Валовий дохід торгівлі: джерела формування, напрямки використання та проблеми оптимізації: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / О.С. Каращук, Донец. дер

19

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AEIIII?EE ? OI?A?AE?

EA?AUOE Ienaia Na?a??aia

OAeE 339.15(043.3)

AAEIAEE AeIO?Ae OI?A?AE?: AeAEA?AEA OI?IOAAIIss,

IAI?ssIEE AEEI?ENOAIIss OA I?IAEAIE IIOEI?CAOe??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.07.05 – aeiiii?ea oi?a?ae? oa iineoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? aeiiii?ee ?
oi?a?ae? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aeyaea/ei
E?ae?y Iaae?aia, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao aeiiii?ee ?
oi?a?ae?, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii?yaeeia
Ieeiea Noaiaiiae/, Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii – aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, A?thoiaaoeueea Iaoaey THoei?aia, ?inoeooo
aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?aio a?aeae?eo i?iaeai
?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iieoaanueeee eiiia?aoeaiee ?inoeooo
Oeiiini?eee,

oaeoeueoao aeiiii?ee oa iaiaaeaeiaioo, i.Iieoaaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.055.01 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae? ca aae?anith: 340050, i.Aeiiaoeuee,
aoe.Ui?na, 31.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae? ca aae?anith: 340017,
i.Aeiiaoeuee, a.Oaa/aiea, 30.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ “ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Aeiia?aaeiaa I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao ?eieiaiai o?ainoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie ieoaiiy ?icaoaeiae i?aei?e?iieoeoaa noi?oue aeineoue aino?i.
?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo niiaeea/eo oiaa??a noa? i??i?eoaoiei
iai?yieii aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ia aeaiiio aoai?. A?o/eciyia
i?aei?e?iieoeoai a oe?e noa??, iniaeeai iaea ? na?aaei? – oea iaeia c
iii? aeoiaeo c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, noai?aiiy a?aeieo oiia aeeooy ethaeae
? caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii – iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? e?a?ie.
Aei?iaeia/a caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo eioo?a cciai? oa ?o ianoa/a iinoaaeee
ia?aae eiaeiei noa, ?eoii ?eieo i?iaeaio iiooe?a aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae
oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo.

A oiiaao iia??oaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaieo iieaciee?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa aeieeea iio?aaa ?ic?iaee
no?aoaa?/ieo i???ioe??a a caaacia/aii? aeoiaeo c e?ece, noaa?e?caoe?? ?
?icaeoeo oi?a?ae?. Aieiaiei na?aae ieo ? iioei?caoe?y aaeiaiai aeioiaeo
ia iniia? eiai aeinoaoiino? aeey nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? iaia, yceiaeo
cai??a, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ia?ao ? noai?aiiy oiiaeo naii?icaeoeo.
Oaea iioei?caoe?y aeiaaa? iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaii? no?oeoo?e aeaea?ae
oi?ioaaiiy ? iai?yie?a aeei?enoaiiy aeioiaeo c aeae?eaiiyi o??? /anoee,
yea iaiao?aeia aeey eai?oae?caoe?? i?eaooeo. Ia ia?oee ieai aeoiaeeoue
i?iaeaia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ia eeoa aeo?ao, aea e oi?ioaaiiy eioo?a
naii?icaeoeo.

O a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? aeioiae?a
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia ciaeoee aeinoaoiueiai aena?oeaiiy, a
ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae iio?aao? a?oioiaii? aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Oiio ?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? ? iaoai?cio
iioei?caoe?? aeioiae?a oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aeineoue
aeooaeueiith ye aeey aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, oae ? aeey i?aeoeee
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aiia aeiiiiiaea i?aei?e?ioeyi e?aua i???iooaaoeny a
oiiaao iaaecia/aiino?, aoaea neoaoaaoe oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaee/iith
iniiaith aecia/aiiy /eiiee?a oa ianya?a oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeaeeaaiiy oa noaa?e?caoe??, aea e
?icaeoeo noa, ?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?a?ae?, iaaeinoaoi? ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aena?oeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, oai?aoe/ia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei coiiaeee aea??
oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aecia/eee ?? oe?eueiao ni?yiiaai?noue ?
no?oeoo?o.

Ca, ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th
aeeiiaii ca?aeii c Eiioeaioe??th ?icaeoeo aioo??oiuei? oi?a?ae? Oe?a?ie,
caoaa?aeaeaiith Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 20 a?oaeiy
1997?. ?1449, ? a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai – aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae? ca oaeeie
oaiaie: A – 97 – 2 “Iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy iiaeo iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeie?i o/aiaiai ieaio ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 7050107 “Aeiiii?ea
i?aei?e?inoa”, A – 98 – 3 “?ic?iaea aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?iai/iai i?noey
(A?I) aeiiii?noa”, a oaeiae ainiaeiaia??ii? oaie 685/99 “?ic?iaea
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia, yce?a neoaea CAO “Aeiiaoeueeee oeaio?aeueiee
oi?aa?iaa” ? iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? oiaa?o”
(aeiaia?? c CAO “Aeiiaoeueeee oeaio?aeueiee oi?aa?iaa” a?ae 19 n?/iy
1999?.).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? ?ic?iaea iaoeiai –
iaoiaee/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa??
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ia iniia? iioei?caoe??. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe a
aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii oae? caaea/?:

?ice?eoe i?ioean aaeaioaoe?? iiiyooy “aaeiaee aeio?ae” oi?a?ae? aei
?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue ? cai?iiiioaaoe aecia/aiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo;

aeyaeoe ci?ie a iaoai?ci? oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo aaeiaiai aeioiaeo
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?;

ioe?ieoe ??aaiue aeinoaoiino? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy
oiia ?icaeoeo ? o?iainiaiai ci?oeiaiiy i?aei?e?inoa;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?aeoeiaiai? ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo;

ii?aoethaaoe nenoaio iii?oi?eiao aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ye iniiao
no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy;

iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie ? iaoiaeeeo ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ? iie?oeee
oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo oa aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a oi?a?ae?;

ae?iaeoe ia?eaoeiaia? ? eia?noe/i? i?aeoiaee aei iioei?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie.

Ia. ?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aei?e?inoaa ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae? ??cieo
oi?i aeaniino?, i?aai?caoe?eii – i?aaiaeo aeae?a ? ianya?a ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo
oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo oa aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe??.
Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae,
nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c ?ia?o
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ? ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a c ieoaiue aaeiaiai aeioiaeo. I?aeoe/iith aacith
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aeai? Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy noaoenoeee, iaoa??aee ianoaaeaieo
i?aei?e?inoa Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oaeeo oai?aoe/ieo,
iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao:

ooi/iaii nooi?noue, ?ieue ? i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue aaeiaiai aeioiaeo
oi?a?ae? a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue;

aia?oa i?iiiio?oueny aeaa i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy aaeiaiai ?
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiae?a: caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iee ? aaeocaaee;

oaeineiiaeaii iaoai?ci i?iaaaeaiiy iii?oi?eiao aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ye
ia?aaeoiiae ?ic?iaee no?aoaa??;

ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ioe?iee
aeinoaoiino? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy naii?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?e aaeiaiai aeioiaeo;

aeiiiaiaii nenoaio iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie eia?noe/ieie ?
ia?eaoeiaiaeie iaoiaeaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaea iaoai?cio
iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo aeiaaaeaia a
aeena?oaoe?? aei iaoiaeeee, i?eaeaoii? aeey aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoeoe?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Oey iaoiaeeea ni?yiiaaia ia caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
oi?a?ae? ca ?aooiie aeaniiai aeioiaeo. Aiia i?noeoue aeai?eoie
iioei?caoe?? aeioiaeo ia iniia? oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo. I?e a?aeiia?aeieo
ooi/iaiiyo oe? aeai?eoie iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue a aoaeue – yeeo
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao Oe?a?ie. Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee oa i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii a ae?yeuei?noue
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie. Ca aeiaiai?ii c CAO “Aeiiaoeueeee
oeaio?aeueiee oi?aa?iaa” ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? aeeeaaeaii a aeena?oaoe?? ? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii ia iniia? anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy, aiae?co oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/iiai niaaeeo oa i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo c oe?ieei
caeo/aiiyi noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiy, a oaeiae oeyoii
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy iii?oi?eiao oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?,
aeae?a ? ianya?a ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ? noaaeai?
ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai? ?iaioe i?ioani?nueei –
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae? (1996 – 1999 ?ie?a); ia I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai –
i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiaenoeea e ia?eaoeia a no?aiao n
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996); ia iaoeiai – i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo oiaa??a ? iineoa” (Iieoaanueeee
eiiia?aoeaiee ?inoeooo, 1998); ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei –
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii –
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Ee?a, 1999).

?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaiaai? oi?aiaaeueieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie, cai?iaaaeaeai? aai i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
i?aeoeeo. ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaoe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aeia?aeeaie. Ie?ai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
AeiiAeOAO i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a i?aei?e?inoaa,
oe?iiooai?aiiy, o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, iniia i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
aeiiii?/ii? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oiui.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo
?ia?o, 6 ?c ieo i?aeaioiaeaii naiino?eii. Iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue
1,89 ae?.a?e.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a caaaeueiei ianyaii iniiaiiai oaenoo 168
iaoeiiienieo noi??iie, a oaeiae i?noeoue 22 oaaeeoe? ? 17 ?enoie?a
ianyaii 37 noi??iie, 14 aeiaeaoe?a ianyaii 29 noi??iie oa nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae 105 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Nooi?noue, ?ieue, iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy ? nenoaia
?iciiae?eo aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a oi?a?ae?” aeine?aeaeaii o?ainoi?iaoe?th
iiiyooy “aaeiaee aeio?ae” ia no/aniiio aoai? ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue,
aeyaeaii aieea e?aa?ae?caoe?? oe?i ia oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie, ?ice?eoi ?ieue oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo a caaacia/aii? aeoiaeo
c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ? noai?aii? oiia aeey iiaeaaaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oi?a?ae?.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aeiiii?no?a, i?enay/aieo aaeiaiio aeioiaeo oi?a?ae?, oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
eiai nooiino? oa aaeaioaoe?? aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
ciaeoee iiee ui aeinoaoiueiai aena?oeaiiy. ?nioth/? aecia/aiiy aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo iio?aaothoue ei?eaoaaiiy ? ooi/iaiue c iaoith ?ioaa?aoe?? a
na?oiaee aeiiii?ei – iiiyo?eiee aia?ao. Aea/aiiy oeeo i?iaeai aeicaieeei
aeae?eeoe aeaa i?eioeeiiai iia? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy aaeiaiai ?
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo. Eaeaoueny i?i ?icaeyae iieaciee?a aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo a caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio ? nooi aaeocaaiio cia/aii?. A
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio ?icoi?ii? aaeiaee aeio?ae yaey? niaith
?acoeueoaoeaiee iieaciee o?iainiai – ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?,
i?eaeaoiee aeey aoaeue – yei? noa?e i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. A?i ioiieth?
aeioiaee a?ae on?o aeae?a ae?yeueiino?. A aaeocaaiio cia/aii? aaeiaee
aeio?ae oi?a?ae? ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ye niaoeeo?/iee
iieaciee, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?o/eith a?ae ?aae?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo
iineoa ? aeioiaeaie a?ae ?ioeo iia?aoe?e. A?i iaioee ianyao aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo a caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio aei??? ia noio eoi?aaeueii? aa?oino?
?aae?ciaaieo oiaa??a.

Aea/aiiy nooiino? oa ?ie? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo aeicaiey? a?aecia/eoe, ui
aei iueiai ?nio? iae?i- ? i?e?iaeiiii?/iee ?ioa?an. Iae?i??aaiue oeueiai
?ioa?ano iia, ycaiee c aaaeaiiyi aea?aeaae ? ?aa?ii?a iaea?aeaoe a?ae
noa, ?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeoaa yeiaea?eueoo /anoeo ?o aeioiae?a o aeaeyae?
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? iaia, yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, a i?e?i??aaiue – c
caoe?eaaeai?noth naieo noa, ?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ?o o?oaeiaeo
eieaeoea?a oa ?iaanoi??a a iaea?aeaii? iaeneiaeueiiai aeioiaeo. Aaeiaee
aeio?ae ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ? ye ?acoeueoao o?iainiai –
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, yeee aenooia? caniaii aeinyaiaiiy iaoe
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa aeaea?aeii aeeiiaiiy ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o ciaia,
ycaiue i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeio?ae oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa a?ae iniiaii?
ae?yeueiino? oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny a caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio cia/aii? ye
oiaa?iia?a ? a aaeocaaiio – ye oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae.

A ii?iaoeai?e aeieoiaioaoe?? Oe?a?ie i?i iae?e oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae
aecia/a?oueny ye noia ?aae?ciaaieo oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie aac iiaeaoeo
ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue. Oiio ? a aeena?oaoe?? a?i ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
ae?o/ea a?ae ?aae?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo iineoa, a oi?aiaaeueia iaaeaaaea
– ye oe?ia oaeeo iineoa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei: e?aa?ae?caoe?y oe?i, c yei? ?icii/aeeny ?eieia?
ia?aoai?aiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ci?ieea nenoaio oi?ioaaiiy
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo. Oeaio?ae?ciaaia aecia/aiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
cieaeie o?ainoi?ioaaeiny a ?eieiaa oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ia
ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue oiaa??a. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie caa?aaeiny ia iaiaaeaiee ia?ae?e oiaa??a aaeeei? nioe?aeueii?
aaae oa ia oiaa?e iiiiiieueieo ooai?aiue. Ca oiia ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
oi?aiaaeuei? iaaeaaaee iaeaea ia 70% oiaa??a ao?aoeee aeanoea?noue
eiinoeoothth/eo aeaiaio?a oe?i. Aiie noaee iio?aeieie a?ae aeaio
a?eueieo oe?i (?icae??aieo oa iioiaeo) ? aecia/athoueny ye ??cieoey i?ae
ieie. Oi?aiaaeuei? iaaeaaaee, ui ?aaoeththoueny aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie
oe?iiooai?aiiy, caa??aathoue nai? eiinoeoothth/a cia/aiiy, ai
anoaiiaeththoueny o a?aenioeao aei eoi?aaeueieo oe?i ? i?yii aieeaathoue
ia ??aaiue ?icae??aieo oe?i.

?ieue oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie iiaeaii ia noai? (?en.1).

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2d010000030000000000 Ine?eueee oi?aiaaeuei? iaaeaaaee ?
nai???aeieie oe?iaie ia iineoae, iiaycai? c aeiaaaeaiiyi oiaa??a a?ae
iinoa/aeueiee?a aei niiaeeaa/?a, oi ?acii c? niiaeeaiith aa?o?noth
oiaa?o, eiai i?noeai ia ?eieo (?eieiaith i?oath), niiniaii aeinoaaee oa
?aae?caoe?? aiie noai?ththoue “ia?eaoeiaiao noi?o”. Eiiieaen
oi?aiaaeueieo iineoa ? ?o ye?noue i?iyaey?oueny a a?ioiaiio ae?ac? /a?ac
oi?aiaaeueio iaaeaaaeo, ??aaiue yei? aecia/a?oueny ia?eaoeiaii. A oie
aea /an oi?aiaaeueia iaaeaaaea aeei?enoiao?oueny ye ?ino?oiaio
ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy oi?ioaaiiyi aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ? o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa. E??i oiai, oi?aiaaeueia iaaeaaaea ?
ia?eoii iaiaaeaeiaioo, eiai ?ino?oiaioii ? iieacieeii eia?noeee. sse
?ino?oiaio iaiaaeaeiaioo oi?aiaaeueia iaaeaaaea aeeiio? ooieoe?? iae?eo,
noeioethaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo oa aaeainoaaiiy, a a eiia?oe?ei?e eia?noeoe?
aiia ? ?ino?oiaioii oi?aae?iiy oiaa?ieie iioieaie ? aenooia? neeaaeiaith
o?iainiaiai iioieo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?iaeaie aaeaioaoe?? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?a?ae? aei
?eieiaeo oiia iiaycai? c ia?eaoeiaii, iaiaaeaeiaioii ? eia?noeeith. A
aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoueny iaaiein ? ia oiio, ui ?eieiaee iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?iciiae?eo aaeiaiai aeioiaeo i?ia?ano? ? ciaoiaeeoue
ao?eaiiy a aeiiii?/iiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie. sse caaaeueiee i?aenoiie
cacia/a?oueny: ae?th/ee iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? ? iane?aeeii ?eieiaiai
o?ainoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee e?a?ie ? iiai? nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a ? i?eaooe?a i?aei?e?inoa.

?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaeiaiai aeioiaeo caaacia/eee
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aiae?co oa iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? ? iaoai?cio
iioei?caoe?? aaeiaeo aeioiae?a oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “No?aoaa?/iee aiae?c aaeiaeo aeioiae?a noa, ?eo?a
oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?” aecia/aii aieiai? i?aeoiaee aei ?o aiae?co
oa ioe?iee aeinoaoiino?, iaa?oioiaaii iai?yiee aiae?co ye ia?aaeoiiao
?ic?iaee no?aoaa?e.

I?ioean no?aoaa?/iiai aiae?co i?iaiaeeany a aeaa aoaie. Ia ia?oiio
aeei?enoaii o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee ioe?iee i?aeoeee oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo
oa aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a ?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae? Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano? oa a o?ueio a?oiao a?ae?a?aieo aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo aeae?a oa ianya?a ae?yeueiino?. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai? canoiniaaii i?ia?aneaiee iaoiae, caniiaaiee ia aiae?c?
nenoaie “aca?iica‘ycie aeo?ao, ianyao ?aae?caoe?? ? i?eaooeo”. A?i
aeicaieea ioe?ieoe ??aaiue aeinoaoiino? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia
o?eueee aeey aeoiaeo c e?ece, aea e aeey caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae
iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiae no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy aeioiae?a i?aei?e?inoa ia
iniia? oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo ? aecia/eoe iine?aeiai?noue caoiae?a uiaei
caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo caaaeaiue. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eaia
ioe?ioe? aaciaeo no?aoaa?e, aecia/aiith ??aiy i?eaaaeeaino? oa caiano
o?iainiai? i?oeiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee oi?a?ae? ia canaaeao i?eaaoecaoe??
aeaniino?, e?aa?ae?caoe?? oe?i oa ci?i a nenoai? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a ? i?eaooe?a i?aei?e?inoa aieeioea, ye iieacaa aiae?c, ia
iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo oa aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo.
?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oaia? a?oioo?oueny ia iaea?aeaii? aeioiaeo,
aeinoaoiueiai ia o?eueee aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a,
aea e aeey caaacia/aiiy i?eaooeo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey ?iaanooaaiiy
?icaeoeo. Iaeiae ia i?aeoeoe? aeyaeaii oaiaeaioe?th nei?i/aiiy aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?. A 1997 ?ioe? iaeaea 70% aeine?aeaeaieo
i?aei?e?inoa nei?ioeee aeioiaee, ui ni?e/eieei c?inoaiiy caeoeiaino?.
sseui a 1996 ?ioe? na?aae ca?a?no?iaaieo oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? caeoeiaeie aoee 40%, o 1997 ?ioe? – 44%, oi a 1998
?ioe? ?o iae?/oaaeinue a?ey 50%. Iniaeeai i?ee?i, ui ia a?eueoino?
i?aei?e?inoa caeoeiaith noaea naia oi?aiaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue.
Iai?eeeaae, 75% aeine?aeaeaieo i?aei?e?inoa a 1997 ?ioe? iaee caeoee
a?ae iniiaii? ae?yeueiino?, i?e/iio, 50% c ieo (iaeia?oa aaeee?)
iie?eaaee oe? caeoee ? iaea?aeoaaee i?eaooee ca ?aooiie aeioiae?a a?ae
iica?aae?caoe?eieo iia?aoe?e.

sse iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, aaeiaee aeio?ae ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? a aaeocaaiio cia/aii? ca 1997 ??e noaiiaea eeoa
22,8% a?ae aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio ?icoi?ii?.
Oa?aeoa?iei aeey 1995 — 1997 ?ie?a aoei iaae?iiy ??aiy oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie i?e ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a i?aei?e?inoaaie c aaeeeei ? na?aaei?i
ianyaii ae?yeueiino?. Iae? i?aei?e?inoaa caa??aaee noaa?euei?noue
oeueiai iieacieea. Aeyaeaii: ia iecueeo ?aioaaaeuei?noue ? caeoeia?noue
oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? aieeioee ia?o ca ana /eiieee
iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ??aiy – oea iaae?iiy ianya?a a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
? ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo ianaeaiiy, iani?eyoeeaa aeey niiaeea/iai
?eieo no?oeoo?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, yea ae?noaeanue Oe?a?i? a
niaaeie a?ae aeiiii?ee eieeoiueiai N?N? ? caa?aaeanue aei oeueiai /ano,
a oaeiae ao?oeeaa c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? i?aei?e?inoa ? ianya?a
ae?yeueiino? iaoi?iaeueiiai oa iaeaaaeueiiai ?eie?a. O?eueee
iaoi?iaeueiee ?eiie iiaeeioa o 1998 ?ioe? 26,7% ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo
ianaeaiiy e?a?ie. Aeae?ey?oueny a ?iaio? ? oaeee iaaaoeaiee /eiiee
ciai?oiueiai oa?aeoa?o, ye iaiii??iee oyaa? aea?aeaaii? o?neaeueii?
iie?oeee. ?ic?aoiaaii, ui ia iiaeaoeia? ieaoaae? oa iaia’yceia? cai?e
aeei?enoiao?oueny aei 30% oiaa?iia?ao, ? aiie a 5-7 ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue
i?eaooie, yeee caeeoa?oueny a ?icii?yaeaeaii? oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

Aeine?aeaeaii a aeena?oaoe?? e iaaaoeai? /eiieee i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy. Na?aae ieo aeae?eaii oae?: iaai?iiy i?aei?e?ioe?a
i?aai?ciaaii? oi?a?ae? aanoe eiieo?aioio ai?ioueao c? noeo?eiei ?eieii,
iaeo aoaeoeai?noue ? iaa?oue a?aenooi?noue ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?,
?aii?oaaiiy, a ?ieiee iani?iiiaei?noue ?ic?iaeoe no?aoaa?th naii?icaeoeo
oiui. Oae? iaaeie?ee a aeine?aeaeaieo i?aei?e?inoaao i?ecaaee aei
nei?i/aiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo a 1997 ?ioe? ii??aiyii c 1996 ?ieii
ia 22,4%. Aei oiai ae nei?i/aiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ?inoii aeo?aoi?iiino? oiaa?iia?ao ?, ye iane?aeie,
cai?oaiiy oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ? ?icoe?aiiy iica?aae?caoe?eieo
iia?aoe?e iniaeeai oai, aea aeey oeueiai aoee oiiae. Oiio aaeee?
i?aei?e?inoaa anoia?a/ aieiai?e i?n?? – oi?aiaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao aoaeoeai?oiio aeaea?aeo aaeiaiai aeioiaeo –
i?aiaei?e ieao?, noai?thth/e oiiae aeey eiieo?aio?a ia nai?o aea
oi?aiaaeueieo ieiuao.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ??cieo a?oi i?aei?e?inoa c aeaieie oi?a?ae?
Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? aeicaiey? a?aecia/eoe, ui na?aae aeaea?ae
oi?ioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo iaeeo ? na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa, ye ?
caaaeii oi?a?ae? iaeano?, aeii?io? oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae. A no?oeoo??
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ii/eiath/e c 1996 ?ieo, cia/aiiy
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo no??iei iaaea?, eiai i?noea caeia? aeio?ae a?ae
iica?aae?caoe?eieo iia?aoe?e, aieiaia i?noea a yeiio iin?aea? aeio?ae
a?ae caea/? a i?aiaeo oi?aiaaeueieo ? neeaaenueeeo i?ei?uaiue. ?io?
iaoi?aiaaeuei? aeaea?aea aeioiae?a a?aenooi? aai iathoue neiaie?/ia
cia/aiiy. Aeieeaaei?oa no?oeoo?a oi?ioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a
?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae? iieacaia a oaae. 1.

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40000002d0101000500000014025b00d1020500000013021701d102040000002d0102000
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50000000102c0c0c00004000000f001010009000000fa02000000000000c0c0c00022000
40000002d0101000500000014021701000005000000130218010000040000002d0102000
90000001d062100f0000100010017010000040000002d010600050000000902000000000
50000000102ffffff0004000000f001010009000000fa020000000000000000000022000
40000002d0101000500000014025b00f6000500000013021701f600040000002d0102000
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500000013021701e301040000002d010200090000001d062100f0009e0001007900e3010
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5000000130217018002040000002d010200090000001d062100f00084000100930080020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Iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo niinoa??aa?oueny a a?oi?
iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ai aiie, ia iath/e iaoa??aeueieo iiaeeeainoae aeey
aeeiiaiiy iica?aae?caoe?eieo iia?aoe?e, e?aua iaieiae?ee ?eieiaei
iaoai?ciii oi?ioaaiiy oiaa?iiai ani?oeiaioo, oe?i ? oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie, caaaeyee /iio iaea?aeothoue a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo, i?ae e?oii? oa na?aaei? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ia?aae e?oiieie i?aei?e?inoaaie iinoa? ieoaiiy: yeo /anoeo iayaieo
oi?aiaaeueieo, neeaaenueeeo ieiu oa ?ioiai iaeia caeeoaoe o nai?io
?icii?yaeaeaii?, a yeo caeaaaoe a i?aiaeo? ? yeui aeaniee a?cian iaio
aoaeoeaiee, i?ae caea/a a i?aiaeo, oi, i?e?iaeii, ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny
inoaii?e.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ni?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa ?icaeaaoe oi?aiaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue ca ?aooiie iaea?aeaiiai a?ae ia? aeioiaeo a aeena?oaoe??
i?iaaaeaii oaeoi?iee aiae?c, yeee aeicaieea aeyaeoe iaaaoeaiee aieea
iaae?iiy o?ce/ieo ianya?a oiaa?iia?ao ? ??aiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ia
oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo, ui i?ecaaei aei nei?i/aiiy eiai
ianya?a o 75% aeine?aeaeaieo i?aei?e?inoa. ? o?eueee eiaeia /aoaa?oa
i?aei?e?inoai caaacia/oaaei c?inoaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ca ?aooiie
?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a ? oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie.

Canoinoaaiiy nenoaie aiae?co aca?iica’yceo aeo?ao, ianya?a ?aae?caoe??
oa i?eaooeo aeicaieeei aecia/eoe e?eoe/i? ianyae oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo
? ia/eneeoe iieacieee caiano o?iainiai? i?oeiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Oaeee
aiae?c i?iaiaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo a aeena?oaoe??
aeai?eoi?a c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oi?aiaaeueii? aaeoc? oa /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?ai?aei?e?inoa. Aieiaiei na?aae
ieo ? aeai?eoi ia/eneaiiy e?eoe/iiai ianyao oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo, ui
ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

picscalex120010009000003f20100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
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0000c0ffffffa2ffffffe02e0000c20200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
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040000002d01000008000000320add01de1301000000280010000000fb02ccfc02010000
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08000000320add015f2101000000290010000000fb02bbfd020100000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320adf01
3d2d01000000280010000000fb02bbfd0201000000009001000000020002001053796d62
6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320adf01642e010000002900
15000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f
6d616e000066040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ae001992d01000000
310008000000320ae0018122010000002c0008000000320ae0011613010000003a001500
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6e00cc66040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a1702e21d02000000d2c4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aea OAe e? – oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae e?eoe/iiai ??aiy aac iiaeaoeo ia
aeiaeaio aa?o?noue;

IA – noia oiiaii – iino?eieo aeo?ao) Aeey a?eueoi? aeinoia??iino?
?ic?aooie?a aeo?aoe ia?ao ei?eaoaaeenue ia ianyae iino?eieo aeo?ao,
iia,-ycaieo c aii?oecaoe??th, oo?eiaiiyi oa ?aiiioii i?ei?uaiue, caeaieo
a i?aiaeo, ai aiie iiaeii? a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoeny ca ?aooiie i?aiaeii?
ieaoe, a ia aoiaeeoe aei aeo?ao ia?ao. I?iaaaeaia ei?eaoaaiiy aeicaieeei
aeyaeoe ianyae iino?eieo aeo?ao, ?aaeueii iia,ycaieo c oi?aiaaeueiith
ae?yeuei?noth.

);

*CAI O OAe — /anoea oiiaii — ci?iieo aeo?ao ia?ao o oi?aiaaeueiiio
aeioiae? aac iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue.

Aiae?c aeeiai?ee e?eoe/ieo ??ai?a oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo iieacaa, ui
e?euee?noue i?aei?e?inoa, ye? caaacia/oaaee naiiieoii?noue oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? a 1997 ?ioe?, nei?ioeeanue ii??aiyii c 1995 ?ieii a 2,5
?ace. Oaeee noai iiynith?oueny c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao ia?ao, iniaeeai
iino?eieo, ? a?aenooi?noth a?aeiia?aeiiai i?aeaeuaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie. I?aeaeuaiiy e?eoe/ieo ianya?a oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo
i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui a 1996 ?ioe? iiyaeeanue, a a 1997 ?ioe?
cae??ieeanue iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioe?y a ci?iao ??aiy caiano o?iainiai?
i?oeiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Ca aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oeae ??aaiue o 1997
?ioe? aiaa aei 15,5% i?ioe 44,2% o 1995 ?ioe?. Ii/eiath/e c 1996 ?ieo,
37,5% i?aei?e?inoa iathoue iaaaoeaia cia/aiiy caiano o?iainiai?
i?oeiino?, ui icia/a?: oe? i?aei?e?inoaa ia iathoue aeioiae?a iaa?oue
aeey caaacia/aiiy naiiieoiiino? oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iieacieee aaeiaiai aeioiaeo aeei?enoaii a ?iaio? i?e ?aeoeiaia?e
ioe?ioe? i?eaaaeeaino? i?aei?e?inoa aeey ?iaanoi??a. Aeyaeaii, ui
iaeaeua i?noea ca ?aeoeiaii caeiathoue iae? i?aei?e?inoaa. Oa?aeoa?iei
aeey ieo ? cia/ia iie?auaiiy ye?nii? ioe?iee aeioiaeo.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co noaee ia?aaeoiiaith iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?/ieo
i???ioe??a, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeo?ae c e?ece, noaa?e?caoe?th oa ?icaeoie
oi?a?ae?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? ? iaoai?cio
iioei?caoe?? aaeiaeo aeioiae?a a oi?a?ae?” ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?iaie ? aiae?co aecia/aii no?aoaa?/i? aoaie caaacia/aiiy ia?aeiio
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a oi?ioaaii?, ?iciiae?e? oa aeei?enoaii? aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?.

Iaoith ?ic?iaee oaei? no?aoaa?? noaei aecia/aiiy ia ia?niaeoeao
iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy ? ianya?a aaeiaiai aeioiaeo, iaa?oiooaaiiy
aoaeoeaii? no?oeoo?e eiao oi?ioaaiiy oa ?iciiae?eo c aeae?eaiiyi o???
/anoee, yea caaacia/eoue ?icaeoie oi?a?ae?. No?aoaa?y i?e oeueiio
aenooia? o oi?i? ?ic?ieiooiai eiea, caaa?oaeueiee aoai yeiai –
aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo, aeiaaa? aeoiaeo ia a?eueo aenieee
??aaiue eiai oi?ioaaiiy, ui aaco?oueny ia aeinyaiaiiyo ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo.

Ine?eueee c inai? 1998 ?ieo ciia aeieeee ia?aoeiaee ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie, aeeeeeai? o?iainiaith e?ecith a na?o? ? iniaeeai a
?in??, iiooee oeyo?a aeoiaeo c e?ece iaiiaeeea? aac ?ic?iaee i?ia?aie
iioeiaeueieo caoiae?a oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ia
??ai? eiaeiiai noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iioei?caoe?y
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ioiieth? iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie aeiaaino?ieiaeo
oe?eueiaeo caaaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia iaea?aeaiiy oaeeo ianya?a aeioiaeo,
yeeo aoaea aenoa/aoe aeey nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao ia?ao
oa ?ioeo cao?ao, a oaeiae iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo, aeinoaoiueiai aeey
aeiaai?iaee i?aoe?aiee?a, aeaniee?a eai?oaeo oa caaacia/aiiy
naii?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeea iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy aaciai? no?aoaa?? oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia iniia? aeinyaiooiai ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino?
oa caiano o?iainiai? i?oeiino? ca 2 – 3 iiia?aaei? ?iee. A e?ecia?e
aeiiii?oe? i?iiiio?oueny aeae?eyoe oae? aacia? no?aoaa??: aeaeeaaiiy,
noaa?e?caoe?y ? ?icaeoie.

No?aoaa?th aeaeeaaiiy ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e iioei?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo o?ii?/ii caeoeiaeo i?aei?e?inoa. Aiia
?icaeyaea?oueny a iaoiaeeoe? ye aeiooaia. C ia? i?aei?e?inoai iiaeiii
yeiaeoaeaeoa aeeoe, aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoth/e aeiiii?/i?, ia?eaoeiaia?,
eia?noe/i? oa oi?aae?inuee? caoiaee, aeey /iai a aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny iioei?caoe?eia iiaeaeue. A oiiaao eieeaaiue
?acoeueoaoeaiino? oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? a?ae caeoeiaino? aei
?aioaaaeueiino? ? iaaiaee aaciaith no?aoaa?th iioei?caoe??
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo iiaeiia noaoe noaa?e?caoe?y. Noaae?y
noaa?e?caoe?? iiaea o?eaaoe aeiaoa, i?ae aeaeeaaiiy. Aiia aeiaaa? oaeeo
ianya?a oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo, ye? caaacia/aoue ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ? caiano o?iainiai? i?oeiino? ia ieae/a aeinyaiooiai a
iiia?aaei? ia??iaee. No?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo noino?oueny i?aei?e?inoa c?
no?eeith ?aioaaaeuei?noth ? aenieei caianii o?iainiai? i?oeiino?. Aiia ?
ianooiaeueiith ? aeiaaa? oaeiai ianyao aeioiaeo, yeee caaacia/eoue
iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo, aeinoaoiueiai aeey ?a?iaanooaaiiy.

Ioe?iea aeinoaoiino? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy caiano
o?iainiai? i?oeiino? ia i?eeeaae? aeine?aeaeaieo i?aei?e?inoa aeicaieeea
aecia/eoe aacia? no?aoaa?? ?o ae?yeueiino?, ui noaei ia?oei e?ieii aei
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo.
Aeyaeeinue, ui /aa?oue i?aei?e?inoa aeiooaia canoiniaoaaoe no?aoaa?th
aeaeeaaiiy, 37,5% iiaeooue caaacia/eoe noaa?e?caoe?th ? no?eueee ae –
?icaeoie. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai iie?oeea oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo iiaeiia iaoe ??cia ni?yioaaiiy. Aeaeeaaiiy
aeiaaa? iicaaaeaiiy caeoeiaino?, noaa?e?caoe?y – caaacia/aiiy no?eeiai
??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? ia ieae/a aeinyaiooiai a iiia?aaei? ia??iaee, a
?icaeoie – ni?eyiiy c?inoaiith ianya?a i?eaooeo aeey ?iaanooaaiiy
naii?icaeoeo. Iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo iiaeiii ?icii/eiaoeny c
iiaeaaaeaiiy, yea aecia/a?oueny no?aoaa??th noaa?e?caoe??, aioo??oi?ie
iaeiie/aiiyie oa caeo/aiiyi ?iaanoeoe?e cciai?. Iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?e
aeiaaa? iii?oi?eiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a oi?a?ae? iiee ui a?aenooi?.
Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny cai?iaaaeeoe iii?oi?eia aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo ye iaoai?ci niinoa?aaeaiiy, aiae?co ? i?aeaioiaee ?ioi?iaoe??
aeey ei?eaoaaiiy ae?th/eo no?aoaa?e aai iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo. Aecia/aiiy
aaciaeo no?aoaa?e ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaaaeaiiai iii?oi?eiao
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe ci?no oa aieiai? aoaie
no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ?o aaeiaiai aeioiaeo.

Iiaeaeue ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? oi?ioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia? iii?oi?eiao iiaeaii ia ?en.2.

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aecia/a?oueny oei, iane?eueee aiia iia‘ycaia c ia?niaeoeaieie
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no?aoaa?e aaeiaiai aeioiaeo iia, ycaia c ?ic?iaeith iie?oeee
iioei?caoe?? on?o aeaea?ae eiai oi?ioaaiiy oa iai?yie?a aeei?enoaiiy.

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no?aoaa?? iicaaaeaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa caeoeiaino?,
i?aeaeuaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino? oa caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai caiano
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e?eoe/iiai (ioeue) aei iaeneiaeueiiai. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy o aecia/aii?
oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo iaaeaii caaacia/aiith i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy
?aioaaaeueiino? aeanieo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa. Oa ana ae eiie?aoi? ianyae
oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo aecia/aeeny a ?iaio? oiiaaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Oiio cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ia?aaeaa/a? ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei
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ae?yeueiino? ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae, oiaoi oea i?aei?e?inoaa c
aeaniith o?iainiaith aacith aeey naii?icaeoeo. Aei ae?oai? a?oie
a?aeianaii i?aei?e?inoaa, ui iaeaeeae/ei /anii ciiaeooue iicaaaeoenue
caeoeiaino? ? caaacia/eoe noaa?eueio ?aioaaaeuei?noue. ?, iae?iaoeue,
o?aoy a?oia – oea i?aei?e?inoaa, yeei ia i?ae neeo a ei?ioe? no?iee (1-2
?iee) caeieaoe caeoeia?noue aeanieie neeaie, a oiio ia?aae ieie noi?oue
i?iaeaia aeaeeaaiiy ? iaa?oue caa?ica aaie?oonoaa. Inoaiiy a?oia
iaea?eueo a?aceeaa. Aiia iio?aao? iniaeeai? oaaae.

Iane?aeee i?iaaaeaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy iieacaee, ui o?eueee 70%
i?aei?e?inoa c aaciaeie no?aoaa?yie aeaeeaaiiy oa noaa?e?caoe??
ciiaeooue caeieaoe caeoeia?noue i?ioyaii ia?oiai ?ieo, ua 10%
aeinyaiooue ?aioaaaeueiino? ia i?ioyc? ae?oaiai ?ieo. Aeey ?aooe
i?aei?e?inoa oe??? a?oie aeinyaiaiiy naiiieoiiino? oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? i?ioyaii aeaio ?ie?a aac canoinoaaiiy aei?noei? aeiiii??
aeo?ao ia?ao ? ?ioeo caoiae?a aeoaea i?iaeaiaoe/ia, ai aeiaaa? ui??/iiai
i?aeaeuaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo a?eueo i?ae ia 20%.

A iaoiaeeoe? iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia iniia? no?aoaa??
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeaa aoaie. Ia ia?oiio
i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae, yeee caaacia/eoue
iaea?aeaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? aeanieo eioo?a. Oaea
?aioaaaeuei?noue a no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiia aecia/aoenue
ia ??ai? a?aenioeiaeo noaaie ia aeaiiceoi? aeeaaee. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee,
ui a 1997 ?ioe? oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae 30% ?aioaaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa
oaeoe/ii ia?aaeuoaaa aeio?ae, iaiao?aeiee aeey caaacia/aiiy
i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? aeanieo eioo?a. Oiio iioei?caoe?y
oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo oaeeo i?aei?e?inoa iio?aao? ua iaeiiai aoaio,
iia’ycaiiai c caaacia/aiiyi oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo. Aeey ?aooe
i?aei?e?inoa iioei?caoe?y oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo caaa?oaia ia?oei
aoaiii.

Aacith iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia ae?oaiio aoai? aenooia?
oe?eueiaee i?eaooie, yeee ca ii?iaeueieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiai
ia?aaeuoaaoe i?i?iaeueiee. Aeey ia/eneaiiy ianyao /enoiai oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo a aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny oaea oi?ioea:
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aea OAe oe – oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae oe?eueiaiai ??aiy aac iiaeaoeo ia
aeiaeaio aa?o?noue;

I oe – ieaiiaee ianya oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo a?ae oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Ine?eueee aeinyaiaiiy oe?eueiaiai aeioiaeo a?ae oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeiiai ianyao oiaa?iia?ao, oi aeey
ia/eneaiiy inoaiiueiai iiaeia nei?enoaoenue oaeei aeai?eoiii:
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aea O oe – ianya oiaa?iia?ao, yeee caaacia/eoue iaea?aeaiiy oe?eueiaiai
aeioiaeo;

*CAO O – /anoea oiiaii — ci?iieo aeo?ao, iia‘ycaieo c caeoieith oa
?aae?caoe??th oiaa??a, a ianyc? oiaa?iia?ao aac iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue;

N IAeA — noaaea iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue.

Aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaii oaeiae oi?ioeo ?ic?aooieo iaiao?aeii?
aeiiii?? aeo?ao ia?ao aeey caaacia/aiiy oe?eueiai? ?aioaaaeueiino?
aeanieo eioo?a.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?e ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? i?eae?eaia a aeena?oaoe??
i?aeaeuaiith ?ie? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a o oi?ioaaii? aeioiae?a
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa. Na?aae oaeeo iaoai?ci?a aeae?eaii ia?eaoeia
? eia?noeeo. Ia?eaoeiaiaee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a? ioe?ieo ae?th/i? nenoaie
oe?iiooai?aiiy ? ?ic?iaeo eiaeiei i?aei?e?inoaii nai?? oe?iiai? iie?oeee
c iaiayceiaei aeae?eaiiyi iie?oeee oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ?
cieaeie. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiio?oueny iiaeaeue iaa?oiooaaiiy
oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ia iniia? ia?eaoeiao i?e aeio?eiaii? ?yaeo
i?eioeei?a, aieiaieie na?aae yeeo ? o?aooaaiiy aaciai? no?aoaa?? ?
oe?iiai? iie?oeee i?aei?e?inoaa; oa’ycea c eii’thieoo?ith ?eieo ?
iniaeeainoyie o??? i?o?, a ye?e ciaoiaeeoueny eiie?aoiee oiaa?;
eiiieaeni?noue i?aeoiaeo aei yeino? oi?aiaaeueiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iieoioe?a; aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiaa?ii? niaoe?ae?caoe??,
i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy, eiioeiaaioo iieoioe?a eiie?aoieo ioieo?a
?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a; caaacia/aiiy aio/eino? oe?i oeyoii oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy oe?iiaeo cieaeie ? iaaeaaaie; aeoeaiee aieea ?aeeaie ia
oi?ioaaiiy eoi?aaeueiiai iiieoo oiui.

Caneoaiao? oaaae eia?noe/iee i?aeo?ae aei iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo. Aecia/aii “iiea” oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueii? iaaeaaaee a
eia?noe/iiio iioioe? ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae?. Oe?eueiaei i???ioe?ii
iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia iniia? eiia?oe?eii? eia?noeee
noaea i?i?i?caoe?y aeo?ao ia?ao ia eiaeiiio aoai? i?inoaaiiy oiaa?iiai
iioieo oa canoinoaaiiy oe?iiaeo cieaeie: neiioi, e?euee?nieo, ?
naciiieo.

Iaa?oioiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? no?aoaa?? aaeiaeo aeioiae?a eiie?aoieo
i?aei?e?inoa ia?aa??aii ia ae??caeaoi?noue, ui aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe:
canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa aoaea aecia/aoe oaeoeeo
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy, oeyoe aeoiaeo c e?ece oa ia?aoiaeo
aei noaa?e?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo ia aeani?e aeioiaei?e iniia?.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeno i?iaeai uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a oi?a?ae? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee oa
i?iiiceoe??.

1. I?iaeaie aaeaioaoe?? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?a?ae? aei ?eieiaeo oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. A?aenooi? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
nooiino? oa ?ie? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a aeiiii?oe? no/anieo i?aei?e?inoa.
I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy aei oeueiai
/ano iinyoue oaa?i aaei?i?no?aoeaii — eiiaiaeii? nenoaie, a oiio
iio?aaothoue oaeineiiaeaiiy.

2. A ?eieiaeo oiiaao aaeiaee aeio?ae oi?a?ae?, e??i aaeocaaiai cia/aiiy,
iaaoaa? ua e caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai. Aeio?ae a?ae oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? oaae ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe a aaeocaaiio ?icoi?ii? ye noio
?aae?ciaaieo oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ? a caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiio – ye
oiaa?iia?a.

3. Aeii?ioth/ei aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a oi?a?ae?
caeeoa?oueny aeio?ae a?ae ?aae?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo iineoa. A 1997 ?ioe?
a?i noaiiaea 97% aaeiaiai aeioiaeo ?icae??aii? oi?a?ae? Aeiiaoeueei?
iaeano?. I?inoaaeo?oueny iaae?iiy ??aiy ? ianya?a oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo, ui ni?e/eiy? c?inoaiiy caeoeiaino? i?aei?e?inoa. Aeecueei
iieiaeie oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa iaeano? a 1998 ?ioe? aoee
caeoeiaeie. A 1999 ?ioe? neooaoe?y ia iie?auo?oueny.

4. Aiae?c nenoaie aca?iica’yceo aeo?ao, ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? oa i?eaooeo
aeicaieeei aecia/eoe e?eoe/i? ianyae aeioiaeo ? ??aaiue caiano
o?iainiai? i?oeiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Aeyaeaii: e?euee?noue i?aei?e?inoa c
naiiieoiiith oi?aiaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth nei?ioeeanue o 1997 ?ioe?
ii??aiyii c 1995 ?ieii o 2,5 ?ace. 37,5% i?aei?e?inoa ia iaee caiano
o?iainiai? no?eeino?, a oea icia/a?, ui oae? i?aei?e?inoaa ia
caaacia/othoue iaa?oue naiiieoiiino? ? aa?eoee o oaco aeaeeaaiiy c
caa?icith aaie?oonoaa. Iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?a?ae? ca oiia c?inoaiiy caeoeiaino? ? iaae?iiy
?aioaaaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa aeeeeeaee iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoeiai —
iaoiaee/ieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiaeieaiiy caeoeiaino?,
caaacia/aiiy noaa?e?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a oi?aiaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?.

5. C iaoith aeoiaeo oi?a?ae? c e?ece ? ia?aoiaeo aei ?icaeoeo
i?iiiio?oueny iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ia iniia? iioei?caoe??
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo, yea yaey? niaith nenoaio aoaeoeaieo oe?eueiaeo
caaaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy nia?oo aaccaeoeiaino?, a iio?i
noaa?e?caoe?? ? ?icaeoeo oi?aiaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a ?eieo.
Ia?oei e?ieii a iaoai?ci? ?ic?iaee oaei? no?aoaa?? iiaeiii noaoe
aecia/aiiy aaciai? no?aoaa?? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia iniia?
aeinyaiooiai ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? oa caiano o?iainiai? no?eeino?. A
e?ecia?e aeiiii?oe? ne?ae aeae?eyoe o?e aacia? no?aoaa?? – oea
aeaeeaaiiy, noaa?e?caoe?y oa ?icaeoie.

6. Iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia?aaeaa/a?
aeei?enoaiiy aaciaeo no?aoaa?e ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. No?aoaa?y
aeaeeaaiiy aeiaaa? oaeiai ??aiy aeioiaeo, yeee caaacia/eoue
aaccaeoeia?noue (noai?eoue oiiae aeey ioeueiai? ?aioaaaeueiino?).
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia? no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo, ai aiia ? ianooiaeueiith ?
iiaeiia ?ic?iaeyoeny a aeaa aoaie. Ia?oee – aecia/aiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo, iaiao?aeiiai aeey caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy
?aioaaaeueiino?, a ae?oaee iio?aao? iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioiaeo, iaiao?aeiiai
aeey caaacia/aiiy oe?eueiaiai i?eaooeo. Oe?eueiaee i?eaooie ca
ii?iaeueieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe i?i?iaeueiee.
Aeey ia/eneaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo e?eoe/iiai, i?i?iaeueiiai oa
oe?eueiaiai ??aiy ?aioaaaeueiino? i?iiiiothoueny aeai?eoie, a iniiao
yeeo iieeaaeaii aeo?aoe ia?ao oa a?aeiia?aei? ianyae ieaiiaiai i?eaooeo.

7. Aecia/aeueiei o caaacia/aii? ae??caeaoiino? iioei?caoe?eieo iiaeaeae
iiaeii? noaoe ?eieia? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo, a
naia, ia?eaoeia ? eia?noeea. Ia?eaoeiaiaee i?aeo?ae iiaeiai ia?aaeaa/aoe
ioe?ieo ae?th/i? nenoaie oe?iiooai?aiiy ? ?ic?iaeo oe?iiai? iie?oeee c
iaia’yceiaei aeae?eaiiyi iie?oeee oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ?
cieaeie ia iniia? a?aeai?o ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?eieiaeo /eiiee?a. Iinoa?
caaaeaiiy oe?oiai canoinoaaiiy oe?iiaeo cieaeie c aeaiaeith aeey naaa.
Eia?noe/iee i?aeo?ae aei iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo aeicaieea
aecia/eoe “iiea” oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie o o?iainiaeo
iioieao, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue oiaa?i? iioiee. Oe?eueiaei i???ioe?ii
iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo ia iniia? eiia?oe?eii? eia?noeee
iiaeiia noaoe i?i?i?caoe?y eia?noe/ieo aeo?ao ia eiaeiiio aoai?
oiaa?iiioieo.

8. Ai?iaaoe?y cai?iiiiiaaieo a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaie uiaei iioei?caoe??
aaeiaiai aeioiaeo a oi?a?ae? i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
a aeiiii?/iiio oi?aae?ii? oi?aiaaeueieie i?aei?e?inoaaie oaeeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e:

aeaio aei???a aaeiaiai aeioiaeo: caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai oa aaeocaaiai;

iieaciee?a e?eoe/ieo ianya?a aeioiaeo ? caiano o?iainiai? i?oeiino?;

iaoai?cio ?aeoeiaiai? ioe?iee i?aei?e?inoa ca ??aiai aeioiae?a;

oaeineiiaeaii? nenoaie iii?oi?eiao aaeiaiai aeioiaeo;

iiaeae? iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? aaeiaiai aeioiaeo i?aei?e?inoa;

iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?? aaeiaeo aeioiae?a a oi?a?ae?;

?ic?aooieiaeo aeai?eoi?a i?i?iaeueiiai ? oe?eueiaiai oi?aiaaeueiiai
aeioiaeo;

ia?eaoeiaiaiai ? eia?noe/iiai i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
iaaeaaaie;

iaoiae?a ioe?iee ae??caeaoiino? ?ic?iaeaieo no?aoaa?e aaeiaiai aeioiaeo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ea?auoe I.N. ?ieue iii?oi?eiao a oi?ioaaii? no?aoaa?? aeioiae?a
i?aei?e?inoa // Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy. Aeione 8. Oii
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2. Ea?auoe I.N. Iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa // Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee
ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy.
Aeione 9. Oii 2.– Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeOAO. – 1999. – N.50 — 55. – 0,38
ae?.a?e.;

3. Ea?auoe I.N. Oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie a no/anieo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy // Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy. Aeione
7. – Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeOAO. – 1998. – N.127 – 132. – 0,36 ae?.a?e.;

4. Ea?auoe I.N. Oi?ioaaiiy eia?noe/ii? nenoaie caeoi?aaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? a oi?a?ae? // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee. — 1997.- ?47(58).- N.41 – 44. – 0,22 ae?.a?e.;

5. Ea?auoe I.N. I?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie ? i?eaooeo
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa // Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee
ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy.
– Aeiiaoeuee: OIA ”Eaa?aeue”, 1997. – N.90 – 91. — 0,1 ae?.a?e.;

6. Ea?auoe I.N. Naciiia cieaeea ye ?ino?oiaio eia?noeee // Oi?a?aey ?
?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ?
a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy. – Aeiiaoeuee: AeAeE?. – 1998. – N.68 – 69. –
0,1 ae?.a?e.

E??i oiai, ca i?iaeaiaie aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaai? oae? noaoo? ? oace o
ni?aaaoi?noa?:

7. Aeyaea/ei E.I., Ea?auoe I.N. Aecia/aiiy oe?iiaeo cieaeie ca oiia
ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a // Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie: Oaiaoe/iee
ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy.
– Aeiiaoeuee: AeAeE?. – 1996. — N.63-64. Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?eoio aeey aecia/aiiy oe?iiaeo cieaeie ca oiia eoi?ae?
– i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a a?eueoeie ia?o?yie. — 0,06 ae?.a?e.

8. Aeyaea/ei E.I., E?uooiia A.A., Ea?auoe I.N. Aaeaioaoeey ie?iaie
i?aeoeee oeaiiia?aciaaiey e yeiiiie/aneei oneiaeyi Oe?aeiu // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/ii – i?aeoe/aneiai naieia?a:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiaenoeea e ia?eaoeia a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieeie. – Aeiiaoee: AeiiAO. – 1996.- N.192-193. Iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a: aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueieo aeanoeainoae ?eieiaiai
oe?iiooai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? c? na?oiaith i?aeoeeith. — 0,04 ae?.a?e.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ea?auoe I.N. Aaeiaee aeio?ae oi?a?ae?: aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy, iai?yiee
aeei?enoaiiy oa i?iaeaie iioei?caoe??. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.07.05 – aeiiii?ea oi?a?ae? oa iineoa. –
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae?, Aeiiaoeuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo oa
aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?a?ae? a oiiaao ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. A aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iai?yiie
iaa?oiooaaiiy no?aoaa?? aeoiaeo oi?aiaaeueii? aaeoc? c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece
? caaacia/aiiy ia?aoiaeo aei ?icaeoeo ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? aaeiaiai
aeioiaeo. ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai – iaoiaee/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei
no?aoaa?/iiai aiae?co oa ieaioaaiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo oi?aiaaeueieo
i?aei?e?inoa c ??ciei ??aiai ?aioaaaeueiino?. Aiie ia?aaeaa/athoue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaio i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy aaeiaiai aeioiaeo –
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/iiai ? aaeocaaiai, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iii?oi?eiao,
aeei?enoaiiy aeai?eoi?a iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo,
canoinoaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai ? eia?noe/iiai i?aeoiae?a aei iaa?oiooaaiiy
oi?aiaaeueieo iaaeaaaie, a?aea?? aoaeoeaieo oe?iiaeo cieaeie. Caaa?oaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeii iine?aeiaiino? canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee
iioei?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueiiai aeioiaeo i?aei?e?inoa c ??ciei caianii
o?iainiai? i?oeiino? a caeiiiaeaa/iio iie? Oe?a?ie. I?iiiceoe??, ye?
i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??, ai?iaiaaii i?aeoeeith oi?a?ae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeiaee aeio?ae, oi?aiaaeueiee aeio?ae, oi?aiaaeueia
iaaeaaaea, no?aoaa?y, oe?eueiaee i?eaooie.

Ea?auoe I.N. Aaeiaie aeioiae oi?aiaee: enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey,
iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey e i?iaeaiu iioeiecaoeee. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.07.05 – yeiiiieea oi?aiaee e oneoa. – Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao yeiiiieee e oi?aiaee, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aaeiaiai aeioiaea oi?aiaee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaii iiaia
iai?aaeaiea iainiiaaiey no?aoaaee auoiaea oi?aiaie io?anee ec
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena e iaania/aiey ia?aoiaea e ?acaeoeth ia iniiaa
iioeiecaoeee aaeiaiai aeioiaea. ?ac?aaioaiu iao/ii – iaoiaee/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e no?aoaae/aneiio aiaeeco e ieaie?iaaieth
aaeiaiai aeioiaea oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee n ?aciui o?iaiai
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Iie i?aaeoniao?eaatho aiaae?aiea aeaoo iiaeoiaeia e
ii?aaeaeaieth aaeiaiai aeioiaea – iauayeiiiie/aneiai e io?aneaaiai,
niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu iiieoi?eiaa, eniieueciaaiea aeai?eoiia
iioeiecaoeee oi?aiaiai aeioiaea, i?eiaiaiea ia?eaoeiaiaiai e
eiaenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaeia e iainiiaaieth oi?aiauo iaaeaaaie, ioai?
yooaeoeaiuo oeaiiauo neeaeie. Caaa?oaii enneaaeiaaiea eceiaeaieai
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaoiaeeee iioeiecaoeee oi?aiaiai
aeioiaea i?aaei?eyoee n ?aciui caianii oeiainiaie i?i/iinoe a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii iiea Oe?aeiu. I?aaeeiaeaiey, niaea?aeaueany a
aeenna?oaoeee, ai?iae?iaaiu i?aeoeeie oi?aiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeiaie aeioiae, oi?aiaue aeioiae, oi?aiaay iaaeaaaea,
no?aoaaey, oeaeaaay i?eaueue.

Karascuk O.S. Gross income of trade: sources of formation, ways of using
and problems of optimization. Manuscript.

The dissertation for candidate degree in economics on speciality
08.07.05. – Economics of trade and services. – Donetsk state university
of economics and trade, Donetsk, 1999.

The dissertation deals with problems of formation, allocanion and use of
gross income under the changeable conditions of market economy. The work
suggests a new trend proving the strategy of output of trade from
economic crisis and further development on the basis of optimization.
So, the work shows the essence, the role, the method of formation and
the use of gross income of trade in the legislative field of Ukraine and
proves the expediency of expression the gross income and income received
from the trading activity in two ways – general economic and branch
economic. In general economic meaning the revenue is considered as the
volume of turnover and in branch economic – as a sum of the realized
trade adds or the income from trade services. Trade income dominates
among the sources of formation gross income being influenced by the
factors on macro and micro levels. The main attention in the thesis is
paid to the negative factors in both levels and to the development of
scientific – methodical recommendations aimed at receiving incomes
sufficient for ebolition of unprofitableness, ensuring stabilization and
development of trade. To overcome crises and to start the development
the methodology of strategy, based on optimization of gross income is
worked out; it is the system of effective purposes, aimed at ensuring
critical volumes of gross income at first and then – having a special
purrpose.

The first step of the proposed methodology is the definition of the main
strategy of the enterprises’s activity bazed on the achieved level of
profitability and on the reserves of financial stability. The special
stress is made on three basic strategies: survival, stabilization and
development.

The strategy of survival foresees the necessity of receiving critical
volumes of gross income, which will lead to the lack of
unprofitableness, i.e. to zero profitablity.

Special attention is paid to the strategy of development, having an
aggressive character. It shouled be developed in two phases. The first
phase is defined by the trade income which is necessary for ensuring
minimum profitablity of the capital and the second phase-by the income
ensuring profit for special purposes. Under the normal economic
conditions the profit for special purposes shouldexeed minimum profit
and it is recommended to calculate the interest rate on bank deposits.

To calculate trade income of the critical, minimum and for special
purpose levels the algorithms, based on the cirulation cost of sales and
the corresponding level of the provided profitability of the
enterprises’ capital are developed.

The proposed methodology of grounding the gross income strategy supposes
the improvement of monitoring system. At the same time such market
mechanisms as marketing and logistics are proposed to be used with some
other optimization models.

Marketing provides the development of price policy and formation of
trade adds and discounts based on selection and systematization the
market factors and principes of price formation. The necessity of
increasing discounts to have real interest was shown up.

Logistic approach to optimization the income gave us the opportunity to
define the ‘field’ of formation trade adds in financial flows escorting
the commodity flows from supplier to customer. And here the main factor
is the minimization of logistic costs on each –stage of commodity
movement.

The succession of application the methodology of optimization the gross
income of enterprises with different reserves of financial stability in
the Ukrainian legislative field completes the research. Scientific
conclusions and propositions of the investigation were approved on
practice.

Key words: gross income, trade income, trade add, strategy, purpose –
oriented profit.

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