Управління маркетингом продовольчих товарів: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / І.В. Рябчик, Нац. аграр. ун-т. — К., 1999. — 18 с. — укp.

8

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?ya/ee ?ai? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 631.15:339.138

OI?AAE?IIss IA?EAOEIAII I?IAeIAIEUe*EO

OIAA??A

08.06.02 — I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

E e ? a — 1 9 9 9

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie

Caaaaenueeee Einei Noai?neaaiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa
ia?eaoeiao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ii?uaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeeiiae/ —
Ee?anueeee

aea?aeaaiee
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?c?oo?ia Aianoan?y Nai?ee?aia —

Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?,

caa?aeoaa/ iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
a?aeae?eo aea?aeaaiiai

?aaoethaaiiy aioo??oiuei?
oi?a?ae?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee
?inoeooo,

eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee ? ia?eaoeiao,
i. Iieoaaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 18 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.01 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, Ee?a — 41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 15,
ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 11, ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
AEaaea A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ui
iia’ycaia c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaaea? eiaeiiio
i?aei?e?inoao iiaeeea?noue naiino?eii aeae?aoe oi?io aeaniino?,
iai?yiee, oe?e? oa no?aoaa?th ae?yeueiino?. Iaeii/anii c oeei
aeieeathoue iia? caaea/?, ye? ia iaee nai?o aiaeia?a o iiia?aaei?e
i?aeoeoe? ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ? ?o ?aoe?iiaeueia ae??oaiiy ianaiia?aae
caeaaeeoue a?ae i?eeiyooy iaa?oioiaaieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo ??oaiue.
Ine?eueee, naia ia?eaoeia ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
eii’thieoo?e ?eieo, ia’?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, oi?ioaaiiy
iiieoo oa eiai caaeiaieaiiy.

?eiie i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a ? iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oa
ia?niaeoeaieo a Oe?a?i?. A?i iio?aao? aeeaieiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?e, iaoa??aee yeiai iiaeooue aooe
iieeaaeaii? a iniiao ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno, oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? oa oi?a?ae?.

Ia aeiaaeeiai ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a i?eae?ey?oueny aaeeea
oaaaa a/aieo-ia?eaoieia?a, aeiiii?no?a e?a?i c ?eieiaith i???ioaoe??th
aeiiii?ee. Cia/iee aianie o noai?aii? iniia oa iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao
iaeaaeeoue oaeei ca?oa?aeiei a/aiei, ye I.Ainioo, E.Aaeea?, A.Aeae.Aieo,
I.Ae?aea?, Aeae.Aaain, A.Ea?eio, ?.E?ia, O.Eioea?, AE.AE.Eaiaai,
I.Ii?oa?, O.Eaa?oo, N.Iaaeaea?i, N.N?ie, ?.Oioa?iai oa ?i. Iaeiae
oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee ? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ia
iiaeooue aooe aaoiiaoe/ii aeei?enoai?. No?aoaa?y ia?eaoeiao
?icaeyaea?oueny ieie noiniaii aei ?icaeiaieo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oiio
?nioth/? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? a iao?e e?a?i?
iio?aaothoue aaeaioaoe?? aei ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, ui neeaeiny a
Oe?a?i?, ?? ?noi?e/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e, iaaeinoaoiueiai
aeina?aeo ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaaiee aianie o ?ic?iaeo eiioeaioe?? ia?eaoeiao ca oiia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?ee cae?enieee a/ai? Oe?a?ie oa e?a?i NIAe A.A.Aa?ai?oa?e?,
I.I.Aoaianue?a, E.A.Aaeaaaiiaa, I.A.A?eiiieuenueeee, I.A.A?eee,
?.A.A?aoei, A.A.A?ene?i, ?.E.A?eaio’?a, A.A.Aa?anei/oe, A.?. Aeaieaeia,
A.I.A?aaeia, E.N.Caaaaenueeee, I.N.Caa’yeia, A.I.Ca?i/eianueeee,
I.I.Eooe?e, A.I.Ii?uaiei, Ae.I.Eieei, A.?.I?aoaea, A.I.?aaooeia,
A.?.O?ooeueeee oa ?i. Iaeiae a ?iaioao iacaaieo aaoi??a aieiaia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny eeoa caaaeueiioai?aoe/iei aniaeoai oi?ioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei cae?eniaiiy oi?aae?iiy. A oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua aeieea? iio?aaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa iiaeo oi?i oa iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
iniia? ia?eaoeiaiaiai aea/aiiy o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? iaiane/aiiai
oiaa?iiai ?eieo. Iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea oe??? i?iaeaie noaea i?aenoaaith
aeey aeai?o oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?ia?aiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo
?ia?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ii aeeiiaiith eiiieaenieo
oai: «?ic?iaea ieoaiue iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao ia ??cieo ??aiyo AIE
a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee» oa “Iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe noai?aiiy
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a AIE ia
iaeaniiio ??ai?» /iiia?e aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??: 0193 U 022571 oa 0196
U 001975 /.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoeiaeo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy
ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoa oa ?ic?iaea ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? aeey
?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a a oiiaao eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaoiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy
ianooiieo caaea/:

· iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? i?eeiyooy i?aei?e?inoaaie
eiioeaioe?? ia?eaoeiao;

· aecia/aiiy ?ie? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao a
i?aeaeuaii? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a;

· aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oa i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a a Oe?a?i?;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa??
ia?eaoeiao i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a;

· ?ic?iaea i?aai?caoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?ioean?a a oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
noeoii?noue oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
i?aai?caoe??th oa ia?eaoeiaiaei oi?aae?iiyi ae?yeuei?noth
aa?ii?iieneiaeo oa oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa ia ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo
oiaa??a.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?th/ee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ?eiie
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a ye nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ae?iaiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoe??,
iina?aaeieoeueeeo no?oeoo? on?o oi?i aeaniino? ? niiaeeaa/?a, ui
cae?eniththoue naith ae?yeuei?noue ia aeaiiio ?eieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui neeaaeathoue iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe:

· ooi/iaii eaoaai??eiee oa ?ino?oiaioaeueiee aia?ao ia?eaoeiao
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a;

· nenoaiaoeciaaii na?oiaee aeina?ae ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a;

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy no?aoaa?/iiai
aiae?co iiceoe?e i?aei?e?inoa AIE ia ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a,
oi?ioaaiiy ani?oeiaioii? iie?oeee oiaa?iae?iaiee?a;

· iaa?oioiaaii ? eeaneo?eiaaii oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia aea??
no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao ? iaea?aeaiiy ia?aiiae a eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea?;

· aecia/aii iai?yiee no?aoaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? oa oi?a?ae?;

· iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ci?i a i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo?ao oi?aae?iiy ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a AIE.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· ia iniia? ocaiaeaeaiino? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa c eiai ?ano?niei iioaioe?aeii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o iai?yie?a

no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao ia ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a;

· cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?ic?iaee ani?oeiaioii?
eiioeaioe??, ye? aeicaieythoue i?aei?e?inoaai iae?aoe iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaio oiaa?io no?aoaa?th, aeinyaaoe oaeaeeiai iane/aiiy ?eieo a
ianyaao, ui caaacia/othoue iio?aae ianaeaiiy;

· ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy,
ye? aeicaieyoue i?enei?eoe aeo?ae aeiiii?ee AIE c e?eciaiai noaio oa
ni?eyoeiooue i?aeaeuaiith eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao, oi?ioaaiiy
neoaea ia?eaoeiao i?aei?e?inoaaie aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
aeei?enoiaothoueny I?i?noa?noaii AIE, ai?iaaaeaeaii? a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe
oi?aa?naio ? 6 »Ie?ii?enueeee» i. Ee?aa oa a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia
eaoaae?? iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no «Ia?eaoeia».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? caaa?oaiei
iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?enay/aiei aea/aiith ia?eaoeiaiaiai
oi?aae?iiy ?eieii i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a a Oe?a?i?. Aeena?oaioii
iioae?eiaaii o?e ?iaioe ii oai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iee eiiieaen c eo?no “Oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii” oa
?iai/o i?ia?aio c aeenoeeie?ie »?iiiaaoe?eiee iaiaaeaeiaio» aeey
nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a ?inoeoooo aa?a?iiai
a?ciano Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (i. Ee?a, 1995-1997??.),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? »Iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey AIE oa ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c
iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao » (24-25 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.). Iiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaany ia ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao IAO (i?ioieie ? 8 a?ae 24 ea?oiy 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo?
caaaeueiei ianyaii 0.7 ae?.a?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
aeiaeaoe?a, aeieoiaio?a i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeeiiaii? ?iaioe neeaaea? 202 noi??iee eiii’thoa?iiai
oaenoo, i?noeoue 17 oaaeeoeue, 19 ?enoie?a, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
c 120 iaeiaioaaiue oa 26 aeiaeaoe?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii i?iaeiaieue/eo
oiaa??a.

1.1. Aeiiii?/ia nooue ia?eaoeiao oa eiai ooieoe?iiaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea. 1.2.

Ia?eaoeia ye iiaa eiioeaioe?y oi?aae?iiy a?cianii. 1.3. Iniaeeaino?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeiaieue/iai ia?eaoeiao.

?icae?e 2. Ia?eaoeiaiaee aiae?c ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a.

2.1. Aiae?c noaio i?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo a Oe?a?i?. 2.2. Noai oa
i?aai?caoe?y oi?a?ae? i?iaeiaieue/eie oiaa?aie a e?a?i?. 2.3.
No?aoaa?/iee aiae?c iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoa.

?icae?e 3. ?icaeoie ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a ia i?iaeiaieue/iio ?eieo
Oe?a?ie.

3.1. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a. 3.2. Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee
aei ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ia?eaoeiao. 3.3. I?aai?caoe?eia caaacia/aiiy
?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ioean?a.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

Aeieoiaioe i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa, caaea/?, i?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeaco?oueny aca?iica’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie, aeeeaaeaia iaoeiaa
iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai?iaaoe?y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o ioae?eaoe?y, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a” ia iniia? aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue
no/anieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo ?ice?eaa?oueny aeiiii?/ia
nooue ia?eaoeiao, eiai ooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea, iniaeeaino?
ia?eaoeiao ia ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a Oe?a?ie, a?aei?/a?oueny, ui
canoinoaaiiy eiioeaioe?? ia?eaoeiao ? iaiao?aeiith neeaaeiaith oiiaith
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, noai?aiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio
?eieiai? ??aiiaaae.

Noi?ioaaaoenue o niaoeeo?/io aaeocue ethaenueeeo ciaiue, ye ?acoeueoao
ie?aeii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?ioe?a ? iaoeiaoe?a, ia?eaoeia i?aaenoaaey?
niaith eiioeaioe?th ?eieiai? ae?yeueiino?. A?i iinooiiai ia?aoai?eany a
nenoaio oi?aae?iiy, ui ioiieth? aanue oeeee ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ? ine?eueee ia?a?inoa? ?aiee i?aei?e?inoaa, oi yaey?
niaith o?einio?th ae?eiai? aeoeaiino?, o?einio?th a?ciano. Eiai iiaeia
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oaeeie ?enaie.

1. Ia?eaoeia a no/anieo oiiaao i???ioiaaiee ia niiaeeaa/a, c eiai
iio?aaaie ? caieoaie. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? no?aoaa?? iio??aii iaoe
neeaaeio ? aeeiai?/io no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy, yea a iiaea ea?oaaoe ci?iaie
iiieoo, i?iaiicoaaea ?o ?icaeoie oa noai?thaaea oiiae ?o caaeiaieaiiy.

2. Ia?eaoeia ia i?aei?e?inoa? iiaeiai iaoe ?iiiaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?.
Iino?eiee iiooe oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a oa oaoiieia?e
? aieiaiith oiiaith oni?oiiai

ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa a eiieo?aioiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

3. Ia?eaoeia iio?aao? i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co oa iino?eiiai ieaioaaiiy, ye
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaiai oae ? aeiaaino?ieiaiai. Ine?eueee eii’thieoo?a ?eieo
ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei iino?eieo ci?i, oi iio??aii iino?eii ne?aeeoaaoe ca
oeeie ci?iaie ? nai?/anii i?iaiaeeoe ei?aaoaaiiy neeaaeaieo ieai?a.

4. Ia?eaoeia iineoue i?aeia?iaeiee oa?aeoa?. Eiai aeaiaioe
aeei?enoiaothoue i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aenii?oieo iia?aoe?e.

Oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii ia? /?oei ae?aaeaiee ?eieiaee oa?aeoa?,
ine?eueee eiai iniiao neeaaeathoue o?e ooiaeaiaioaeuei? i?eioeeie:

1) eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo oa niiaeeaa/?a;

2) iaeneiaeueia i?enoinoaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aei aeiia ?eieo;

3) aieea ia ?eiie c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy iiieoo a iaiao?aeiiio iai?yieo.

Iei? ia?eaoeiaiaa no?aoaa?y ia? eiieo?aioio ni?yiiaai?noue ?
ci?ith?oueny caeaaeii a?ae noaio ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e oa nooiaiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ia’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi nenoaio cania?a ia?eaoeiao, aai
i?en-ia?eaoeia, yeee aeeth/a? oae? ooieoe??: 1) ieaioaaiiy ani?oeiaioo
i?iaeoeoe??, aai iiiaieeaoo?e iineoa; 2) oi?ioaaiiy oe?i ia i?iaeoeoe;
3) eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ?eieo; 4) i?inoaaiiy oiaa??a ? iineoa.
Iaoiiaeaii, ui ia?eaoeia ? iaei??th ?c iii?ieo oi/ie a nenoai?
oi?aae?iiy ye?noth i?iaeoeoe??, a caaaeaiiy yeiai aoiaeeoue ioiieaiiy
an?o noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?iaeoeoe?? ? aieea ia caaacia/aiiy
yeino?, oi?aae?iiy ye?noth oa iino?eia iie?auaiiy yeino?.

?icaeyiooi iciaee, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iaai? iniaeeaino? ?eieo
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a. Oea, ianaiia?aae, naciii?noue ae?iaieoeoaa,
aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy ae?iaiee?a, aeaiia?ao?/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa
ineoia?ao?/i? iciaee, noni?eueia a?aeiioaiiy aei oiaa?o.
A?aei?/a?oueny, ui a?aieoe? i?ae ieie iathoue oiiaiee oa?aeoa? ? ?o
aeae?eaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo.

Aeey o/aniee?a ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a noi?ioeueiaai? oae? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

1) ni?eyiiy oe?ei??/iiio caaacia/aiith ianaeaiiy ye?nieie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa i?iaeiaieue/eie oiaa?aie;

2) noeioethaaiiy ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeoeoe??;

3) iaaeaiiy an?i iinoa/aeueieeai i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeeeaino? aeinooio ia
eiieo?aioiee ?eiie;

4) i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaooeiaino? ae?yeueiino? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, a oaeiae oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? oa
oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ia?eaoeiaiaee aiae?c ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a”
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c no/aniiai noaio oi?aiai-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo, ia?a?iaieo oa oi?aiaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoa.
?eiie i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye eiiieaeniee iaoai?ci,
ui ia’?aeio? ?eiie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ?eiie
i?iaeoeoe?? ia?a?iaiiai eiiieaeno AIE ? oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? oa ?eiie
i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoe?? (iioiao oa ?icae??aio oi?a?aeth
i?iaeiaieue/ith i?iaeoeoe??th) (?en. 1).

?eiie i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianaiia?aae oiaa?iith
i?iaeoeoe??th,

yea aecia/a?oueny ianyaaie aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa o ?aa?ii?, ?ici??ii
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai

n?euen

?en. 1. Noaia naaiaioaoe?? ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a

iai?io oa iinoa/aiiyi o??? /e ?ioi? i?iaeoeoe?? ii ?iii?oo, aenii?oiei
iioaioe?aeii aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno oa ia?a?iaii? aaeoc?. Oiaa?ia
i?iaeoeoe?y ia ?eieo i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a ciaoiaeeoueny a caeaaeiino?
a?ae noaio ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy, yeee a naith /a?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae ciai?oi?o oa
aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a.

90-o? ?iee oa?eoee a ?noi??th iaoi? e?a?ie ye ia??iae ??ceeo iie?oe/ieo
? aeiiii?/ieo ci?i. Iaeiae, ia ana, ui c?iaeaii ca aeaiee /an, aoei aei
e?ioey nieaiiaaiei ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiei. ?aoi?ie, ui iaee caaacia/eoe
aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui ie ia?ii — caaaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii?, nioe?aeueii? oa iie?oe/ii? e?ece, yea aei oiai ae iineeaia
aeac?ioaa?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo Nithco. Naia oiio
aeieea? iaaaeueia iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? iiaiai aeey iaoi? e?a?ie iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy, yeee iiaeiai aacoaaoenue ia eiioeaioe?? ia?eaoeiao. Oeueiio
ia?aaeo? anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aiae?oe/iiai ia??iaeo oa eii’thieoo?e
?eieo, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue a?eueo iiaii aecia/eoe ? ci?iaiicoaaoe
noai oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo i?iaeiaieue/iai ?eieo, ?ic?iaeoe oaeoeeo ?
no?aoaa?th ae?yeueiino? eiai noa’?eo?a.

?eiie i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoe?? ooieoe?iio? a iaaiiio aeiiii?/iiio
na?aaeiaeu? ? aca?iiiia’ycaiee c ?ioeie ?eieaie. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi
oeueiai ? oa, ui e?eca ia caeeoeea ? eiai a noi?ii?. A?aei?/a?oueny
iaae?iiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ii an?i eaoaai??yi oiaa??a o ii??aiyii? c
iiia?aaei?ie ?ieaie, ui a naith /a?ao i?ecaaei aei neeaaeiiai
o?iainiaiai noaio. Caaaeueiee ianya ae?iaieoeoaa aaeiai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a 1997 ?. a ii??aiyii? c ia??iaeii
1986-1990 ??. ciaioeany ia 41,3 %. Cieaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeaia
nei?i/aiiyi iin?aieo ieiu, o?iaeaeiino?, c?inoaiiyi aeo?ao ia iaeeieoeth
i?iaeoeoe??, iineeaiiyi aeenia?eoaoo oe?i ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo,
i?iaeiaieue/o oa i?iieneiao i?iaeoeoe?th. A ?acoeueoao? nia?aa?o?noue
ca?ia a 1996 ?. i?ioe 1995 ?. c?inea c 4,16 aei 10,47 a?i./oe, oeoe?iaeo
ao?ye?a — c 3,10 aei 6,22, iieiea — c 16,09 aei 29,78, i?e?inoo aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae — c 158,01 aei 257,96 a?i./oe. Oaea c?inoaiiy aeo?ao ia
iaeeieoeth i?iaeoeoe?? i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa noaee ia?aioaaaeueieie ? caeoeiaeie. Oea, a naith
/a?ao, ia aea? iiaeeeaino? caaacia/eoe iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue a?aeoai?aiiy.
Nei?i/o?oueny aaaaeaiiy a ae?th ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae oa cieaeo?oueny
??aaiue iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno,
yeee, a ii??aiyii? c i?ia?aeieie ?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie, ii o?aeoi?ao ?
eiiaaeiao o 3-15 ?ac?a ieae/ee ? i?iaeiaaeo? iia??ooaaoenue.

Ia a e?auiio noaiiaeu? ciaoiaeeoueny ia?a?iaia aaeocue AIE oa oa?/iaa
i?iieneia?noue, ye? i?yii caeaaeaoue a?ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. Ae?iaieoeoai iniiaieo aeae?a i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a a
1997 ?. cia/ii nei?ioeeiny i?ioe 1990 ?.: oe?aa oa oe?aiaoei/ieo ae?ia?a
ia 32,5 %, i’yna oa i’ynii?iaeoeo?a ia 36,4 %, oeoe?o ia 27,8 %. Ianyae
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeoeoe?? cieceeenue aei ??aiy 50-60 ?ie?a
(oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Niaae ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy a Oe?a?i?

Aeaee i?iaeoeoe??50-? — 60-? ?iee1997 ??eI’yni ? noai?iaeoeoe4790
oen.oiii (1955 ?.)3034 oen.oiii Eiaaani? ae?iae193 oen.oiii (1957
?.)122 oen.oiiiIanei oaa?eiia159 oen.oiii (1957 ?.)95 oen.oiiiEiina?ae
i’yni?, ?eai? ? iai/aa?298 oen.oiii (1950 ?.)287 oen.oiiiNe?e61
oen.oiii (1967 ?.)36 oen.oiiiOeoei?4 iei.oiii (1958 ?.)1,8
iei.oiiiAi?ioii4 iei.oiii (1950 ?.)3,5 iei.oiiiOe?a ? oe?aiaoei/i?
ae?iae3 iei.oiii (1953 ?.)2,1 iei.oiiiEiiaeeoa?nuee? ae?iae312
oen.oiii (1956 ?.)275 oen.oiiiIaea?iii? ae?iae164 oen.oiii (1954
?.)111 oen.oiiiIe?y693 oen.oiii (1962 ?.)400 oen.oiiiIa?aa?eiiaa
i?iaeoeoe?y92 oen.oiii (1961 ?.)84 oen.oiiiAi??eea oa
e?ea?i-ai??e/ai? ae?iae22 iei.aeae (1963 ?.)22 iei.aeaeAeii8
iei.aeae (1952 ?.)5 iei.aeaeOaiiainueea7 iei.aeae (1955
?.)5 iei.aeaeIeai61 iei.aeae (1963 ?.)60 iei.aeaeAacaeeiaieuei?
iaii?32 iei.aeae (1959 ?.)12,5 iei.aeae A?aei?/athoueny aeineoue
?noioi? ci?ie ? a aeai?? eaiae?a caooo oiaa?o, niinoa??aa?oueny ??cea
nei?i/aiiy /anoee aea?aeaaiiai caiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie iiaeo eaiae?a
?aae?caoe??: ?eiie, i?eaaoi? iaaaceie, ea?ee, aa?oa?iee iai?i, a??ae?.
Oiio aea?? eaiae?a ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ui ? neeaaeiaei aeaiaioii
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aoaeue-yeiai noa’?eoo ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
a aeaiee /an iinoa? aeineoue aeooaeueii.

Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiao? noai oe?iiai? neooaoe??, ui neeaeany.
A?aeiia?aeii aei ?eieiaeo caeii?a ?aae?caoe?y i?iaeoeoe?? ciaoiaeeoueny
a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae oe?iiai? iie?oeee, yea oi?io?oueny i?ae
aieeaii ?yaeo oaeoi??a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
na?ae/aoue, ui iae/ano?oa oe?ie anoaiiaeththoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
cao?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai iethn cao?aoe ia ?aae?caoe?th. I?aei?e?inoaa
ciooai? aeio?eioaaoenue i?eioeeio aeaeeaaiiy ia ?eieo.

Aeineoue aeooaeueiith ? i?iaeaia c?inoaiiy aeenia?eoaoo oe?i ia ?eieo
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a i?ae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeith ? i?iaeiaieue/ith
i?iaeoeoe??th. Cie?aia, a 1991 ?. oe?ia 1 ea ca?ia ioaieoe?, a
ia?a?aooieo ia a?eaith, noaiiaeea 20 eii., ai?ioia ioaie/iiai 38 eii.,
oe?aa ioaie/iiai 31 eii., oiaoi ??cieoey i?ae oe?iaie ia aeai? oiaa?e ia
ia?aaeuoaaea 1,5 — 2 ?ace. A iiaeaeueoiio, aei 1996 ?., a?aei?/a?oueny
c?inoaiiy ?ic?eao i?ae oe?iaie ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo oa
i?iaeiaieue/o i?iaeoeoe?th, ? a aeaiee /an ??cieoey a oe?iao ia
a?aeiia?aei? oiaa?e noaiiaeoue a?eueoa 4 ?ac (?en.2).

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