Управління економічним ризиком при розробці і реалізації проектів: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / С.І. Співак, Східноукр. держ. ун-т. — Луганськ,

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NO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

`

OAeE 330.105

NI?AAE NIO?ss ?AAI?AIA

OI?AAE?IIss AEIIII?*IEI ?ECEEII

I?E ?IC?IAOe? ? ?AAE?CAOe?? I?IAEO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 – I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio

oa ia?eaoeia

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Eoaainuee — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Eoaainueeiio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ?inoeooo?
I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie (i. Eoaainuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aocueei ??eia ?iiai?aia,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ea eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?eiueiaa Aaeaioeia Ieeiea?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ea eaoaae?e a?ciano oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

(i. Oa?e?a);

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

?aaiia Aaneeue Eaii?aeiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo (i. Eoaainuee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie
(i. Aeiiaoeuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 29.051.01 o
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 348034 i.
Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoa ca aae?anith: 348034 i. Eoaainuee, ea.
Iieiae?aeiee, 20a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A. A. Eica/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?ao?ae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, a?aeiiaa a?ae ieaiiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oi?i oa
iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa, a?aenooi?noue aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca
an?ia noi?iiaie ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa oa
iaaeaiiy ?i ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy, ye? ?ai?oa aeeiioaaeenue i?i?noa?noaaie
oa a?aeiinoaaie, iio?aao? iiooeo iiaeo i?aeoiae?a oa i?eeii?a aei
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth no/anieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a oi?aae?iiy ? ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoa ? ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? ?o no?aoaa?/iiai
?icaeoeo. No?aoaa?/ia eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yeiai i?aei?e?inoaa
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? nenoaie i?iaeo?a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny ? a
iiaeaeueoiio ?aae?cothoueny. I?iaeoe iiaeooue iaoe ??cia oe?eueiaa
i?ecia/aiiy, ianooaae, oeie, oi?ie ? oa?i?i aeeiiaiiy. I?iaeooaaiiy, ye
aeaiaio nenoaie no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth
i?aei?e?inoaa, oaeei /eiii, aenooia? nenoaiii-eiiieaeniith
iaoiaeieia??th ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? noenei- ? aeiaaino?ieiaeo
oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai, iiooeo oeyo?a ? iaoiae?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?o
?aae?caoe?? a oiiaao ?ano?nii? iaiaaeaiino? oa iaaecia/aiino? ?eieo.

?ic?iaea i?iaeo?a, ui ?acaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean, iio?aao? iaaii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy. Neeaaei?noue ? ianoaa?euei?noue ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua, ??ciiiai?oi?noue oe?eae ? caaaeaiue, ui noiyoue ia?aae
no/anieie i?aei?e?inoaaie, aieea ia i?ioean i?eeiyooy ??oaiue aaeeei?
e?eueeino? /eiiee?a, iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe i?iaeoo ?iaeyoue aeooaeueiei ?ic?iaeo
eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoii, nooue yeiai caiaeeoueny aei
ea??aieoeoaa ? eii?aeeiaoe?? ?ano?n?a c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? iniiaiiai
caaeoio i?iaeoo ia iniia? no/anieo iaoiae?a ? oaoi?ee oi?aae?iiy, a
oaeiae oe?iei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?aeo?eiee oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

Eiioeaioe?y ?ic?iaee ? oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth iiaeiia
iineoe oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa?, aiia iiaeiia ni?eyoe ae??oaiith
aeinoaoiuei oe?ieiai eiea caaaeaiue i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo — a?ae
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe i?iaeoo aei ?aae?caoe?? caoiae?a ii eiio?ieth ca ?o
aeinyaiaiiyi, a oaeiae aooe i?eeiyoiith aeey ??cieo iaeanoae
ae?yeueiino?, aea eiie?aoia ??oaiiy iiaea aooe ioe?iaii aeiiii?/ii.

I?iaeoiee iaiaaeaeiaio cae?enith?oueny a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino?
neooaoe??, yea c?inoa?, ? i?ieeaino? aeiiii?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. O ca’yceo
c oeei aeieea? iayni?noue ? iaaiaaiai?noue a io?eiaii? i/?eoaaiiai
e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo i?iaeoo, a, ioaea, c?inoa? ?ecee, oiaoi caa?ica
iaaaea/? ? iaia?aaeaa/aieo aeo?ao ia ?aae?caoe?th i?iaeoa. Oea, cie?aia,
aieeaa? ia aeiaaino?ieia? i?iaeoe, ye? caciathoue aieeao ?ioeyoe??,
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aaethoieo eo?n?a, iiieoo oa ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e. Oi?iiy
a?aooaaoe ?ecee i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue a i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio?,
caaaa/eoe iiaeeea? iane?aeee a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e ? ?ic?iaeoe
caoiaee uiaei onoiaiiy ?eceeo aenooiathoue iaoeith ? ienoaoeoaii
no/aniiai oi?aae?iiy.

A?aooaaiiy oaeoi?o ?eceeo i?e i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue,
i?aai?caoe?ei? oa oi?aae?inuee? aniaeoe i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaea ieoaiue aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeo?a ?
iaoiae?a ?oiuei? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? aoee aeine?aeaeai? a ?iaioao
a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo.

Ia aeaeue, o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? ? i?aeoeoe? ainiiaea?thaaiiy
a?aenooi? caaaeueiiaeciai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i aeiiii?/iee ?ecee,
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ioe?iee ?eceeo uiaei eiie?aoieo
ae?iaie/eo neooaoe?e ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, a?aenooi? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iaoiae?a a?aooaaiiy ?eceeo a i?iaeoiiio
iaiaaeaeiaio?, ii ?ic?iaoe? caoiae?a cieaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e, a?aenooi? a?aeiia?aeia ?ioi?iaoe?eia
caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a oiiaao
?eceeo.

Neeaaei?noue aeuacacia/aieo ieoaiue oa iaaeinoaoi? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia ?o
aena?oeaiiy, iniaeeai o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??,
iaiao?aei?noue eiioeaio?aoe?? oaaae ia iaoiaeao ioe?iee ainiiaea?nueeiai
?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei?
iaa?oioiaaiino? oa caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??, aecia/aiiy
i?aeoiae?a ? i?eeii?a aei ioe?iee ??cieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a c
o?aooaaiiyi iaieio/i? iaaecia/aiino? ? ?eceeo, a?eueo ?aoaeueia ?ic?iaea
ieoaiue aoaeoeaiiai ?ano?niiai caaacia/aiiy i?iaeo?a, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea
iaoiaee/ii? aace oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoaie aecia/eee aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ca’ycaia
c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ic?iaie No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a ?aieao oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo canaae
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa”, Eii?aeeiaoe?eiei
ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o o aaeoc? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/eo nenoai
I?aeia?iaeii? Aeaaeai?? iaoee ? i?aeoeee i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i?
? i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a
ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ii? ? o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa c
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue oa
?aae?cothoue ??ciiiai?oi? i?iaeoe a ??cieo aaeocyo.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
?ic?iaee oa aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi iaaecia/aiino?
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo ? iiaeeeaino? iaiaaeaiiy
iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae ?oiueiai i?iyao. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
iinoaaeaii? iaoe iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

aiae?c ?nioth/eo oai??e ? no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
i?eioeei?a ? i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeith i?iaeo?a a oiiaao
ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee eiioeaioe??
i?iaeooaaiiy, ioe?iee oa iiaeeeainoae aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? ??cieo
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ? ia’?eo?a ca iayai?noth aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo;

aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo
i?iaeo?a a ??cieo oei/aniaeo aniaeoao;

aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae?a ? iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeith ?
?aae?caoe??th ??cieo ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ieo ? o?iainiaeo i?iaeo?a;

oi?ioaaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai noaio
i?aei?e?inoa c iaoith iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
aa??aio?a i?iaeoo;

?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iaa?oiooaaiiy
aoaeoeaieo i?iaeoieo ??oaiue oa ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
iaaecia/aiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua ? ?eceeo;

ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a i?aeoeeo ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaea?aea ?ioi?iaoe??.
Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
oai??? oi?aae?iiy, oai??? nenoai ? nenoaiiiai aiae?co, i?eioeeie ?
i?aeoiaee aei noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, oai??y ?iia??iinoae,
oai??y i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, iaoiaee/iee aia?ao noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaea
aeaieo, aa?enoe/i? iaoiaee ioe?iee ia?aiao??a ? iiooeo aa??aio?a
i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, a oaeiae iaoiaeieia?y ? caaaeueiinenoaii? i?eioeeie
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i?
?ic?iaee o/aieo (oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo, aia?eeainueeeo,
o?aioeocnueeeo), noaoenoe/i? aeai? a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oaeiio:

?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee iaaecia/aii-noioanoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, ye? a?aoiaothoue niaoeeo?/iee
iaaecia/aiee oa?aeoa? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

eeaneo?eiaaii ? ioe?iaii /eiieee ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aeyaeythoue iaea?eueo ?noioiee aieea ia i?ioean
ae?iaeaiiy ? i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a i?iaeoiiio
iaiaaeaeiaio?;

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee a?aooaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo oa iaoai?cie
cieaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e i?e
?aae?caoe?? ??cieo o?iainiaeo ? aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeo?a;

noai?aii nenoaio aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ioe?iee ? aeai?o
aoaeoeaieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a, yea ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? iaa?oioiaaiino? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a i?iaeoiiio
iaiaaeaeiaio?;

iaa?oioiaaii i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee i?eaaaeeaino? ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?iaeo?a, ui aacothoueny ia o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio aiae?c? ia’?eoa
?iaanooaaiiy, ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi /eiieea ?eceeo;

cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ic?iaee ? aoaeoeaii?
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a ia ??cieo aoaiao aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo c o?aooaaiiyi
iaaecia/aiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a a ??cieo
aaeocyo ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa, ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaeno
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia i?iaeoi?
??oaiiy ??cieo /eiiee?a, cie?aia /eiieea ?eceeo, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee
?ic?iaee, ?aae?caoe?? ? ioe?iee aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a ia ??cieo aoaiao ?o
aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo, ?ic?iaoe? iieaciee?a ? iaoiae?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?
aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a, cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeao a?aooaaiiy
?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue o i?aeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio? ?
eiai iaiaaeaiiy i?e ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oa aeei?enoaii?
iaoiae?a a?aooaaiiy ?eceeo ? iaiaaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae
ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? ??cieo i?iaeo?a;
noai?aii? oai?aoe/ieo iniia oaeineiiaeaiiy ia ?o iniia? iaoiaee/ieo
iieiaeaiue uiaei oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeith ? ?aae?caoe??th
i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua,
iaiaaeaiiy aieeao ia i?iaeoi? ??oaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae
?eceeiaeo neooaoe?e.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?:

i?aeaeueoe iaa?oioiaai?noue oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ia i?aenoaa?
a?aooaaiiy oaeoi??a iaaecia/aiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

aaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth
i?aei?e?inoaa ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa;

canoinoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? ??ci? iaoiaee iaiaaeaiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a a?ae ?eceeiaeo iiae?e, ui aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe a?eueo
iaa?oioiaaio ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aa??aio?a i?iaeoieo ??oaiue c
o?aooaaiiyi /eiieea ?eceeo;

cae?enithaaoe aaoiiaoeciaai? ?ic?aooieiai-aiae?oe/i? ?iaioe uiaei
iaa?oiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio? ca
?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo oa AII.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy o oi?i? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoiith ae?yeuei?noth a oiiaao ?eceeo ai?iaaaeaeaii
ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao i. Eoaainueea oa iaeano?. I?e ?ic?iaoe?
caoiae?a ii aeoiaeo Eene/ainueeiai caaiaeo aoiioaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a ?c
neeaaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai noaio aoee ?aae?ciaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaiaaeaiiai ianyao o?iainiaeo eioo?a
ia ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue iiaea?i?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
iiaeeeaeo iiaeeo?eaoe?e ??aiy oe?i. Iaoiaeeeo ?ic?iaee ia?niaeoeaieo
o?iainiaeo i?iaeo?a aeei?enoaii i?e oi?ioaaii? aeiaaino?ieiai?
o?iainiai? no?aoaa?? a CAO “Eoaainueeee o?oaiee caaiae”. Ia
Eoooa?inueeiio caaiae? i?ieaoieo aaee?a cai?iiiiiaaio iaoiaeeeo
aeei?enoaii aeey ?ic?iaee i?iaeoa ?aeiino?oeoe?? aieiaieo oeao?a
i?aei?e?inoaa. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa a no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao ?aae?ciaaii a I?ia?ai?
?icaeoeo Eoaainueeiai ?aa?iio, aeeth/aii aei iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
c ieoaiue ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? o?iainiaeo no?aoaa?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao
Aeiiaano.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe ? ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaee/i?
?ic?iaee, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy c eiiieaeno
?icaeyaeoaaieo i?iaeai aoei noaaeaiii ia II I?aeaoc?anuee?e
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, yeo i?enay/aii 75-??//th Eoaainueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo (i. Eoaainuee, 1996 ?), ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a/aieo Iineianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai ?inoeoooo ? Eoaainueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo (i. Iineaa, 1997 ?.), ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? a/aieo Iineianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Iineianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai ?inoeoooo oa Eoaainueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo (i. Iineaa, 1998 ?.).

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaeaii a 7 ioae?eaoe?yo
caaaeueiei ianyaii 12,3 ae.a, c yeeo aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 3,15 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 175 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 12 oaaeeoeue, 15 ?enoie?a ia 15
noi??ieao. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 150 iaeiaioaaiue iaaaaeaii ia
11noi??ieao ? 7 aeiaeaoe?a ia 11 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiue
caoeuathoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1. Oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeith ? ?aae?caoe??th i?iaeo?a a oiiaao
ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?nioth/iai aoaio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,
iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa a neeaaeieo oa iaia?aaeaa/aieo
oiiaao ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua a ?iaio? aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue
canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ic?iaee ?
?aae?caoe?? neeaaeieo i?iaeo?a, a?aooaaiiy aieeao ia ?oi? aeiiii?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo ?eieiaeo /eiiee?a. Iaeiei c iniiaieo /eiiee?a,
ui aieeaathoue ia i?eeiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, ? aeiiii?/iee ?ecee,
e?euee?nia ioe?iea yeiai aecia/aia ye aaee/eia iiae?? (aa?o?noue aeo?ao
a?ae ?? ianooio), iiiiiaeaia ia i??o iiaeeeaino? ?? ianooio
(?iia??i?noue ianooio).

O ?iaio? ?ice?eoi iiiyooy “?eceeiaa i?aei?e?iieoeoai” ye oi?ia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui ni?eyoeeaa a?eueo iiaiiio ?icai?oaiith
ae?iaie/i-aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo o/aniee?a ?aae?caoe?? ?iiaaoe?eiiai
i?iaeoo. Ia iniia? aiae?co no/aniiai aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua ?icaeyiooi
niaoeeo?eo ??cieo oi?i ?eceeiaiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, oaeeo ye iacaeaaei?
iae? ?iiaaoe?ei? o??ie ? o?iainia? onoaiiae, aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino?
?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, yea
i?eoaiaiia aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie.

C iaoith eiie?aoecaoe?? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ic?iaeo
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ? iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeo?a, a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii
eeaneo?eaoe?eio noaio ?ecee?a, ye? ? iaea?eueo cia/oueie aeey oiia
a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo (?en. 1). Oaea noaia ? iniiaith aiae?co ao?aeii?
iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa c iaoith aeyaeaiiy neeueieo ? neaaeeo noi??i eiai
ae?yeueiino? ? oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeo?a no?aoaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th ?ic?iaee ? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeo?a, yea aaco?ony ia canaaeao i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo. I?ae
i?iaeoii a ?iaio? ?icoi??oueny nenoaia oe?eae, ui ni?yiiaai? ia
noai?aiiy aai iiaea?i?caoe?th o?ce/ieo ia’?eo?a, oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a, oaoi?/ii? ? i?aai?caoe?eii? aeieoiaioaoe?? aeey ieo,
caeo/aiiy oa aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??aeueieo, o?iainiaeo, o?oaeiaeo
oa ?ioeo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ? caoiae?a ii ?o
aeeiiaiith. O ?acoeueoao? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaaaeaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ooi/ith?oueny iiiyooy “oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoaie” ye iaa?? ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo
ia aoaeoeaio ?aae?caoe?th i?iaeoa.

Aeiiii?/iee ?ecee

Ae?iaie/ee?iaanoeoe?eieeAaie?anueeeeNioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieeAeieia?/iee?io
?

aeaeeAeiaia??iee; oiaa?iee;

Iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiieoo;

eii’thieoo?-iee;

?ioeyoe?eiee;

aaeocaaeeoe?iiaee;

e?ea?aeiino?;

?ioeyoe?eiee;

aaeocaaee;

?aa?iiaeueieei?ioeaioiee;

e?aaeeoiee;

aaethoiee;

e?ea?aeiino?;

aeoe?iia?iee;

o?iainoaaiiy;

?aiooaoe??ci?ia iie?oe/-iiai eo?no, caeiiiaeaanoaa;

iiaeeo?eaoe?y eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino?; no?aeeeaeieia?/i? eaoano?ioe;
noeo?ei? eeoa;

oaoiiaaii? aaa???Iaaeinoaoie aai aee?ea-eaiiy

?ioi?iaoe??; oi?n-iaaei??en. 1. Eeaneo?eaoe?eia noaia aeiiii?/iiai
?eceeo

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa Eoaainueei? iaeano? i?e
?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a aeiaiaeeoue, ui ??aaiue
?ic?iaee aa??aio?a i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ae?ae iaaeinoaoi?e: i?aeoe/ii ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee ioe?iee aieeao aeiaaeeiaeo /eiiee?a ia
??oaiiy, ia aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiaeieia?y eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo a i?iaeooaaii? ? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue ?ic?aooie?a, iaaeinoaoiy
oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiiyi ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a ? eiio?ieth ca ?o
aeeiiaiiyi. Oae, iaae?iiy eo?no a?eai?, ui eiai ia aoei a?aoiaaii i?e
?ic?aooieo oe?i ia ?iii?oia iaeaaeiaiiy, iaei iane?aeeii 20%
iiaei?iae/aiiy iaeaaeiaiiy. ?aae?caoe?y ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo
ae?iaieoeoaa eiiaa??ieo no??/ie ?c oeaiaaeie na?aea/ieeaie Eene/ainueeei
caaiaeii aoiioaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a (oeao ? 6), yeee ioe?ith?oueny ia?a?nii a
11.4 iei. aeiee. NOA ? ?ic?aoiaaiee ia 5 ?ie?a, ia i?ecaaea aei aeoiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaa ia i?iaeoio iiooaei?noue, cieceaoe i?e oeueiio eiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee — ca?eueoaiiy i?inoi?a ia 17-30%,
cieaeaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ia 42%, c?inoaiiy e?aaeeoi?nueei?
caai?aiaaiino?. ?aae?caoe?y ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo ?ai?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ia CAO “Eoaainueeee o?oaiee caaiae” ?c-ca ia?a?nii?
i???ioaoe?? i?iaeaaeo iniiaii? i?iaeoeoe?? (aacoiaieo o?oa) ia na?aaei?e
??aaiue oe?i ?eieo oa iaa?aooaaiiy ?aaeueii? eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino?
iniiaieo niiaeeaa/?a i?ecaaea aei oaeoe/iiai cieaeaiiy ?aioaaaeueiino?
i?iaeoo aei ??aiy 1-2% ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai, aei cai?oaiiy ?ia?o ii
eiai ?aae?caoe??.

A?aoiaoth/e neeaaeiee ? aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia
noai?aiiy i?iaeo?a, a ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii a i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio?. I?ae oi?aae?iiyi
aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii ?icoi??oueny ni?iiiaei?noue c iaeiaioeie aeo?aoaie
ia?aaeaa/aoe iio?aao a ??cieo ?ano?nao, ui iaiao?aei? ? aeinoaoi? aeey
ciaioaiiy ?iia??iino? iiyae iani?eyoeeaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? cieaeaiiy
iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny. C iaoith ?ic?iaee
iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii o aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii ii?yaeie
?icaeyaeo /eiiee?a, ye? iia’ycai? ?c iayai?noth ?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?iaeo?a (a?aooaaiiy, ioe?iea, ??oaiiy), iaoiaee ioe?iee ?iia??iino?
ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e ? iiaeeea? caeoee, ui iia’ycai? ?c ieie,
?ic?iaeaii aoaie i?ioeaaeo?e i?eeiyooy ??oaiue a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino?
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

?icae?e 2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ? iaoai?ci?a ?ic?iaee oa
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi /eiieea ?eceeo.

Eiaeai i?iaeo, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny ? ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny, cacia? aieeao
??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. sse iaoiaee/io aaco
i?iaeoiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaaecia/aii-noioanoe/iee i?aeo?ae, ui i?eionea? caaaeaiiy ?
iiaeaethaaiiy ae/a?iii? noeoiiino? ??cieo /eneiaeo aaee/ei, ye? iiaeooue
aooe oyaeai? ianooiieie neooaoe?yie: ii?ioi?iiaaiino? — cia/ou?
aaee/eie iaeiicia/ii aecia/ai? ? iaci?ii? a /an?; aeiaaeeiaino? —
iaa?aeiia aaee/eia, caaeaia caeiiii ?iciiae?eo; iaaecia/aiino? cia/aiiy
— a?aeiiee o?eueee ae?aiacii iiaeeo?eaoe?? aaee/eie aai o?eueee ??
iaeiaioaaiiy; ia?ioi?iiaaiino? (nooi?iue ?eceeo) — a?aenooi?noue
a??ia?aeieo a?aeiiinoae i?i cia/ouo aaee/eio ? aeei?enoaiiy aeey ??
ioe?iee aenia?oiiai i?aeoiaeo.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaaecia/aii-noioanoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aeey aiae?co
aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeo?a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny, iia’ycaia c aecia/aiiyi
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue uiaei iiaeaethaaiiy neooaoe?e iaaecia/aiino?.
Eiiieaen caoiae?a aiae?co iaaecia/aiinoae, ui iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2,
neeaaea?oueny c iaai?o aeaieo, i?eeii?a ?o ia?iaee, aaaaoianiaeoiiai
aiae?co, aenia?oii? ioe?iee, a?aooaaiiy oa onoiaiiy iaaecia/aiino?. O
?iaio? ?ice?eoi iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiiieaenii? nenoaie caoiae?a aiae?co
iaaecia/aiino?.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaaecia/aii-noioanoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo a aiae?c? ?eceeo oa
eiai aieeao ia i?iaeoi? ??oaiiy aeicaieeei eeaneo?eoaaoe ??ci? aeaee
?ecee?a ? aecia/eoe iniiai? iaoai?cie oi?aae?iiy ieie. Eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeae?a aeiiii?/ieo ?ecee?a iaaaaeaia a oaae. 1.

O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii ? iaaaaeaii iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiyi
?eceeii a i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio?. Eiai eiiiiiaioaie ? eaae?iaa
neeaaeiaa – e?euee?ni? oa eaae?o?eaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee o/aniee?a
i?ioean?a i?iaeooaaiiy; iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia neeaaeiaa —
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca i?aei?e?inoa, ye? cae?eniththoue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/io ae?yeuei?noue; ?ioi?iaoe?eia neeaaeiaa — a?aeaeaa?
??aaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? iieacieee nenoai ? cania?a
cai?o, ia?iaee, aiae?co ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny c oe??th iaoith; i?aai?caoe?eia neeaaeiaa — neeaae,
no?oeoo?a, aca?iica’ycie ? ye?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? aeiiii?/ieo ?
?iaeaia?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a, aeine?aeieo oeao?a ? ae?eyiie ae?iaie/eo
i?aei?e?inoa.

C iaoith no?oeoo?ecaoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo ae?e a i?ioean? aiae?co ?
ioe?iee aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo o i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio? i?ioean
oi?aae?iiy ?eceeaie iiae?eaiee ia aeae?eueea oac:

1. Oaca aiae?co ?eceeo i?eionea? eiai ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ? ioe?ieo.
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ?eceeo iieyaa? a cae?eniaii? eiai iieno: c iaeiiai aieo,
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee i?e aeieeiaii? i?e?iaeieo yaeu, c ?ioiai
aieo, ?eceee, iia’ycai? c ?iiaaoe?eiith, ae?iaie/ith, eiia?oe?eiith oa
?ioeie aeaeaie ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa.

IAAECIA*AI?NOUeCIA*AIUeIA?AIAO??AEIIIEAEN CAOIAe?ACa??
aeo?aeieoIaoiaee/iee iae?eOnoiaiiyaeaieoNi?yiiaaia

ia?iaeaOe?eeii caCa

ea?oth/eieCa

nenoaiithCa iac?eoaieaeaieoi?iaeoiicaoiaeaienenoaieNi?yiiaaiee

aenia?eiaioNooi?iue

?ioi?ii-Ca iieacieeaieAeoaethaaiiy?ioi?ii-aai?noueaaiino?Ni?yiiaaia

aenia?oecaCa iac?eoaieEiiiainaoe?yIaiaaeaiiyCa
nenoaiithIioei?caoe?yae?eaca?iiae?e

?en. 2. Eiiieaen caoiae?a ii aiae?co iaaecia/aiino?

2 Oaca ia?iaee ?eceeo iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iie?oeee
iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? nenoaie aaciaee i?aei?e?inoaa ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?eceeo. Ioe?iea ?eceeo a i?ioean? eiai aiae?co aeicaiey? ia noaae??
ia?iaee aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ?eceee ca nooiaiai ?oiueiai aieeao ia
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ? aeae? ae?iaeoe iaa??
aaeaeaaoieo caoiae?a ii caoenoo a?ae iueiai.

3. Oaca ea??aieoeoaa ?eceeii ? aacith aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeai?o
o?iainoaaiiy. I?aei?e?inoai iiaea caa?aaoe ?ecee a nai?o aeo?aoao
(/anoeiai /e iiai?noth) aai ia?aaeaoe ?ecee noi?iii?i aaaioai. ?iciiae?e
noa? ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia’?eo?a
?eceeo, ?noioii ??cia a?aeiioaiiy aei ?eceeo noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? aeeeeeathoue iaiao?aei?noue iai?io aai ia?aaea/? ?eceeo.
?ecee, yeee ia iiaea aooe ia?aaeaiee ?ioei noa’?eoai (i?ae?yae/eeai,
no?aoiaei eiiiai?yi, aaieai /e ie?aiei ee??ioai), iiaeiai aooe onoiaiee
aai caeiina?aiaaiee ia i?aei?e?inoa?. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeey
eiiiainaoe?? iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae aeieeiaiiy ?eceeo
?ic?iaey?oueny ? ?aae?co?oueny ?yae eiie?aoieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a (aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y, oaaeaeoaaiiy,
aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? o.?i.). Eiaeiiio c oeeo caoiae?a
ea??aieoeoaii i?iaeoo aea?oueny ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ? ?aae?co?iino?.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a aeiiii?/ieo ?ecee?a

Aeae ?eceeoIoe?iea ?eceeoCaaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?eceeiiIaoiaee caoenoo
a?ae ?eceeo?iaanoeoe?eieeI?iaiici? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo aaeocae, ?eie?a,
??aiy ?ioeyoe??Aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiino? ii?ooaey oe?iieo
iaia??aAeeaa?neo?eaoe?y aeeaaeaiue ca aeaeaie oe?iieo iaia??a, aaeocaaa
? ?aa?iiaeueia aeeaa?neo?eaoe?yO?iainiaeeIoe?iea eieeaaiue i?ioeaioieo
noaaieCieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia aeieaoo a?aenioe?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaooe?a
a?ae aeeaaeaiueNo?oeoo?ia oaaeaeoaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a
o?iainiaiai ?eieoE?aaeeoieeIoe?iea ieaoini?iiiaeiino? iice/aeueieea ia
iniia? nenoaie o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a?ic?iaea aoaeoeaii?
e?aaeeoii? no?aoaa??, iiia?aaeaeaiiy aaie?oonoaa iioaioe?eiiai
iice/aeueieeaNo?aoia? ?aca?ai? oiiaee, ?ano?nia caaacia/aiiy,
aeeneiiooaaiiyAaethoieeIoe?iea iie?oe/iiai ? aeiiii?/iiai ee?iaoo a
e?a?i?, ieaoini?iiiaei?noue eiio?aaaioaNei?i/aiiy aeo?ao a?ae
eiia?oe?eieo iia?aoe?e ?c-ca iiaeeo?eaoe?? eo?no aaethoNo?aooaaiiy,
aaie?anuee? aa?aio??, canoa?aaeaiiy, iioe?iie, oi?aa?aei? eiio?aeoe,
“naii”-iia?aoe??, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y aaethoieo
aeeaaeaiueIina?aaei?eIoe?iea ?iia??iino? ianooio oi?n-iaaei?ieo
ianoaaeiNei?i/aiiy ?iia??ieo i?yieo aeo?ao ? caeoe?a, iaaeiio?eiaiiai
i?eaooeoNiaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee no?aooaaiiy ? iaoai?cie iiia?aaeaeaiiy
?eceeo

4. Oaca eiio?ieth ?eceeo iaiao?aeia aeey caaacia/aiiy ocaiaeaeaiiy
oaeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a c i/?eoaaieie i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiiy. Eiio?ieue
?eceeo ? aeaiaioii cai?ioiiai ca’yceo a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei
?eceeii ia i?aei?e?inoa?.

Aeuacacia/aiei oacai a ?iaio? aeaia aeaoaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?o ?aae?caoe?? a eiie?aoieo oiiaao.

Oaeei /eiii, no?oeoo?ecaoe?y oi?aae?inueeeo ae?e ? aeiiae, ui aei ieo
iiaeathoueny, i?eioneathoue oi?ioaaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy
?eceeii a nenoai? i?aei?e?inoaa, noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?? noaa?eueii?
?aae?caoe?? i?e a?aeiini?e iacaeaaeiino? i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, ye?
i?eeiathoueny.

?icae?e 3. A?aooaaiiy ? iaiaaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?
?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a.

Aeey ea??aieea i?iaeoo, yeee i?eeia? ??oaiiy uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
cia/ieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?nia, aaaeeeaei noa? ieoaiiy ioe?iee oa
o?aooaaiiy ?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo. Iaoiaee a?aooaaiiy
iaaecia/aiino? ioiieththoue iiaiee oeeee aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? i?iaeoo.
Aiie i?ecia/ai? aeey oi?ioaaiiy oiia iaaecia/aiino? ia?aiao??a, ye?
aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue i?iaeoo; caaaeaiiy aeo?aeieo aeaieo uiaei
oiia ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo: ?ic?iaee iaoiaeee ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino?, ye?
a?aoiaothoue iaaecia/ai? oaeoi?e; aiae?co io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ioe?iee aa??aio?a
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi /eiieea ?eceeo. I?iiiio?oueny
cae?enithaaoe ioe?ieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ia iniia? iieacieea /enoi?
iaaaaeaii? aa?oino?. I?e/iio, a?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?eo a?o/eciyiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, iiieeeiaei aoei a aaaaeaoe, ui noaaea aeeneiioo R aoaea
caeeoaoeny iaci?iiith a ??ci? iaeaooi? ia??iaee t a iaaeao aeinoaoiuei
o?eaaeeo oa?i?i?a O aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?iaeoo. O ca’yceo c oeei oi?ioea
?ic?aooieo /enoi? iaaaaeaii? aa?oino? a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo ia? aeae:

wmetafile8? ??A???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
??=???&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyy@=??Y?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-??????a????… ????’
????)????Y????AE!
???u?????????»????-?????*,????o3???u?th??????

aea a = 1, 2…t, A? — aaee/eia a?ioiaeo iioie?a; Ra — i/?eoaaia a
ia??iaee a i?eaooeia?noue ?iaanoeoe?e.

I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? aieiaiei noa? caaaeaiiy a?eueo oi/ii? ioe?iee
aaee/eie /enoi? iaaaaeaii? aa?oino? ca ?aooiie cai?ie na?aaei?o
oa?aeoa?enoee a?eueo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeie cia/aiiyie ia?aiao?o R, ui
a?aoiaothoue (ioe?ii/ii) niaoeeo?eo eiaeiiai ia??iaeo ?aae?caoe??
eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoo.

sse ??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny ianooiiee aeai?eoi
ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ?eceeo
iiaeeo?eaoe?? ??aiy ?ioeyoe?? ? ia?aaeaa/oaaii? ii?ie i?eaooeiaino?.

1. Aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e a?ioiaeo iioie?a (A?) ? ia?a?nieo ?iaanoeoe?e
(Ii). Cae?enith?oueny o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieie neoaeaaie i?aei?e?inoaa ia
iniia? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo aeaieo ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai aei ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeoo.

2. Aecia/aiiy o?eaaeino? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo O, ? niene ia??iaeaie
?aae?caoe?? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo.

3. Aecia/aiiy ia?aaeaa/oaaieo cia/aiue ??aiy i?eaooeiaino? Ra. Ca
nieneii oe? aeai? iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? aeaiia oeyoaie — aai ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece ? io?eiaiiy aenia?oieo ioe?iie i/?eoaaieo ??aiae
i?eaooeiaino?, aai ia iniia? cai?o aeaieo i?i ??aaiue ?ioeyoe?? a e?a?i?
? eiai i?iaiicoaaiiy.

4. I?iaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa ?i?oaoe?eieo aenia?eiaio?a ia iiaeae?
(1) ? io?eiaiiy cia/aiue /enoiai iaaaaeaiiai i?eaooeo ca ??cieie
aa??aioaie i?iaeoo.

5. I?iaaaeaiiy /eneiaeo aenia?eiaio?a ia iiaeae? (?a?iaa iiaeaethaaiiy)
c iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao ia e?ioeaaee iieaciee ??cieo /eiiee?a
(o?eaaeino? ia??iaeo cae?eniaiiy i?iaeoo, no?oeoo?e a?ioiaeo iioie?a,
aaee/eie ia?a?nieo ?iaanoeoe?e ? o.?i.).

6. Aea?? c aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeueoa?iaoea aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a ca
e?eoa???i /enoi? iaaaaeaii? aa?oino? ? nooiaiy ?aae?caoe??.

Ia??ai? c iaoiaeaie a?aooaaiiy ?eceeo a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eueea
iaoai?ci?a iaiaaeaiiy ?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a,
iaeiei c yeeo ? ia?a?iciiae?e ?eceeo. I?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i ?iciiae?e ?
ia?aaea/o ?eceeo iaa?oioiaaii noaae?yie oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii,
ye? iine?aeiaii ?aae?cothoueny: ?iciiae?e i?e/ei ?eceeo, ?iciiae?e
ianoaaei, ?iciiae?e iane?aee?a ?eceeo.

Aeey ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i ?iciiae?e ?
ia?aaea/o ?eceeo noi?ioeueiaaii ianooii? aeiiae: noi?iia, yea ia?aaea?
?ecee, iiaeiia i?eeiaoe aeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaai? ??oaiiy ?
oaeineiiaethaaoe nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ?ano?naie, a noi?iia, ui i?eeia?
?ecee, iiaeiia noi?uaoe aeani? oaoi?/i? ? i?aai?caoe?ei? oiiae c
aeiiaaie ?ia?o, ye? ia?aaeathoueny, ? iiaeeeainoyie aaeeooy caoiae?a ii
onoiaiith ?eceeo.

?oaeoeaiee iaoiae iaiaaeaiiy ?eceeo — aeei?enoaiiy ii?ooaeueii?
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. A eiioaeno? ?icaeyaeoaaieo a
?iaio? i?iaeai, i?ae aeeaa?neo?eaoe??th ne?ae ?icoi?oe ?iciiae?e eioo?a
i?ae aeae?eueeiia iai?yieaie ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa c iaoith
i?i?i?caoe?? iiaeeeaeo aeo?ao a?ae aieeao aeiaaeeiaeo /eiiee?a. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo caeoie, ui aeieea? a ae?yeueiino? aeae?eueeio ie?aieo
iai?yie?a, iiaea aooe eiiiainiaaiee i?eaooeii a?ae ?ioeo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino?, ? oaeei /eiii, caaaeueiee o?iainiaee noai anueiai
i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea caeeoaoeny oe?eeii caaeia?eueiei i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai
ia??iaeo /ano.

Caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo noai
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? — aeiaeaoeiai? o?eniaaii? noie, o?eniaaii?
niaeoeyoeaii? noie, o?eniaaii? i?iii?oe??, eiie?aoiee ci?no yeeo
aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi a ?iaio?.

sse noaio ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? aoaeoeaieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, ui
noaaeyoue nai?th iaoith io?eiaiiy aa?aioiaaiiai i?eaooeo i?e
i?i?iaeueiiio ?eceeo ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy aeeaa?neo?eiaaieo no?aoaa?e,
a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia ianooiia ?ic?aooieiai-aiae?oe/ia i?ioeaaeo?a.

?ecee ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo aecia/a?oueny a?aeoeeaiiyi iioieo a?ioiaeo
eioo?a aeey aeaiiai i?iaeoo a?ae i/?eoaaiiai. *ei a?eueoa a?aeoeeaiiy,
oei i?iaeo aaaaea?oueny a?eueo ?eceeiaaiei. Aeey ioe?iee ?eceeo
canoiniao?oueny i??a a?aeiinii? aeenia?n?? — eiao?oe??io aa??aoe??.

Aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy ?eceeo a ?aieao ii?ooaey ?iaanoeoe?e
aeei?enoiao?oueny noaiaea?oia na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy aeey
eiia?iaoe?? i?iaeo?a. Oae aeey aeaio i?iaeo?a aeei?enoiao?oueny
?ic?aooieiaa oi?ioea:

wmetafile8? ??<??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@&???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy?&???? ???&? ?MathType??P? ???u?????????"????-?????hO???L  ???u?? ???????"????-????T ???OeP???-?????OeX???R?¶???R?¶???R?1???u?th?? ???? Aeey o?ueio i?iaeo?a ?ac?aooieiaa noaia ia? aeae: wmetafile8? ??Ue??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` 2???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyya1???? ???&? ?MathType??P? ???u?????????"????-?????gTH???K ???u?? ???????"????-????S???OV???-?????O^???R?1/4??? R?1/4???R?†'???u?th?????? O iaaaaeaieo oi?ioeao Rij - eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? i?ae a?ioiaei iioieii i?iaeo?a i oa j. Oaeei /eiii, aeey eiaeii? eiia?iaoe?? ie?aieo i?iaeo?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaey, iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe iieaciee ?eceeo ca oi?ioeith (3). Oie c ii?ooae?a, aeey yeiai aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe?? iaeiaioa, iiaea aooe aeciaiee iaio ?eceeiaaiei oa i?eeiyoei aei ?aae?caoe??. sse iaeei c aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaoiae?a iaiaaeaiiy ?eceeo, a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae iaeiiaiai no?aooaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa. No?aooaaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea cae?enithaaoeny oeyoii noai?aiiy aeaniiai no?aoiaiai oiiaeo ia eiooe ie?aieo i?ae?icae?e?a eiiiai?? (aei/??i?o i?aei?e?inoa) aai ia iniia? aeiaiai??a c? niaoe?ae?ciaaieie no?aoiaeie eiiiai?yie. sse a oiio, oae ? a ?ioiio aeiaaeeo iniaeeao aaaeeea?noue iaaoaa? aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?ici??o no?aoiaiai aianeo ? ii?yaeeo eiai oi?ioaaiiy. Aaee/eia no?aoiaiai aianeo caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy ?eceeo ainiiaea?nueeeo ? eiia?oe?eieo iia?aoe?e, ?ici???a caeo/aieo o?iainiaeo eioo?a, noeeueiino? aei ?eceeo. Ieaeiueith ioe?ieith no?aoiaiai aianeo iiaea aooe ia?aia aaee/eia aa?oino? iaeia eiiiai??, ui aeeth/a? noio iniiaiiai eai?oaeo, iai?ioi? eiooe oa ?io? aeoeae. Ii?yae c iaoai?ciaie iaiaaeaiiy ?eceeo a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?cie ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a ? iaoiaee ioe?iee ?oiuei? aoaeoeaiino? a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? . O ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ??cieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c ianooiieo aoai?a: aecia/aiiy aaeoc?, yea ? oe?eaaith aeey aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a; i?iaaaeaiiy aeieeaaeiiai aiae?co ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa; iiia?aaeiy ioe?iea ? a?aea?? i?aei?e?inoa; ca?? ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i o?iainiai-aeiiii?/io ? ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa; ioe?iea noaio i?aei?e?inoaa ye ia'?eoo ?iaanooaaiiy ca ?yaeii ocaaaeueiaieo ? eiie?aoieo iieaciee?a; i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i ?iaanooaaiiy. Oe? aoaie ia'?aeiaii a no?oeoo?io noaio - eiiieaenio i?ioeaaeo?o ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? ??cieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia ??oaiiy, ui i?eeiathoueny, oiia ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua (iiaeaeue no?eeiai c?inoaiiy). E?ioeaaith iaoith iiae?aiiai aiae?co ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaaiino? ? aa?aio?e oni?oii? ?aae?caoe?? ia?aaeaa/oaaieo i?iaeo?a, ?oiuei? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?, a oaeiae iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo ?ecee?a, ui iiacycai? c ?oiueith ?aae?caoe??th. Cia/ia oaaaa i?ney aiae?co ?nioth/iai noaio i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeiia aooe i?eae?eaia ia?niaeoeaai eiai ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?iaeoo. Oey ?iaioa aeeth/a? oae? aoaie: iaa?oioiaai?noue ioe?iee ai?oaioii noaio ni?aa o aaeoc?; iaa?oioiaai?noue ae?iaie/i?, ia?eaoeiaiai? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? i?ia?ai ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo: iaa?oioiaai?noue o?iainiaiai ieaio i?iaeoo ? ioe?iea o?iainiaiai ?eceeo eiai ?aae?caoe??; ioe?iea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaanooaaiiy i?iaeoo. ?ic?iaeaiee ?iaanoeoe?eiee i?iaeo oyaia iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ae?iaie/i? i?ia?aie, yea iiaeiia aooe i?iaiae?ciaaia ca ianooiieie iai?yiaie: ??aaiue iiaeie oa neeaaeiino? ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano aeey ai?oaioa; no?oeoo?a ae?iaie/eo iioie?a, iayai?noue noai?ae?yae/ee?a oa o?iainia? aca?iia?aeiineie c ieie; iinoa/aeueieee ne?iaeie ? oe?ie ia ne?iaeio; iio?aaa a ae?iaie/iio iaeaaeiaii? ? aeiaeaoeiaeo ae?iaie/eo i?ei?uaiiyo; no?oeoo?a nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? (iineoa). AENIIAEE A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? i?aeoe/ia ae??oaiiy aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? aoaeoeai?e ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a. Iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oaeiio: 1. Iieacaii, ui i?ioean ?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a ??cieo oa?i?i?a cae?eniaiiy ? ooieoe?iiaeueii? i???ioaoe?? oa ?o ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua iineoue neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?, ui aeiaaa? i?e i?eeiyoo? i?iaeoieo ??oaiue a?aooaaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? ??ciiiai?oieo /eiiee?a, iniaeeainoae ?nioth/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? no/anieo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? a?ciano. 2. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo noa'?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeoaa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eeiyooy ??oaiue o i?iaeoiiio iaiaaeaeiaio? cae?enith?oueny a oiiaao iaieio/i? i?enooiino? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu? ?eceeo, i?ae yeei ne?ae ?icoi?oe iiaeeeaa aa?o?nia ae?aaeaiiy caeoe?a, ui iiaea caciaoe i?aei?e?inoai a ?acoeueoao? ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e. I?enooi?noue ?eceeo aecia/a? iaa?? a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia a?aooaaiiy /eiieea ?eceeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? aa??aio?a i?iaeoieo ??oaiue, c iaeiiai aieo, a oaeiae ia ?ic?iaeo caoiae?a ii onoiaiith iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo neooaoe?e, c ?ioiai. 3. Aecia/aii iiiyooy “oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii” noiniaii eiioaenoo ?ic?iaee ? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a a oiiaao ?eceeo. I?ae oi?aae?iiyi ?eceeii ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue i?eeii?a ? iaoiae?a, iaoith yeeo ? ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue, a oiiaao iaiiaeeeaino? iiaiiai onoiaiiy ?eceeo - ciaioaiiy caeoe?a a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e, i?i?i?caoe?th ?eceeo, iioei?caoe?th ?eceeo. 4. I?e iaa?oiooaaii? ??oaiue uiaei oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeith ? ?aae?caoe??th i?iaeo?a, caaaeath/e ia eiai ??ciiieaiia?noue, neeaaei?noue ? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue, cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea oac: aecia/aiiy iaoe ? caaaeaiue i?iaeoo, aiae?c i?aaeiaoiiai na?aaeiaeua, i?iaiicoaaiiy iniiaieo iieaciee?a i?e?i- oa iae?ina?aaeiaeua, iiaeaethaaiiy iane?aee?a a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e (a?aooaaiiy ?eceeo), ?ic?iaea caoiae?a ii cieaeaiith iane?aee?a a?ae ianooio ?eceeiaeo iiae?e; ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoieo ??oaiue ? eiio?ieth ca ?o aeeiiaiiyi. Oaea aeaeiiiiceoe?y aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe a?eueo ye?niee aiae?c ??cieo aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ie?aieo oac aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?iaeoo. 5. I?iaaaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ui aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy a?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ? iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a. Aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? oiai /e ?ioiai aa??aioo i?iaeoo i?iiiio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe a ??cieo oei/aniaeo aniaeoao ia iniia? ???a?o?/ii? nenoaie e?eoa???a, iaai?o ?ic?aooieiai-aiae?oe/ieo iieaciee?a, ?ic?iaeaii? ? iaaaaeaii? nenoaie aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae c iaia'yceiaei a?aooaaiiyi i?ioan?eiiai aeina?aeo ? iaae/ie oao?aoe?a-aenia?o?a a eiie?aoi?e i?aaeiaoi?e iaeano?. 6. ?ic?iaeaiee ? iaaaaeaiee a ?iaio? oe?e?niee iaoiaee/iee aia?ao ?ic?iaee ? aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a caeaoiee aaeaiooaaoeny aei aeiia eiie?aoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ? ae??ooaaoe oe?iea eiei caaaeaiue a nenoai? no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii: i?iaiaeeoe ia?iaeo aaeeei? e?eueeino? ?ioi?iaoe??, a?aoiaoaaoe aieea ??cieo aeiaaeeiaeo ? aeeiai?/ieo /eiiee?a ia ??oaiiy, ye? i?eeiathoueny, aeeiioaaoe aaaaoiaa??aioi? ?ic?aooiee, cae?enithaaoe iiooe aa??aio?a ??oaiue ia aaaaoie?eoa??aeuei?e iniia?. 7. Cai?iiiiiaaii iai?yie ioe?iee ?iaanoeoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? i?aei?e?inoa, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia iniia? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/iiai ??aiy oa ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo i?aeaeueoe iaa?oioiaai?noue i?iaeo?a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny, aecia/eoe oiiae iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?o ?aae?caoe??, iaiaaeeaoe i?e oeueiio aieea ia i?ioean ?ic?iaee ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a ?eieo. IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aocueei E., Nieaae N. Oi?aaeaiea eiiiaaoeeyie ia i?aaei?eyoee//Aecian-eioi?i. - 1998 - ?6. - N. 69-72. 2. Ai?enia A.E., Eana?ia A.A., Eyoaiei A.I., Nieaae N.E. Eiaanoeoeeiiiay no?aoaaey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee: oi?ie?iaaiea, ?aaeecaoeey, ?ene. - I.: IAAeE. - 1996. - 44 n. 3. Nieaae N.E. Yeiiiie/aneee ?ene i?e oi?ie?iaaiee eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Eoaainueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo. Aeiiii?/i? iaoee. - Eoaainuee: ENA?. - 1998. - N. 76-79. 4. Iniiau ?uii/iie yeiiiieee (AIE a ia?aoiaeiie ia?eiae yeiiiieee): O/.-iaoiaee/. iiniaea// Iaoiia TH.O., Neai?oeia A.I., Nieaae A.I., Oio?iae/ I.E, Nieaae N.E. - Eoaaine, Ine?en, 1998. - 132 n. 5. Nieaae A.I., Nieaae N.E. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneei ?eneii i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia// Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. - I.: IAO. - 1997. - N. 126-128. 6. Nieaae N.E. I?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeiia// Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Eoaainueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo. - Eoaainuee: ENA?. - 1998. - N. 78-79. 7. Nieaae N.E. Yooaeoeaiinoue ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoia a nenoaia no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey// Aanoiee Ainoi/iioe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa. – Eoaaine:AOAO. – 1996. – N. 169-172. AIIOAOe?ss Ni?aae N. ?. Oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 – I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia. - No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Eoaainuee, 1998. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iei ?eceeii i?e ?ic?iaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei a?aooaaiiy /eiieea ?eceeo i?e ioe?ioe? aa??aio?a i?iaeo?a, a oaeiae iaoiaee iaiaaeaiiy ?eceeo i?e ianooi? ?eceeiaeo iiae?e. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiiieaenia nenoaia aiae?co i?aei?e?inoaa oa ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, yea noaaeoue iaoith iiooe cania?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?iaeo, ?ecee, oi?aae?iiy, aiae?c, ioe?iea, nenoaia, iaaecia/ai?noue. AIIIOAOeEss Nieaae N.E. Oi?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneei ?eneii i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 – I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e ia?eaoeia. – Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Eoaaine, 1998. A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu aii?inu oi?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneei ?eneii i?e ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii o/aoo oaeoi?a ?enea i?e ioeaiea aa?eaioia i?iaeoia, a oaeaea iaoiaeu ia?aie/aiey ?enea i?e ianooieaiee ?eneiauo niauoee. I?aaeeiaeaia eiiieaeniay nenoaia aiaeeca i?aaei?eyoey e ia?niaeoea aai ?acaeoey a oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?uii/iie n?aaeu, noaayuay oeaeueth iiene n?aaenoa iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?iaeo, ?ene, oi?aaeaiea, aiaeec, ioeaiea, nenoaia, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue. ANNOTATION Spivak S.I. Managing of economic risk while elaborating and releasing the projects. - Manuscript. The dissertation is to obtain a science degree of the candidate of economic sciences, specialty 08.06.02 - Business, management and marketing. - East Ukrainian State University, Lugansk, 1998. The dissertation investigates the problems of managing economic risk while elaborating and releasing the projects. Methodical recommendation as for taking into account the degree of risk while considering the variants of projects as well as methods of limiting risk when risky wents take place have been worked out. A complex system of analysis of an enterprise and the perspectives of its development in the conditions of non-stable market, which is aimed of the search of the most effective ways of realization of projects leas been suggested. Key words: projects, risk, managing, analysis, system, evaluation, non-stability. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16.11.1998 ?. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16 Iai?? ionaoiee. Iae.-aeae. A?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? . ?ioai?eio NOAeO. 348042 i. Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20a.

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