Українські емігрантські політичні партії в I Чехословацькій республіці: Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / К.В. Іващенко, Донец. держ. ун-т. — Донецьк,

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?aauaiei Eaoa?eia Aaea???aia

OAeE 949.72 06/08

OE?A?INUeE? AI?A?AIONUeE? IIE?OE*I? IA?O??

A ? *AOINEIAAOeUeE?E ?ANIOAE?Oe?

(1918-1938 ??.)

07.00.02- Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee- 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

E?ai?a?i Ieaenaiae?
Aaneeueiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oiuei?

iie?oeee Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aooei Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,

?aeoi? ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy,

aeiiii?ee oa i?aaa (i.*a?eane)

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

?iiaioeia Aieiaeeie?
Ieeieaeiae/

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi?e/ieo
aeenoeeie?i

Ia??oiieuenueeiai
aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
24, ei?ion 2, aoae.32).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “11” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Caaei?i?ianueeee I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaoaeiaa oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
ui ?? aoei io?oe?eii caii/aoeiaaii i?iaieioaiiyi Aeoo i?i
iacaeaaei?noue 24 na?iiy 1991 ?., ciaiaio? niaith ao?eaiiy a?eiaiai
i?aaiaiiy ia?iaeo aei i?aaa aecia/aoe aeanio aeieth. Iie?oe/i? ?aae??
nueiaiaeaiiy aeiaiaeyoue, ui /eiaei aniaeo?a ia oeyoo ?aae?caoe?? oe???
iaoe iio?aaothoue nooo?aiai oai?aoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy ? ?noioiiai
i?aeoe/iiai aei?iaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi /eiaeiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, o oiio /ene? o o??? ?? /anoeie, ui /a?ac aeiiii?/i?
/e iie?oe/i? i?e/eie iieieeany ca iaaeaie e?a?ie. Aa?o/e aei oaaae
iaa?aeeeaaeio iaiao?aei?noue ii?aoethaaiiy oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe??
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, aeeaeiia aea/aiiy ye iiceoeaiiai, oae ? iaaaoeaiiai
aeina?aeo ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ni?eueiinoae ca ei?aeiiii ia?
aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye iiaea?ii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?a?iiaenueei? e?a?ie. C?inoath/ee ?ioa?an aei ??cieo aniaeo?a aeeooy
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e c aieo an?o, ooi oe?eaaeoueny ?noi?e/iith
iaoeith, coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue caiiaiaiiy e aein? ?nioth/eo i?iaaeei
a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? OO noi??//y.

Oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?eia a?iiaaea o i?aeai?ii?e *aoineiaa//ei? aeiae
? ?anioae?ee iaeaaeaea aei aaaiii? /anoeie na?oiai?
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. Ii?acea iaoe?iiaeueieo ciaaaiue ia Oe?a?i? o
1917-1920 ??. ni?e/eieea ae?cae ca ei?aeii oeny/ iaeaeoeai?oeo ?o
o/aniee?a, o oiio /ene? ea??aiee?a aeae?eueeio oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a
(aaoueiainueeiai, Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aee?aeoi??? OI?,
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee) oa cia/ii? /anoeie neeaaeo
iia’ycaieo c ieie oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. Ia?oa i?noea na?aae
e?a?i ?icnaeaiiy ai?a?aio?a c Oe?a?ie o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae iin?aeaea
*aoineiaa//eia. Ca ei?aeiiii aeceeuei? o?yaee oa ia?aoi?iiaai?, c
o?aooaaiiyi iayaiino? /eai?a, iie?oe/i? oa?oioaaiiy ?icaa?ioee aeoeaio
iie?oe/io ae?yeuei?noue, yea aaaaeaeanue iaiao?aeiei oaeoi?ii
iaeaooiueiai iiaa?iaiiy a iiiaeaio Oe?a?io. Caiaeii, caio?aiiy aei
?aaeueieo ianoaaei, ui neeaeeny ia aaouee?auei?, cioneee ai?a?aionuee?
eiea ia?ainieneeoe iioi/i? canaaee nai?? ae?yeueiino? oa caa?iooe
a?eueoo oaaao ia caniae ?ioaa?oaaiiy o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio
na?aaeiaeu? e?a?ie-?aoeei??ioa. Oea iaei ?acoeueoaoii cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia
oa?eoi??? *aoineiaa//eie i?e o/ano? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
?oo?a aeanyoe?a eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo, nii?oeaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo
caeeaae?a, ui aeicaieeee aaaaoueii oe?a?ioeyi ia o?eueee aaeaiooaaoenue
aei iiaeo oiia aeeooy, aea ? caa?aaoe naith a?iiaaenueeo oa
iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue.

I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie oa ieth?ae?cio a Oe?a?i?
aeiaaa? ioae?ino? ? aeina?aeo a?ae ?? aeoi??a, ? oeae aeina?ae iiaea
aooe iaaeaaiee, o oiio /ene?, /a?ac aiae?c ?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee oeo
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ui ae?yee a neeaaeieo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiiaao i?aeai?iii? aeiae. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
caa?iooe oaaao ia o?eueee ia ?aeaei? canaaee oa oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
iie?oe/ieo oa/?e, ui /anoi aoaaee aeiaie? ?aeaae?noe/i? ? a?ae??aai?
a?ae ?aaeueieo ianoaaei, aea, o ia?oo /a?ao, ia ?o i?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy ca
?aaeueieo ?noi?e/ieo oiia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeyo?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e o ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe? (*N?) ia o?eueee aeicaieeoue
ia’?eoea?coaaoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, aea e
oi?iaaaeeoue aianie o iie?oieia?/ia oyaeaiiy i?iaeai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue o nenoai? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a oa
caaaaoeoue aio?iiieia?/ia aa/aiiy oaiiiaio iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiiona?aeiieaiiy a oiiaao nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aaeaioaoe??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ui ae?yee a
ai?a?aoe?? ia oa?eoi??? *aoineiaa//eie o ia??iae c 1918 ii 1938 ??. I?ae
iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie ?icoi??ii iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe??, ui ao?eththoue
?ioa?ane iaaieo noni?eueieo a?oi ? i?ioa?e?a oa i?aaiooue caaithaaiiy
aeaaee /e eiio?ieth iaae no?oeoo?aie aeaaee aai aieeao ia ieo.
Ai?a?aoe?y, o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo,- aeiooaia /e aeia?ia?eueia ia?ai?uaiiy
?c e?a?ie iino?eiiai i?iaeeaaiiy aei ?ioi? e?a?ie (?aoeei??ioo).

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea ?noi??y ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e nenoai?
*aoineiaa//eie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue aanue ia??iae ?nioaaiiy
? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee (a?ae i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?
28 aeiaoiy 1918 ?. aei i?aeienaiiy Ithioainueei? oaiaee 30 aa?aniy 1938
?.), c yeei, oaeoe/ii, ni?aiaaeathoue ? iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo
i?aeai?iii? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe?? ye noaeiai yaeua,
ine?eueee ianiaa ia?ai?uaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e aei
*aoineiaa//eie ii/aeinue o e?ioe? 1918 ?. ? o?eaaei aei inai? 1920 ?.,
i?ney /iai ?oo i?aeoe/ii i?eieieany. I?ioean caoaaoo i?eei?aeiiieo
/aoineiaaoeueeeo oa?eoi??e oa iine?aeoth/i? ieoiaoe?? e?a?ie, ui eiai
aoei ?icii/aoi o e?ioe? aeiaoiy 1938 ?., i?ea?a aei aeaci?aai?caoe??
ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe oa aeeeeeaa iia? ia?ai?uaiiy, ui aeaei
i?aenoaae aeey oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ia?a?ai?noue icia/aiiai ia??iaeo
?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? noeoiiino? ye noaei? ni?eueiioe.

Aecia/ai? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaeiae, ia aeeeth/eee iiaeeeaino?
?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ianoaaeaiiy iiae?e aeey a?eueo eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy
ieoaiiy o iaeyae? ia iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia, o aiae?c? oi?ioaaiiy
/aoineiaaoeueei? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy aaaeeeaei ?
ia?aaeai?iiee oa iiai?iiee ia??iaee c e?ioey XIX noi??//y aei 1918 ?.,
ine?eueee naia a oeae /an iaeaooi?e i?aceaeaio *aoineiaa//eie
O.A.Iana?ee caii/aoeoaaa eiioaeoe c oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie oa
a?iiaaenueeeie ae?y/aie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeine?aeeoe ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e o ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?, aecia/eoe ?o i?noea a
eiie?aoieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oiiaao e?a?ie iinaeaiiy oa aeyaeoe ?o
aieea ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo oa ia
neooaoe?th o e?a?i?-?aoeei??io?. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaoi? iinoaaea
ia?aae niaith oae? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe:

— ?icaeyiooe noaaeaiiy ?a?iiaenueei? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee iiai?iii?
aeiae aei Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?ioe?a oa i?iaiae?coaaoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a
uiaei oe?a?inueeeo ieoaiue ?aeaeiiai iaooiaiieea oa ia?oiai i?aceaeaioa
? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee O.A. Iana?eea, ye iniiaiiieiaeiiai ieoaiiy
aeey ?icoi?iiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy /aoineiaaoeueei? eiioeaioe??
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe ii/aoie
/aoineiaaoeueei-oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei oa aecia/eoe ?o
cia/aiiy aeey ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e 20-o
??.;

— aeine?aeeoe iniiai? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
*aoineiaa//eie o eiioaeno? ?o cia/aiiy aeey ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e oa ?oo?a iaaeii?iaioieo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, o oiio /ene?,
oe?a?inueeeo, iaaeaoe oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?in?enueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe??,
ye aaaiiiai oaeoi?a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ? *aoineiaaoeueei?
?anioae?ee, aena?oeeoe ?? noaaeaiiy aei canaae oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oa aecia/eoe eiai aieea ia ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e a aecee?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ii/aoie oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe?? oa
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeiai?a?aoe?eiee aeina?ae ae?yeueiino? iniiaieo oa/?e
a oe?a?inueeiio iie?oe/iiio ?on?, iaaeaoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe a *aoineiaa//ei? i?aeai?iiiai
ia??iaeo oa aecia/eoe i?noea iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e na?aae ?ioeo
ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e;

— ?icaeyiooe ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o
*aoineiaa//ei? o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae, i?aeaeoe i?aenoiie ?acoeueoao?a oa
aecia/eoe iane?aeee oe??? ae?yeueiino? aeey ae?anii?e, e?a?ie iinaeaiiy
oa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio? aia?oa cae?eniaii
ni?iao aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? aeceeueieo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
c iaeyaeii ia ?o i?noea o noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e nenoai?
e?a?ie-?aoeei??ioa ? c canoinoaaiiyi, ?acii c iaoiaeaie ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiae?a caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo.
Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue i??i?eoao o anoaiiaeaii? iaea?eueo aeinoia??ii?
e?eueeino? oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o *aoineiaa//ei?
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo oa /enea ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ui aeoiaeeee o
1918-1938 ??., a oaeiae cae?eniaia oaiaoe/ia nenoaiaoecaoe?y e?oa?aoo?e
oe?a?inueeith iiaith, ui aoea aeiouaia ai?a?aionueeeie onoaiiaaie
i?ioyaii icia/aiiai ia??iaeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?, ii-ia?oa, o
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey iiaeaeueoiai
aea/aiiy ?noi??? iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe ca
ei?aeiiii oa ?icaeyaeo ?? ?ie? o i?ioean? a?o/eciyiiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy; ii-ae?oaa, o caii/aoeoaaii? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai
aiae?co ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o nenoai? iaaeieeoi?o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a oa aeyao aieeao aenoa?iaeueieo /eiiee?a
ia aaiethoe?th iai?yi?a ?o iie?oe/iiai na?oiaeyaeo; ii-o?ao?, o
ia?niaeoeaiiio ii/aoeo ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeiieia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeooo?a iaaeii?iaioii? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?oie (o
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo- oe?a?inueei?) o iie?aoi?/iiio na?aaeiaeu? oa aeyaeaiiy
oaeoi??a oiea?aioiino? o noni?euenoa?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee, i?aaenoaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe??, aoee i?acaioiaai? o aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oeaio?aeueia ?a?iia oa I?eea?iaonueea ?onue” (I?aaa,
1998), anaoe?a?inueeiio neiiic?oi? c ieoaiue aa?a?ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
(*a?eane, 1998), ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aiaaeai
Oiaeueieoeeee: aeeciue, aeayoaeueiinoue, enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue”
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1995), o?ueio aoc?anueeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ca ?acoeueoaoaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe (Aeiiaoeuee, 1995, 1997, 1998), a
oaeiae /anoeiai aeei?enoai? aaoi?ii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?e ii ?noi???
*aoineiaa//eie i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, ui aeeeaaeaeenue ia ?noi?e/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo o ?aieao eo?no
?noi??? Neia’yi. Aeena?oaoe?y i?ieoea iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

CO?OEOO?A OA CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?ii ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye?
aeeth/athoue n?i i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e (188 iaca) oa aeiaeaoe?a (24 noi?.).

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aii o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee,
iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?iaioe, iia?aeiieaii i?i ?? ai?iaaoe?th, iaaeaii nienie
ioae?eaoe?e, ui i?noyoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? -“?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeueia aaca oa iaoiaeieia?y
aeine?aeaeaiiy”- aena?oeaii nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
aeei?enoaio o aeine?aeaeaii? aeaea?aeueio aaco oa iaa?oioiaaii ia?aio
iaoiaeieia?th aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Nooo?aa iie?auaiiy o 90-o? ??. noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee caaaeueii?
oaiaoeee, iia’ycaii? c ?noi???th oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? a ?a?ii? ?,
cie?aia, a *aoineiaa//ei?, coiiaeaii, ia?aaeon?i, ciyooyi oaao ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?icieo eieenue oai oa a?aee?eooyi caai?iiaieo ?ai?oa
a?o?aieo oiiae?a. sse aaea cacia/aeinue iiia?aaeieeaie, o ?icaeoeo
iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie c ie?aieo ieoaiue aeeooy oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? o
*aoineiaa//ei?, iiaeia aeae?eeoe 4 iniiaieo aoaie : 1920-1930-o? ??.,
1940-a? ??., 1950-1990-o? ??. oa ia?oa iieiaeia 90-o ? aeioaia?.

Ia?oeie aeine?aeieeaie ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? a ?
*aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe? o 20-30 ??. aoee nai? o/anieee iiae?e:
/eaie oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a, iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenuee? ae?y/?, ui
ciooai? aoee iieeiooe Oe?a?io i?ney ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aea?aeaaioai?/iai ?ooo /a?ac iie?oe/i? i?e/eie. O ?iaioao i?aaenoaaiee?a
ai?a?aoe?? iiaeia ciaeoe oe?iiee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae uiaei
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?e/iio, icia/ai?
ioae?eaoe?? iaeii/anii iiaeooue aooe noa?aeoa?eciaai? ? ye aeaea?aea, ?
ye ia?oee e?ie o iaaeeaeaii? aei iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. Na?aae
oe?eaaeo ioae?eaoe?e ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ?iaioe eieeoiueiai /eaio
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Oeaio?aeueiiai Eii?oaoo Oe?a?inueei? Ia?o??
Nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a Ieeeoi?a A?eai???aa, ui c 1920 ?.
ia?aaoaaa a ai?a?aoe?? a Iieueu?, a c 1921 ?.- a *aoineiaa//ei?, /eaia
Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?iai/i? ia?o?? (ONAe?I) Ieeiee
Aaeaaaia, ui a?aa o/anoue ye a aaoueiainueeiio o?yae?, oae ? a o?yae?
Aee?aeoi???, a o 1920 ?. ai?a?oaaa aei A?aeiy, a iio?i aei I?aae,
aeoea?noa Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (OI?), /eaia ONAe?I ?naaea
Iacaie, iaeiiai c i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee Ieeeoe
Oaiiaaea, ui ia?aaoaaa o I?ac? c 1921 ?., iieeiaieea a?iaaee OI?, /eaia
Oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? ?.Eiiiaaeueoey, /eaia
ONAe?I, ?aeaieiaa oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio Ae.Aeiioeiaa oa ?io.

Caoaaaeeii oaeiae, ui a oeae aea ia??iae aeaye? ?noi?eee ? ioae?oeenoe a
Oe?a?i? oaae oaaaeii ne?aeeoaaee ca ?icaeoeii iiae?e o ae?anii??, ? aaea
c na?aaeeie 20-o ??. o aaaaoueio ?aaeyinueeeo aacaoao ii/aee c’yaeyoenue
aino?? aeo?iae?nonuee? iaioeaoe, iaoe?eai? ia ai?a?aionuee? ina?aaeee o
?a?ii?. Ao?i, caaaeueia ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue oeeo aenooi?a aoea, a
oe?eiio, ia a?eueoith, i?ae o oaai?? caei?aeiiieo iiiiaio?a. O 1928 ?. o
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aeaeaaieoeoa? aeeoea eieaa I.Iioocee, o ye?e
?c caeo/aiiyi aaaaoueio aeaea?ae, o oiio /ene?, caei?aeiiii? i?ane oa
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue iniiaieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o aecee?, aoei iaaeaii
aeaoaeueiee iaeyae aieiaieo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa/?e caei?aeiiiy, o
oiio /ene? “aaoueiaiueie”, “iaoeth??aueie” oa “oaiiaae?aueie”.

O ai?ii? ?iee e?euee?noue ia?en?a uiaei ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o
*N?, oa acaaae? ai?a?aoe??, aeaui ciaioeeanue, ui coiiaethaaeinue, ye
aaea aoei cacia/aii, i?eieiaiiyi a?aeiinii onoaeaiiai iieiaeaiiy
ai?a?aoe?? oa a?aeiiaeaiiyi ia?ai?uaiue. Iaeiae, ia oe? ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
caoeooy, c’yaeeanue nainaoe?eia ca ??aiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ianyaii
i?aaenoaaeaiiai oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo ?iaioa oe?a?inueeiai
?noi?eea-ai?a?aioa Neiiia Ia??aeiiai, o ye?e aeaoaeueii ?ice?eaaeenue
ieoaiiy eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? oa iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?ioe?a
caei?aeiiiy. O aeayeeo /anoeiao eieae aaoi? oaeiae oi?ea?oueny i?iaeai,
iia’ycaieo c iie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth ai?a?aoe??, aea, ia aeaeue,
o?eueee iiaa?oiai, ine?eueee ?iaioa iaea ?io? aeine?aeieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy.

I?neyai?iiee ia??iae noaa aoaiii a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iaioe aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo
oeaio??a a N?N? oa ca ei?aeiiii. Oi/a niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo
icia/ai?e oaiaoeoe?, noai?aii ia aoei, a iiiaeeiie? ?iaioe, ui
c’yaeyeenue o a?o/eciyieo oa ai?a?aionueeeo aaoi??a, ia o?eueee ia noaee
iaio oia?aaeaeaieie o nai?o o?aeoiaeao, aea ? iaaoee iiaeo ?en
ca?aeaieia?ciaaiino?, aa?oi iacaaoe aeae?eueea i?aoeue, ye? c?iaeee na?e
aianie o oaeoieia?/io ?ica?aeeo aeayeeo ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny ?noi???
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o *aoineiaa//ei?. Oea, cie?aia, ?iaioa
aeine?aeieea Eieoia?enueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (NOA) Aeae. A?ino?iiaa,
i?enay/aia aeaoaeueiiio aiae?co ?icaeoeo oaiiiaio oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiae?cio, o oiio /ene?, eiai ?noi??? a aecee?. Aaoi? caa?ioa oaaao
ia ca’ycee i?ae oe?a?inueeei no??eaoeueeei ?ooii, ui i/iethaaany
iieeiaieeii ?.Eiiiaaeueoeai, oa ?aeaieiaii ?ioaa?aeueiiai iaoe?iiae?cio
Ae.Aeiioeiaei, ye iniiaiiieiaei? aeey neeaaeaiiy IOI. O iiiia?ao??
aia?eeainueeiai aeine?aeieea I.Iioeey ?icaeyiooi ?aeaei? aeoiee
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio o 1919-1929 ? iaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
iniiaiei oa/?yi a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? oeueiai ia??iaeo c
aeaoaeueiei iaeyaeii eiina?aaoeaiiai, iaoeth??anueeiai oa
iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai oaai??a iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe??. O ca??ieeo ?noi?e/ieo
ana i?ioani?a Aeueaa?onueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Eaiaaea)
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai i?noyoueny i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? aiae?co
eiina?aaoeaii? oa iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? iie?oe/ieo oa/?e, iaeyaeo
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ?o ?aeaieiaaie o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae.

C ii/aoeii noaiiaeaiiy iiai? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??ia?ao??,
yeee oiiaeeeaeany caaaeyee io?eiaiith ?noi?eeaie aeinooio aei cae?eoeo
?ai?oa a?o?a?a, c’yaeany ?ioa?an aei ia’?eoeaiiai oa iaoia?aaeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, oiio coieieiinue ia ?iaioao oeueiai
ia??iaeo aeieeaaei?oa. O 1990-1993 ??. aeeoia oe?eee ?yae ?iaio
a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a, i?enay/aieo ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue eoeueoo?ii? oa
iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? a *aoineiaa//ei?, aea, ia
aeaeue, ieoaiiy iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o a?eueoino? c ieo ca/aieaii
eeoa i?eiaa?aeii. O eiec? A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai aia?oa aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii
aeeaieee aiae?c iie?oe/ieo eiioeaioe?e a/aieo-ai?a?aio?a i?aeai?iiiai
ia??iaeo, aaaaoi c yeeo aeeee ? i?aoethaaee o *aoineiaa//ei?, o oiio
/ene?, aeine?aeaeaii ?aeaeio niaaeueio ?aeaieiaa
eiina?aaoeaii-oe?ai?ianueeiai ?ooo A.Eeieinueeiai. O 1994 ?.
A.O?iueinueeee i?aeaiooaaa ia?oo i?aenoieiao i?aoeth c eiiieaenii?
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??, o ye?e aoei aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaii
/ioe?e aieiaieo iie?oe/ieo oa/?? oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e o ?a?ii?
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo (e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/io, nioe?ae?noe/io,
iiia?o?nonueeo, iaoe?iiae?noe/io).

O 1996-1998 ??. o iaoeiaeo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie aoei caoeuaii aeae?eueea
aeena?oaoe?e, i?enay/aieo ??ciei aniaeoai icia/aii? oaie. Cie?aia,
N.Oaeaooi ?icaeyioa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i?, aea, ia aeaeue, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, c 1890 ii 1916 ?.?., ia caoiieee iaoi? i?iaeaiaoeee,
ao?i, aeaee oyaeaiiy i?i ia?aae?noi??th iie?oe/ieo i???ioaoe?e aaaaoueio
i?aai?caoe?e, ye? caiaeii iieieeenue a ai?a?aoe??; A.E?enueeia.
i?enayoea aeena?oaoe?th eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith iie?oe/ii?,
eoeueoo?ii? oa iaoeiai-ina?oiuei? i?aoe? i?aeai?iii? ai?a?aoe?? a
*aoineiaa//ei?, caa?ioaoe oaeiae oaaao ia aeoiee ai?a?aoe?? oa i?noey ??
neoi/aiiy . Iaeaeeae/a aei i?iaeaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?oue oaia
aeieoi?nueei? aeena?oaoe?? N.A?aeiyinueeiai, o ye?e ??oioiaii ?icaeyiooi
aoaie noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a i?aeai?ii?e *aoineiaa//ei?, a
naia: oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ? aaiethoe?? iie?oeee *N? uiaei Oe?a?ie oa
noaiiaeaiiy, ci?no ? oi?ie /aoineiaaoeueei-oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaieo
a?aeiinei; i?iaeaio I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? a iie?oeoe? *N?; ieoaiiy
iie?oeee /aoineiaaoeueei? aeaaee uiaei oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? oa ??
?acoeueoaoe aeey /anueei-neiaaoeueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei i?aeai?iiiai
/ano. Iaaecae/aeii oe?iieie ? oaeiae aeiaoiaee I.E??naiea, yeee o nai?e
iiiia?ao??, ui ?, iaeii/anii, aeieoi?nueeith aeena?oaoe??th, aena?oeea,
cie?aia, iiyao ? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa aeciaiiy *aoineiaaoeueei?
aea?aeaae a eiioaeno? ia?aiiae NOA oa aea?aeaa O?i?noi? Caiaee,
i?iaiae?coaaa oi?ioaaiiy o?yaeo ia?oiai *aoineiaa//eie, a oaeiae
?icaeyioa ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ii/aoeii /aoineiaaoeueei — oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei.

Aaeee? caeiaooee o ?icaeoeo oaie iaeaaeaoue /anueeei oa neiaaoeueeei
?noi?eeai. Cie?aia, oe?ii? aeiaoiaee i?aaenoaaeai? o ca??eao noaoae i?ae
?aaeaeoe??th A.Aaaa?a: ?icaeyiooi iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo “?onneie
aeoeee”, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? caaaeuei? oiiae ?nioaaiiy a ?anioae?oe?
ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe c ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie, aecia/aia ?ieue
Oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaenueeiai eii?oaoo o aeeoo? oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaee ca
ei?aeiiii. sse aaea cacia/aee aeaye? aeine?aeieee, aeey /anueeeo
?noi?ee?a oa?aeoa?ia a?eueoa oaaaa aei nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiiy
ai?a?aoe?? oa ?? ae?yeueiino? o iaaeao /anueeeo caiaeue, i?e/iio,
iaaiein ?iaeoueny ia i?eoeeueiiio noaaeaii? /aoineiaaoeueeiai o?yaeo aei
ai?a?aoe?? o i?aeai?ii? ?iee. Neiaaoeuee? aeine?aeieee caa?oathoue
oaeiae oaaao ia o? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? ai?a?aoe??, ye?, ye c?icoi?ei,
ia iiaee aeeeeeaoe caoiieaiiy ea??aieoeoaa *N?, a naia, ia oo ?ieue, yeo
a?ae?a?aaaea oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y aeey ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
No?aeii? Neiaa//eie oa Caea?iaooy, cie?aia, ?oneinueeiai. O 1995 ?.
aeionoea iiao i?aoeth, i?enay/aio iaeyaeo aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a a *ao?? oa
Ii?aa??, a?aeiiee /anueeee oe?a?i?no A.Caeeinueeee. O ?iaio? /e ia
aia?oa caa?iooi oaaao ia oiiae oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? oa
i?aee?aneaii neeaaei?noue ianoaaei, ca yeeo aiia aoea ?icii/aoa.

Aeaye? ieoaiiy noiniaii oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy
/anueeeo, neiaaoeueeeo, oe?a?inueeeo oa cao?aeieo a/aieo ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo. Aaaeeeaith iiae??th aeey ?noi??ia?ao??
oe?a?iiciaanoaa noaea i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y “?onneay, oe?aeineay e
aaei?onneay aiea?aoeey a *aoineiaaeee iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie.
?acoeueoaou e ia?niaeoeau enneaaeiaaiee. Oiiaeu Neaayineie aeaeeioaee e
i?aaeneeo a?oeaia”, yea a?aeaoeanue o I?ac? 14-15 na?iiy 1995 ?. Naia
oey iiae?y caii/aoeoaaea iiaee i?aeia?iaeiee aoai o ?icaeoeo oaie: aei
iaoeiaiai ia?ao aoei aaaaeaii /eiaei iiaeo iaoa??ae?a, c?a?aieo
ni?eueieie coneeeyie iaoeiaoe?a oa a?o?aieo ?ia?oiee?a, cie?aia, aoei
aeaeaii eaoaeia aenoaaee “?in?enueea, oe?a?inueea oa a?ei?onueea
ai?a?aoe?y o I?ac?”, aea aoee i?aaenoaaeai? oi?eaeuei? eii??
aeieoiaio?a, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue ?ice?eoe nooi?noue noaaeaiiy o?yaeiaeo
e?e aei ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe o ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?.

Oaeei /eiii, noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie ?noioii iie?aueany ca
inoaii? ?iee: caa?iooi oaaao ia iia? iaeiaea/ai? aniaeoe ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? a ?a?ii? oa, cie?aia, a *aoineiaa//ei?, aaaaeaii
aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaeeeo e?euee?noue iiaeo iaoa??ae?a, o aaaaoueio
aeine?aeaeaiiyo caii/aoeiaaii i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i? iaoiaee aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie. Iaeiae, ?noi??y oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a ie?aieo
e?a?iao ?a?iie ua /aea? ia niaoe?aeuei? eiiieaeni? aea/aiiy. A aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cae?eniaia iaeia ?c ni?ia oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiao aeaea?aeueii? aace ?iaioe neeaee ianooii? iioae?eiaai? oa a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee: 1) i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe, iaii?aiaeoie oa cayae oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a *aoineiaa//ei?; 2) iaioa?e oa ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe?
oe?a?inueeeo oa /aoineiaaoeueeeo iie?oee?a oa a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a,
cao?aeieo ?noi?ee?a oa ioae?oeeno?a; 3) oe?a?inueea oa /aoineiaaoeueea
ia??iaeeea 1918-1938 ??.; 4) aeieoiaioe /aoineiaaoeueeiai o?yaeo, o oiio
/ene? noaoenoe/i? a?aeiiino?, ca?oe, iaoa??aee io?oe?eiiai eenooaaiiy.

O 1995 ?. oao?aoeyie A?o?ao Aeaaeai?? Iaoe *anueei? ?anioae?ee aoei
neeaaeaii iieaae/ee iniiaieo a?o?aieo oiiae?a, ui aeicaieea aecia/eoe
i?noey caa??aaiiy iaoa??ae?a ca oaeeaie ie?aieo ai?a?aionueeeo onoaiia.
Oi?eaeueiee iaoa??ae c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo aoei ciaeaeaii a a?o?aieo oiiaeao oa
c?a?aiiyo Neia’yinueei? a?ae?ioaee a I?ac? (*anueea ?anioae?ea). O 1996
?. /anueeeie aeine?aeieeaie aoea aeaeaia o?eoiiia a?ae?ia?ao?y i?aoeue
?in?enueei?, oe?a?inueei? oa a?ei?onueei? ai?a?aoe??, aeaeaieo a *N?
i?ioyaii 1918-1945 ??. Aeei?enoiaoth/e oe? cia/i? oa ??aee?ni? aeai?,
aeena?oaioii aoea i?iaaaeaia ?iaioa ii ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa neeaaeaiith
ie?aiiai iieaae/eea aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo onoaiia aeiae ?
?anioae?ee, o oiio /ene?- iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui aeicaieeei
io?eiaoe aeaui iia? aeai? noiniaii ?o caaaeueii? e?eueeino?. O nai?e
?iaio? aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa iaoa??aee a?eueoino? ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue,
ui aeioneaeenue oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie a *aoineiaa//ei?
i?ioyaii 1918-1938 ??. Oea, cie?aia, “Atheaoaiue caei?aeiiiiai ath?i
Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o??” (I?aaa, 1930,
1932-1935), “Ca??iee oe?ai?ianueei? Oe?a?ie” (I?aaa, 1931-1933),
“Aea?aeaaia iaoe?y” (I?aaa, 1927), “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiea” (I?aaa,
1924-1927), “?icaoaeiaa iaoe??” (I?aaa, 1928-1934), “A?no? c iie?oath?a
Oe?a?inueei? ia?o?? nioe?ye?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a oa Oe?a?inueei?
?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?? ca ei?aeiiii” (I?aaa, 1924), “A?niee Oe?a?inueei?
ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a” (I?aaa, 1931), “O?oaeiaa Oe?a?ia”
(I?aaa, 1932-1938). O eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie aaoi?ii oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeaye? iaoa??aee i?aeai?iii? /aoineiaaoeueei?
ia??iaeeee, cie?aia, aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? ioae?eaoe?? uiaei oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy a aeo?iae? “Slovansky p?ehled” c? 20-30-o? ??.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aea/aiiy caaaeueii? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a *N? ? noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, ca??ee
noaoae, i?iiia oa niiaaae?a O.A.Iana?eea, A.Aaiaoa, E.E?aia?aea,
A.Ooaoaieea, E.E?iooe, a oaeiae aeayeeo /aoineiaaoeueeeo, oe?a?inueeeo
oa cao?aeieo ?noi?ee?a oa ioae?oeeno?a oiai /ano, cie?aia, A.Oa?aaoa,
ss.Iie?oainueeiai, ss.Oiaea?aea, O.Ia?iooee, I.Ai/eianueeiai,
?.Naoiia-Aaoniia, A.Iuethiaia, Ae.?io/aea, ciaeaeai? o oiiaeao
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee *anueei? ?anioae?ee oa a?ae?ioaeao
Oeaio?aeueiiai ?a?iiaenueeiai Oi?aa?neoaoo o I?ac? oa Aoaeaiaoo?.
Iaaecae/aeii oe?iieie ? iioae?eiaai? inoaii?i /anii aeieoiaioe
I?i?noa?noaa ciai?oi?o ni?aa *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee, ui i?noyoue
a?aeiiino? i?i iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo oa aaea caaaeai? aeieoiaioe /aoineiaaoeueeiai
o?yaeo noiniaii aecia/aiiy oiia ?nioaaiiy ai?a?aio?a o *N?, cie?aia,
eenooaaiiy O.A.Iana?eea c A.Aaiaoii oa E.E?aia?aeai 1921,
1926-1927 ??. c i?eaiaeo o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae ai?a?aioai oa ?ie?
ai?a?aoe?? i?ney iiaa?iaiiy aeiaeiio, i?ioieie a?aeii/i? ia?aaee i?i
i?aeo?eieo ?in?enueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aio?a 1936 ?.

?yae iaoa??ae?a, ui noino?oueny oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?noyoueny o
noaoenoe/ieo ca??eao oa aeia?aeeiaeo iaoa??aeao, aeaeaieo a
*aoineiaa//ei? oa ca ei?aeiiii.

Aaeeeo ?ioi?iaoeaio oe?ii?noue noaiiaeyoue ioae?eaoe?? i?ia?aiieo
aeieoiaio?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, /anoeia yeeo aoea
ia?aaeaeaia ia Oe?a?i?, /anoeia caa??aa?oueny o oiiaeao Neia’yinueei?
a?ae?ioaee oa o eieaeoe?? Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i
A.Noaoaieea. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao aaaaeai? aeaye? iia? aeieoiaioe, o oiio
/ene?, atheaoai?, ca?oe, cayae ai?a?aionueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, cie?aia,
“Iaii?aiaeoi i?aaenoaaiee?a Oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a
*N? aei E?ae Iaoe?e” oa ?io.

?icoe?aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ?? aii?yaeeoaaiiy:
aaoi?ii aoei neeaaeaii ie?aiee nienie oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo
onoaiia a *aoineiaa//ei? c iieaae/eeii ?o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioyaii i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo o ae?oea?iyo
ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa iacaeaaeieo oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaaieoeoaao
*aoineiaa//eie aoei aeaeaii a?eueoa 1000 eiea oa a?ioo?, c ieo aeecueei
o?aoeie i?enay/ai? ?noi?e/i?e oa iie?oe/i?e oaiaoeoe?. Iaea?eueo aeoeaia
aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia,
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?eiaea ia ia??iae c 1923 ii 1927 ?., oiaoi ia o?
?iee, eiee ai?a?aioe io?eioaaee iaea?eueoo o?iainiao aeiiiiiao
/aoineiaaoeueeiai o?yaeo.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ia?aii no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee
i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? aea/eoe ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o oe?e?niiio eiioaeno?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaeeny o ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e
?anioae?oe?. C iaeyaeo ia caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, o ?iaio? aeei?enoaii
?ioaa?aeueiee i?eioeei oa?aeoa?ecaoe??, oiaoi aiae?c iiaoaeiaaii ia
ianoaaeaii? ae?yeueiino? aeae?eueeio ia?o?e o iaaiee ia??iae. Ia iniia?
i?eioeeio ia’?eoeaiino? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeania ?noi?e/i? canaaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeaaaeeea?oeie c yeeo ? o?iiieia?caoe?y oa
?ao?iniaeoeai?nue. Niieo/aiiy icia/aieo iaoiae?a oa i?eioeei?a aeaei
ciiao ?ica’ycaoe aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy o aeio?eiaii? caeiio
ae?aeaeoe/ii? ?aeiino? an?o aeaiaio?a iie?oe/iiai iaoai?cio oa ?o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo aeiaeieeoiuei? nenoaie.
Canoinoaaiiy o ?iaio? eiioaio-aiae?co aeicaieeei nenoaiaoecoaaoe oa
ocaaaeueieoe aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – “Oi?ioaaiiy /aoineiaaoeueei? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy”- i?enay/aii aiae?co iniiaieo aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy ?i?aeaeo Oe?a?ie
oa oe?a?ioe?a o /aoineiaaoeuee?e a?iiaaenuee?e oa iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?.
Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooi noaaeaiiy ?a?iiaenueei? a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee e?ioey
XIX –ii/aoeo XX no. aei Oe?a?ie oa oe?a?ioe?a ? aecia/aii, ui
ia?ciai?noue a oe?a?inueeeo ni?aaao aoea aeiaie? iecueeith, a
caoe?eaaeai?noue o aea/aii? neooaoe?? ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aeineoue
nii?aaee/iith. Iaeiei c ia?oeo aaoi?eoaoieo ?a?iiaenueeeo ae?y/?a, ui
aaeaany aei aeieeaaeiiai ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c oe?a?inueeith
oaiaoeeith, aoa iaeaooi?e i?aceaeaio ? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee
O.A.Iana?ee, yeee c e?ioey XIX noi??//y ii/aa nai? iciaeiieaiiy c
Oe?a?iith oa oe?a?ioeyie ye a/aiee, a i?ney ? Na?oiai? a?eie, ii i???
naiai caeo/aiiy aei aeoeaii? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ye aeeieiiao oa
aea?aeaaiee ae?y/. Iiceoe?y O.A.Iana?eea ??oiooaaeanue ia aeciaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii?, eoeueoo?ii? oa iiaii? iniaeeaino? oe?a?ioe?a ye ie?aiiai
ia?iaeo, aea iie?oe/iee naia?aoeci, aaeaioaie yeiai aoee a?eueo?noue
i?aaio/eo aeaaee oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, iei ia noaaethaaany ?
ia i?aeo?eioaaany.

Ca oiia caaino?aiiy ?aaiethoe?eiiai oaino a ?in?? oa c aeieeiaiiyi a
Oe?a?i? iie?oe/ieo nee, ui ii/aee aenoaaoe aea?aeaaioai?/? ?i?oe?aoeae,
iiceoe?y iaeaooi?o ea??aiee?a ? ?anioae?ee ci?ieeanue: aeio?eioth/enue
“oaeoo o iiaaae?ioe? c ia?o?yie”, /anueea noi?iia ioneea aeciaoe, ui
“Oe?a?ia i?eiooaia aoea i?aai?coaaoenue, ai ?in?y aeyaeeanue iacae?aia”.
Iaeiae, o oeueiio eiioaeno? i?eioneaeanue o?eueee oaaea?aoeaia
naiino?ei?noue, oiio, i?ney i?eeiyooy IV Oi?aa?naeo oa i?aeienaiiy
o?yaeii OI? naia?aoiiai ie?o c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie, inoaoi/ii
aecia/eeenue ?ica?aeiino? a aaiiie?oe/ieo i??i?eoaoao oe?a?inueei? oa
/anueei? noi??i, ? an? ni?iae anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei aoee
i?eieiai?.

Iiaee aoai /aoineiaaoeueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei aoei caii/aoeiaaii
i?ney io?oe?eiiai i?iaieioaiiy ? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee: i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae aeiaaaa ?icaeoeo nai?? ia?aae?
oi?a?aaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a. O oeae ia??iae /aoineiaaoeueeei
o?yaeii aoee oeeaaeai? aca?iiaea?aei? oi?a?aaeuei? oaiaee c
Aee?aeoi???th OI? oa o?yaeii COI?. Ao?i, io?oe?eia I?aaa iii??eiaaii
noaaeeanue aei ia?niaeoeae io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a, ?
/a?ac oea iine?aeiaiith aeyaeeanue ?? no?eiaia ?aaeoe?y ia yaio
iai?eoeeuei?noue aei oe?a?inueeeo naiino?eiee?a c aieo
aea?aeaa-ia?aiiaeieoeue, yeo aoei aeyaeaii i?ae /an ?iaioe Ia?ecueei?
ie?ii? eiioa?aioe??. Caoe?eaaeai?noue o yeiiiaa aea?aei?oiio ae??oaii?
ieoaiiy i?i ei?aeiie *N? cioooaaee /aoineiaaoeueeo aeeieiiao?th aei
aeaaaeaieo e?ie?a o noinoieao c i?aeia?iaeiei ioi/aiiyi: oiiaeeeaeaiiy
ceoee I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? c *aoineiaa//eiith na?ae/eei i?i oni?oi?noue
ia?aii? oaeoeee.

C aeoiaeii N?N? c i?aeia?iaeii? ?cieyoe?? iiceoe?y *aoineiaaoeueeiai
o?yaeo uiaei i?iaeai a Oe?a?i? ae??cueaethaaeanue c iaeyaeii ia
caaaeueiee eiioaeno aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei c Iineaith. Noaaeaiiy ?aeae
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai onaiino?eiaiiy a?aeoiae? ia o?eueee ia
a?aeiia?aeaei ?aeaeiei ia?aeiiaiiyi /aoineiaaoeueeiai i?aceaeaioa, aea ?
iiaei oneeaaeieoe a?aeiineie c ?aaeyinueeei ea??aieoeoaii. Oiio,
caeeoath/enue ue?ei i?eoeeueieeii aeiiiiiaiai? aeoe?? ai?a?aioai c
?in??, na?aae yeeo aoei /eiaei i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e, ui i?eeiaee o/anoue o aea?aeaaioai?/eo ciaaaiiyo
1917-1919 ??., ?, ?iaey/e iaaiein ia iaiao?aeiino? ?icaeoeo ?oiuei?
eoeueoo?ii?, ina?oiuei?, iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?, O.A.Iana?ee a?aeeeaeaa
iiaeeea?noue a?aee?eoiai caioi/oaaiiy ?o iie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino?. Ao?i,
aioo??oiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, ui neeaaeaeanue o ?
*aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?, ia iiaea ia a?aeaeoeny ia aeeoo? oa
na?oiaeyae? i?eaoeeo c caei?aeiiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye?
i?iaeiaaeoaaee naith ae?yeuei?noue o iiaiio ioi/aii?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iie?oe/ia nenoaia *aoineiaa//eie oa ?? aieea ia
oe?a?inuee? ai?a?aionuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??”- i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai?
iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie ? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee o eiioaeno?
?o aieeao ia ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e iaoeooeueieo aoiin?a, o
oiio /ene?, ai?a?aionueeeo. Cacia/aii, ui no?oeoo?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
*aoineiaa//eie aoee i?eoaiaii? oae? iniiai? iniaeeaino?: 1)
aaaaoiiai?oi?noue ia?o?eii? iae?o?e c aaeeeith e?euee?noth iie?oe/ieo
oa/?e oa oa?oioaaiue, ui a?aeiia?aeaea no?ieao?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e,
nioe?aeuei?e oa ?ae?a?ei?e no?oeoo?? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie; 2) neeueia
oeaio?ae?ciaaia aeaaea i?aceaeaioa, yeee iaiaa?oaaa iaoiaeaie aeiioneo
i?aaenoaaiee?a oeo /e ?ioeo ia?o?e aei i?ioeano i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo
??oaiue; 3) caeaaei?noue aioo??oiuei? ??aiiaaae iie?oe/ieo nee oa
i??i?eoaoo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a a?ae ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
eii’thieoo?e.

Aaaaoiia?o?eia nenoaia, c iaeiiai aieo, noai?thaaea oiiae aeey
ia?eoaoiiai ni?a?nioaaiiy ??cieo iie?oe/ieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai,
aea, c ?ioiai aieo, aeeeth/aea iiaeeea?noue oe?eeiaeoiai cae?eniaiiy
oi/a a iaei??? c ieo. O oeaio?? no?oeoo?e a?iiaaenueeiai oa iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy i?ioyaii anueiai ?nioaaiiy ? *aoineiaaoeueei?
?anioae?ee ciaoiaeeeanue a?eueo /e iaio noaa?eueia eiae?oe?y ia?o?e,
i?ia?aii? canaaee yeeo, aac caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o ?aeaieia?/iiai /e
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caaa?aeaiiy iaee aooe i?aeii?yaeeiaai?
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai ?anioae?ee. Ia?o?eia i?eiaeaaei?noue
cae/aeii cae??iethaaeanue oaeiae ? /eainoaii o iaai?e i?ioni?eoe?, oiio,
iai?eeeaae, aa?a??e, /ano?oa ca ana, aieinoaaa ca *anueeo aa?a?io
ia?o?th, yea aoea iia’ycaia c eiai i?aoeaaeaaoeai. Oi?iaaaeaeaiiy oaei?
nenoaie aeicaieyei cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue iaae iie?oe/iith
i???ioaoe??th ianaeaiiy ? caiia?aaea, a iaai?e i???, aeoea?caoe??
aioeoeaio?enonueeeo iano?i?a, /e, a e?aeiueiio aeiaaeeo, nei?i/oaaea
oaine aeinooio ?o iin??a aei ?aaeueii? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee. Oi/a o/anoue o
i?aaiao aeaaee aoea oaeoe/ii a?aee?eoa iaa?oue aeey iiiceoe?iia??a,
aeuacacia/aiee iaoai?ci i?aai?caoe?eiiai oeneo iicaaaethaaa ?o
iie?oe/ii? ai?ni?iiiaeiino?. Iie?oe/ia aeaaea a e?a?i?
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeanue aeineoue oeaio?ae?ciaai?e aeaae? i?aceaeaioa,
yeee, a?aoiaoth/e ia o?eueee aioo??oith, aea ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io
eii’thieoo?o, iaa ciiao iaiaa?oaaoe iaoiaeaie aeiioneo i?aaenoaaiee?a
oeo /e ?ioeo ia?o?e aei i?ioeano i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue. Iiae?aiee
i?aeo?ae iaa ?acoeueoaoii i?aeoeeo iiaea?eiiai noaiaea?oo o a?aeiioaii?
oeaio?o aei iiaeeeaeo iie?oe/ieo iiiiaio?a, eiee ae?yeuei?noue iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e aeaaeith ?aii?oaaeanue, ?ioeo – iioo?aeanue aai
caioi/oaaeanue, aea ia a o?e i???, ye ?i oea aaaaeaeinue iaiao?aeiei. A
icia/ai?e neooaoe?? ia iiaee ia noai?eoeny oiiae aeey ?inoo eiio?iaa?c o
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?anioae?ee, ui caiaeii aeeeeenue o iiya?, ?acii c?
ci?iaie o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiio status quo, ??aaeaioenonueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a oa oa?oioaaiue.

Ni?eeiyooy i?iaeai aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe
io?oe?eieie eieaie *aoineiaa//eie i?ioiaeeei /a?ac “?in?enueeo” i?ecio,
oiio aaeaioaoe?y i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?in?enueeeo aoi?/ieo a?oi aei iiaiai
ioi/aiiy i?ioiaeeea o neeaaeieo oiiaao aca?iiae?? i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie
??cieo oa/?e ?in?enueei? ai?a?aoe??, ?o a?aeiioaiue c /aoineiaaoeueeeie
ia?o?yie oa noinoie?a c o?yaeiaeie eieaie ? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee.

Oi/a aaaiia /anoeia ?in?enueeeo iie?oe/ieo ai?a?aio?a, oae ye ?
a?eueo?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
aeio?eioaaeenue a?aee?eoi iai?eie?eii? iiceoe?? uiaei ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee, caaaeuei? aea?aeaaieoeuee? iiceoe?? ?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei?
ni?eueiio neeueii ??cieeenue. Aieiaiith aaaeith ia oeyoo i?eoeeueiino?
iie?oe/ii? ?in?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? aei oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
ca ei?aeiiii aoea i??i?eoaoi?noue i?eioeeio naiino?eiino? oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue oa ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, yea aenoaaeanue o i?ia?aiao
aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. Iaeiae, i?aaenoaaieeai
?in?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? ia o?eueee aaeaeinue iaeaaiaeeoe iino?ei?
eiioaeoe c aeayeeie aieeaiaeie iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie *aoineiaa//eie, aea
? caeo/eoenue i?aeo?eieith i?aceaeaioa O.A.Iana?eea, ui ?i?oe?thaaa
oe?ieiianooaaio i?ia?aio aeiiiiiae a?aeaioeyi c ?in??, na?aae yeeo aoee
? oe?a?ioe?. Eiee aeoea?coaaeanue ianiaa ai?a?aoe?y oe?a?ioe?a a
*aoineiaa//eio, ni?iae /aoineiaaoeueei-oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo
ca’yce?a aoee iaeaea iiai?noth i?eieiaii?, oiio ni?aaa iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
a?aeieo oiia aeeooy oa i?aoe? aeey oeny/ ni?aa?o/eciee?a ca ei?aeiiii
iiaea iieieoenue oneeaaeiaiith /a?ac a?aenooi?noue eiioaeo?a c
o?yaeiaeie eieaie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o *aoineiaa//ei? i?ae aeaiia na?oiaeie a?eiaie”-
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeoiee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe??, iaaeaia
caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ai?a?aionueei? ni?eueiioe a *aoineiaa//ei?
(/enaeuei?noue, nioe?aeueia no?oeoo?a, i?aaiaee noaoon, ?ici?uaiiy),
ie?aneaii iniiai? oeie ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa aeine?aeaeaii
i?noea oa ?ieue na?aae ieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ?icaeyiooi ae?yeuei?noue
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o 1918-1929 oa 30-o? ??.

Cacia/aii, ui ii/aoie oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe?? aoa
o?iiieia?/ii iia’ycaiee c ia?oeie ni?iaaie iaoe?iiaeueii i???ioiaaii?
iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui, aiane?aeie iani?eyoeeaeo aioo??oi?o oiia,
cae?enithaaeanueue a oiiaao caei?aeiiiy aai caiaeii ciooaii
ia?aiineeanue aei aeceeo. O oiae? i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy
naiino?eieo oa/?e oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo iinooiiai
aeie?aiethaaeenue ??ci? “iiaeae?” ?icaeoeo e?a?ie ? aecia/aeenue
?icia?o? oeyoe ?o cae?eniaiiy, ui caiaeii aeeeeinue o aeae?eueea ni?ia
aea?aeaaiiai onaiino?eiaiiy, cae?eniaieo naiai /ano Oeaio?aeueiith
?aaeith, o?yaeii aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, Aee?aeoi???th oa o?yaeii
COI?. O?anei aea?aeaaioai?/eo coneeue aeae?eueeio aeueoa?iaoeaieo
o?yae?a i?ecaaei aei ianiaiai ia?ai?uaiiy ?o iaeaeoeai?oeo o/aniee?a, o
oiio /ene?, i?eoeeueieo iiaaeaiei o?yaeai /eai?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e, ca ei?aeii. Oae, a ai?a?aoe?? iieieeenue i?aaenoaaieee
nioe?ae?noe/ii? (OIN?, ONAe?I), iiia?o?nonueei? (?oo
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai), e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? (Aee?aeoi??y OI?, O?AeI)
oa iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? (n?/ia? no??eueoe? oa aeaye? ?io?
a?enueeiai-nii?oeai? a?oioaaiiy) oa/?e.

Oi/a oi?iaeueii ai?a?aioe aoee iaiaaeai? o ai?iaaaeaeaii? iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, aeaye? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? oa ?ooe a aecee? ia
o?eueee ia i?eieieee nai? ?nioaaiiy i?ioyaii i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, aea
e aeoeaii aieeioee ? ia i?aai?caoe?th aeeooy ai?a?aio?a, ? ia aioo??oith
neooaoe?th o e?a?i?. A?eueo?noue c i?aaenoaaeaieo a ai?a?aoe??
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?oo?a iaea naith noa?o aieeao, aei yei?, ye ? a
i?eeeaae? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee, aoiaeeee
/enaeuei? eiiia?aoeai?, iieiae?aei?, nii?oeai?,
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee? i?aai?caoe??, a oaeiae ia?aaea aeaeaaieoeoa
oa ia??iaee/ieo i?aai?a i?ane.

Caaaeii, i?ioyaii i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo ia oa?eoi??? *N? ae?yee aeecueei
120 ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ??ciiai i?io?eth. Caaaeueiiiioe?aiith o
o?ii?oe? ?icaeoeo ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aoei oa, ui o
ae?yeueiino? oeaio?aeueiiai “i?acueeiai” ina?aaeeo iaea?eueoa
aeoeai?noue i?eiaea ia ia??iae ae?? “?onueei? aeoe??”, oiaoi ia 20-o?
??., a a?eueo?noue ia?eoa??eieo oeaio??a, iai?ioe, aeoea?coaaeenue o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 30-o ??. C? an?o ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei nooi
iie?oe/ieo ca aeaeea?iaaieie canaaeaie ae?yeueiino? a?aeiineeenue aeaui
a?eueoa 10, ao?i, o aaaaoueio oi?iaeueii iaiie?oe/ieo caeeaaeao, o oiio
/ene? ina?oi?o, ni?ai?aoethaaee i?aaenoaaieee iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e,
i?e?iaeii i?eaiiny/e o ?o caaaeueio eiioeaioe?th iaaio
?aeaieia?ciaai?noue. O a?eueo?e i??? aeayea caai?aaeiaai?noue aoea
i?eoaiaiia /enaeueiei iieiae?aeiei oa nooaeaionueeei i?aai?caoe?yi
(caaaeii o ??ci? ?iee oaeeo i?aai?caoe?e aoei a?ey 20), o iaio?e —
i?ioan?eiei ni?eeai (o oiio /ene?, naeyinueeeo, e?ea?nueeeo,
?iaeaia?nueeeo, eiiia?aoeaieo, /enei yeeo o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae
aeioiaeeei aei 30) oa caieyoeueeei ia’?aeiaiiyi (?o iae?/oaaeinue aei
5).

Iaeaea aei e?ioey 20-o ??. iaea?eueo iiioey?ieie oa aieeaiaeie na?aae
ai?a?aoe?? *N? caeeoaeenue ia??? nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o, ui aoei
coiiaeaii ?yaeii oaeoi??a. E?aea?e e?aeo ia?o?e iaee aaeeeee aeina?ae
o?yaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, o oiio /ene?, o iaeaaiaeaeaii? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
noinoie?a c o?yaeiaeie eieaie ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia, c
i?aceaeaioii *aoineiaa//eie O.A.Iana?eeii oa eiai ioi/aiiyi. I?ney
caaa?oaiiy ii?aceith ni?ia onaiino?eiaiiy oe? eiioaeoe noaee o iaaiae?
aeey aeaoooaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeoeao ca ei?aeiiii.
*aoineiaaoeueea noieeoey noaea oeaio?ii ?ici?uaiiy i?iaiae?a
caei?aeiiieo a?oi a?eueoino? oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e nioe?ae?noe/ii?
i???ioaoe??, o oiio /ene? OIN?, O?I, O?AeI oa ONAe?I. Iaoii?noue,
oeaio?e aaoueiainueeiai, eiina?aaoeaii-oe?ai?ianueeiai oa
iaoeth??anueeiai oaai??a ?ici?uoaaeenue o Iieueu?, I?ia//ei? oa Aano???,
aea noaaeaiiy aei oeeo iie?oe/ieo oi?ioaaiue aoei a?eueo i?eoeeueiei.

A?eueo?noue e?aea??a ia?o?e e?ai? i???ioaoe?? aoee ia o?eueee
aeina?ae/aieie iie?oeeaie, aea ? eaae?o?eiaaieie oao?aoeyie, iaoeiaoeyie
oa aeeeaaea/aie, ui aeicaieeei ?i noaoe ia /ie? i?ina?oieoeueeiai,
eoeueoo?iiai oa aeaaeai?/iiai aeeooy a ai?a?aoe??. I?ioyaii 20-o ??. ca
aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
aoee caniiaai? aeanyoee eeoa?a, oe?e, aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a aeey
ai?a?aio?a c Oe?a?ie. Ca aeanyoue ?ie?a, c 1918 aei 1928 ?., a
*aoineiaa//ei? aoei aeaeaii aea? o?aoeie an??? ai?a?aionueei?
e?oa?aoo?e, yea iiaa/eea na?o i?ioyaii 20 i?aeai?iieo ?ie?a. O ia?o?e
iieiaei? 20-o ??. ca ?i?oe?aoeaith “e?aeo” aoei cae?eniaii aeae?eueea
ni?ia eiinie?aeaoe?? an?o oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o ?aeeiee
o?iio, iaeiae, ia’?aeiaa/? ?i?oe?aoeae ia caaa?oeeenue oni?oii /a?ac
iai?eai?ei? ?aeaei? ?ica?aeiino?. C na?aaeeie 20-o ??. iie?oe/i?
oa?oioaaiiy ae?eoee aei inoaoi/iiai ?iceieo: onaiino?eiaiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?ecaaei aei i?aai?caoe?eii? oa ?aeaieia?/ii? ?cieueiaaiino?, a?ae?eao
a?ae iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e /ano. Iinooiiaa ci?ia i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe?? oa
oneeaaeiaiiy aioo??oiuei? neooaoe?? o *N? o e?ioe? 20-o ??. ni?e/eieee
nei?i/aiiy o?yaeiai? aeiiiiiae ai?a?aioai, ? caii/aoeiaai? ca
o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith oe?a?inuee? caeeaaee iieieeenue o neeaaeiiio
noaiiaeu?. Ine?eueee nioe?aeueio aaco a?eueoino? c ia?o?e neeaaeaee
/eaie i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo ?i a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo?, oea, oaeoe/ii,
icia/aei ineaaeaiiy ianiai? i?aeo?eiee na?aae ai?a?aoe??, yea oae aaaeei
aoea caeiaooa. Oaeei /eiii, iiyaa o e?ioe? 20-o iiai? naiino?eii?
iie?oe/ii? ?aeaieia??, a caiaeii ? aeieeiaiiy ?? ia?o?eiiai oiniaeaiiy-
IOI, i?eiaei ia ia??iae ia?o?eii? e?ece oa a?iiaaenueeiai ?ic/a?oaaiiy a
ai?a?aoe??, ui coiiaeei iiaeeea?noue caaaeueiiai iii?aa?iiy ?
?aaeeeae?caoe?? oe?a?inoaa a *aoineiaa//ei?.

Ci?ia o caaaeueiiio iai?yieo iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ai?a?aoe?? o 30-o
??. aoea eeoa iaeiei c a?aeaeoe?a oeo iiae?e, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia
i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?. Eicainueea eiioa?aioe?y 1932 ?., caoaa?aeeaoe
i?eioeei neanoaaiiy ?aia?aoe?e, aecia/aieo o 1921 ?., oaeoe/ii,
iicia/eea niaith e?iaoeue /an?a, eiee e?a?ie iaee aeio?eioaaoenue ie?ieo
aeiaiai??a oa i?aeia?iaeieo ciaia’ycaiue. C 1933 ?. a i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiineiao ?icii/aeanue aiioa A?oea?a, iiae?? yei? iinooiiai i?iaiaeeee
?aoiaee iiai? a?e “aac i?aaee”. Aeey *aoineiaa//eie, cie?aia, iaeei c
oaeeo nieaiiaaieo ? i?iaieaoe?eieo ?aoiae?a iaa ?acoeueoaoii
“noaeaonueeo e?eco” o aa?ani? 1938 ?., ui noaea ae?ieii ? ?anioae?oe?.
Aacii?aaei?noue aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee ia?aae c?inoath/ith caa?icith
iaoeecio ia ??ai? anueiai ?a?iiaenueeiai ?a??iio iaea i?aoeaaeaioe
i?aeoe/ii ia an?o ae?eyieao a?iiaaenueeiai oa iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, o oiio
/ene?, ia iano?iyo oa ae?yeueiino? ai?a?aoe??. Iaeiei c aieiaieo
/eiiee?a oaeaeeiai caeo/aiiy ai?a?aio?a aei iiai? ea?oth/i? neee
?a?iiaenueei? iie?oeee aoea ?? a?aeaa?oa aioeeiioi?noe/ia oa
aioe?aaeyinueea iai?aaeai?noue, ui ia iiaea ia a?aeiiaeoe iaae?e ia
aecaieaiiy.

Ao?i, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ai?a?aio?a, ye? aoee ? caeeoaeenue
inoi?iiue aeoeaii? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ni?eeiaea iiae?? ii-nai?io.
Iinooiiaa nei?i/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy a?eueoino? ai?a?aionueeeo onoaiia,
nooo?aa ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? aeaeaiue oe?a?inueei? iiaith, a oaeiae
oneeaaeiaiiy io?eiaiiy ina?oe ? i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy coiiaeee ia?ai?uaiiy
ca ei?aeiie *N? ia o?eueee i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, aea e
ia?an?/ieo oe?a?ioe?a. O 1938 ?. ia oa?eoi??? *aoineiaa//eie aeoeaii
ae?yee eeoa aeae?eueea ai?a?aionueeeo onoaiia ? o?eueee iaeia iie?oe/ia
ia?o?y- IOI. 30-o? ?iee noaee ia??iaeii iinooiiai? no?aoe aeaaaeaiiai
?eoio ai?a?aionueeiai aeeooy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cacia/aii
ianooiia:

1. Ia??iae ?nioaaiiy ? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee noaa aeey
oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??, o oiio /ene? aeey ia?o?eii? ?? /anoeie, /anii
ao?iiai ?icaeoeo, ui iaaeae? aaea ia iaa i?aoeaaeaio?a. Ia?ai?uaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e ca ei?aeii noaeinue ca neeaaeieo
iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei. Ia oii? iecueei? ii?ioi?iiaaiino? ?a?iiaenueei?
a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee uiaei neooaoe?? ia Oe?a?i?, noaaeaiiy io?oe?eieo
e?e e?a?i-?aoeei??io?a aei iie?oe/ieo ai?a?aio?a ia aoei oe?eeii
aecia/aiei. O *aoineiaa//ei?, aea iieieeanue cia/ia e?euee?noue
i?aaenoaaiee?a nioe?ae?noe/ii?, iiia?o?nonueei?,
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? oa i?i-iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? oa/?e oe?a?inueeiai
iie?oe/iiai ?ooo, oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a
*aoineiaa//ei? neeaaeaeinue i?ae aieeaii ?? i?aceaeaioa O.A.Iana?eea,
yeee aoa ciaeiiee c oe?a?inueeeie ni?aaaie ? ye nioe?ieia, ? ye
aeeieiiao, ? ye iie?oee. Oi/a iniiaa oe??? eiioeaioe?? ??oiooaaeanue ia
aeciaii? eoeueoo?ii? oa iiaii? nai???aeiino? oe?a?ioe?a ye ie?aiiai
ia?iaeo, iie?oe/iee naia?aoeci, aei yeiai noeeyeenue a?eueo?noue
ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, /aoineiaaoeueeith aeaaeith ia
noaaethaaany ? ia i?aeo?eioaaany. Aei oiai ae, a?eueo?noue ?in?enueei?
ai?a?aoe??, yea i?aeo?eioaaea iino?ei? eiioaeoe c i?aaenoaaieeaie
/aoineiaaoeueeeo ia?o?e oa c o?yaeiaeie eieaie ? aoea aaaiiei /eiieeii
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a e?a?i?, noaaeeanue aei ?aea?
oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeiino? a?aeaa?oi iani?eyoeeai. Cae?enithth/e
i?aai?caoe?eio oa o?iainiao aeiiiiiao oe?a?inuee?e ai?a?aoe??,
/aoineiaaoeueea aeaaea ?iaeea aeoeaio ia oiio, ui aiia i?ioe aoaeue-yei?
iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o ?? eii?, aea an?eyei i?aeo?eio? i?ina?oi?,
eoeueoo?i? oa iaoeia? ?i?oe?aoeae.

2. Io?eiaaoe i?eooeie o *aoineiaa//ei?, e?aea?e oa aeoea?noe
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ia o?eueee io?eiaee iaaiaeo ia?ainieneeoe
?aeaei? canaaee ae?yeueiino? oa aecia/eoe oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? nai?o
caaaeaiue, aea, iaeii/anii, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaaeaio /aoineiaaoeueeei
o?yaeii i?aai?caoe?eio oa o?iainiao aeiiiiiao, ni?yioaaoe cia/io /anoeio
nai?o ae?e ia ?icaeoie eoeueoo?iiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy o
caei?aeiii?. sseui ni?iae iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? iaee aeineoue
iaiaaeaiee ?aciiain na?aae ai?a?aoe??, a?eueoa /anoeia yei? aoea
inoi?iiue iie?oeee, oi eoeueoo?ia oa i?ina?oiy ae?yeuei?noue aeicaieeea
aaaaoueii a?aeaioeyi caeiaooe i?ioan?th, ina?oo, caeeoeoenue o
o?aaeeoe?eiiio na?aaeiaeu? ?, ye iane?aeie, oo?eiaoenue o iiaeo oiiaao
e?a?ie aeaiaiiy. Ioaea, iiina?aaeeiaaia iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao
caei?aeiiiy aeeiioaaea aeae?eueea ooieoe?e: ii-ia?oa, aeanii
ooieoe?iiaeueio, i???ioiaaio ia aeinyaiaiiy aecia/aieo
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue, ?, ii-ae?oaa, aaeaioaoe?eio. Oea
icia/aei, ui, noai?thth/e ni?eee, oiiaee, eiioaeooth/e c o?yaeiaeie oa
ae?eiaeie e?oaaie, iaeaaiaeaeoth/e i?ano, i?aaenoaaieee iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e oa oa?oioaaiue cae?enithaaee aeiiiiiao nai?i ni?aa?o/ecieeai o
i?enoinoaaii? aei iiaeo oiia aeeooy, o ni?eeoaaii? c ioi/aiiyi e?a?ie
i?iaeeaaiiy, oaeei /eiii, iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue aoea iaei??th c oi?i
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aaeaioaoe??.

3. Iai?ino? a?aeiineie, ui neeaaeaeenue o naieo o?aeoe?yo, oa
oneeaaeiai? iiia?aaei?i noia?ieoeoaii noinoiee c ?ioeie oa?oioaaiiyie
noaee ia caaaae? ii?aoethaaiiy caoiae?a eieaeoea?caoe?? ae??. “Iaeeii/ia
ieaaaiiy” aeyaeeinue aeineoue neeaaeiei aeey a?eueoino? c oeo, ooi
?icii/eiaa a?aeiiaeaiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeooy a ai?a?aoe??. Ia caaaae?
aeeoo?caeaoiino? ai?a?aionueeeo ia?o?e noaea iaaei??ia ia?niiae?caoe?y
ni?aae, neaaea nioe?aeueia iioeaaoe?y ae??, iaaaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aieo
oi?i iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae. AEiaeia c caei?aeiiieo ia?o?e oa a?oi ia
o?eueee ia aeeiiaea aecia/aieo i?ia?aiieo caaaeaiue ae?yeueiino?, aea ?
ia ciiaea i?/iai i?ioenoaaeoe c?inoath/?e caa?ic? oeueo?a-i?aaiai iaoeeo
a ai?a?aionuee?e iie?oe/i?e ?aeaieia??, yeee cae?enieany o e?ioe? 20-o-
ii/aoeo 30-o ??. Oaeei /eiii, iiai?noth aeeiioth/e aaeaioaoe?eio
ooieoe?th ae?yeueiino?, a?eueo?noue ai?a?aionueeeo ia?o?e aeyaeeanue
iacaeaoiith aeey ao?eaiiy nai?o aaciina?aaei?o iie?oe/ieo caaaeaiue.

4. Aaaiiei /eiieeii ia?o?eii? e?ece caei?aeiiiy aoee eieeaaiiy aaeaino
aeaaee ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?: ai?a?aionuee? onoaiiae aoee, ye i?aaeei,
i?enoiniaai? aei i?noeaaeo oiia aea?aeaae-?aoeei??ioa, yea aecia/aea
oiiae ? oi?ie ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oiio, ye iane?aeie, ci?ie
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? o e?a?i? ia?aaoaaiiy ia?aaeaee oe?
a?aceea? oi?ioaaiiy ?eceeo i?aai?caoe?eii? ?oeiaoe??. Ia?aianaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ia?o?? aei ?ioi? e?a?ie aeiaaaei ?? no?oeoo?ii? oa ?aeaeii?
ia?aaoaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo ooa?eueieo oiia. Iaaiith i??ith, oaea
ia?ai?uaiiy ia?aoeiaeaeaei niaaeei?iiino? ?aeae oa iine?aeiaiino? ae?e.
I?ney cae?i/aiiy II Na?oiai? a?eie ai?a?aioai aaea ia aaeaeinue
a?aeiiaeoe oie ??aaiue iie?oe/ii? oa a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino?, yeee aoei
aeinyaiooi o i?aeai?ii? ?iee.

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaia ei?ioea oa?aeoa?enoeea
no/aniiai noaio oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e a *anuee?e ?anioae?oe?.
Iaaieioaii ia oiio, ui oi/a aieiaia iaoa ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e- noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae- aoea cae?eniaia o
oiae? iinooiiaiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, ni?eyiiy ?? i?ia?aneaiiio
?icaeoeo oa ci?oeiaiiy ?? i?aeia?iaeiiai aaoi?eoaoo iiaei a noaoe
nueiaiaei? iaioe?iaiiith i?n??th oe?a?ioe?a ca ei?aeiiii. A?aoiaoth/e
ca?eueoaiiy iioie?a ai?a?aoe?? a inoaii? /ane, a oaeiae iioe?aiiy oae
caaiiai “ca?ia?o/ainoaa”, yea oaeiae ?icoe?th? oa o??ciiiai?oith?
oe?a?inueea i?aaenoaaieoeoai ca ei?aeiiii, noai?aiiy ia?aae?
eoeueoo?ieo, ina?oieoeueeeo, i?ioan?eieo onoaiia iiaei a ni?eyoe e?au?e
ineoieia?/i?e aaeaioaoe?? iiaii?eaoeeo. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aeina?ae
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia,
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ia o?eueee caneoaiao? ia ?aoaeueia aea/aiiy, aea ?
aeiaaa? i?aeoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy. Oea ia o?eueee aeiiiiiaea
ia’?eoea?coaaoe ?noi?e/i? oeoia/aiiy iaea?eueo aino?eo oa aie?nieo oai a
ia?enao iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a, aea e ni?ey? aeiaoiaeo iiaeo oi?i ae?yeueiino?
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a a oiiaao ai?a?aoe??.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A

1. No?oeoo?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie *aoineiaa//eie oa ?? aieea ia
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e i?ae aeaiia
na?oiaeie a?eiaie.-Ee?a: “Ciaiiy”, 1999.-24 n. (1,5 ae?. a?e.)

2. ?oneinueea ieoaiiy o ?aeaieia?? oa i?aeoeoe? I?aai?caoe??
Oe?a?inueeeo Iaoe?iiae?no?a (20-30 ??.)/ A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y A: aoiai?oa?i? iaoee.-?2.-1998.- N.47-51 (0,6 ae?.
a?e)

3. ?aoe. ia ei. I. Ee?naiei. *anuee? caie? a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie 1918- 1920 ?ie?a.- E., 1997.-335 n.// Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?e/iee aeo?iae.-1998.-?5.- N.144-146 (ni?aaaoi?- I.A.E?ai?a?i) (0,4
ae?. a?e.)

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? e?a?ie a eiioaeno? iie?oeee oa
aeeieiiao??: noaiiaeaiiy *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee oa i?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie 1918-1920 ??.// Oe?a?inuee?
aa??aioe.-?3-4.-N.153-154 (ni?aaaoi?- I.A.E?ai?a?i) (0,4 ae?. a?e.)

5. Oe?aeineay yiea?aoeey a I *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeea (iaaeaiaiiue
ia?eiae)//Iaoa?eaeu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee:
aeeciue, aeayoaeueiinoue, enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue”.- Aeiiaoee, 1995.-
N.38-39 (0,2 ae?. a?e.)

6. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in a I *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeea (20-30
aa.)// Iaoa?eaeu aocianeie eiioa?aioeee
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii eoiaai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie e iaoiaee/aneie ?aaiou. – Aeiiaoee, 1995.-
N.68 (0,1 ae?. a?e.)

7. E aii?ino i eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee O. Iana?eea//
Iaoa??aee aoc?anueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ii ?acoeueoaoao iaoeiai- aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe. Eieaa 2.- Aeiiaoeuee, 1997.- N.271-274 (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

AIIOAOe??

?aauaiei Eaoa?eia Aaea???aia. Oe?a?inuee? ai?a?aionuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??
a ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe? (1918-1938).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02.- Anana?oiy ?noi??y.- Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
ai?a?aionueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e o ? *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?
(1918-1938). O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy /aoineiaaoeueei?
eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, aea/aii iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie e?a?ie-?aoeei??ioa o eiioaeno? ?o aieeao ia ai?a?aionuee?
iie?oe/i? ia?o??, i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e o i?aeai?ii? ?iee c iaeyaeii ia ?? cia/aiiy aeey ae?anii?e,
e?a?ie iinaeaiiy oa Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ai?a?aoe?y, iie?oe/i? ia?o??, Oe?a?ia, *aoineiaa//eia.

Eaauaiei Aeaoa?eia Aaea?eaaia. Oe?aeineea yiea?aioneea iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee a I *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeea (1918-1938).-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — Anaiauay enoi?ey.- Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo
yiea?aioneeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a ? *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeea
(1918-1938). A ?aaioa ?anniio?ai i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey /aoineiaaoeeie
eiioeaioeee oe?aeineiai aii?ina: eco/aii ioiioaiea aa?iiaeneie
iauanoaaiiie iunee e Oe?aeia e oe?aeioeai a ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX a.,
enneaaeiaaia yaiethoeey acaeyaeia ia?aiai i?aceaeaioa I *aoineiaaoeeie
?anioaeeee O.A.Iana?eea, aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo yoaiia
neeaaeuaaiey /aoineiaaoeei-oe?aeineeo aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee,
ii?aaeaeaii eo cia/aiea aeey oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee. Ioia/aii,
/oi yiea?aoeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a
aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa, a /anoiinoe, a *aoineiaaeeth, i?ienoiaeeei a
neiaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo. Ia oiia ieceie inaaaeiieaiiinoe
aa?iiaeneie iauanoaaiiinoe i neooaoeee a Oe?aeia ioiioaiea
ioeoeeaeueiuo e?oaia no?ai-?aoeeieaioia e iieeoe/aneei yiea?aioai auei
iaiaeiicia/iui e neeaaeuaaeinue, eae i?aaeei, iiae aicaeaenoaeai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiuthieoo?u. Oi?ie?iaaiea /aoineiaaoeeie eiioeaioeee
oe?aeineiai aii?ina i?ienoiaeeei iiae aeeyieai i?aceaeaioa O.A.Iana?eea,
eioi?ue aue ciaeii n neooaoeeae a Oe?aeia eae nioeeieia, aeeieiiao e
iieeoee. Eiioeaioeey yoa iniiauaaeanue ia i?eciaiee eoeueoo?iiai e
ycueiaiai naiaia?acey oe?aeioeaa eae ioaeaeueiiai ia?iaea, iaeiaei,
iieeoe/aneee naia?aoeci, e eioi?iio neeiiyeenue aieueoeinoai
i?aaenoaaeoaeae yiea?aioneeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, ia i?eaaonaiaaeny e ia
iiaeaea?aeeaaeny. Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ioiioaiea ioeoeeaeueiuo
/aoineiaaoeeeo e?oaia e aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineie iieeoe/aneie
yiea?aoeee eiaee aeeieiiaoe/aneea nayce, eioi?ua a ia?eiae onoaiiaeaiey
a Oe?aeia iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa iniiauaaeenue ia i?eciaiee
Oe?aeiu a ?aieao oaaea?aoeee n ?inneae, a iinea eo ii?aaeaiey no?ieeenue
a eiioaenoa ioeoeeaeueiuo eiioaeoia n Niaaoneie ?inneae.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu
*aoineiaaeee, i?iaiaeece?iaaii eo aeeyiea ia aeayoaeueiinoue
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e aeaeaeaiee iaaeiieiaioiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo a?oii, a
oii /enea, yiea?aioneeo. Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?inneeneie iieeoe/aneie
yiea?aoeee eae nouanoaaiiiai oaeoi?a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie a
no?aia, inaauai aii?in ia ioiioaiee ?inneeneeo yiea?aioneeo iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee e oe?aeineiio aii?ino. Ioia/aii, /oi aini?eyoea i?iaeai
yiea?aioia, ai iiiaii, i?ioiaeeei /a?ac “?onneoth” i?ecio.
Iieeoe/aneay nenoaia ? *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeee,
iniiaaiiay ia iiiaiia?oeeiinoe e neeueiie oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aeanoe
i?aceaeaioa, noaaeea ainoaea?noaaiiua eioa?anu a caaeneiinoue io
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee. Aa eciaiaiea a eiioea 20- ia/aea 30-o aa.
iiaeaeei ca niaie ino?ua aioo?eiieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu a no?aia e i?eaaei
e ?inoo naia?aoenoneeo oaiaeaioeee, a oii /enea a n?aaea yiea?aoeee.
Iiyoiio ?oaaae 20-o-30-o noae ?aoathuei aeey aeayoaeueiinoe iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee a no?aia.

A ?aaioa aeaia iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneie yiea?aoeee a
*aoineiaaeee, i?eaaaeaia eioi?iaoeey i /eneaiiinoe, nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?a, i?aaiaii noaoona, ?aciauaiee ia oa??eoi?ee noaiu. Iieacaii
ianoi iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a no?oeoo?a yiea?aioneeo i?aaiecaoeee,
i?iaiaeece?iaaia eo aeayoaeueiinoue a 1918-1929 e 30-o aa. Oeacaii, /oi
yiea?aoeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee
(nioeeaeenoe/aneiai, eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai, iiia?oe/aneiai e
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai oa/aiee) a *aoineiaaeeth auea naycaia n iaoaea/ae
ianeieueeeo iiiuoie onoaiiaeaiey oe?aeineie iacaaeneiinoe. Oioy
oi?iaeueii iie auee ia?aie/aiu a i?iaaaeaiee iieeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?oee a oneiaeyo ca?oaaaeuey ia oieueei ia i?ae?aoeee
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, ii e ?aoathuei ia?acii iiaeeyee eae ia
iauanoaaiioth aeeciue a yiea?aoeee, oae e ia aioo?aiithth neooaoeeth a
no?aia. A 20-a aa. i?e iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee /eaiia ia?oee,
i?aaeaea anaai eaaie i?eaioaoeee, auee iniiaaiu aeanyoee oe?aeineeo
eeoaia, oeie, aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. E?ecen a aioo?eia?oeeiie e
iauanoaaiiie aeecie a eiioea 20-o aa. e iaoneiaeee iauoth
?aaeeeaeecaoeeth yiea?aoeee. A 30-a aa. aeaaiui aeaenoaothuei eeoeii
iieeoe/aneie aeecie oe?aeioeaa a *aoineiaaeee noaea IOI, eioi?ay aianea
ieii/aoaeueiue ?aneie a ioiioaiey aioo?e yiea?aoeee.

A ?aaioa naeaeai auaiae i oii, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a
oneiaeyo yiea?aoeee a iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae auiieiyea ia oieueei
nianoaaiii iieeoe/aneoth ooieoeeth, iai?aaeaiioth ia ?aaeecaoeeth
iinoaaeaiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo caaea/, ii e aaeaioaoeeiiioth. Nicaeaaay naoue
i?inaaoeoaeueneeo, iao/iuo, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo, nii?oeaiuo e ae?oaeo
caaaaeaiee, eiioaeoe?oy n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie, aeaeiauie e iauanoaaiiuie
e?oaaie, i?aaenoaaeoaee oe?aeineeo yiea?aioneeo ia?oee ieacuaaee iiiiuue
naiei niieaiaiieeai a i?eniiniaeaiee e iiaui oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue noaiiaeeanue iaeiie ec oi?i
nioeeieoeueoo?iie aaeaioaoeee.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iniiao aeenna?oaoeee ninoaaee no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiue
iiaeoiae, iicaieeaoee eco/eoue aeayoaeueiinoue oe?aeineeo yiea?aioneeo
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a oeaeinoiii eiioaenoa iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee I *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeee. A ?aaioa eniieueciaaeenue
nianoaaiii enoi?e/aneea i?eioeeiu o?iiieiaecaoeee e ?ao?iniaeoeaiinoe, a
oaeaea iaeioi?ua iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiee, a
/anoiinoe, eiioaio-aiaeec, iicaieeaoee nenoaiaoece?iaaoue e iaiaueoue
iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yiea?aoeey, iieeoe/aneea ia?oee, Oe?aeia, *aoineiaaeey.

Ivaschenko Katerina Valerijivna. Ukrainian emigrant political parties in
the I Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938).- Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.02- World
History.-Donetsk State University, Donetsk, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to the exploration of the Ukrainian emigrant
political parties’ activities in the I Czechoslovak Republic
(1918-1938). Shaping process of the Czechoslovak approach to the
Ukrainian issue and the peculiarities of the recipient-country political
system, which have influenced emigrants political parties, are examined
in this research. Activities of the Ukrainian political parties in the
inter-war period are analyzed with their special regard to the
emigrants’ community, country of residence and the Ukraine.

Key words: emigration, political parties, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *