiiaeeoe? ? 12,1 (oa-1 *10-3) — aeey niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai,
ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iacia/iith ??cieoeath ? a oiene/iino? ?inaeoeoeeaeo
aeey an?o oeeo aeae?a eiiao. ?ioa ea?oeia niinoa??aa?oueny a aeine?aeao
c iaa?eeii 2O ? aoeoaeii. Eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy iaa?eea 2O
/a?ac iie?eae eaionoyiiai a?eaia — 3,6 (oa-1 *10-3), a aeey aiaioaeana —
12,8 (oa-1 *10-3), oiaoi a 3,6 ?ac?a aeua, ui aecia/a?, ii?yae c ?ioeie
i?e/eiaie, aenieo oiene/i?noue ?inaeoeoeeaeo aeey ia?aceoa. Oaeaee?noue
i?iieeiaiiy aoeoaeo /a?ac iie?eae iiiaeeoe? a 2,2 ?ace aeua, i?ae aeey
niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai (22,2 ? 10,0 (oa-1 *10-3)a?aeiia?aeii), ui a
ye?enue i??? iiynith? ??cieoeth a oiene/iino? i?aia?aoo.

I?iieeiaiiy i?aia?ao?a /a?ac iie?eae eiiao ? iaeiei c oaeoi??a
o?c?ieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a a nenoai? o?oioaa-aioiiioaa.
Aea aoaeo naeaeoeaiino? i?aia?aoo aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa oaeaee?noth
i?iieeiaiiy /a?ac iie?eae, aea e ?ioeie iaoai?ciaie aea??eiaino?.

5. AEA??EIA?NOUe Ae?? NO*ANIEO ?INAEOEOeEAe?A A AA?IA?IOeAIICAO

Aea??eia?noue ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey ai?ioiai? iiiaeeoe? oa

niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai a aa?ia?ioeaiic? ai?ioo

Iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ui aaeueiothoue c?inoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ai?ioo, ?
oe?aeeea? aeaee eiiao. Ia Oe?a?i? no?oeoo?a oe?aeeeaiai aioiiieiiieaeno
iin?a?a eoeueoo?e i?aaenoaaeaia 57 aeaeaie, c yeeo cia/io oeiaeo
ni?e/eiythoue a?ey 20 aeae?a (Iao?ooa, 1975; Iinueaaaa, 1990).

Aea??eia?noue i??eii?o, 25% a.a., aoeoaeo, 14% e.a. ? A?-58 iiaiai, 40%
e.a. a iieueiaeo oiiaao ioe?ithaaeanue ca iieacieeii a?ieia?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?. Iaeii/anii c aeeiai?eith /enaeueiino? ai?ioiai? iiiaeeoe?
ia eiio?ieueieo ? aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao aecia/aee aieea oeeo i?aia?ao?a
ia /enaeuei?noue iiioeyoe?? Coccinella septempunctata L. ?noioii?
??cieoe? a aoaeoeaiino? aoeoaeo a ??cieo ii?iao aeo?ao ia aeyaeaii, oiio
iaaeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeae i?aia?ao a ii?i? 0,5 e/aa. Ca
a?ieia?/iith aoaeoeaiinoth ? o?eaaeinoth ae?? aoeoae ia iinooiaany
aoaeiio A?-58 iiaiio. Iacaeaaeii a?ae ii?i aeo?ao iaa?oue ia 13 aeiao
nia?oi?noue oe?aeieea aeinyaaea 81,6-83,9%.

Aoiaeioeeae ii?eii? a ii?ii 0,5 ea/aa ia oeie eoeueoo?? i?ioe iiiaeeoeue
iieacaa oaeiae aenieo aoaeoeaiinoue, ? ca iieacieeii a?ieia?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? a?i oaae ia iinooiaany Ai-58 iiaiio. Aenieo aoaeoeaiinoue
ii?eii? caaacia/oaaa i?ioyaii 9 aeiia. Ia 13 aeaiue iiney iai?eneoaaiiy
iin?a?a aiaecia/aeinue aeayea cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi i?aia?aoo.
Caa?aaeaiee a?iaeae ai?ioo aiae canoinoaaiiy ye aoeoaeo, i??eii?o, oae
i aoaeiio Ai-58 iiaiai noaiiaea 4,3, 5,0, 3,8, 3,6 oe/aa a?aeiia?aeii a
ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai, aai 15-21% (?icieoey noaoenoe/ii ai?iaiaeia).

Nia?oi?noue eieoeeiae?ae i?e canoinoaaii? i???ii?o e aoeoaeo
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae A?-58 iiaiai (oaae.4).

Oaaeeoey 4 — Aieea ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia /enaeuei?noue niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai

ia iin?aao ai?ioo (Ee?anueea iaeanoue, 1997 ?.)

Aa??aio*enaeuei?noue niia/ea /a?ac…aei?a i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy (iniaei
ia 100 iiiao?a na/eii)136913aec%aec%aec%aec%aec%Eiio?ieue

67-69-65-70-68-I??eii?, 25 % a.a., 0,5
ea/aa4828,449305120,45031,75221,2Aoeoae,

14% e.a., 0,3 e/aa4729,949304825,15130,45024,3Aoeoae ,

14% e.a., 0,5 e/aa4237,35028,64923,54735,84925,8A? — 58 iia.,

40%e.a.,

0,7e/aa (aoaeii)3252,53451,53545,433553940,9

sseui A?-58 iiaee aeeeeeaa caaeaaeue oeaeaea a iaaeao 32-55 % c
iaeneioiii cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? ia 9 aeaiue (55%), oi o aa??aio? c
i??eii?ii /enaeuei?noue niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai eieeaaeanue a iaaeao 20,4%
-31,7% a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai.

Iaeaeua nia?oi?noue eieoeeiae?ae a?ae canoinoaaiiy oeueiai i?aia?aoo
niinoa??aaeanue ia 9 aeaiue i?ney ia?iaie (31,7%).

Aoeoae a ii?i? aeo?ao 0,5 e/aa ia ia?oee aeaiue i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy
iin?a?a aeyaeany a?eueo iaaacia/iei aeey aioiiioaaa a ii??aiyii? c eiai
iaioith ii?iith aeo?ao: cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai
neeaaeaei 37,3% ? 29,9 % a?aeiia?aeii. Iio?i nooo?ai? ??cieoe? aieeao
i?aia?aoo a ??cieo ii?iao aeo?ao ia /enaeuei?noue niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai
ia aeyaeaii.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui aeniea nia?oi?noue eieoeeiae?ae aoea cao?eniaaia ia
o?eueee ia ia?oee aeaiue, aea e ia 9 aeaiue i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy iin?a?a
aeaieie ?inaeoeoeeaeaie. Ca a?ieia?/iith aoaeoeai?noth e o?eaae?noth
oiene/ii? ae?? iaea?eueo iaaacia/iei aeey aioiiioaaa aeyaeany A?-58
iiaee. A iieueiaeo oiiaao i??eii? aeeeeeaa i?i?iaeueia cieaeaiiy
/enaeueiino? niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai a ii??aiyii? c aoeoaeii a aeaio ii?iao
aeo?ao ? aoaeiiii A?-58 iiaei.

Ioaea, a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aea??eia?noue ae?? i??eii?a e aoeoaea noiniaii niia/ea
7-e?aieiaiai. E??i oiai anoaiiaeaii, ui oe? i?aia?aoe aeyaeeenue
aenieiaoaeoeaieie a caoeno? ai?ioo a?ae ai?ioiai? iiiaeeoe?, ? iiaeooue
aooe canoiniaai? a ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? caoenoo ai?ioo a?ae iiiaeeoeue.

Aea??eia?noue no/anieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a a aa?ia?ioeaiic? eaionoe

C iaoith iiaeeeai? ?ioaa?aoe?? o?i?/iiai iaoiaeo caoenoo eaionoe
a?ae eaionoyiiai a?eaia c i?e?iaeieie ?aaoeyoi?aie /enaeueiino?
iiioeyoe?? oe?aeieea aiaioaeanii iaie a 1997-1998 ?.?. aea/aeenue a
iieueiaeo oiiaao ianooii? ieoaiiy:

— aea/aiiy oaiieia?? ?icaeoeo eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai ia?aceoa
aiaioaeana;

— aea/aiiy ci?ie /enaeueiino? oe?aeieea e eiai ia?aceoa ia
?inaeoeoeeaeiiio oii? e ia iaia?iaeai?e ae?eyioe?;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy o?eaaeino? oiene/ii? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia eaionoyiiai
a?eaia e aiaioaeana.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? aoa i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca oaiieia??th
eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai ia?aceoa aiaioaeana a oiiaao Ee?anueei?
iaeano?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoea iiaoaeiaaia oaiia?aia, yea
a?aeia?aaea? caeiiii??i?noue ii?aeiaiiy ?icaeoeo oacy?ia oa eiai
ia?aceoa ? iaa?oioiao? iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeeio
?ic’?aeiaiiy o /an? e i?inoi?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ? aioiiioaaa a
aa?ia?ioeaiic? eaionoe.

Ca?aaeai?noue aonai? eaionoyiiai a?eaia 3 a?eo ae?oai? aaia?aoe?? aei
ia?iaee neeaaeaea a na?aaeiueiio 74,5 % (oaae. 5). Ioaea, ia ii/aoeo
na?iiy, a ia??iae ianiaiai ?iciiiaeaiiy aonaieoeue cieaeaiiy nooiaiy
ca?aaeaiino? aiaioaeanii ye oaeiai ia niinoa??aaeinue. I?ney
iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe, eiee ii/aea i?iyaeyoenue ae?yeuei?noue ia?oi? e
ae?oai? aaia?aoe?e ia?caeieea, ia eiio?ie? ca?aaeai?noue neeaaeaea 88,2
%.

Oaaeeoey 5 — Ca?aaeai?noue eaionoyiiai a?eaia aiaioaeanii

(Ee?anueea iaeanoue, 1997, 1998 ?.?.)

Aa??aioCa?aaeai?noue ia?aceoaie aonaieoeue (%) aei
iai?eneoaaiiyCa?aaeai?noue ia?aceoaie aonaieoeue (%) ia 14 aeaiue i?ney
iai?eneoaaiiyEiio?ieue

74,688,2Aacoaeei, 60% a.a.,

1 e/aa74,338,7A?-58 i.,40% e.a.,

1 e/aa74,727,8

Ca?aaeai?noue aeaeeaoeo i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe aacoaeeiii
aonaieoeue eaionoyiiai a?eaia aiaioaeanii neeaaeaea 38,7 %, a i?ney
ia?iaee A?-58 iiaei — 27,8%.

Ioaea, i?aia?aoe c oe?ieei niaeo?ii oiene/ii? ae?? i?ecaaee aei
cieaeaiiy ca?aaeaiino? aiaioaeanii na?aae aeaeeaoeo aonaieoeue a 2-3
?ace a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Oea iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaii iecueeith
no?ee?noth iiioeyoe?? a?eaia aei ?inaeoeoeeae?a, eiai ??ciei
o?c?ieia?/iei noaiii, aeanoea?noth iaeiie/oaaoe aee?ia? ?aca?ae,
oiene/ieie aeanoeainoyie naieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a, ui nooo?ai aieeioei ia
cieaeaiiy /enaeueiino? aioiiioaa?a. I/aaeaeii, aaeeeo ?ieue a oeueiio
a?ae?a?athoue oaeiae aeoeai?noue oa?iaioieo nenoai aeaoieneeaoe??
i?aia?ao?a a i?aai?ci? oe?aeieea e ia?aceoa.

I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio ?ic’?aeiaiiy a /an? e i?inoi??
?inaeoeoeeaeo e aioiiioaaa aeeiiaia a iieueiaeo aeine?aeao ia i?eeeaae?
A?-58 iiaiai, 40 % e.a. e aacoaeeio, 60 % a.a. noiniaii iaeieo c
iaea?eueo ?iciianthaeaeaieo eiiiiiaio?a aa?ia?ioeaiico eaionoe —
eaionoyiiai a?eaia e aioiiioaaa aiaioaeana. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue
ia i?ci?e eaiono? ni?oo «Oa?ueeianeay ceiiyy» a ENI «Niaee»
Ee?ai-Nayoioeinueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? ia caaaeuei?e ieiu? 42,4
aa. Iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe ?inaeoeoeeaeaie i?iaiaeeee a aeaa no?iee:
ia?oee — a ?aeiiaiaeiaai? i?ioe aonaieoeue, ui a?ae?iaeaeoaaeenue;
ae?oaee — c ci?uaiiyi ia 10 aei?a i?ioe ia?aaaaeii aonaieoeue
o?aoueiai a?eo.

A ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?eueo oeiaei/eiiith aoea ae?oaa aaia?aoe?y
eaionoyiiai a?eaia. ??aaiue /enaeueiino? o?oioaaa cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaa
ii?iaiaee: ia 1 ?ineeio i?eoiaeeeinue 23,8-24,2 aonai? 3 a?eo ( AIO
noaiiaeoue 5-10 aonaieoeue ia ?ineeio i?e canaeaiino? ia iaioa 5-10 %
?ineei a oaco caaycoaaiiy ei/aia).

O ia?oiio aeine?ae?, aea ia?iaea i?iaiaeeeanue i?ioe aonaieoeue
iieiaeoiai a?eo, niinoa??aaeanue 100% caaeaaeue oe?aeieea e ia?aceoa,
oiio iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?eieiai?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii aecia/aiith aoaeoeaiino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a
i?ioe aonaieoeue na?aaeiueiai a?eo ?c ci?uaiiyi no?ieo o?i?/ieo ia?iaie,
iieacaee, ui aacoaeei i?iaeaiiino?oaaa aenieo a?ieia?/io aoaeoeai?noue
i?ioe aonaieoeue eaionoyiiai a?eaia : aaea ia o?ao?e aeaiue a?ieia?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue aeinyaea 98 %. I?aia?ao aoa aoaeoeaiei ia i?ioyc? an?o 13
ae?a iae?eo. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui c 11 aeiy i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy ii/aany
aeoeaiee i?ioean ciaioaiiy /enaeueiino? oe?aeieea ia eiio?ieueieo ?
aeine?aeieo ae?eyieao ca ?aooiie caeyeueeiaoaaiiy aonaieoeue. A?-58
iiaee oaae i?iyaea aenieo a?ieia?/io aoaeoeai?noue noiniaii aonai? 3
a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia (97%). Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue ia
i?ioyc? oeueiai ae ia??iaeo. Ioaea, aeai? oinoi?i?aai?/i? i?aia?aoe
cieceee /enaeuei?noue eaionoyiiai a?eaia ieae/a AIO.

I?e iae?eao iniaeeao oaaao caa?oaee ia /enaeuei?noue ia?aceoa
eaionoyiiai a?eaia — aiaioaeana ia ia?iaeaieo ?inaeoeoeeaeaie ?
eiio?ieueieo ae?eyieao. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iae?eo, iaeneiaeueia cieaeaiiy
/enaeueiino? ?iaai aiaioaeana niinoa??aaeinue ia 1 aeaiue i?ney ia?iaee
eaionoe oeeie i?aia?aoaie (aeeueio aeinyaaa 6,4 ? 4,06 % a?aeiia?aeii).
Ii/eiath/e c 7 aeiy i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy aacoaeeiii aeeueio ia?aceoa
noaa?e?coaaany e neeaaeaa a na?aaeiueiio 36,3 %. A?-58 i. aeyaeany
a?eueo iaaacia/iei aeey aiaioaeana: aeeueio ia?caeieea ia i?ioyc?
anueiai ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy ia ia?aaeuoaaa 30%.

Ia no/aniiio aoai?, eiee caoeni? nenoaie aoaeothoueny c o?aooaaiiyi
ae?yeueiino? i?e?iaeieo ei?enieo /eaienoiiiaeo, o?eaaeee oiene/iee aoaeo
a?ae?a?a? iaaaoeaio ?ieue. C iiceoe?? caa?aaeaiiy aioiiioaa?a ia?aaaaa
iaaea?oueny o?i?/iei niieoeai c iecueeith aai iii??iith oiene/i?noth
(Naeoi, 1993).

Aeey aiaioaeana aeai? i?aia?aoe aieiae?thoue aenieith o?eaae?noth
oiene/ii? ae?? (?en.1). *a?ac o?e aeiae i?ney iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe
aacoaeeiii ? A?-58i. nia?oi?noue ia?aceoa neeaaeaea 86,3% ? 90,7%
a?aeiia?aeii. Ia 13 aeiao i?ney canoinoaaiiy oe? ?inaeoeoeeaee aeeeeeaee
nia?oi?noue ia?aceoa ia ??ai? 64,8 ? 76,1% a?aeiia?aeii.

A?aeiii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy aenieiai caoeniiai aoaeoo i?ioe oe?aeieea,
iaiao?aeii caa?aaeaiiy ia?nenoaioiino? i?aia?ao?a ia ??ai? nia?oiino?
50-75 % ia i?ioyc? ia iaioa 2 oeaei?a.

Aeai? i?aia?aoe ii o?eaaeino? oiene/ii? ae?? a iaeiaeia?e i??? oiene/i?
ye aeey eaionoyiiai a?eaia (ia 13 aeiao nia?oi?noue aeinyaea 98,4 -99
%), oae ? aeey aioiiioaa?a. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe noiae?noth a oa?aeoa??
aieeao oieneeaio?a ia o?oioaaa, yeee oa?/o?oueny ia iiaa?oi? eenoa, ?
aioiiioaaa, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ana?aaeei? aonaieoeue.

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7c0105000000130259007f01040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500
040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d01
0900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200ffff00070000001604af0094010f005400
040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff03000000
1e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00
05000000090200ffff00070000001604b20094010f005400040000002d01020004000000
2d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d0101000400
00002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200ffff000700
00001604ed00680200000000040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500
040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d01
0900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200ffff00070000001604ed00680200000000
040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff03000000
1e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00
05000000090200ffff00070000001604ed00680200000000050000000902000000000400
000004010d0004000000020101000a000000320aa3003800020000003530090009000a00
0000320a84003800020000003630090009000a000000320a650038000200000037300900
09000a000000320a47003800020000003830090009000a000000320a2800380002000000
3930090009000c000000320a09002f000300000031303000090009000900040000002d01
0200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e0004000000
2d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00050000000902
00000000070000001604ed00680200000000040000002d010200040000002d0103000400
00002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010800
040000002d010900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000070000001604ed00
6802000000000400000004010d00040000000201010009000000320aba00670001000000
3000090009000000320aba008e00010000003100090009000000320aba00b50001000000
3300090009000000320aba00dc00010000003500090009000000320aba00030101000000
3700090009000000320aba002a0101000000390009000a000000320aba004c0102000000
3131090009000a000000320aba00730102000000313309000900040000002d0102000400
00002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100
040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000
070000001604ed00680200000000040000002d010100040000002d010100040000002d01
0200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e0004000000
2d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00050000000902
00000000070000001604e8003501ce00b1000400000004010d0004000000020101002100
0000320ad200b40011000000e4edb320efb3f1ebff20eee1f0eee1eae800090008000400
04000800040008000800090004000900090009000900090007000800040000002d010100
040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff03000000
1e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00
05000000090200000000070000001604ed00680200000000040000002d01010004000000
2d010100040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff
030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102
ffffff000500000009020000000007000000160497002c00270012000400000004010d00
040000000201010012000000fb02f0ff0000840384039001000000cc0010002041726961
6c2043797200cc00040000002d010a000e000000320a940015000d000000d1ece5f0f2ed
b3f1f2fc2c202500040000002d01010004000000f0010a00040000002d01010004000000
2d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e000400
00002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff0005000000
090200000000070000001604ed0068020000000009000000fa0200000000000000000000
2200040000002d010a0004000000f0010900040000002d01030004000000f00108000500
00000902ffffff00050000000102000000000400000004010d0004000000020102000700
00001b04e9005e0205009b01040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500
040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010300040000002d01
0a0005000000010200000000050000000902ffffff00070000001604e7005d0206009c01
040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff03000000
1e00040000002d010100040000002d010300040000002d010a0005000000010200000000
050000000902ffffff00070000001604e7005d0206009c0109000000fa02000001000000
000080002200040000002d01080004000000f0010a000500000014021300a10105000000
0102ffffff000400000004010d0004000000020101000500000013021300bc0105000000
14021300ae01040000002d01070005000000090200008000050000000102000000000400
0000020102000e00000024030500ae011000b1011300ae011600ab011300ae0110000500
0000090200000000050000000102ffffff00040000000201010022000000320a0900c001
12000000c3f3f1b3edfc20eae0eff3f1f2ffedeee3ee0900070008000400080009000400
0700090008000700080007000900080009000600090025000000320a1c00c00114000000
e1b3ebe0ede02c20e1e0e7f3e4e8ed2c2036302509000400080009000800090004000400
090009000700070009000800080004000400090009000e000d000000320a2f00c0010400
0000ea2ee52e0700040009000400040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d01
0500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d01070004000000
2d010800050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000070000001604e7005d020600
9c01040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff0300
00001e00040000002d010100040000002d010700040000002d010800050000000102ffff
ff0005000000090200000000070000001604e7005d0206009c0109000000fa0200000100
0000ff00ff002200040000002d01090004000000f00108000500000014025100a1010400
000004010d0004000000020101000500000013025100bc010500000014025100ae010400
00002d010000050000000902ff00ff000500000001020000000004000000020102000700
00001b045400b1014e00ab0105000000090200000000050000000102ffffff0004000000
0201010022000000320a4700c00112000000c3f3f1b3edfc20eae0eff3f1f2ffedeee3ee
090007000800040008000900040007000900080007000800070009000800090006000900
25000000320a5a00c00114000000e1b3ebe0ede02c20c1b32d353820ed2c203430250900
04000800090008000900040004000b000400050009000900040008000400040009000900
0e000d000000320a6d00c00104000000ea2ee52e0700040009000400040000002d010200
040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d01
0100040000002d010000040000002d010900050000000102ffffff000500000009020000
0000070000001604e7005d0206009c01040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000
2d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d0100000400
00002d010900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000070000001604e7005d02
06009c0109000000fa02000001000000ffff00002200040000002d01080004000000f001
09000500000014028f00a1010400000004010d0004000000020101000500000013028f00
bc010500000014028f00ae01040000002d010600050000000902ffff0000050000000102
0000000004000000020102000c00000024030400ae018c00b1019200ab019200ae018c00
05000000090200000000050000000102ffffff00040000000201010024000000320a8500
c00113000000c0efe0edf2e5ebe5f12c20e1e0e7f3e4e8ed2c000b000800090008000700
0900080009000800040004000900090007000700090008000800040012000000320a9800
c00107000000363025ea2ee52e00090009000e000700040009000400040000002d010200
040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d01
0100040000002d010600040000002d010800050000000102ffffff000500000009020000
0000070000001604e7005d0206009c01040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000
2d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d0106000400
00002d010800050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000070000001604e7005d02
06009c0109000000fa0200000100000000ffff002200040000002d01090004000000f001
0800050000001402cd00a1010400000004010d000400000002010100050000001302cd00
bc01050000001402cd00ae0107000000fc020100000000008020040000002d0108000900
0000fa02050000000000000000002200040000002d010a0004000000f001090005000000
090200ffff00050000000102000000000400000002010200070000001b04d300b401c900
aa0109000000fa0200000100000000ffff002200040000002d01090004000000f0010a00
050000001402cd00ae01050000000102ffffff000400000002010100050000001302ca00
ab01050000001402cd00ae01050000001302d000b101050000001402cd00ae0105000000
1302d000ab01050000001402cd00ae01050000001302ca00b10105000000090200000000
24000000320ac300c00113000000c0efe0edf2e5ebe5f12c20c1b32d353820ed2c000b00
08000900080007000900080009000800040004000b000400050009000900040008000400
12000000320ad600c00107000000343025ea2ee52e00090009000e000700040009000400
040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff03000000
1e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00
05000000090200000000070000001604e7005d0206009c01040000002d01020004000000
2d010300040000002d010500040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d0101000400
00002d010800040000002d010900050000000102ffffff00050000000902000000000700
00001604ed00680200000000040000002d010200040000002d010300040000002d010500
040000002701ffff030000001e00040000002d010100040000002d010800040000002d01
0900050000000102ffffff0005000000090200000000070000001604ed00680200000000
09000000fa02000000000000000000002200040000002d010a0004000000f00109000700
0000fc020100000000008020040000002d01090004000000f0010800050000000902ffff
ff00050000000102000000000400000004010d000400000002010200070000001b04e900
63020500050007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d01080004000000f0010900
040000002d01020004000000f0010a00040000002701ffff050000000c02ed0068020300
00001e0005000000010200000000050000000902ffffff00040000002701ffff05000000
0b0200000000030000001e0005000000010200000000050000000902ffffff0004000000
2701ffff0300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000

?en.1 O?eaae?noue oiene/ii? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia aonaieoeue 3 a?eo
eaionoyiiai a?eaia (1997, 1998 ?.?.)

Oaeei /eiii, i?e o?i?/i?e ia?iaoe? eaionoe oeeie ?inaeoeoeeaeaie
niinoa??aaeanue aeniea ii/aoeiaa caaeaaeue o?oioaaa i?e i?aeoe/ii
iacia/i?e ?aaoethth/?e ae?yeueiino? aioiiioaa?a, ui iaoiiaeaia aenieei
cieaeaiiyi ??aiy /enaeueiino? aioiiioaaa.

Ioaea, i?iaaaeai? iieueia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee ?acoeueoaoe
oieneeieia?/ieo, a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii a?aenooiino?
aea??eiai? ae?? aacoaeeio e A?-58 iiaiai ia ia?aceoa eaionoyiiai a?eaia
— aiaioaeana. Iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe a ?aeiiaiaeiaai? no?iee aeeeeeaei
100% cieuaiiy o?oioaaa e aioiiioaaa. Ia?iaea eaionoe ia 10 aei?a i?ci?oa
i?ioe ?aeiiaiaeiaaii? oaeiae i?eaaea ia o?eueee aei cia/iiai cieaeaiiy
/enaeueiino? aonaieoeue o?aoueiai a?eo oe?aeieea, aea e iaaaoeaii
aieeioea ye aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?iaai aiaioaeana, oae ? ia iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie eiai ee/eiie a aonaieoeyo na?aaeiueiai a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia
ae?oai? aaia?aoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. I??eii?, aoeoae, iaa?ee 2O caeaoi? i?iyaeyoe aea??eiao ae?th noiniaii
niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai, eiao?oe??io aea??eiaino? aeey yeeo noaiiaeoue 560,
419 ? 141 a?aeiia?aeii. Aieaoii, oanoae, aeaoeen, ea?aioin, A?-58 iiaee,
aacoaeei ia i?iyaeythoue aea??eiai? ae?? ia ?iaai niia/ea 7-e?aieiaiai,
aiaioaeana e o?eoia?aio. Eiao?oe??io aea??eiaino? neeaaeaa iaioa 15.

2. Ia i?eeeaae? /a?aioiai-ceaeiai? iiiaeeoe?, ?iaai niia/ea
7-e?aieiaiai, aiaioaeana, aonaieoeue 3 a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia
anoaiiaeaia aeaeiaa niaoeeo?/i?noue eiiao noiniaii /ooeeaino? ?o
oa?iaioieo nenoai aei aieeao enaiia?ioee?a. O /a?aioiai-ceaeiai?
iiiaeeoe? aecia/aia oa?aeoa?ia /ooeea?noue oie?ianoa?ace aei
aoeoaeo (2,9*10 5 I -1 oa-1 ) ia i?ioeaaao niia/eo 7-e?aieiaiio, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy niaoeeo?/ieo ao?oeeae?a
aea??eiai? ae?? ia iniia? o?aooaaiiy oeueiai oaeoi?o.

3. Aecia/aiee iaoai?ci aea??eiai? oiene/iino? aeine?aeaeaieo i?aia?ao?a.
Aea??eiaa oiene/i?noue niaoeeo?/iiai ao?oeeaeo aoeoaeo a nenoai?
/a?aioiai-ceaeiaa iiiaeeoey — niia/ei 7-e?aieiaa iaoiiaeth?oueny
aioeoie?ianoa?aciith aeoeai?noth niieoee (E AOA=118,9). A iaoai?ci?
aea??eiai? oiene/iino? A?-58 iiaiai a nenoai? eiiao iiiaeeoe? — niia/ei
? eaionoyiee a?eai — aiaioaean aieiaia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue
ea?aieneeanoa?acai (E AEA=23 ? 14,8 a?aeiia?aeii).
Aioeea?aieneeanoa?acia aeoeai?noue iaa?eea 2O eaaeeoue a iniia?
iaoai?cio eiai oiene/iino? aeey nenoaie eaionoyiee a?eai — aiaioaean,
oi/a aeaiee ?inaeoeoeeae ? ia i?iyaea naeaeoeaii? ae??.

4. I?e aecia/aii? iaoai?cio aea??eiai? ae?? ia a?io?i?/iiio ??ai?
eiao?oe??io aioeoie?i (-ea?aienee)anoa?acii? ae??, ii?yae c ??aiai NE
50,% ae.?., ? iniiaiei iieacieeii, ca yeei a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao iiaeia
i?iaiaeeoe iiia?aaeith ioe?ieo o?i?/ieo niieoe.

5. ?ioaineai?noue i?iieeiaiiy ?inaeoeoeeae?a a i?aai?ci eiiao, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ca eiinoaioith oaeaeeino? i?iieeiaiiy, iia’ycaia c
aeaeiaith niaoeeo?/i?noth a aoaeia? ciai?oi?o iie?ea?a, nooiaiai ?o
neea?ioecaoe?? oa o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ?inaeoeoeeaeo.

6. A?-58 iiaee, aoeoae ? i??eii? ? aenieiaoaeoeaieie i?ioe ai?ioiai?
iiiaeeoe?. Aiie iathoue iaeiaeiao o?eaae?noue oiene/ii? ae??. Aea i?e
canoinoaaii? i??eii?a e aoeoaea noai?ththoueny ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
caa?aaeaiiy eieoeeiae?ae, ui aea? ciiao ii?aeioaaoe ?o c i?e?iaeieie
?aaoeyoi?aie /enaeueiino? oe?aeieea ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?ioaa?iaaieo
i?ia?aiao caoenoo ai?ioo a?ae iiiaeeoeue.

7. Ca?aaiiy no?ie?a iaeneiaeueiiai ca?aaeaiiy aonaieoeue eaionoyiiai
a?eaia aiaeiaaiiei ia?aceoii aiaioaeanii c o?i?/ieie ia?iaeaie eaionoe
oneeaaeith? iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?
?inaeoeoeeae?a o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo oiene/ii? ae??. Canoinoaaiiy aacoaeeio
? A?-58 iiaiai i?ioe aonaieoeue, ui a?ae?iaeaeothoueny, aeeeeeaei iiaio
caaeaaeue ye ia?aceoa, oae ? eiai oacy?ia.

8. Iai?eneoaaiiy eaionoe aacoaeeiii ? A?-58 iiaei ia 10 aei?a i?ci?oa
i?ioe ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai no?ieo aeyaeeinue aenieiaoaeoeaiei i?ioe
aonaieoeue eaionoyiiai a?eaia, aea e iaaaoeaii aieeioei ye
aaciina?aaeiuei ia ?iaai aiaioaeana, oae ? ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eiai
ee/eiie a aonaieoeyo na?aaeiueiai a?eo eaionoyiiai a?eaia ae?oai?
aaia?aoe??. Aeai? i?aia?aoe ia iiaeooue aooe aeaiaioii ?ioaa?iaaii?
nenoaie caoenoo eaionoe a?ae eaionoyiiai a?eaia.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Caoa?iaa O.A. Nenoaia “o?oioaa-aioiiioaa”. Aea??eia?noue ae??
?inaeoeoeeae?a // Caoeno ?ineei. — 1998. — ?2. — N.20.

2. Caoa?iaa O.A. Oe?aeieee oa ?o aioiiioaae. Aioeoie?ianoa?acia ae?y
??cieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a ia iiioeyoe?? eiiao // Caoeno ?ineei. — 1998. —
?9. — N.24-25.

3. Naeoi I.I., Caoa?iaa O.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae oie?ianoa?ac
eiiao a ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith aea??eiai? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a // Aanoiee
ciieiaee. — 1998. — ?9. — N.167-170 (Iniaenoa o/anoue 50%).

4. Caoa?iaa O.A. Ae?y aeayeeo ?inaeoeoeeae?a o nenoai?
o?oioaa-aioiiioaa // Caoeno ? ea?aioei ?ineei. I?aea?aeii.oaiao.
ca??iee. — E.: O?iaeae, 1999. — A.45. — N.26-30.

5. Naeoi I.I., Caoa?iaa O.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae oie?ianoa?ac
eiiao a ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith aea??eiai? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a // 5 c’?cae
Oe?a?inueeiai aioiiieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa, oace aeiiia?aeae, Oa?e?a, 7-11
aa?aniy 1998 ?. — 1998. — N.146-147 (Iniaenoa o/anoue 50%).

6. Naeoi I.I., Eioaanueea I.I., Caoa?iaa O.A. No/ani? ?inaeoeoeeaee ?
?ano?ne ?o aea??eiaino? aeey ei?enieo eiiao // 5 c’?cae Oe?a?inueeiai
aioiiieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa, oace aeiiia?aeae, Oa?e?a, 7-11 aa?aniy 1998
?. — 1998. — N.148-149 (Iniaenoa o/anoue 30 %).

7. Caoa?iaa O.A. Aea??eia?noue ae?? no/anieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a // Iaoa?.
iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. «Noaeee ?icaeoie aa?iaeieia?/ieo nenoai a oiiaao
iaiaaeaiiai ?ano?niiaicaaacia/aiiy», 26-29 aeiaoiy, 1998 ?. — E., 1998.
— N.182.

Caoa?iaa O.A. Aea??eia?noue ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a a nenoai? eiiao o?oioaa
— aioiiioaa a aa?ia?ioeaiicao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.09 —
aioiiieia?y, ?inoeooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

Aea/aia ii??aiyeueia oiene/i?noue ?yaeo oinoi?i?aai?/ieo, i??ao?i?aeieo
oa ea?aaiaoieo ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeey ??cieo oaeniiii?/ieo a?oi
ainiiaea?nueei aaaeeeaeo eiiao-o?oioaa?a oa ?o aioiiioaa?a. Ia iniia?
nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/ai? oaeoi?e i?iyao o?c?ieia?/ii? oa
aeieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? ?inaeoeoeeae?a noiniaii o?oioaa?a oa
aioiiioaa?a. Anoaiiaeaia aeaeiaa /ooeea?noue eiiao aei ?inaeoeoeeae?a ?
?? caeaaei?noue a?ae oa?aeoa?o i?iieeiaiiy i?aia?aoo a i?aai?ci. Ia
i?eeeaae? eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai ia?aceoa aiaioaeana aea/aia ae?y
?inaeoeoeeae?a ia aiaeiaaiieo ia?aceo?a a ca’yceo c i?ioeanii
i?iieeiaiiy oiene/ieo niieoe /a?ac iie?eae oacy?ia. Ii ?acoeueoaoai
aea/aiiy oaiieia?? eaionoyiiai a?eaia e eiai ia?aceoa aiaioaeana a
iioiaaiac? e iniaeeainoae oiene/ii? ae?? ia ieo aacoaeeia e A?-58 iiaiai
c iiceoe?e aeieia?/ii? e o?c?ieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iniaeeainoae aea??eiai? ae?? oeeo i?aia?ao?a. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy
oiene/iino? e aea??eiai? ae?? ?inaeoeoeeae?a aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aoeoaeo e i???ii?o a ?ioaa?iaaiiio caoeno? ai?ioo a?ae
ai?ioiai? iiiaeeoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?c?ieia?/ia e aeieia?/ia aea??eia?noue, o?oioaae,
aioiiioaae, ?inaeoeoeeaee, oie?ianoa?aca, ea?aieneeanoa?aca, eiao?oe??io
aioeoie?ianoa?acii? ae??.

Caoa?iaa O.A. Ecae?aoaeueiinoue aeaenoaey einaeoeoeeaeia a nenoaia
ianaeiiuo oeoioaa — yioiiioaa a aa?iaeioeaiicao. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.09 — yioiiieiaey,
Einoeooo caueou ?anoaiee OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Eco/aia n?aaieoaeueiay oiene/iinoue oinoi?i?aaie/aneeo, ie?ao?ieaeiuo e
ea?aaiaoiuo einaeoeoeeaeia aeey ?aciuo oaeniiiie/aneeo a?oii
oicyenoaaiii aaaeiuo ianaeiiuo — oeoioaaia e eo yioiiioaaia. Ia iniiaa
nenoaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey eco/aiu oaeoi?u oeceieiae/aneie e yeieiae/aneie
ecae?aoaeueiinoe einaeoeoeeaeia. Onoaiiaeaia aeaeiaay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
ianaeiiuo e einaeoeoeeaeai e aa caaeneiinoue io oa?aeoa?a i?iieeiiaaiey
i?aia?aoa a i?aaieci. Ia i?eia?a eaionoiie aaeyiee e aa ia?aceoa
aiaioaeana eco/aii aeaenoaea einaeoeoeeaeia ia yiaeiaaiiuo ia?aceoia a
nayce n i?ioeannii i?iieeiiaaiey oiene/aneeo aauanoa /a?ac iie?iau
oicyeia. Ii ?acoeueoaoai eco/aiey oaiieiaee eaionoiie aaeyiee e aa
ia?aceoa aiaioaeana a iioiaaiaca e iniaaiiinoae oiene/aneiai aeaenoaey
ia ieo aacoaeeia e Ae-58 iiaiai n iiceoeee yeieiae/aneie e
oeceieiae/aneie ecae?aoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeai aiaeec iniaaiiinoae
ecae?aoaeueiiai aeaenoaey yoeo i?aia?aoia. Ia iniiaa eco/aiey
oiene/iinoe e ecae?aoaeueiiai aeaenoaey einaeoeoeeaeia aeieacaia
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aoeoaea e ie?eii?a a eioaa?e?iaaiiie caueoa
ai?ioa io ai?ioiaie oee.

Zakharova T.V. Selectivity of insecticides action in system of insects
phytophag — entomophag in agrobiocenosis. — Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of agricultural sciences on a speciality 03.00.09 — entomology,
Institute of Plant Protection UAAS, Kiev, 1999.

It was investigated the selective toxicity of phosphororganic,
pyrethroids and carbomates insecticides for different groups
agricultural insects — phytophags and them entomophags. It was
established coefficient of selectivity of these preparations, that
enables already in laboratory researches to carry out selection of
preparations for the integrated programs of protection of agricultural
cultures. Pyrimor, acetec, mavric 2F shown selective action for
Coccinella 7-punctata L., which coefficient of selectivity makes 560,
419 and 141 accordingly. Volaton, fastak, decis, karbophos, Bi-58 new,
basudin have not selective action, coefficient of selectivity did not
exceed 15.

It was established the species sensitivity of insects to insecticides
and its dependence on character of penetration of a preparation in host.
The constants of speed of insecticides penetration through covers of
insects are designed. The intensity of penetration in host of insects is
connected with species specificity in a structure of external covers,
degree them sclerotisation and chemical properties of insecticides.

On an example of Pieris brassicae L. and Apanteles glomeratus L. the
insecticides action on the parasites is investigated in connection with
process of penetration toxic compounds of connections through
caterpillars covers infected by the parasite. The role of cholin- and
carboxilesterase activity in selective action of insecticides on some
harmful and useful arthropoda is investigated. It was established the
species specificity of insects concerning sensitivity them enzymes
systems to influence of xenobiotics. The high sensitivity of aphids
cholinesterase to acetec (2,9*105 I-1 min-1 ) is found out as against
Coccinella 7-punctata L., that testifies to the opportunity of creation
specific aphids insecticides of selective action on the basis of the
investigated properties.

The mechanism of selective toxicity of the investigated preparations is
determined. The selective toxicity of acetec in system Rhopalosiphum
padi L. — Coccinella 7-punctata L is caused by anticholinesterase
activity of this insectisides (EAChA = 118,9). The main role belongs
carboxylesterase (EACA = 23 ? 14,8 accordingly) in the mechanism of
selective toxicity of Bi-58 new. The anticarboxylesterase activity of
mavric 2F underlies the mechanism its toxicity for system P. brassicae
— A. glomeratus.

At study of the mechanism of insecticides selective action at a
biochemical level the coefficient of antiesterases action is the basic
parameter, which helps in laboratory conditions to lead a tentative
estimation of chemical connections.

In field conditions the physiological selectivity of acetec and pyrimor
action concerning C.7-punctata in the pea field and opportunity of
application of these preparations in the integrated protection of
agricultural cultures from decay is proved. Bi-58 new, acetec and
pyrimor are highly effective against pea aphis. They have identical
duration toxic action. But at application of pyrimor and acetec the
favorable conditions for preservation C. 7-punctata are created, that
enables to combine them with natural regulators and to use in the
integrated programs of protection of peas from decay.

Ninnected of terms of the maximal infection caterpillars by the parasite
A. glomeratus with chemical processings of cabbage complicates the
opportunity of practical realization of ecological insecticides
selectivity of the long period of toxic action. The application of
basudin and Bi-58 new against revived caterpillars has caused complete
destruction as parasite, and its host.

Spraying of cabbage basudin and Bi-58 new on 10 days after recommended
terms has appeared highly effective not only against caterpillar, but
also negatively has affected as directly on imagous of A.glomeratus, and
the further development its larvae in caterpillars of average age of
P.brassicae of the second generation. The given preparations can not be
the element of the integrated system of the cabbages protection.

Key words: physiological and ecological selectivity, phytophag,
entomophag, insecticides, cholinesterasa, carboxylestarasa, the
coefficient of antiesterases action

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