Університетська освіта в Україні в другій половині ХІХ ст.: Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / Т.А. Стоян, Київ. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. — К., 1999. — 20

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

NOIssI OAOssIA AIAe???AIA

OAeE 947.7 +378.4 (09)

OI?AA?NEOAONUeEA INA?OA A OE?A?I?

A Ae?OA?E IIEIAEI? O?O NO.

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeaieeaiei Aaneeue
Ieoaeeiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo

oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa

?i. I.N. A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ua?aae Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?o?aiciaanoaa oa

niaoe?aeueieo aaeocae ?noi?e/ii? iaoee

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Eacainueea Oaia?a ?aai?aia,

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie O?O — ii/aoeo OO
no. ?inoeoooo ?noi???

Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a

?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 22 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 10 — e aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 001. 20 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 349).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ( i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58
).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ _20_” __aeiaoiy__1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I.?. Aiaeei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? caaaeueiee ianya noaiiaeoue 199 noi??iie. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e (
25 noi??iie, 319 iiceoe?e ).

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeaeuaiiy ina?oiueiai ??aiy
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, ?icaeoie oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe aenoaathoueny
nueiaiaei? aei ?yaeo aea?aeaaieo i??i?eoao?a. Iaeiae ?nioth/a nenoaia
ina?oe ia caaeiaieueiy? iiaiith i??ith aeiia, iinoaaeaieo ia?aae iath
caaaeaiiyie aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie, ii?yae c
?ioei, aeiaaa? a?oioiaiiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co anueiai eiiieaeno
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo oiia
?icaeoeo ina?oe a ieioe? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee.

A oeueiio eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? ?icaeoeo
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. noaiiaeoue cia/iee
iaoeiaee, i?ciaaaeueiee oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an. Aiii aea? iiaeeea?noue
a?aeoai?eoe oe?eee c??c noni?eueiiai aeeooy, iieacaoe neeaaeiiu? ?
noia?a/i?noue aeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo caaaeii, aecia/eoe i?noea
oi?aa?neoao?a a eoeueoo?iiio, iie?oe/iiio, aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo?
oiai/aniiai noni?euenoaa. Naia oi?aa?neoaoe noaee ni?aaaei?i aeaea?aeii
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aaia?aoe??, oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oe, yea caiaeii coi?ea i?aeiyoe ia ai?ioueao ca
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue ia?aaaaeii eiina?aaoeaia oe?a?inueea
noni?euenoai. Ca ei?ioeee ?noi?e/iee i?ii?aeie /ano aiie ciiaee oa?eoe
aei ?yaeo i?ia?aeieo oi?aa?neoao?a ?a?iie.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a a Oe?a?i? aecia/a?oueny oaeiae iac??eeie
iio?aaaie aeyaeaiiy caaaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-iniaeeaiai,
ui aoei i?eoaiaiia oi?aa?neoaoai ieioeiai. Oa e no/aniee noai ?icaeoeo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie ye iaoee iio?aao? iiaeo ?aeae, eiioeaioe?e, iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaie, iaeiie/aiiy iiaiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. A oiiaao a?aenooiino?
iiii?aeaieia?? oa iiiiiaoiaeieia??, a?eueiiai ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo iaoe
noaei iiaeeeaei ia?ainieneaiiy ?noi??? oi?aa?neoao?a.

E??i oiai, aaaeeea?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny e
oei, ui aein? ia ?nio? niaoe?aeueieo ?ia?o, aea a ocaaaeueithaaeany
?noi??y ?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c iaoeiaith oaiaoeeith i?aai?caoe??.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a ?aieao iaoeiai? i?iaeaie “?icaeoie ina?oe a
Oe?a?i?” eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oaeoeueoaoo oe?a?inueei? o?eieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.
I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean ?icaeoeo
oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.,
ianaiia?aae: iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy oi?aa?neoaoaie;
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae, eiai i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue,
iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee, i?noea a noni?euenoa?; nooaeaionoai, aeaea?aea eiai
iiiiaiaiiy, nioe?aeueiee noaoon ? noinoiee c oi?aa?neoaonueeei
ea??aieoeoaii, i?ioano?ith oa aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith; oa?aeoa?i?
iniaeeaino? o ae?yeueiino? Oa?e?anueeiai, Ee?anueeiai oa
Iiai?in?enueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ae?oao iieiaeio O?O no.
Oi?iaeiaae oeueiai ia??iaeo aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo ao?aeoacieo a?aeiinei
noaeeny ci?ie a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio, noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio,
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ui i?eaaee aei
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie ina?oe. Ia na?aaeeio O?O no.
oi?aa?neoaoe aaea iaee noaa?eueio no?oeoo?o, yeo cae??iea noaooo 1863 ?.
1860—70-o? ??. noaee ?ieaie i?aeianaiiy a aeeoo? oi?aa?neoao?a
i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie, aea aiii aoei coieiaii /a?aiaei ianooiii
o?yaeiai? ?aaeoe??, noaoooii 1884 ?. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. caaaeueiee
noai oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe oa iaaaeiaieaiiy a?iiaaenueeino? cioneee
oea?nueeee o?yae ?icii/aoe i?aeaioiaeo iiai? ?aoi?ie oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe, i?i ui e aoei iia?aeiieaii I?i?noa?noaii ia?iaeii? ina?oe a 1899
?. Oeae i?ioean caaa?oeany i?eeiyooyi iiaiai oi?aa?neoaonueeiai noaoooo
a 1905 ?.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeoie oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe
?icaeyaea?oueny eeoa a iaaeao oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ui ia?aaoaaea o neeaae?
?in?enueei? ?iia??? ? aoea iiae?eaia ia 9 aoaa?i?e. A aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio
a?aeiioaii? ii ina?oiueiio a?aeiinoao aiie aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo
o?ueio o/aiaeo ie?oa?a.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ?icaeoeo
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.

Aeoiaey/e c iinoaaeaii? iaoe, noi?ioeueiaai? oae? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

iieacaoe iniiai? /eiieee, ye? coiiaeee o?yaeiao iie?oeeo uiaei
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eoe iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ieie;

i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaiethoe?th oi?aa?neoao?a a?ae ae?oa?ieo (aeai?yinueeeo)
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a aei ??cii/eiieo;

aeine?aeeoeneeaae ? noaoon i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono, eiai
i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue, i?noea a noni?euenoa?; iieacaoe iniiai? oeyoe
ae??oaiiy eaae?iai? i?iaeaie a oi?aa?neoaoao Oe?a?ie;

c’ynoaaoe iniiai? i?e/eie oa iane?aeee ianooio oea?ecio ia
i?aaenoaaiee?a aoc?anueei? ?ioae?aaioe??;

ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe nooaeaionoai, cie?aia eiai nioe?aeueiee noaoon,
noinoiee c i?ioano?ith; aeyaeoe iniiai? oaeoi?e, ui ni?eyee
ia?aoai?aiith nooaeaionoaa ia aeaea?aei ia?iaiaioiiai ianiieith aeey
?iia?nueeiai ?aaeeio;

aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii aeei?enoai?
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee oa
noaoenoeei-aiae?oe/iee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui o no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao??
aiia ? ia?oith ocaaaeueithth/ith i?aoeath, a ye?e eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeaii ?icaeoie oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a i?ae?in?enuee?e
Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. Aeyaeaii aieiai? oaiaeaioe??,
caaaeaiiy oa iai?yie ae?yeueiino? ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo a aaeoc?
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Ia?aaeyiooi onoaeaio ioe?ieo eo?no
?in?enueeiai o?yaeo a ieoaiiyo ia?iaeii? ina?oe acaaae?, oa
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe cie?aia. I?iaiae?ciaaii oiiae ae?yeueiino?
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie. Aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oi?aa?neoao?a. I?aeaeaii aiae?co
oiiae eiai ?iaioe e iiaooo, i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue, i?aaiaee noaoon ?
aca?iia?aeiineie c aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy. A?oioiaii
aiae?co?oueny neeaae nooaeaio?a ca nioe?aeueiei iioiaeaeaiiyi,
a??iniia?aeaiiyi. ?ice?eaa?oueny aianie o ?icaoaeiao oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ie?aieo ae?y/?a iaoee ? eoeueoo?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iia’ycaii c oa?aeoa?ii
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, ui iathoue iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeia oa
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ia cia/aiiy. Aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue iaoe
i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a
no/ani?e Oe?a?i?, aeiiiiiaeooue aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oa aoaeoeaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio?
caeeaae?a on?o nooiai?a ina?oe, cie?aia, i?e /eoaii? aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a
c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ?? eoeueoo?e oa ina?oe, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
niaoeeo?n?a c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue
ia can?aeaiiyo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
oaeoeueoaoo oe?a?inueei? o?eieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeeeaaeaii a oanoe ioae?eaoe?yo, aeiiia?aeyo ia
i?aeia?iaei?e oa ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?yo, ui??/ieo ca?oieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa a 1997 —1999 ?ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy”
i?enay/aii aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae c oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aaio/e iieacaoe noai aea/aiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a
?noi??ia?ao??, c?iaeaii ni?iao ?icaeyiooe i?iaeaio o aeaio c??cao:
ai?eciioaeueiiio oa aa?oeeaeueiiio. A ai?eciioaeueiiio — aoaie ?icaeoeo
?noi?e/ii? iaoee, a naia aei?aaiethoe?eii?, ?aaeyinueei?, no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? c o?aooaaiiyi noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeaoa?i?iiaaiino?,
aieeao ?aeaieia?? ia iiaeyaee aeine?aeiee?a aeaii? i?iaeaie. O
aa?oeeaeueiiio — oaiaoeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee, e?eoa??? ioe?iie oeo /e ?ioeo yaeu a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ina?o?
Oe?a?ie. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue
aeine?aeieeo c?noaaeoe oi/ee ci?o, i?iaiae?coaaoe nooi?iue ?? iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee.

Aei?aaiethoe?eia ?noi??ia?ao?y aeui? oeiee, cie?aia oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe, iaea a?ae/ooiee ioae?oeenoe/iee ooee ? caciaea aieeao io?oe?eii?
aaeeeiaea?aeaaii? ?aeaieia??. Oi?aa?neoaonueea ieoaiiy iaeaaeaei aei
iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo o eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO
noie?oue. Naia oea aeeeeeaei iiyao aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?aoeue c ??cieo
i?iaeai oi?aa?neoaonueeiai aeeooy .

Na?aae ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aei?aaiethoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, ye?
i?eae?eyee oaaao naia oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ina?o?, iiaeia iacaaoe i?aoe?
I.I. I?etheiaa, I.I. Ei?i?eiaa, E.Ae. Eaaae?ia, I.O. Eaioa?iaa . C?aceii
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe aeey oeeo aaoi??a aoee
cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? oi?aa?neoaoe. Iiaeyae ia oi?aa?neoaonueeo ina?oo
?in?enueei? ?iia??? /a?ac i?ecio cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe noaa aeineoue iiioey?iei na?aae aei?aaiethoe?eieo aeine?aeiee?a.

Ie??i ?ia?o, ye? eeoa o?aaiaioa?ii aena?oethaaee oi?aa?neoaonueeo ina?oo
a eiioaeno? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e
?noi??ia?ao?? aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe e i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? aeai?e
i?iaeai?. Iaea?eueoo oaaao iaoeiaoe?a i?eaa?oaee oae? oaie:
oi?aa?neoaonueea iie?oeea o?yaeo, nooaeaionueeee ?oo, iaoeiaa
ae?yeuei?noue oi?aa?neoao?a.

Oe?iiee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aei?iaie noaiiaeyoue ?noi?e/i? ?ica?aeee i?i
ae?yeuei?noue ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a. Oea i?aoe? I.O.
Aeaaeeie?nueeiai-Aoaeaiiaa, Ae.?. Aaaae?y, A.I. Aocaneoea, I.O.
Noioeiaa, A.?. Ia?eaae/a . Aiie aoee ia?oith ni?iaith iaoeiaiai aiae?co
aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Oae? i?aoe?
aiooaaeeny aei tha?eaeieo aeao, ui iaaeaaaei ?i io?oe?iciino?. Iaeiae
aiie iaee aenieee nooi?iue ?ioi?iaoeaiino? caaaeyee oe?ieiio caeo/aiith
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae.

O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny
i?ioeai?noai aeaio i?aeoiae?a — eiina?aaoeaiiai oa e?aa?aeueiiai. I?ioa,
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?aeaieia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, aei?aaiethoe?eia
?noi??ia?ao?y ia ia? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi???
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. ?noi?e/ia iaoea oeo /an?a o
?ic?iaoe? ieoaiue aeui? ina?oe ia?aaoaaea ia noaae?? aeyaeaiiy
oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo oa aena?oeaiiy ie?aieo nthaeao?a c ?noi???
oi?aa?neoao?a.

?aaeyinueeee ia??iae ?noi??? Oe?a?ie iicia/eany a?aeoiaeii a?ae ?ic?iaee
i?eioeeiiaeo i?iaeai, ia??aeei caiia/oaaiiyi, a oi e ia?ae?o/aiiyi
oaeo?a oa iaoeiaeo caeiaooe?a aaia?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo e?ioey O?O
— ii/aoeo OO no. Iai?aiei noaei i?aee?aneaii i?a?e?noe/ia noaaeaiiy aei
??aiy oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a ieioeiio. E?oa?aoo?a oeueiai ia??iaeo
nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aei?aaiethoe?eieo ?ia?o c ?noi???
oi?aa?neoao?a ye iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?aeoiaeaie, oae ? i?eioeeiaie
ia??iaeecaoe??, no?oeoo?ith. Caaaeueii?noi?e/i? i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo
?noi?ee?a a iniiaiiio oaaao i?eae?eythoue ?aaeyinueeiio ia??iaeo
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ?noi???, oiae? ye ?noi??y aei?aaiethoe?eii?
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe iiaea?oueny cian?i iaiaaeaii, iiaa?oiai ?
iaeiiaiei.

Aei oi?aa?neoaonueei? oaiaoeee ?aaeyinueea ?noi?e/ia iaoea caa?ioeany ia
iae?aco. I?aoe? c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a c’yaeeeny eeoa a
1940—50-o? ?iee .A iniiaiiio, aiie aoee ni?yiiaai? ia a?aeoai?aiiy
?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo a oi?aa?neoaonueeiio na?aaeiaeu? a Oe?a?i?,
a oe?eiio a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.

Aeoeai?oa i?iaeaie ?noi??? oi?aa?neoao?a ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ?aaeyinueea
?noi??ia?ao?y ii/aea ?ic?iaeyoe iai?ee?ioe?1960-o — ia ii/aoeo 70-o
?ie?a.

?c caaaeueiinithcii? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie iniaeeai? oaaae
caneoaiaothoue i?aoe? A.?. E?ee?ii?-Na??nueei?, ?.A. Aeiiioiai?,
A.?. Uao?i?ii?, I.?. ?aaiiaa, I.A.Caeii/eianueei- ai , a oaeiae
e?eueea eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e inoaii?o ?ie?a . Aaoi?e oeeo i?aoeue
i?aee?aneththoue iaia?an?/ia cia/aiiy oaeeo oi?aa?neoaonueeeo i?iaeai,
ye oi?aae?iiy iaoeith, naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ?ieue ina?oe a aeeoo? e?a?ie,
oiaoi i?iaeai, ui aoee aeooaeuei? a O?O no. ? caeeoaoueny oaeeie a
iaeaooiueiio.

A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? 1960—80-o ?ie?a ?noi??y oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. i?aaenoaaeaia aieiaiei /eiii
tha?eaeieie aeaeaiiyie, eieaaie oa noaooyie, ui aena?oeththoue ie?ai? ??
noi?iie, ia??iaee, ai?ciaee.

Caaaeii oey a?oia e?oa?aoo?e ia? aaeeea oaeoieia?/ia iiea, aea a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeaeaii? a ?aieao iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo /e ie?aii?
i?iaeaie. Oae? i?aoe? ca nai?i i?ecia/aiiyi caeaa?eueoiai oieeaee
iinoaiiaee caaaeueieo i?iaeai o ianooaaao an??? Oe?a?ie. A oe?eiio
iiceoeaii ioe?ithth/e ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aei?iaie oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a, ?icoi?th/e ia’?eoeai? neeaaeiiu? ?oiueiai
?noi?e/iiai iiooeo, ia iiaeia ia aa/eoe ?o eii’thieoo?ii-iaoiaeieia?/i?
eieeaaiiy, a ?iiae? e iaaeinoaoith iaoeiao aeeaeio aeayeeo ?ic?iaie.
A?eueoino? c ieo i?eoaiaiia iienia?noue, ia caaaeaee aecia/ai? oeyoe
ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai.

O 1990-o ?ieao a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c’yaeeeny i?aoe?, a yeeo
aaoi?e, aeine?aeaeoth/e ?noi??th Oe?a?ie O?O no., i?aaiooue iicaooeny
canoa??eeo i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee iiae?e ieioeiai, canoiniaothoue
no/ani? iaoiaee ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae oaeeo i?aoeue, ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei /e iiina?aaeeiaaii oi?eathoueny ??cieo aniaeo?a ?noi???
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no., iiaeia
iacaaoe iiiia?ao?/i? oa ?io? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee I.A. Oei, A.A.
Eanueyiiaa, I.I. Oa?anaiei, A.I. Caieeinueeiai, A.A. Ei?ioeiai, A.?.
Oeueyiianueeiai, ?.I. Aieoeao?anueei?, A.N.*aeeianueeiai, I.A. Ua?aaea,
O.?. Eacainueei? .

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O
no. i?aaenoaaeaia oaeiae aeena?oaoe?eieie ?iaioaie. sse i?aaeei, ? a ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeui? ina?oe, cie?aia oi?aa?neoaonueei?, iaiaaeaii
aocueeeie o?iiieia?/ieie ?aieaie a?aeiia?aeii aei oiai /e ?ioiai
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai noaoooo. Na?aae aeena?oaoe?e, iaienaieo ia
caaaeueiinithciiio iaoa??ae?, ne?ae iacaaoe aeena?oaoe?ei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.?. Caii?ii?, N.I. Oanaiiai?, ?.A. Aeiiioiai?
. A ieo iiaeia ciaeoe aeayeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ii Oe?a?i? oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?ioean?a ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe a O?O no.

Aaciina?aaeiuei aei ie?aieo aniaeo?a ?noi??? oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? aecia/aiiai ia??iaeo caa?ioeenue a nai?o aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.?.Anoaoia, ?.N. Aa?aaeiee, N.A.Neiiiia,
I.A. E?aa/aiei, N.I. Noaeueiao, ?.I. Noaiaiiae/, I.I.
Oa?anaiei, I.I. Eaaeoeueea, A.I. Ua?aaothe .

O a?eueoino? c ieo ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo a
??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie caeaa?eueoiai ia ceai? noie?oue. Aiie aeineoue
oaeoieia?/ii iane/ai?, aea oaiaoe/ii iaiaaeai?, ca?aeaieia?ciaai?.
Aeiyoie noaiiaeoue eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y, caoeuaia a 1998 ?. I.I.
Eaaeoeueeith “Nooaeaionoai Oe?a?ie a e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.”, a
ye?e aaoi? ia iniia? iia?oi?o iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue o aaeoc?
nioe?aeueiiai i?ciaiiy c’yniao? ?ieue ? i?noea nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa cacia/aiiai
ia??iaeo.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeyae ?noi??ia?ao?? oaie na?ae/eoue i?i iaaiee ?ioa?an
aeine?aeiee?a aei ieoaiue oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.
?icii/aeany ?iaioa ii aea/aiith aoc?anueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? ye ie?aii?
nioe?aeueii? a?oie. Aea nioe?ieoeueoo?iee oaiiiai oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe, aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae oa nooaeaionoai oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie ua
ia aea/ai? anaa?/ii, ua ia aoee oaiith ocaaaeueithth/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaaeinoaoiuei oaeiae ii?aoeueiaaia ?noi??y oi?aa?neoaonueei? iaoee,
i?aoe? iaeaeaeaoi?oeo oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo ?icii?ioai? a aaaaoueio
aeaeaiiyo. Iaeaea cian?i iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a caeeoeeeny
i?eioeeiia? iiiaioe ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie, ?o
iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco neeaaeathoue ??ciiiai?oi? ca ci?noii ? oa?aeoa?ii
iioae?eiaaieie oa iaiioae?eiaaieie aeieoiaioaie oa iaoa??aeaie, eio??
aeeth/athoue ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a, aeia?aeeiao oa
noaoenoe/io e?oa?aoo?o, iaoa??aee a?o?a?a, iaioa?e, uiaeaiieee,
ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy. Iniiaith aeaea?aeueii? aace ? iaoa??aee
aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Oe?a?ie oa ?in??: Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i. Ee?a?, Aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a i. Ee?aa,
Ee?anueei? iaeano?; Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??;
?in?enueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao noa?iaeaai?o aeo?a; ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai; a?aeae?eo
?oeiien?a ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaii? a?ae?ioaee o i. Iinea?. Anueiai
ii?aoeueiaaii 44 a?o?ai? oiiaee ( 34 a a?o?aao Oe?a?ie oa 10 — a a?o?aao
?in?? ), a ?acoeueoao? /iai aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeaii ?yae iiaeo
aeieoiaio?a ??cieo aniaeo?a oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O no.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?noi?e/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? caaaeueii? ea?oeie
?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe iathoue iaaecae/aeii ?ioi?iaoeai?
oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i.
Ee?a?. Ianaiia?aae oea aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oiiaeo Oi?aae?iiy
Ee?anueeei o/aiaei ie?oaii (O. 707), yeee i?noeoue oee?eoey?e oa eii??
oee?eoey??a I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe (III) oa iiia/eoae?a
Ee?anueeiai o/aiaiai ie?oao, iaeyaee aeeeaaeaiiy a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao?, ??/i? ca?oe i?i noai iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, a?aeiiino? c
??cieo ieoaiue oi?aa?neoaonueeiai aeeooy, ui iaaeneeaeeny aei
aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe o/aiaiai ie?oao, aeiianaiiy iiia/eoae?a o/aiaiai
ie?oao a III. Aiie aeiiiiiaee c’ynoaaoe iaoai?ci i?iaaaeaiiy o?yaeiai?
iie?oeee a noa?? oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, i?aeoe/i? caoiaee
i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, aeaye? aniaeoe noai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino?
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie. Oe?iieie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeeny aeiianaiiy
iiia/eoae?a o/aiaiai ie?oao a I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe c ??cieo
i?iaeai oi?aa?neoaonueeiai aeeooy, aeooaeueieo o oie /e ?ioee ia??iae. O
aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean ae??oaiiy icia/aieo
i?iaeai a?ae iinoaiiaee ieoaiiy, /a?ac eiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy ii io?oe?eieo
?inoaioe?yo ??ciiai ??aiy, aei inoaoi/iiai iiceoeaiiai /e iaaaoeaiiai
?acoeueoaoo.

Ca ci?noii aeieoiaio?a oa iaoa??ae?a aeoaea aeecueeee aei oiiaeo 707
oiiae Eaioeaey??? iiia/eoaey Oa?e?anueeiai o/aiaiai ie?oao (O. 2162).

Aeieoiaioaeuei? na?ae/aiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th ??cieo aeoe?e c iaoith
aeiiiiiae ceeaeaiiei nooaeaioai, i?i iniaeeaa caiaiiei?iiy aeaaeieo
no?oeoo? iiaeeea?noth ?iciianthaeaeaiiy “oe?a?iio?euenueei?” i?iiaaaiaee
i?ioani?aie oa nooaeaioaie iiaeia ciaeoe a oiiaeao Eaioeaey???
Ee?anueeiai, Iiae?euenueeiai oa Aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (O.
442), Ee?anueeiai aoaa?inueeiai aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy (O. 274),
Ee?anueeiai ioi?iiiiai a?aeae?eaiiy (O. 275), Oa?e?anueeiai ioi?iiiiai
a?aeae?eaiiy (O.304) oa aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy (O. 336),
Iaeanueeiai aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy (O. 385) oa ioi?iiiiai
a?aeae?eaiiy (O. 386).

Ie?aio a?oio noaiiaeyoue iniaeno? oiiaee i?ioani??a Ee?anueeiai oa
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a, iniiaith yeeo ? a?ia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee i?i
neoaeaiao oa a?iiaaenueeo ae?yeuei?noue, eenooaaiiy, iaioae?eiaai?
eiiniaeoe eaeoe?e oa iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. C 17 ii?aoeueiaaieo
iniaenoeo oiiae?a iniaeeai ei?enieie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeeny
iniaeno? oiiaee A.N. ?eiiieeiaa (O. 849), Ae.?. Ea/aiianueeiai
(O. 2032), Ae.?. Aaaae?y (O. 2020).

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aea/aiiy ?noi??? oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
noaa oiiae Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (O. 16) Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao i.
Ee?aa, yeee ia?aoiao? 72003 iaeeieoe? caa??aaiiy, iaaia e?euee?noue yeeo
a?aeiineoueny oaeiae aei ?noi??? Oa?e?anueeiai oa Iiai?in?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a. A?i i?noeoue ui??/i? ca?oe oi?aa?neoaoo, eiaeiiai
oaeoeueoaoo, i?ioieiee oa aeo?iaee can?aeaiue ?aae oi?aa?neoaoo,
oaeoeueoaonueeeo ?aae, i?ioieiee can?aeaiue aeaeaiao?a, eaoaae?,
i?ioieiee ?nieo?a oa a?aeiiino? i?i oni?oi?noue nooaeaio?a, i?ia?aie
eo?n?a eaeoe?e, iaeyaee, ieaie aeeeaaeaiiy ii oaeoeueoaoao, ?iceeaaee
eaeoe?e, ca?oe i?i i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue, eaiaeeaeaonuee?,
iaa?noa?nuee? aeena?oaoe??, ?aoa?aoe, eiieo?ni? oai?e nooaeaio?a,
a?aeiiino? i?i eiioeiaaio nooaeaio?a, neooa/?a, neeaae
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono.

Noai iaoeiai? oa aeeeaaeaoeueei? ?iaioe oi?aa?neoaoo, eiai iniaiaee
neeaae, cai?uaiiy eaoaae?, ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, o/anoue
a/aieo oi?aa?neoaoo a ?iaio? i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiia?an?a, ?ieue
oi?aa?neoaoo a i?aai?caoe?? ioae?/ieo eaeoe?e, aeneo?n?e — iaeiiai?oa
a?aeia?aaeaii a ui??/ieo oi?aa?neoaonueeeo ca?oao. Oi/a, ne?ae
a?aei?oeoe, ui ia ca an? ?iee aiie ??aiicia/ii ci?noiai?, a ca aeaye? —
iaa?oue a?aenooi?.

Aeineoue ci?noiaieie aeey aea/aiiy noaiiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua, ina?oiueiai oa iaoeiaiai ??aiy, a?eo,
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?eiaeaaeiino? ooaoieo aeeeaaea/?a oi?aa?neoaoo aeyaeeeny
iineoaei? nienee. Iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiei ? aiae?c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
neeaaeo o ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao oiai /ano
aaciina?aaeiueiai aecia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? i?eiaeaaeiino?.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue aeieoiaio?a, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei
i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai. Aea/aiiy
caaaeueii — ?noi?e/iiai oiiaeo (O. ?), oiiaeo eenooaaiiy (O. ???),
oiiaeo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo na. Aieiaeeie?a (O. V???), iniaenoeo
oiiae?a i?ioani??a oi?aa?neoaoo aea? iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean
ci?i o ci?no? oa i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, iaoeiaeo
i??i?eoao?a, o noaaeaii? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oi?aa?neoaoo aei iie?oeee o?yaeo a ?aoi?ioaaii? nenoaie
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe.

Aacnoii?aio oe?ii?noue aeey aeine?aeiee?a noaiiaeyoue oiiaee
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? o i. Iinea?, iniaeeai oiiaee
?iiaiiaeo: oiiae 678 – ?iia?aoi?a Ieaenaiae?a I , oiiae 677 –
?iia?aoi?a Ieaenaiae?a O, oiiae 601 – ?iia?aoi?a Ieeiee I. Oiiaee
i?noyoue aeiiia?ae? i?i?no??a ia?iaeii? ina?oe i?i ae?yeuei?noue on?o
oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a – a?ae ia?iaeieo oe?e aei oi?aa?neoao?a.
Aiie aeathoue ciiao i?ine?aeeoaaoe iie?oeeo o?yaeo uiaei oi?aa?neoao?a.

I?aaeiaoieie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeeeny oiiaee I?i?noa?noaa
thnoeoe?? (O.124), Aeaia?oaiaioo iie?oe?? I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa
(O. 102), ??? a?aeae?eo Eaioeaey??? ?iia?aoi?a (O.109), Aa?oiaii?
?icii?yae/i? eii?n?? c ioi?iie aea?aeaaiiai ii?yaeeo oa a?iiaaenueeiai
niieith (O.94), iniaeeai ?icae?ee “Nooaeaionueeee ?oo”,
“Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo”. Aiie i?noyoue eieaeoe?th iaeaaaeueieo aeaeaiue, ui
iaaeoiaeeee aei iie?oeaenueeeo onoaiia oa noaeiaeo i?aai?a, aeiianaiiy
i?i nooaeaionuee? caai?ooaiiy, ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaionueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, o/anoue ?o o iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?.

Cia/iee ?noi?e/iee iaoa??ae c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy cina?aaeaeaiee o
A?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a ?in?enueei? aea?aeaaii? a?ae?ioaee o i. Iinea?. Iaie
aoee ii?aoeueiaai? iniaeno? oiiaee i?i?no??a ina?oe ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
no. I.A. Aieia?ia, ?.Ae. Aeaeyiiaa, Ae.A. Oienoiai (O. 120, 169, 262),
ye? i?noyoue eenooaaiiy iiia/eoae?a o?ueio oe?a?inueeeo o/aiaeo ie?oa?a,
?aeoi??a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?? ? iioae?eiaai?
aeieoiaioe. Ia?aaeon?i oea oi?aa?neoaonuee? noaoooe 1863 oa 1884 ??.,
iinoaiiae e ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ii I?i?noa?noao ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ui??/i?
ca?oe oi?aa?neoao?a .

Aeiaeaoeiaei aeaea?aeii ioe?iee ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O1O no. aeyaeeeny iaoa??aee eii?n?e
? ia?aae c ieoaiue ?ic?iaee i?iaeo?a Noaooo?a oi?aa?neoao?a. Aiie
aeiiiiiaee c’ynoaaoe nooue ?icoiaeaeaiue uiaei oi?aa?neoaonueeeo i?iaeai
a i?aaey/eo ? i?ioani?nueeeo eieao.

Oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?noyoue aeieoiaioaeuei? tha?eaei? aeaeaiiy,
i?enay/ai? ?noi??? Ee?anueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai, Iiai?in?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoao?a. Aiie aeiiiiaaathoue c’ynoaaoe i?noea ? ?ieue
oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a a ?icaeoeo nenoaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe a o/aiaeo
ie?oaao, aioo??oiueiai aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? naieo oi?aa?neoao?a.

Ie?aiith a?oiith aeaea?ae ? ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia. Aaoia?ia?ao??,
uiaeaiieee, niiaaaee, iioaoee ae?y/?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie ? ?in??
?ice?eaathoue iniaenoo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th iiae?e ? yaeu ? aeathoue iai
iiaeeea?noue a?aeoai?eoe aeeoo?aee i?ioean o??? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe.

Ea?oeio noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aei iie?oeee
naiiaea?aeaanoaa c ieoaiue ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a?aeoai?th? ia??iaee/ia
i?ana oeo /an?a. Iaea?eueo ci?noiaieie c oi/ee ci?o aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeyaeeeny “AEo?iae Ieienoa?noaa ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey”,
“Oieaa?neoaoneea ecaanoey” (aeaeaiiy ?iia?aoi?nueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo na.
Aieiaeeie?a), “Caienee eiia?aoi?neiai Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa”,
“Caienee eiia?aoi?neiai Iiai?inneeneiai oieaa?neoaoa”.

Ioaea, aeaea?aeueia aaca, ui caa?aaeany aei iaoeo /an?a, oe?eeii
aeinoaoiy aeey oiai, uia aeaoe ocaaaeueithth/o oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?icaeoeo
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a i?ae?in?enuee?e Oe?a?i? a O1O no.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oi?aa?neoaoe Oe?a?ie a eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e
iie?oeoe? oea?ecio” ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue oi?aa?neoao?a a ?icaeoeo iaoee
? ina?oe, aecia/athoueny ?oi? ooieoe??, aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo iai?yi?a
aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa. Iniiaieie
caaaeaiiyie oi?aa?neoao?a aoee ?icaeoie iaoee, i?aeaioiaea eaae??a aeui?
eaae?o?eaoe??, eiyeueieo aei o?yaeo, i?aai?caoe?y ia?iaeii? ina?oe a
iaaeao naiai iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao. Niaoeeo?/iith ooieoe??th oe?a?inueeeo
oi?aa?neoao?a aoei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iie?oeee naiiaea?aeaanoaa uiaei
ci?oeiaiiy i?aeaaeei ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia ?? i?aaeaiieo oa
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo oa?eoi??yo, ?oneo?eaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?ae
aaneii iai?iie neia’yinoaa ? i?aaineaa’y a?ae aieeao eaoieeoeecio.

?icaeoie nenoaie oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? aiae?co?oueny o
?icae?e? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeo ?noi?e/ieo ?aae?e, yeeie a?aecia/aeany
ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O no. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui, iiaithth/enue
naia?aoenonueeeo iano?i?a i?aeei?aieo ia?iae?a, oea?eci ocya eo?n ia
iinooiiaa ceeooy iaoe?iiaeueieo ie?a?i a ?aeeio aea?aeaao oeyoii
aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? ? ianeeueieoeueei? ?oneo?eaoe?? oeeo ia?iae?a. Uiaei
oe?a?ioe?a iie?oeea ?iia?nueeiai o?yaeo a?oiooaaeany ia oaeueoeaeo
oai??yo i?i oioiaei?noue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c ?in?enueeei ?, ioaea,
iaiao?aeiino? inoaoi/ii? anei?eyoe?? oe?a?ioe?a, iicaaaeaiiy ?o iai’yo?
i?i aeania ?noi?e/ia ieioea. Oe? caaaeaiiy ?icaeyaeaeenue ye neeaaeia?
aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee oea?nueeiai o?yaeo. Inoaiiy noaiiaeea nenoaio
iie?oe/ieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/i? nenoaie, ui
caaacia/oaaea ?ioa?ane iai?aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Cia?yaeaeyi
i?iaaaeaiiy oaeiai eo?no aoea e ina?oa, ui iaea aeoiaoaaoe iaeaooi?o
a?iiaaeyi o aeon? iiaaae e ethaia? aei i?anoieo.

Aea/aiiy a?o?aieo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui a?aeiinii Oe?a?ie
oea?nueeee o?yae aaa/aa a ina?o? iniiaia cia?yaeaey ?oneo?eaoe?? e?ath.
Iniaeeaa ?ieue a?aeaiaeeeanue oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ina?o?.

O ?icae?e? ei?ioei iiaea?oueny ?noi??y oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a o
eiioaeno? ?c caaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ?icaeoeo ?iia?nueei? nenoaie ina?oe
caaaeii ? oi?aa?neoaonueei? cie?aia. I?aee?aneth?oueny a?aeiinia
“iieiae?noue” oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a ii??aiyii c oi?aa?neoaoaie
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie. I?ioa oea ia caaaaeeei ?i ca ei?ioeee ?noi?e/iee
i?ii?aeie /ano noaoe a?aeiieie.

I?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? iai?yie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie:
ea??aieoeoai ca aeiiiiiaith ?aeeieo noaooo?a, ye? caoaa?aeaeoaaa
?iia?aoi?; iaaeaiiy eioo?a c aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo i?e ?aaeaiaioaoe??
?o aeei?enoaiiy; aea?aeaaiee ? iie?oeaenueeee eiio?ieue ca aeeooyi oa
ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaionoaa ? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo.

Aiae?c oi?aa?neoaonueeeo noaooo?a ( 1863 oa 1884 ??.) aeaa iiaeeea?noue
aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? oa aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo nenoaie oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? a oe?eiio ? a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia. C?iaeaii
aeniiaie, ui naia noaoooe aeeiioaaee ooieoe?th iniiaieo aaaeae?a
aea?aeaaii-o?yaeiaiai ea??aieoeoaa oi?aa?neoaonueeith ina?oith oa
aeoiaaiiyi nooaeaionueei? iieiae?.

I?inoaaeo?oueny ai?ioueaa aeaio oaiaeaioe?e a ?noi??? oi?aa?neoao?a.
Iaeia c ieo iia’ycaia c iaaiith aaoiiii??th oi?aa?neoao?a, ?ioa – c
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noth aea?aeaa?. Aaoi? ae?eoea aeniiaeo, ui iaa?oue
oiae?, eiee aa?o a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ina?o? a?aea aeaiie?aoe/ia
oaiaeaioe?y (noaooo 1863 ?.), o?yae cian?i ia iaa ia iao? oi/a a aeayeeo
c?ooaiue uiaei iaaeaiiy oi?aa?neoaoai Oe?a?ie ?en iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe.

Aeae? ?icaeyaeathoueny aoaie ianooio oea?ecio ia oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o,
iicaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? iaa?oue iaae?? ia iaoe?iiaeueio
ina?oo, caeioaa/aiiy ?? a i?aaiaii? aei naia?aoecio, iie?oe/iiai
a?aeie?aieaiiy Iaei?in?? a?ae ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Naia iaoea e ina?oa
aoee caeioaa/ai? o ?iciianthaeaeaii? a noni?euenoa? caoaieo aeey
naiiaea?aeaanoaa ?aeae.

?ioei aaaeaeai oi?aae?iiy oi?aa?neoaoaie c aieo aea?aeaae, yeee aoei
aeine?aeaeaii o ?icae?e?, aoea nenoaia ???a?o?/iiai ono?ith.
Oi?aa?neoao, ye aea?aeaaia onoaiiaa, iaeaaeaa aei caaaeueii?
/eiiaieoeueei? ???a?o??. I?ioani?ai ? aeeeaaea/ai iaaeaaaeenue /eie.
Oiaoi i?ioani?, aeioeaio ? iaa?oue nooaeaio, ye iaeaooi?e aea?aeaaiee
/eiiaiee, aoiaeeee a nenoaio “/ei – noai – a?io?”, aoee /anoeith
aea?aeaaii? ath?ie?aoe/ii? nenoaie.

Aoaeoeaiei aeey naiiaea?aeaanoaa caniaii ea??aieoeoaa oi?aa?neoaoaie, ye
iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeyaeeanue i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a ina?oe –
aa?oeeaeue ath?ie?aoe/iiai i?aae?iiy: a?ae iiia?oiai i?ioaaoaaiiy aei
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeyaea/a – ?iniaeoi?a oi?aa?neoaoo. Ath?ie?aoe/ia ii?ea
iaae oi?aa?neoaoaie aoea iano?eueee u?eueiith, ui ?aeoi? ?
oi?aa?neoaonueea ?aaea aac aeicaieo iiia/eoaey ia iaee i?aaa ci?ieoe
iaa?oue ?iceeaae caiyoue.

I?ae aaciina?aaei?i ? iino?eiei eiio?ieai oea?nueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa
ia?aaoaaei ? o?iainoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a. O?yaeia? eiea
?icoi?ee aeeoo?ao aaaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai ??aiy ina?oe
a?iiaaeyi, iaa?oue iia’ycoaaee oeth i?iaeaio c aea?aeaaiith aaciaeith.
Aeecueei 80% on?o eioo?a ia ?icaeoie oi?aa?neoao?a iaaeoiaeeei a?ae
aea?aeaae. I?ioa oe? noie aae i?ye ia caaeiaieueiyee an?o
oi?aa?neoaonueeeo iio?aa. Oaea neooaoe?y aoea oa?aeoa?iith ia o?eueee
aeey oi?aa?neoao?a, a e aeey an?o eaiie ia?iaeii? ina?oe. *anoea
aea?aeaaiiai o?iainoaaiiy ina?oe ia ia?aaeuoaaea 2% aeaioi?euey?aeiiai
athaeaeaoo ?iia???.

Iii?oiei o?iainiaei aeaea?aeii aoee i?eaaoi? iiaea?oaoaaiiy. Ia?an?/ii
aiie noaiiaeee a?ae 4% aei 7%, a a aeaye? ?iee iaa?oue 10% (o 1880 ?. –
13%). Iaoeaiaonueeee ?oo ia ei?enoue ina?oe aoa aeaai?iaeiei yaeuai o
aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. A?i ae?noaa
aenieo ioe?ieo no/aniee?a ? ? iia/aeueiei o?ieii aeey iauaaee?a.

Ocaaaeueithth/ei aeniiaeii ?icae?eo ? oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui a oe?eiio noai
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. aecia/aany
iie?oeeith oea?nueei? ?in??, ni?yiiaaiith ia aeei?enoaiiy
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie oa
ia ?aae?caoe?th iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo oe?eae o i?ia?ioe?? c
ia?in?enueeei ianaeaiiyi. Oea aoea iie?oeea ?oneo?eaoe??, noai?aiiy
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a, eiyeueieo aei o?yaeo, aeoeaieo
i?ia?aeiee?a o aeeooy o?aaeeoe?e ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e oi?aa?neoao?a”
aecia/a?oueny i?noea i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie o ?icaeoeo iaoee ? i?aeaioiaoe? eaae?o?eiaaieo
niaoe?ae?no?a — a/eoae?a, e?ea??a, th?eno?a, aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a;
aiae?co?oueny eiai nioe?aeueia, iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua, noaaeaiiy aei
aeaaee, aeine?aeaeothoueny aeiiae aei iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a, ye?
aeeeooaaa /an.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae
oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a a oe?eiio yaeya niaith eaae?o?eiaaiee ye o
iaoeiaiio, oae ? a iaaeaaia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? caaae ? ia iinooiaany
eieaaai c i?anoeaeieo, c aaaaoia?eiaeie o?aaeeoe?yie oi?aa?neoao?a
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i. E?eoa??yie eiai i?aeai?o e ioe?iee aoee
iayai?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aeieoi?nueeeo oa iaa?noa?nueeeo
aeena?oaoe?e, iaaeaaia?/i? cae?aiino?.

I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono
Oa?e?anueeiai, Ee?anueeiai, Iiai?in?enueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a a?aeaoaaany c
aaeeeeie neeaaeiiuaie. A ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny oeyoe ?ica’ycaiiy
eaae?iai? i?iaeaie ? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
iiiiaiaiiy oi?aa?neoao?a niaoe?ae?noaie noaa ?inoeooo i?ioani?nueeeo
noeiaiae?ao?a, aae’thieoo?a (ani??aioo?a).

Ci?no oa ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yioaaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy ia?aaoaaee i?ae iino?eiei
aaei?i?no?aoeaiei eiio?ieai. I?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie ia aoa a?eueiei o aeeeaaeaii? ci?noo naiai eo?no.
A?ae iueiai aeiaaaeinue “iiaiiai, a??iiai ? c aeia?eie iai??aie
aeeeaaeaiiy naiai i?aaeiaoo”, aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a a aeon?
?ae?a?eii-iiia?o?/ii? ii?ae?, oi?ioaaiiy a?aeaeaieo naiiaea?aeaanoao
aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a. Eiiniaeoe nai?o eo?n?a aeeeaaea/? ciaia’ycai?
aoee i?aaenoaaeyoe iiia/eoaeth iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao ia ?aoeaic?th.
I?ia?aie oa iaa/aeuei? ieaie neeaaeaeeny a I?i?noa?noa? ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, ? ?aaea oi?aa?neoaoo ia iaea i?aaa aiineoe aei ieo aoaeue-ye?
ci?ie. Oiio c oeei nooaeaioe aea/aee /eiaei iaiio??aieo eo?n?a, a a
aeeeaaeaii? niinoa??aaany a?ae?ea oai??? a?ae i?aeoeee.

Iaeiae, ye iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?ioani?nuee? eieaa?? ia aoee
aaeaeoae? aei ?acoeueoao?a nai?? i?aoe? ? , caeo/ath/e nooaeaio?a aei
ciaiue, ooeaee iaee?au? oi?ie iaa/aiiy. ?icai?ioeanue aeeneon?y ia oaio
“Naiaiaea iiooeo ciaiue /e i?eioniaa iaa/aiiy”. Oey i?iaeaia
a?aeaeca?eaethaaeanue o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ianyao eaeoe?e ? i?aeoe/ieo
caiyoue. Ia?aaaaeiith oi?iith caeeoaeanue eaeoe?y. E?euee?noue
i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue nooo?ai a?aenoaaaea a?ae e?eueeino? eaeoe?eieo
aiaeei. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoei 1:3 ia ei?enoue eaeoe?e.

Aaaeeeaith caeeoaeanue i?iaeaia iaoa??aeueii? aea?aaeaioiino? i?aoe?
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. Ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O no. aeey
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a iicia/eeany
iaae??oai?noth i?iaeaie iieaoe i?aoe?. A?aeiinii aenieeie ieeaaee aoee
eeoa o i?ioano?e. I?aeeia?iee i?ioani? io?eioaaa 3000 e?a.,
aeno?ai?aeeia?iee i?ioani? — 2000 e?a., aeioeaio — 1200 e?a., eaeoi?
?iicaiieo iia — 1000 e?a. ia ??e. A oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? o?eaaea
aeeneon?y i?i aeiaai?iaeo iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? — i?aoe? iniaeeai?, yea
aeaaaea iaeaeuo ei?enoue aea?aeaa?. Aaoi?e aeoiee i?i iniaeeao
oe?ii?noue ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe? i?iiiioaaee ca?eueoeoe ieeaaee
aeeeaaea/ai oi?aa?neoao?a i?eiaeii? aaea?/?.

Aiae?c cia/iiai a?o?aiiai iaoa??aeo oa ai?noiey?ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeaa
iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ? iie?oe/iee ii?o?ao
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a. Eiai
oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aoea ?iaeeoa?aioi?noue cia/ii? /anoeie i?ioani??a
aei iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, a?aaeath/a iie??i?noue ?nioth/ei ii?yaeeai. Oi/a,
aacia?a/ii, oea oaa?aeaeaiiy ia iiaeia a?aeianoe aei anueiai
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai caaaeo oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie.
Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo i?ioani??a aoee e oae?, ui aenooiaee i?ioe
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, iiae?eyee ?aeaieia?th nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?oo?a, i?aeo?eioaaee ?aeath ia?aaoaeiae noni?euenoaa. Oa
ia?aaaaeaea “nie?aii?noue”. Iaeiith c i?e/ei iiei?e oa aaeaeoaeino?
iaaii? /anoeie i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono oe?a?inueeeo
oi?aa?neoao?a aoa iino?eiee aea?aeaaiee iaaeyae ca ?oi?ie iie?oe/ieie
ia?aeiiaiiyie oa iiaia caeaaei?noue ea?’??e a?ae iie?oe/ii?
aeaaiiaae?eiino?. O?yaeia? eiea i?iaiaeeee iine?aeiaio iie?oeeo
?aeaeiiai i?aeei?aiiy i?ioano?e oi?aa?neoao?a eo?no ci?oeiaiiy
naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? ai?ioueae c iiiceoe?eieie neeaie. Iaeiae iiiceoe?y
aea?aeaaiiio eo?no noi?ioaaeany a naiiio i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiio
ei?ion?, ?aeaeia aeeooy yeiai aoei iicia/aia iino?eiei i?ioeai?noaii
e?aa?aeueiiai ? eiina?aaoeaiiai. Oaeee ?iciiae?e iie?oe/ieo nee
iai?oeany ua a 1840—50-o ?ieao ? ooaa?aeeany a 1860—80-o.. Aeai?no?noue
noni?eueiiai noaiiaeua i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo noaea
i?e/eiith eiai ?aeaeiiai ?iceieo ia e?aa?aeueio a?eueo?noue c ia?aaaaeii
eiinoeoooe?eii-iiia?o?/iith ieaooi?iith ? eiina?aaoeaio iaio?noue, yea
aaa/aea a ?in?enueeiio naiiaea?aeaanoa? iaae?eio aa?aio?th nai?o
noaiiaeo i?aa ? i?ea?ea?a. C ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. e?aa?aeuei?
i?ioani?e oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie noaee iaiaei?iiei iiiiaioii o?yaeiaiai
eo?no a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Nooaeaionueea iieiaeue oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie”
?icaeyaea?oueny noaiiaa no?oeoo?a, /enaeuei?noue,
iaoe?iiaeueii-a??iniia?aeaeueia i?eiaeaaei?noue, i?aaiaa oa iaoa??aeueia
noaiiaeua nooaeaionoaa, eiai noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue.

Neeaae nooaeaionoaa oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie ?in?enueeee o?yae
?aaoethaaa, aeoiaey/e c naiai “no?aoaa?/iiai caaeoio” caa?aaoe iai?aia
noaiiaeua aeai?yinoaa o aeu?e oeie?. Aeey oeueiai aaeeaaeeny on?
iiaeeea? caniae. I?ioa i?ioean aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe
noaa ia’?eoeaiei yaeuai ? a?aeaoaaany a Oe?a?i? aeineoue ?ioaineaii,
ia?aaeuoth/e ca oaiiaie iaa?oue na?aaei? iieacieee ii ?in??. A inoaii?e
/aa?o? O?O no. neeaae nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie noaa ia?aaaaeii
??cii/eiiei. O o?ueio oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoaoao a 1855—1878 ??. /anoea
aeo?aeoe?a c aeai?yinoaa ciaioeeanue c 65,3% aei 39,4%. Ia e?iaoeue
noie?ooy oey oaiaeaioe?y cia/ii iineeeeanue.

Iio?aae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? c?inoath/ee aaoi?eoao oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe ni?e/eieee oaeaeea c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? nooaeaionoaa a
oi?aa?neoaoao Oe?a?ie. E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. c?inea a n?i ?ac?a, Oa?e?anueeiai —
ao?e/?.

Oea?nueea naiiaea?aeaanoai /a?ac I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe
cae?enithaaei iino?eiee eiio?ieue ca neeaaeii nooaeaionoaa
oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie. Ae?yea nenoaia nioe?aeueii-ioi?iiiiai
?aaoethaaiiy. I?ia?aeiei e?eoa???i aoa a??iniia?aeaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueiee
aniaeo. Aeua oeiea a Oe?a?i?, ye ? a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao ?in?enueei? ?iia???,
aoea ?in?enueeith ca iiaith aeeeaaeaiiy ? i?ecia/aeany ianaiia?aae aeey
iieiae? i?aaineaaiiai a??iniia?aeaiiy, ae?oieo i?ioa?e?a noni?euenoaa.
Oei naiei o?yae iaiaaaany, c iaeiiai aieo, onoiooe iiaeeea?noue
nooaeaionueeeo iie?oe/ieo aenooi?a ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, c ?ioiai,
no?eiaoe ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iae?a ?iia???
ca?aaee caa?aaeaiiy ?? oe?e?niino?. Oi/ii aecia/eoe iaoe?iiaeueio
no?oeoo?o nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no.
iaiiaeeeai ca a?aeii a?aeiia?aeieo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo. Aea iiaeia
oaa?aeeoe i?i aaniethoio ia?aaaao a nooaeaionueeiio eiioeiaaio? in?a
i?aaineaaiiai a??iniia?aeaiiy. A Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? nooaeaioe
i?aaineaaii? a??e neeaaeaee 65,9%, Oa?e?anueeiio — 86,6%,
Iiai?in?enueeiio — 82,1%. Iniiaiei ia’?eoii
aaeeeiaea?aeaaii-iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy aoea ?a?aenueea /anoeia
nooaeaionoaa.

Nooaeaionoai oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a aoei iaea?eueo aeoeaiith ?
iaeaeaiie?aoe/i?oith /anoeiith noni?euenoaa. Aeey oea?nueeiai ?aaeeio —
oea aoa ia’?eo ia?iaiaioiiai ianiieith ? aioeo?yaeiaeo aeoe?e. O?yae
noai?i ?aaeaiaiooaaa iaa/aiiy ? aeeooy nooaeaionoaa, iaiaaeoaaa eiai
iie?oe/i? i?aaa, anoaiiaea oioaeueiee aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ? iie?oeaenueeee
iaaeyae. I?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. i?aaa nooaeaio?a iino?eii
o??caeeny. A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? oeueiai i?ioeano.

Ana oea niiioeaei nooaeaio?a aei ianiaeo aenooi?a nii/aoeo i?ae aaneaie
aaoiiii?? oi?aa?neoao?a, a caiaeii — i?ae aaneaie iaaeia??e ?nioth/iio
?aaeeio.

A o?yaeiaeo eieao ooeaee i?e/ei nooaeaionueeeo caai?ooaiue ? iaa?oue
iai??eiaoaaee “ie?i?” caniae aaaioaaiiy aoio?aeeai? iieiae?. A
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny ??ci? iiaeyaee uiaei ae??oaiiy
nooaeaionueeiai ieoaiiy. I?ioa iniiaieie caniaaie aeyaeeeny ?ai?aneai?.
Aeaaea aaeaaaeany aei a?aoo?a o ea?oea?? ia /ioe?e oeaei? /e iaa?oue aei
caneaiiy aei Nea??o, cae?eooy oi?aa?neoao?a, aeeeth/aiiy c iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, a?aei?aaee i?eca?aeiee?a o nieaeaoe. Aea oae? caoiaee iaee
cai?ioi? a?ae i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoaoe — aei eaa nooaeaio?a-aoio?aiee?a
noaaaee iia? a?oie i?ea?/iee?a.

Iaei??th c i?e/ei nooaeaionueeeo aenooi?a aoei ceeaeaiia iaoa??aeueia
noaiiaeua cia/ii? /anoeie nooaeaionoaa oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a.
O?eueee aeayea /anoeia nooaeaio?a aoea caaacia/aia aea?aeaaieie
noeiaiae?yie ? a?ioiaith aeiiiiiaith, ?ioeie i?eueaaie, ye? o?yae
caeaa?eueoiai ?icoe?ithaaa ye iaai?iaeo ca aeaaiiaae?ei?noue. Oi/a
iniiaia o?iainiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy uiaei caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
oi?aa?neoao?a ianea, aacia?a/ii, aea?aeaaa. A Oa?e?anueeiio ?
Iiai?in?enueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao o?eueee 30-35% nooaeaio?a iiai?noth
niea/oaaee ca iaa/aiiy. ?aooo , 70% aeo?ao ,a?aea ia naaa aea?aeaaa.

Iaae?eiei caniaii cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee noaiiaino? ina?oe aoea aeniea
ieaoa ca iaa/aiiy. Aea oeae aaciaee i?eioeei iie?oeee naiiaea?aeaanoaa
uiaei oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe caaaeaaaa oeiaee ye ?ioa?anai aea?aeaae a
oe?eiio, oae ? ?icaeoeo ina?oe cie?aia. Caiaeii oea ii/aee ?icoi?oe
iaa?oue ea??ai? /eiiaieee ?in?enueei? ?iia???.

I?e an?o o?ueio oi?aa?neoaoao i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie ?nioaaee
niaoe?aeuei? oiaa?enoaa aeiiiiiae nooaeaioai. Aeineoue aoaeoeaiith
oi?iith aca?iii? i?aeo?eiee aeyaeeeny “caieyoeoaa”. A ?icae?e? aea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea oeeo ia’?aeiaiue nooaeaio?a, iaaiaeyoueny eiie?aoi?
i?eeeaaee ?o ae?yeueiino?, aiae?co?oueny noaaeaiiy aei ieo i?ia?aneaii?
i?ioano?e, c iaeiiai aieo, oa o?yaeo ? i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, c
?ioiai. Iaa?oue o oaeeo aoiaiieo, aeaeaeeo a?ae iie?oeee i?aai?caoe?yo,
ye “caieyoeoaa”, aaa/aee caa?ico aea?aeaa?, aaaaeaee ?o “aioiaeie
oa?iieie i?aai?caoe?yie” ? aeiaaaee ?icioneo.

Ioaea, aeua oeiea ? ia?aaeon?i oi?aa?neoaoe, i?ecia/aeeny iaeia?oa aeey
iaoa??aeueii caaacia/aii?, eiyeueii? aei o?yaeo iieiae? Oe?a?ie. O?yae
? i?noeaaa aaei?i?no?aoe?y iaineaaiee eiio?ieue ca na?oiaeyaeii
nooaeaio?a noaaeee aeua ca ?o iaoa??aeueiee aeia?iaoo. Aaeaeoae?noue
naiiaea?aeaanoaa aei ceeaei?a nooaeaionoaa aoea oi?iith aaeeei?
iie?oeee: c ?? aeiiiiiaith cae?enithaaeiny ioi?iiia (/a?ac aenieo ieaoo
ca iaa/aiiy) ?aaoethaaiiy neeaaeo nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? ae?eoea aei ?yaeo aeniiae?a, iniiai?
c yeeo aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa Oe?a?ie iaaoea
ye?nii iiaiai noaio, oi?aa?neoaoe ia?aoai?eeenue o i?ia?aei? ina?oi? ?
iaoeia? oeaio?e ?in?enueei? ?iia???, ni?eyth/e iioe?aiith ciaiue na?aae
ianaeaiiy. Ca ?acoeueoaoeai?noth iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei ??aiai aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo, e?euee?noth
nooaeaio?a, aaoi?eoaoi?noth a i/ao na?oiai? a?iiaaenueeino? aiie oa?eoee
aei ?yaeo i?ia?aeieo.

Oi?aa?neoaoe Oe?a?ie iaeaaeaee aei ?aeeii? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei?
nenoaie ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ? iaee aeeiioaaoe, ca caaeoiii oea?nueeiai
o?yaeo, e??i ina?oiuei-iaoeiaeo ooieoe?e, iniaeeao ?ieue ?oneo?eaoe??
oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?ae aaneii iai?iie neia’yinoaa ? i?aaineaa’y a?ae
eaoieeoeecio. Iniiaieie iai?yiaie aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa
oi?aa?neoaoaie noaee: ea??aieoeoai ca aeiiiiiaith ?aeeieo noaooo?a,
aeeth/aiiy i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai oa nooaeaionueeiai eiioeiaaioo
aei caaaeueii? nenoaie /eiiaieoeueei? ???a?o??, iaaeaiiy eioo?a c
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo i?e ?aaeaiaioaoe?? ?o aeei?enoaiiy, aea?aeaaiee
? iie?oeaenueeee eiio?ieue ca aeeooyi oa ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaionoaa ?
i?ioani??a.

Oi?aa?neoaonuee? noaoooe aeeiioaaee ooieoe?th iniiaieo aaaeae?a
aea?aeaaii-o?yaeiaiai ea??aieoeoaa oi?aa?neoaonueeith ina?oith a
Oe?a?i?. ?o ni?yiiaai?noue eieeaaeanue a?ae iii??eiaaii-e?aa?aeueii?
(1863 ?.) aei ae?ae ?aaeoe?eii? (1884 ?.). Aea iaa?oue oiae?, eiee aa?o
a oi?aa?neoaonuee?e ina?o? a?aea aeaiie?aoe/ia oaiaeaioe?y, o?yae ia
ia?aaeaa/aa iaa?oue i?i?iaeueieo ci?i uiaei iaaeaiiy oe?a?inuee?e
ina?o? ?en iaoe?iiaeueii?.

Iniaeeai neeaaeiei aeyaeany aeey oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ?o i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai ei?iono. Aea
iai?ee?ioe? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo eaae?iaa i?iaeaia aoea ae??oaia.
Iniiaiith oi?iith i?aeaioiaee eaae??a noaa ?inoeooo i?ioani?nueeeo
noeiaiae?ao?a (ani??aioo?a).

Oi/a ci?no oa ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yioaaiiy aeeeaaeaiiy a oi?aa?neoaoao
ia?aaoaaee i?ae iino?eiei aaei?i?no?aoeaiei iaaeyaeii, i?ioani?nuee?
eieaa?? ooeaee iaee?au? oi?ie iaa/aiiy, caeo/aiiy nooaeaionoaa aei
ciaiue, iaiaaaeenue o??aiiaaaeeoe oai??th c i?aeoeeith iaa/aiiy.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iaaii? /anoeie i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
ei?iono aoea ?iaeeoa?aioi?noue aei iie?oe/ieo iiae?e, nie?aii?noue —
iane?aeie iine?aeiaii? iie?oeee ?aeaeiiai i?aeei?aiiy i?ioano?e
oi?aa?neoao?a eo?no ci?oeiaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? ai?ioueae c
iiiceoe?eieie neeaie. Iaeiae iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. e?aa?aeuei? i?ioani?e
oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie ia?aoai?eeenue ia iino?eieo
iiiiaio?a eo?no o?yaeo a aaeoc? ina?oe.

Nooaeaioe oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a aoee iaei??th c iaeaeoeai?oeo ?
iaeaeaiie?aoe/i?oeo /anoei noni?euenoaa. O?yae noai?i ?aaeaiaiooaaa ?oi?
aeeooy ? iaa/aiiy, iino?eii o??caa i?aaa nooaeaionoaa, inoaii? aoei aeey
?iia?nueeiai ?aaeeio aeaea?aeii ia?iaiaioiiai ianiieith oa aioeo?yaeiaeo
aeoe?e.

Ia’?eoeaiei yaeuai noaa i?ioean aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?aa?neoaonueei?
ina?oe. Iniiaiith caeiiii??i?noth aaiethoe?? nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo
nooaeaio?a noaei c?inoaiiy ??cii/eiiiai aeaiaioo. Oeae i?ioean
a?aeaoaaany a Oe?a?i? aeineoue ?ioaineaii, ia?aaeuoth/e ca oaiiaie
na?aaei? iieacieee ii ?in?enuee?e ?iia???. Oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy /anoee
aeo?aeoe?a ?c aeai?yinoaa a oe?a?inueeeo oi?aa?neoaoao ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a-??cii/eioe?a cia/ii iineeeeanue
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no.

Na?aae ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iiaeia aecia/eoe
oae?, ye iiaeeaeaiiy aea/aiiy ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? oi?aa?neoao?a
Oe?a?ie, ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae, ii?aoethaaiiy ?noi??? ??cieo
aaeocae oi?aa?neoaonueei? iaoee, aeeooy oa ae?yeueiino? iaeaeaeaoi?oeo
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo.

Iniiaiee ci?no oa iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

A?ioo?e oa noaoo?:

Nooaeaionoai oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. — E.: OIA “I?aeia?. o?i. aaaioe?y”, 1998. — 28 n.

Iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i? eaae?e oi?aa?neoao?a i?ae?in?enueei? Oe?a?ie a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. // Iaoeia? caienee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. —
Aei. 1. — E.: IIO, 1998. — N. 86 — 93.

I?aaiaa noaiiaeua nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. // Iaoeia? caienee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — Aei. 3. — E.:
IIO, 1998. — N. 254 -259.

Oi?aa?neoaoe Oe?a?ie a nenoai? aeui? ina?oe ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. // Iaoeia? caienee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — Aei. 4. — E.: IIO, 1998. — N. 82 — 89.

?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. // Iaoeia? caienee : Ca??iee noaoae
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. –
E.: IIO, 1999. — *.2. – N. 272 – 281.

Oieaa?neoaoneee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue: O?O aae // Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee.
— 1999. — ? 3. — N. 128 — 136 (ni?aaaoi? A.?.*eiueiiiee).

Aiioaoe?y

Noiyi O.A. Oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa a Oe?a?i? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a i?ae?in?enuee?e Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O no. Ia iniia? oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace, aeyaeaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii
caaaeuei? ?ene ? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie, aecia/ai?
?o i?noea oa ?ieue a ina?o? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, caaacia/aii? eaae?aie
aeui? eaae?o?eaoe??. Aecia/aii ??aaiue iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai iiaioaaiiy
i?iaeaie, aeyaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee ?in?enueei?, ?aaeyinueei? oa
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? noiniaii ia?aii? oaie c o?aooaaiiyi
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aieeao iie?oe/ieo ?aeae ia a/aieo
? ioae?oeeno?a. C’yniaaii iniiai? oaeoi?e, eio?? coiiaeee o?yaeiaee eo?n
uiaei oi?aa?neoao?a Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ieie.
Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae, eiai i?ioan?eiee
??aaiue, i?noea a noni?euenoa?; iieacaii iniiai? oeyoe ae??oaiiy
eaae?iai? i?iaeaie a oi?aa?neoaoao Oe?a?ie. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
nooaeaionoai, cie?aia, aeaea?aea oa oaiaeaioe?? eiai iiiiaiaiiy,
nioe?aeueiee noaoon, iaoa??aeueia noaiiaeua, noinoiee c i?ioano?ith.
Aecia/ai? aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy, ui iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee oa
ae?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? a noaee o iaaiae? aeey iie?auaiiy noaio
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe a no/anieo oiiaao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oe?a?ia, aeua ina?oa, Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao,
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao, Iiai?in?enueeee (Iaeanueeee) oi?aa?neoao,
I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe, i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeee neeaae,
nooaeaioe.

Aiiioaoeey

Noiyi O.A. Oieaa?neoaoneia ia?aciaaiea a Oe?aeia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
O?O no. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00. 01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey oieaa?neoaoneiai
ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia O?O no. Ia iniiaa iaoe?iiai
e?oaa enoi/ieeia, auyaeaiu e nenoaiaoece?iaaiu iauea /a?ou e iniaaiiinoe
?acaeoey oieaa?neoaoia Oe?aeiu, ii?aaeaeaiu eo ianoi e ?ieue a
ia?aciaaiee oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, iaania/aiee eaae?aie aunoae
eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Ii?aaeaeai o?iaaiue iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneie ?ac?aaioee aii?inia ?acaeoey
oieaa?neoneiai ia?aciaaiey a O?O no., auyaeaiu eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiau
?inneeneie, niaaoneie e nia?aiaiiie oe?aeineie enoi?eia?aoee eca?aiiie
oaiu. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aei?aaiethoeeiiiay enoi?eia?aoey i?iaeai
oieaa?neoaoneiai ia?aciaaiey eiaea iaua?inneeneee oa?aeoa?, /a?ou
ioaeeoeenoeee e, iacaaeneii io eaeaieiae/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe, ia eiaea
iaiauathueo ?aaio ii enoi?ee oieaa?neoaoneiai ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia.
?ac?aaioea oaiu enneaaeiaaiey iaoiaeeeanue ia noaaeee auyaeaiey
oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ii enoi?ee ioaeaeueiuo oieaa?neoaoia. Aeey
niaaoneiai ia?eiaea oa?aeoa?iui aue ioeac io enneaaeiaaiey
i?eioeeieaeueiuo i?iaeai, eca?auaiea oaeoia e iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee
o/aiuo eiioea O?O — ia/aea OO no. Ainiiaenoaothuei noaei iiae/a?eiooi
ieaeeenoe/aneia ioiioaiea e enoi?ee aei?aaiethoeeiiiiai oieaa?neoaoneiai
ia?aciaaiey. Enneaaeiaaoaee ecaaaaee iinoaiiaee iaueo i?iaeai a
ianooaaao anae Oe?aeiu, ia?aie/eaaynue enneaaeiaaieai ioaeaeueiuo
i?iaeai a ?aieao iaeiiai oieaa?neoaoa.

Auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeyaoea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eo?n a
ioiioaiee oieaa?neoaoia Oe?aeiu, ?ane?uo iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey eie.
?acaeoea nenoaiu oieaa?neoaoneiai ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia aiaeece?oaony a
niioaaonoaee n enoi?e/aneeie ?aaeeyie, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey aoi?ie iieiaeiu
O?O no. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi, no?aiynue i?ana/ue naia?aoenoneea iano?iaiey
ii?aaiuaiiuo ia?iaeia, oea?eci acye eo?n ia eo aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeeth e
ianeeuenoaaiioth ?oneoeeaoeeth. Iniaay ?ieue a i?iaaaeaiee yoiai eo?na
ioaiaeeeanue oieaa?neoaoneiio ia?aciaaieth. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey e n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey oieaa?neoaoaie
Oe?aeiu: ?oeiaiaenoai n iiiiuueth aaeeiuo onoaaia, eioi?ua
ooaa?aeaeaeenue eiia?aoi?ii, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea i?e no?iaie
?aaeaiaioaoeee eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa, oioaeueiue ainoaea?noaaiiue e
iieeoeaeneee eiio?ieue ca i?ioanni?aie e nooaeaioaie. I?ineaaeaia
yaiethoeey oieaa?neoaoia io yeeoa?iuo (aeai?yineeo) o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee
aei ?acii/eiiuo. A eiioea noieaoey cia/eoaeueii oneeeeanue oaiaeaioeey
oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeai?yinoaa a oieaa?neoaoao
Oe?aeiu ca n/ao oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe nooaeaioia-?acii/eioeaa. Naeaeai
auaiae, /oi aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea a oieaa?neoaoneii ia?aciaaiee aa?o
a?aea aeaiie?aoe/aneay oaiaeaioeey, i?aaeoaeuenoai ia i?aaeoniao?eaaei
aeaaea ieieiaeueiuo eciaiaiee a ieaia i?eaeaiey oieaa?neoaoneiio
ia?aciaaieth /a?o iaoeeiiaeueiiai.

Enneaaeiaaiu i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneee ninoaa, aai
i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?iaaiue, ianoi a iauanoaa; iieacaiu iniiaiua iooe
?aoaiey i?iaeaiu eaae?ia a oieaa?neoaoao Oe?aeiu. Iniiaiei enoi/ieeii
iiiieiaiey oieaa?neoaoia niaoeeaeenoaie noae einoeooo i?ioanni?neeo
noeiaiaeeaoia, aaeuthieoo?a (anie?aioo?a). ?anniao?eaaaony i?iaeaia
iaoa?eaeueiie yeaeaaeaioiinoe o?oaea iao/ii-iaaeaaiae/iuo eaae?ia.
I?iaiaeece?iaaiu i?aeoeeiaaaoeany e i?aaeeaaaaiua oe?aeineei iauanoaii
iooe ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu. Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua i?e/eiu e iineaaenoaey
ia?aie/eoaeueiie iieeoeee oea?ecia a ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae
oe?aeineie aocianeie eioaeeeaaioeee.

Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea nooaeai/anoaa, a oii /enea enoi/ieeia e
oaiaeaioeee aai iiiieiaiey, aai nioeeaeueiiai noaoona, acaeiiioiioaiee
n i?ioanno?ie; auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u, niinianoaiaaaoea i?aa?auaieth
nooaeai/anoaa a enoi/iee ia?ooaiee iauanoaaiiiai niieienoaey aeey
eiia?neiai ?aaeeia.

Ii?aaeaeaiu aeooaeueiua aii?inu, o?aaothuea aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee, e
?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oeo/oaieth ninoiyiey nia?aiaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoneiai ia?aciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oe?aeia, aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, Oa?ueeianeee oieaa?neoao,
Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao, Iiai?inneeneee (Iaeanneee) oieaa?neoao,
Ieienoa?noai ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey, i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneee
ninoaa, nooaeaiou.

Annotation

Stoyan T.A. University Education in Ukraine at the second half of the
19-th century. Manuscript.

Thesis for candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00/01 – History of
Ukraine. – Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of formation and development
of the university education under-Russia Ukraine in the second half of
the 19- th century. Based on a wide range of sources, there have been
revealed and systemised common features and peculiarities concerning
development of the universities of Ukraine, determined their place and
role in education of Ukrainians, provision with personnel of the highest
qualification. There have been the level of scientific and theoretical
comprehension of the problem, defined conceptual principles of Russian,
Soviet and modern Ukrainian historiography. There have been exposed
basic factors that conditioned the government course as to universities
of Ukraine, revealed the mechanism of their management. There have been
analysed personnel of professors and lectures, disclosed the main ways
for solution of the personnel problem in the Ukrainian universities.
There has given description of students. In particular, sources and
tendencies of their replenishment, social status, material conditions,
relationship with professors. There have been determined urgent problems
requiring further development.

Key words: Ukraine, high education, Kharkiv university, Kyiv university,
Newrussian ( Odessa) university, Ministry of public education, personnel
of professors and lectures, students.

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?noi??y Iaeanueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca 100 ?ie?a. — E., 1968;
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Oei I.A. Eioaeeeaaioeey ia Oe?aeia ( O?O aae).
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Caiieia A.E. Oieaa?neoaoneee aii?in 1870-1880 aa. e onoaa 1884 a.:
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Anoaoia A.E. Nooaeai/aneia aeaeaeaiea a Oa?ueeianeii oieaa?neoaoa
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“Oieaa?neoaoneea ecaanoey” (1861-1919) oa ?o ?ieue o ?icai?oaii?
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Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee.- NIa, 1881-1912. — O. 23;
Nai?iee iinoaiiaeaiee ii Ieienoa?noao ia?iaeiiaii?inaauaiey.- NIa.,
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NIa., 1901; Io/ao iiia/eoaey Eeaaneiai o/aaiiai ie?oaa i ninoiyiee
o/aaieo caaaaeaiee ie?oaa ca 1892a. -Eeaa, 1893; Io/ao i ninoiyiee e
aeayoaeueiinoe eiia?aoi?neiai Iiai?inneeneiai oieaa?neoaoa a 1884 -1885
aiaeo. — Iaeanna, 1885.

O?oaeu niaauaiey i?ioanni?ia ii oieaa?neoaoneie ?aoi?ia, ia?aciaaiiiai
i?e Ieienoa?noaa ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey.- NIa., 1906.

Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao. Aeieoiaiou e iaoa?eaeu.- Eeaa, 1984; C ?iaiai
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A?ooaanueeee I.N Uiaeaiiee (1888-1894 ??.) — E.,1997.E?noye?anueeee
I.O. Uiaeaiiee (1874-1885): o 2-o o. – E., 1994; A?ooaanueeee I.N.
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aiaeiaueia aai o/aaii-iaaeaaiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (1880-1910).-
Oa?ueeia, 1912.

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