Українська радянська державність в контексті реалізації більшовицької моделі централізованої держави. 1918-1929 рр. (Історичні аспекти проблеми): Авто

E?EAI??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE ?INOEOOO

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IA?OeAITHE Ea?ena Ieeiea?aia

OE?A?INUeEA ?AAessINUeEA AeA?AEAAI?NOUe

A EIIOAENO? ?AAE?CAOe?? A?EUeOIAEOeUeEI? IIAeAE?

OeAIO?AE?CIAAII? AeA?AEAAE. 1918 — 1929 ??.

(?NOI?E*I? ANIAEOE I?IAEAIE)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a E?EAI??CUeEIIO AeA?AEAAIIIO IAAeAAIA?*IIIO ?INOEOOO?
I?I?NOA?NOAA INA?OE OE?A?IE

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?aaiue TH??e
Aiae??eiae/, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? oa aoiiiie?oeee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: A?ean ?aai A?eai?iae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeieoi? i?aaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
ia?iaeiee aeaiooao Oe?a?ie

Aa?iaie/ ss?ineaaa Aieiaeeie??aia, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa :?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI ?noi???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10-00 aiae.

Ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 01.01.38. Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a: aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, e?ii.349).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoueny o iaoeia?e a?ae?i?oaoe?
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252601, i.Ee?a: aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, e?ii.10).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 eenoiiaaea ” 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.Aii/a?ia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane nueiaiaeaiiy
aeoea?coaaee aea/aiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c inieneaiiyi ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo ieioeiai. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy ca oiia ?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia aiae?co oeo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie a 1918 — 1920-o? ?iee ? oaeoe/ii i?ecaaee ??
aei ia?aoai?aiiy ia aaoiiii?th a iaaeao inaaaeioaaea?aoeaii? nithcii?
aea?aeaae. Iio?aaa ia’?eoeaii?, caaaeaii? ioe?iee iiae?e o cacia/aiee
ia??iae, ioe?iee, ca?eueiaii? a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue, aecia/a?
aeooaeuei?noue oaie a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio ieai?.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie c?inoa? o ca’yceo c oei, ui ca oiia caaino?aiiy
nenoaiii? e?ece a e?a?i? a na?aeiiino? ia?an?/ieo a?iiaaeyi
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iaaa?acaee iia’ycothoueny c iacaeaaei?noth
Oe?a?ie. sse iane?aeie, c?inoa? iinoaeuea?y ca nithciei ieioeei oa
aeaaeae? a?eueoa iioe?th?oueny oae caaiee neiae?ii ia?icae?eueiino? c
?in??th. ?aea? iiaiai aa??aioo a?ae?iaeaeaiiy «ni?aae?oaeiino?»
i?iiaaothoue ia?aaaaeii i?aaenoaaieee aeayeeo ia?o?e «e?aiai»
ni?yioaaiiy. Ia?ae?/ai? ianoaaeie ia ni?eythoue eiinie?aeaoe??
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ? ? iaaaoeaieie /eiieeaie oe?a?inueeiai

aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Iecueeee ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ui ? iane?aeeii ?iia?nueei?
?aeaieia??, ianeiinie?aeiaai?noue iie?oe/ieo nee iaaeiei iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea? ca no/anieo oiia iathoue iaai? ia?aeae? c
ia??iaeii 1918 — 1920-o ?ie?a. I?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo oa ?iciaae ?in?enueei? ?iia??? 1917 ?ieo iaaeaaaee oe?a?inueeiio
ia?iaeia? oain c?aae?coaaoe ?aeath aea?aeaaii? naiino?eiino?. Aea
aaaaoia?eiaa aacaea?aeaai?noue oa iecueeee ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? coiiaeee aioo??oi? /eiieee, ye? i?e aca?iiae?? ?c ciai?oi?ie
i?ecaaee aei ii?acee oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1918 — 1920 ?ie?a oa aei ianeeueieoeueeiai aoyaiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei
?aaeyinueei? nenoaie. Aea iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui Oe?a?inueea N?? ia
iinoaea ye ?acoeueoao aieaaeyaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ?aaeyinueea
oi?ia aea?aeaaiino? ca oiiae eiinie?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ieo nee
iaoe?iiaeueii? i???ioaoe?? iaaeaaaea iiaeeea?noue caa?aaeaiiy aeanii?
iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, ui ?aaoeth? noinoiee c ?in??th a ieiuei?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. C’ynoaaiiy ni?aaaei?o i?e/ei oiai, /iio
cacia/aia iiaeeea?noue ia aoea c?aae?ciaaia ia i?aeoeoe?, ?iaeoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aeooaeueiei ia o?eueee a
iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiiio, aea ? a i?aeoe/ii-iie?oe/iiio ieai?. Aeina?ae
ieioeiai iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe a

no/ani?e i?aeoeoe? — /a?ac eiai e?eoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy oa iaoeiaa
inieneaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaai?noue aoea
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia ? caeaaeaea a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ia i?aeoeoe?
a?eueoiaeoeueei? eiioeaioe?? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii iaoeiaee aiae?c i?ioean?a oa yaeu ?noi?e/iiai
cia/aiiy, iia’ycaieo c aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iei noaoonii Oe?a?ie i?ae /an
oae caaiiai ia’?aeiaa/iai ?ooo ?anioae?e ? a nenoai? nithcii? aea?aeaae.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee a?o?ai? oa iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee aeueo
i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy ON??, ?NO??, N?N? oa ia?o?eieo i?aai?a;
oai?e A.?.Eai?ia c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, eiai i?iiiae oa eenoe,
iaienai? ai?iaeiaae 1903 — 1922 ?ie?a; i?iiiae ? noaoo? ?ioeo
aea?aeaaieo oa ia?o?eieo ae?y/?a, ia??iaee/ia i?ana.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1918 — 1929 ?iee c
?ao?iniaeoeaiei aiae?cii oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo canaae a?eueoiaeoeueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, ii/eiath/e c iiiaioo canioaaiiy ia?o??.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie, yeeie ea?oaaany aaoi?, aeoiaeyoue c aeiia
anaa?/iiai aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu o an?e ?o noia?a/eeaino?
oa iaiaeiicia/iino?:

— ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c i?ioean?a oa yaeu noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a?eueiee
a?ae ei?eaoaaiue i?ae iie?oe/io /e aoaeue-yeo ?ioo eii’thieoo?o;

— iaoeiaee ieth?ae?ci, yeee aeeeth/a? aoaeue-/eth iiiiiie?th ia iaoeia?
?noeie;

— e?eoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c, yeui eaeaoueny i?i iaeiioeiia?, iaeiioa?aaia?
ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy;

— aiae?oe/iee i?aeo?ae, a?eueiee a?ae iaeiicia/ieo ioe?iieo aecia/aiue,
oei a?eueoa aiioe?eieo, ye? iaooothoue ia’?eoeaiith aaaaoia?aii?noth
?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu;

— oe?ieiianooaaiee ?noi?e/iee neioac, yeee aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe iiea
?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, caaaaoeoe ?noi??th ciaiiyie c ?ioeo aaeocae
iaoee.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaio, aeena?oaio
a?aoiaoaaa iaoeiaee aei?iaie a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a,
iie?oieia?a oa ?noi?ee?a i?aaa. C o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe??, yea coiiaethaaea i?aeo?ae aei ?ica’ycaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, aeie?aieththoueny aoaie a
?icaeoeo ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?o iniaeeaino?.

Aena?oeaiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie
caii/aoeiaaii a ioae?eaoe?yo 20-o ?ie?a ia?aaaaeii ?noi?eeaie i?aaa.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o a?oiooaaeeny ia aocuee?e aeaea?aeiciaa/?e aac?, ui
iaiaaeoaaeany caeiiiaeaa/eie aeoaie, ? ia iiaee ?ice?eoe ae?eniee noai
noinoie?a i?ae ?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie oa oeaio?ii. Oiio,
oa?aeoa?ecoth/e nooue ?aaeyinueeiai oaaea?ae?cio oa aecia/ath/e
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee noaoon ?anioae?e o neeaae? Nithco ?N?, aaoi?e
aeoiaeeee ?c ciai?oi?o i?iya?a noaa?ai?oaoo ?anioae?e, caaeaeea?iaaieo o
eiinoeoooe?eieo aeoao. Aea i?e aecia/aii? oi?i ia’?aeiaiiy ?anioae?e aei
ooai?aiiy N?N? niinoa??aaany a?aenooi a?ae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo ia?o?eieie
eieaie io?oe?eieo aeiai, ui aecia/aee noinoiee ye ?icaeoie ?aaeyinueei?
nioe?ae?noe/ii? oaaea?aoe??. Noiniaii oeueiai aa?oa oaaae ye ni?iaa
ni?inooaaoe oaaea?aoeaiee ca’ycie ?anioae?e ia oie /an oi/ea ci?o
I.Iae??iea oa I.?aeoaey<$FAeea.: Iaeeaiei I.E. Eiioaaea?aoeee, oaaea?aoeee e Nithc nioeeaeenoe/aneeo niaaoneeo ?anioaeee. -- Oa?ueeia, 1923. -- N.48; ?aeoaeue I.I. I/a?e eiinoeoooeeiiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee niaaoneeo ?anioaeee. — Oa?ueeia, 1925. -- *.1. -- N.51.>, ye?
?icaeyaeaee aeiaia??i? a?aeiineie ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e ye
eiioaaea?aoeai?. I?ioa, aeoiaey/e c aiae?co oaeoe/ieo noinoie?a,
aeine?aeieee ia a?aoiaoaaee i?e oeueiio i?eiaeii? aeaio ianoaaei:
a?aenooiino? i?aaiaiai aeieoiaioa, ui cae??iethaaa ae noai?aiiy
eiioaaea?aoe??, oa a?aenooi?noue ??aiino? ?anioae?e o noinoieao c
?in??th ? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?o oi?aae?inueeei no?oeoo?ai ?NO??. ?ioo
iiceoe?th caeiaa aeine?aeiee-i?aaiee A.?aiaoue?a, yeee aaaaeaa, ui
nithcia aea?aeaaa neeaeany caaeiaai aei ooai?aiiy N?N?<$FAeea.: Eaiaoueaa A.E. Enoi?ey ia?aciaaiey Nithca NN? // Niaaoneia no?ieoaeuenoai. -- 1932. -- <186> 12. — N.14 — 24.>. Eiai oi/ea ci?o,
ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, o?eno? ae?eniee oa?aeoa? a?aeiinei i?ae
?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie oa oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeee eo?n iineianueeiai
o?yaeo, oi/a oaeeo aeniiae?a ia oie /an aaoi?, cae/aeii, c?iaeoe ia i?a.

Ii/eiath/e c ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a o e?oa?aoo?? iiai?noth ooaa?aeeany
?aeeiee noae?inueeee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy noinoie?a ?aaeyinueeeo
?anioae?e aei ? i?ney ooai?aiiy N?N?. Oae caaiee ia’?aeiaa/ee ?oo
?anioae?e cia?aaeaany ye oi?aeanoai eai?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee
? ?aeeia oiiaa, ca yei? ?anioae?ee a o?niiio a?aoa?nueeiio
oaaea?aoeaiiio nithc? ciiaee aeinyaoe ?icea?oo, caa??aath/e ??ai?noue oa
noaa?aii?noue i?aa. Oaeoe/ii noae?inueeee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa aecia/aiiy
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai noaoono ON?? caa??aaany aei 1991 ?ieo.

A?aecia/ath/e oe?ii?noue iaa?iiaaeaeaiiai iaoeiaoeyie iaoa??aeo,
iniaeeai o 70 — 80-o? ?iee, aaoi? ?acii c oei aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui
aniaeoe aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oeoia/eeeny aeine?aeieeaie e??cue
i?ecio ?nioth/i? ia?o?eii? ?aeaieia??. ?icaeyaeath/e Oe?a?io a eiioaeno?
aca?iia?aeiinei c ?ioeie ?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie, oaeoe/ia
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? ? eiioeaio?aoe?th
aeaaee a aea?aeaaieo i?aaiao ?NO?? aaoi?e aecia/aee ye ?icaeoie
oaaea?aoeaieo a?aeiinei. Noai?aiiy N?N? cia?aaeaeiny ieie ye
caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao ia’?aeiaa/iai ?ooo ?anioae?e ia canaaeao
aeia?ia?eueiino?, ??aiino? an?o noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? iiaiai,
?aaeyinueeiai oeio, i?aee?anethaaeany ?o aioo??oiy iacaeaaei?noue ?
noaa?aii?noue.

Iniaeeai aeine?aeieee iaaieiooaaee oaaao ia «?i?oe?aoea?» Oe?a?ie a
noai?aii? N?N?.

Caeiaoooy Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? a?aee?eei iiaee ia??iae a?o/eciyii?
?noi??ia?ao?? e iaaeaei oe?a?inueeei iaoeiaoeyi iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaii
e iaoia?aaeaeaii aea/aoe iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaio i?iaeaiaoeeo.

A no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy
i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai noaoono Oe?a?ie a aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae. Aeine?aeieee A.Aaeainueeee, A.Eaioeaey?oe,
N.Eoeue/eoeueeee<$FAeea.: Eaioeaey?oe A., Aaeainueeee A. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue o eiioaeno? iie?oe/ii? no?aoaa?? E?aiey: o?iee ?noi??? (20-o? ?iee) // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. -- 1996. -- <186> 11. — N.3 — 5;
Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. Eiioi?ci a Oe?a?i?: ia?oa aeanyoe??//y (1919 — 1928
??.). — Ee?a, 1996; Eoeue/eoeueeee N. sse ae??ooaaeinue «oe?a?inueea
ieoaiiy» (*e aoea ?aaeyinueea Oe?a?ia a 1917 — 1922 ??. iacaeaaeiith?)
// Iie?oeea ? /an. — 1994. — <186> 9. — N.64 — 70; <186> 10. — N.69
— 74; <186> 11. — N.66 — 72; Eoeue/eoeueeee N. O ieiuei? aea?aeaaiiai
ni?a?nioaaiiy: ?aaeyinueea Oe?a?ia ? ?aaeyinueea ?in?y // Iie?oeea ?
/an. — 1996. — <186> 4. — N.61 — 70; <186> 5. — N.61 — 70;
Eoeue/eoeueeee N. Oaiiiai oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? // ?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaae. — 1996. — <186> 6. — N.55 — 72.>, a?aecia/ath/e
i?ioe??//y i?ae aeaeea?iaaieie i?eioeeiaie iacaeaaeiino? ? noaa?ai?oaoo
ON?? o 1919 — 1922 ?ieao oa i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiyi ?? no?oeoo? i?aaiai
?NO??, ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui aaea a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie Oe?a?ia
aoea aeeth/aia aei ?aaeyinueei? ?in??, yea oi?ioaaeany ye oi?oa?ia
aea?aeaaa. Noai?aiiy N?N? iaaeaei eeoa ?ioi? ciai?oiuei? oaaea?aoeaii?
oi?ie oi?oa?i?e ii noo? aea?aeaa?. ?acii c oei N.Eoeue/eoeueeee caa?oa?
oaaao ia iiieeeia?noue noaeaeaiue i?i noaoon ON?? o nenoai? Nithco eeoa
ye inaaaeiaea?aeaae. Ia eiai aeoieo, ?aaeueiiai ci?noo Oe?a?i? ye
aea?aeaa? iaaeaaaei iaoe?iiaeueia aeeooy, oe?a?inueeee ia?iae, yeee
noiya ca eaoooieaie ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

?ioo oi/eo ci?o ia i?iaeaio noinoie?a i?ae ?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie
aei aeieeiaiiy Nithco ianoith? A.Eoooa<$FAeea.: Eoooa A.A. C ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. -- Ee?a, 1994.>, aaaaeath/e ?o
eiioaaea?aoeaieie. Aaaee oaeiai i?aeoiaeo aaea a?aecia/aeeny
aeena?oaioii i?e ?icaeyae? ?noi??ia?ao?? 20-o ?ie?a.

A noaooyo iaoeiaoe?a c’yaeeany ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea ie?aieo iiiaio?a,
iia’ycaieo c? noai?aiiyi Nithco ?N?. A.Aooeaae/ ? ss.Aeaoeaae/<$FAeea.: Aooeaae/ A.A. Naycaia ee Oe?aeia nithciui aeiaiai?ii 1922 a. // I?aaaea Oe?aeiu. -- 1991. -- 7, 10 aeaeaa?y; Aeaoeaae/ ss.?. Oe?a?ia a/i?a ? iei?. Ia?ene, aenooie, anna. -- Ee?a, 1993.> iaaieioothoue oaaao ia
a?aenooiino? i?eioeeio aeia?ia?eueiino? noa’?eo?a i?e eiai noai?aii? oa
ii?ooaii? caeiiiino? i?e i?aaiaiio ioi?ieaii?. Iiceoe?th ea??aieo
ae?y/?a Oe?a?ie, ni?yiiaaio ia caoeno ?? noaa?aiieo i?aa o ia??iae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy N?N?, ?aii?oaaiiy yei? iineianueeei oeaio?ii
i?ecaaei aei anoaiiaeaiiy noai?i oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae,
?ice?eaathoue E.Eiaee?i, E.Iaai?ia, E.Naeeaa, A.*aoiae/<$FAeea.: Eiaee?i A., Oeaoi?no?i I. sse ie ia'?aeioaaeeny a Nithc. Iiceoe?y ea??aieo ae?y/?a Oe?a?ie a ieoaii? noai?aiiy N?N? // Ina?oa. — 1991. -- 1 eenoiiaaea; Iaai?ia E.I. Iiceoe?y Oe?a?ie o iiainoai?ai?e nithci?e aea?aeaa?: 20-o? ?iee e??cue i?ecio 90-o // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. -- 1993. -- <186> 1. — N.3 — 16; Naeeaa E.I.
Ai?ioueaa O.A.?aeianueeiai ca ?icoe?aiiy i?aa Oe?a?ie i?ae /an
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy N?N? (o?aaaiue — eeiaiue 1923 ?.) //
Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1992. — <186> 1. — N.115 — 124;
*aoiae/ A. Oe?a?inueeee i?iaeo nithciiai aeiaiai?o 1922 ?. // Iaea
aioeeeeiiaae?y aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. — Ee?a, 1996. — N.245 — 246.>.

Aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?eaia iaoeiaoeyie aeine?aeaeaiith oe?a?i?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a 20-o ?ie?a, aea/aiiy yeeo ?icii/aeiny ua iai?ee?ioe? 80-o
?ie?a, ui a?aoiaoaaa aaoi? o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Cia/io oaaao aeena?oaio i?eae?eea aea/aiith i?aoeue iaoeiaoe?a cao?aeii?
ae?anii?e oa ca?oa?aeii? iie?oieia??. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia iiceoeai?
iiiaioe, iaaeinoaoiy aeaea?aeiciaa/a aaca aeine?aeaeaiue ciaioo? ?oith
iaoeiao oe?ii?noue.

C?iaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co a?aeiia?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e
ocaaaeueithth/ee aeniiaie nai?th noooth caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui /a?ac
ia’?eoeai? i?e/eie aei nueiaiaei? a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaia?
oe?e?niiai ia’?eoeaiiai oyaeaiiy i?i aea?aeaaiee noaoon ON?? o 1918 —
1929 ?ieao. I?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c aecia/aiiyi aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai
noaoono ON?? o 1918 — 1922 ?ieao, aena?oeai? o?aaiaioa?ii. E??i
eiinoaoaoe?? caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo N?N? ? ia?aoai?aiiy eiai
iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a oaeoe/ii ia oi?oa?io aea?aeaao, a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? ua ia i?eae?eyeany oaaaa aiae?co aea?aeaaiiai noaoono ON?? o
nenoai? nithcii? aea?aeaae. O oeueiio aaoi? aa/eoue i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
aeioe?eueiino? aeai?o oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue, i?aeoe/io aeioe?euei?noue oa noai iaoeiai?
?ic?iaee aieiaieo i?iaeai ia?aii? oaie, aeena?oaio aecia/ea iaoo oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia i?aenoaa? anaa?/iiai aiae?co
eiie?aoiiai ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo, e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy ?aae?caoe??
a?eueoiaeoeueei? eiioeaioe?? oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae aeyaeoe
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae caaeaeea?iaaiei noaa?ai?oaoii Oe?a?ie oa ?aaeueiith
ae?eni?noth, aecia/eoe aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon Oe?a?ie c oi/ee ci?o
ia o?eueee oi?iaeueii caaeaeea?iaaieo i?eioeei?a, aea e oiia aeey ?o
?aaeueiiai cae?eniaiiy.

Iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaio eiie?aoeco? oaeeie caaaeaiiyie:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aoceia? iiiaioe i?ia?aie a?eueoiaee?a o aaeoc?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia i?eioeei i?aaa iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy
oa oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae;

— i?inoaaeeoe oaeoeeo iineianueeiai oeaio?o noiniaii Oe?a?ie, ??
oa?aeoa? oa coiiaeai?noue;

— aeine?aeeoe oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a
o 1918 — 1922 ?ieao aeey c’ynoaaiiy ?aaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai noaoono
Oe?a?ie a oeae /an;

— ?ice?eoe iaoai?ci aeeth/aiiy ON?? aei neeaaeo nithcii? aea?aeaae;

— aeine?aeeoe ?aaeueiee noaoon ON?? o nenoai? nithcii? aea?aeaae a
20-o? ?iee;

— ?ice?eoe iiceoe?? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a uiaei
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae Oe?a?iith ? ?in??th oa i?iaeai nithciiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe?? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae;

— aeine?aeeoe aieea oe?a?i?caoe?? 20-o ?ie?a ia aea?aeaaia aeeooy ON??
oa aeiiaaaiiy iaoe?iiae-eiioi?noaie aea?aeaaii? naiiaecia/aiino? a oeae
ia??iae;

— c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie ao?aoe Oe?a?iith ?? caaeaeea?iaaieo noaa?aiieo
i?aa.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia a?eueoiaee?a aoea iine?aeiaii
oeaio?ae?noe/iith e neoaoaaea oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeey noai?aiiy
oaaea?aoeaiiai ca oi?iith, aea oi?oa?iiai ii noo? Nithco ?N?;

— oaeoeea iineianueeiai oeaio?o noiniaii Oe?a?ie caiaeeeany aei
aaciina?aaeiuei? /e i?eoiaaii? oi?ie ?iei?ii?aoe?? ?? aei neeaaeo ?in??
e aeaiiino?o? i?ioe??//y i?ae aeaeea?aoeaieie cayaaie oa i?aeoeeith
noiniaii ?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiiy i?i aca?iia?aeiineie ON?? oa ?NO??;

— aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeuee? oaiaeaioe?? c aieo iineianueeiai o?yaeo a
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoieao aecia/aee ?aaeueiee aea?aeaaiee noaoon
Oe?a?ie a 1918 — 1922 ?ieao. O i?aaiaiio a?aeiioaii? i?iaieioaia ye
iacaeaaeia e noaa?aiia aea?aeaaa ON?? oaeoe/ii ia?aoai?eeany ia
aaoiiii?th oi?oa?ii? ii noo? ?NO??;

— aeeth/aiiy ON?? aei neeaaeo nithcii? aea?aeaae a?aeaoeiny c
ii?ooaiiyi ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa: i?eioeeio aeia?ia?eueiino?
noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??, aeioe?eueiino? ?? noai?aiiy c oi/ee ci?o
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ?anioae?e oa a?aenooiino? i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiiy.
«?i?oe?aoeaa» Oe?a?ie a oiae? ia’?aeiaiiy aoea iane?aeeii
oe?eani?yiiaaii? aie? ?EI(a) oa aee?aeoeaieo ?icii?yaeaeaiue;

— o nenoai? nithcii? aea?aeaae iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a ON?? inoaoi/ii
ao?aoeea ?aooee noaa?ai?oaoo e ia?aoai?eeany ia iaoe?iiaeueiee ?aa?ii (c
iaaieie aaoiiiiieie iciaeaie) ii noo? oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae;

— iie?oe/ia i?ioenoiyiiy oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a, ni?yiiaaia ia caoeno
noaa?aiieo i?aa Oe?a?ie, ye o ia??iae ?aae?caoe?? eiioeaioe??
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, oae ? a ia??iae oe?a?i?caoe?? 20-o ?ie?a
ca oiia a?aenooiino? aeaniiai iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o cacaeaeaa?aeue aoei
i?e?a/aia ia ii?aceo;

— oe?a?i?caoe?ei? i?ioeane 20-o ?ie?a, iacaaaeath/e ia
iaiine?aeiai?noue oa iieiaei/ano?noue, ni?eyee a?ae?iaeaeaiith
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, iaaeath/e ciai?oi?o iciae
aea?aeaaiino?, aea ia iiaee ci?ieoe aea?aeaaiee noaoon Oe?a?ie a nenoai?
N?N? caaaeii;

— aieiaieie i?e/eiaie ao?aoe Oe?a?iith iacaeaaeiino? a ?aaeyinuee?e
oi?i? aea?aeaaiino? oa aeaeea?iaaieo noaa?aiieo i?aa aoee oi?oa?ia ca
nai?th aoaeiaith a?eueoiaeoeueea ia?o?y, ui ia?aiineea i?eioeeie nai??
ae?yeueiino? ia i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o aea?aeaae, a oaeiae
a?aenooi?noue eiinie?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ieo nee iaoe?iiaeueii? i???ioaoe?? a
Oe?a?i? oa i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue EI(a)O iineianueeiio oeaio?ia?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aecia/a?oueny
iiaith iinoaiiaeith oa inieneaiiyi ia no/aniiio oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai. Cie?aia, ia i?aenoaa? ye anaa?/iiai aiae?co ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiai a ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oaeoieia?/iiai
iaoa??aeo, oae ? caeo/aiiy iiaeo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae aecia/aii oaeoe/iee
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon ON?? a?ae ii/aoeo noai?aiiy ?aaeyinueei?
oi?ie aea?aeaaiino? aei inoaoi/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy ?? ia iaoe?iiaeueiee
?aa?ii (c iaaieie aaoiiiiieie iciaeaie) oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae. Iiaei ?
aeniiaie aaoi?a i?i oa, ui Oe?a?ia ca oiiae eiinie?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ieo
nee iaoe?iiaeueii? i???ioaoe?? a 1918 — 1920 ?ieao iaea ?aaeueiee oain
iicaaaeoeny aeeeoaoo iineianueeiai oeaio?o e caa?aaoe naith
iacaeaaei?noue ? noaa?aii?noue a ?aaeyinuee?e oi?i? aea?aeaaiino?.
Iaoeiaa iiaecia i?enooiy ? a oiio, ui aiae?c aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie cae?eniaii ia i?aenoaa? ?aeaeii oa oai?aoe/ii
iacaaiaaaeiaaieo canaae, i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a nai?? ?iaioe aaoi? aa/eoue o
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??ae?a i?e iiaeaeueoiio iaoeiaiio aea/aii?
i?iaeaie, iaienaii? a?aeiia?aeiiai ?icae?eo i?ae?o/ieea c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaoe? eaeoe?e, iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a, niaoeeo?n?a. E??i
oiai, aaoi? aaaaea?, ui aeooaeuei?noue oaie coiiaeth? aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? c iaoith
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy ye aieiaiiai /eiieea
?icaoaeiae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, a ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
aeey aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono oa ceaaiaee a noni?euenoa? oa i?ae /an
iiooeo oeyo?a ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie. Aaoi?
niiae?aa?oueny, ui iciaeiieaiiy c ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c aieo
eiioi?no?a iiaei a ni?eyoe ia?aaeyaeo ?oi?o i?ia?aiiaeo canaae i?i
a?aeiiaeaiiy Nithco ? iaaeaoe ia?o?? oe?a?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
?noi??? E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??,
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a a?ioo??, noaooyo oa oacao aeiiia?aeae
caaaeueiei ianyaii 5,0 ae?. a?e. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ai?iaiaai? ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioa?aioe?yo o i?noao Iaean? (1993 ?.), E??iaia?aae? (1993 ?.),
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeo (1993 ?.), E?eaiio ?ic? (1995, 1997, 1998 ??.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy
? ci???ioiaaia ia oe?e?nia e iine?aeiaia aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai, coiiaeaieo
i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aii eiai i?aaeiao, ia’?eo, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, cae?eniaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e, aeacaii ia iaoeiao iiaecio ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/i? canaaee noai?aiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii?
?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae» aiae?cothoueny aoceia? i?ia?aiia? iieiaeaiiy
a?eueoiaee?a o aaeoc? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia i?eioeei i?aaa
iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy oa oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae.

A eiioeaiooaeueiiio ieai? aaoi? ia iiaiaeaeo?oueny ye c o?aaeeoe?eieie
oaa?aeaeaiiyie ?aaeyinueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee i?i ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee a?eueoiaee?a, oae ? c aeoieith aeayeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a cao?aeii?
ae?anii?e i?i a?aenooi?noue o ieo iine?aeiaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie.
?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c i?aoeue A.?.Eai?ia c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy,
eiai i?iiia, eeno?a oa i?ia?aiiaeo aeieoiaio?a a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o??
aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i /?oeee ? iine?aeiaiee oeaio?ae?ci
?oiuei? iiceoe??.

?aeaieia?/iei i?aea?oioyi oeaio?ae?noe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?ica’ycaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy aoea ooii?/ia ca nai?th noooth (ye iieacaa
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae) eiioeaioe?y eeaniai? ai?ioueae i?ieaoa??aoo. ?aeay
anana?oiuei? ?aaiethoe??, ui iaea i?eaanoe aei iaeaooiuei?
aaciaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino? ethaenoaa, ia o?eueee coiiaethaaea
oeaio?ae?ci o ?ica’ycaii? ieoaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?eiee ono??e aea?aeaae ?
aeaeea?aoeai?noue aanea i?i i?aai iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy, aea e aaea
aei i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? ?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy ?ioa?anai
eeaniai? ai?ioueae. Oiio aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ci?io a iiaeyaeao a?eueoiaee?a
eeoa ye ci?io oaeoeee noiniaii ia?in?enueeeo ia?iae?a caeaaeii a?ae
eiie?aoii? iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy nioe?aeueii? aace
?aaiethoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui a?eueoiaeoeueea aanei
i?i i?aai iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy, i?iaieioaia ia II c’?cae? ?NAe?I, ia
iia’ycoaaeiny c i?aaii iaoe?e iaoe aeanio aea?aeaao. I?eaeaniaiiy
ia?o??th iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa nai?e ?ica’ycoaaoe ieoaiiy i?i
aeioe?euei?noue iie?oe/iiai aecia/aiiy iaoe?e oaeoe/ii ia?ae?anethaaei
aeaeea?iaaiee i?eioeei. Oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue iaeaooiuei? aea?aeaae aoea
a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Aenooiath/e
i?ioe aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, a?eueoiaeee ianoithaaee oi?oa?io oi?io
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith c iaeaniei naiia?yaeoaaiiyi aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo
ie?a?i.

Ca oiia caaino?aiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoie?a iaia?aaeiaei? ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, i/?eoth/e i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iiiaaieaieo ia?iae?a ? ia?a?inoaiiy eiai a na?oiao ?aaiethoe?th,
A.?.Eai?i eiioeaiooaeueii iaa?oioiao? aaoiiii?th ye i?eioeei ono?ith
oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, aea ?icaeyaea? ?? c eeaniaeo iiceoe?e i?ieaoa??aoo,
a?aeeeaeath/e ?? iaoe?iiaeueiee ci?no, iaoe?iiaeueio eoeueoo?o e
?icaeoie. Eiie?aoecaoe?y i?aaa iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy ye i?aaa ia
ooai?aiiy aeanii? aea?aeaae ia icia/aea i?aeo?eiee ia?o??th ?aae?caoe??
ieie oeueiai i?aaa.

Aeiooaia aeciaiiy iiaeeeaino? noai?aiiy oaaea?aoe?? ye i?aai?caoe??
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith coiiaethaaeiny i?aeianaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia?in?enueeeo ia?iae?a o 1917 ?ioe? e
aoei eeoa oi?iith oaacia/aiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae a?ae
?iciaaeo.

Aiae?c a?eueoiaeoeueeeo aeieoiaio?a iaia?aaeiaei? e i?ney
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ia?aai?ioo iieaco?, ui eiie?aoecaoe?? i?eioeei?a
oaaea?aoeaiiai ia’?aeiaiiy ia a?aeaoeiny. I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y
aeaeea?aoeaiiai i?eioeeio i?aaa iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy noiniaii
Oe?a?ie caaeany aei ca?ieii? ai?ioueae i?ioe ?? caeiiii? aeaaee —
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Ooai?aiiy ?NO?? iaiaaeeeiny oaeoii i?iaieioaiiy
?aaeyinueei? ?in?? oaaea?aoe??th ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e aac i?aaiai?
o?enaoe?? i?aai?caoe?eieo i?eioeei?a, neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yei? noaaaea
e Oe?a?ia. I?ae oei, ye cana?ae/othoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiinoaoaoe?y oaaea?aoe?? ye oaea ?nioth/iai oaeoo o aca?ieiao i?ae
?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie, aecia/aiiy ?? ye ia?ao?aeii? oi?ie aei
i/?eoaaiiai ia’?aeiaiiy o?oaeyueo o na?oiaiio ianooaa? coiiaethaaee
iiaio a?aenooi?noue oaaae aei oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo
i?eioeei?a ? iineethaaee oeaio?ae?noe/i? oaiaeaioe??.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iiooee oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? ia’?aeiaiiy i?ae /an
nithciiai aoae?aieoeoaa ainaie 1922 ?ieo, aaoi? ia aaaaea? eai?inueea
aa/aiiy oaaea?aoe?? aeueoa?iaoeaith noae?inueeei oacai i?i
«aaoiiii?caoe?th» ? ?icaeyaea? eiai eeoa ye oaeoe/iee e?ie c iaoith
noai?aiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. A oai?aoe/i?e iiaeae?,
cai?iiiiiaai?e A.?.Eai?iei, oeaio?ae?noe/i? ono?aie?iiy a?eueoiaee?a
ciaeoee iiaia ao?eaiiy. Eiai iii?aaee aei noae?inueeiai i?iaeoo
aaoiiii?caoe?? ia aoee eiino?oeoeaieie e ci?ithaaee eeoa oi?io
ia’?aeiaiiy, a ia eiai nooue, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
i?aeoeeith ?nioaaiiy N?N?. ?aeay noai?aiiy «ae?oaiai iiaa?oo» —
oaaea?aoe?? ??aiii?aaieo ?anioae?e — ?icaeyaeaeany naiei A.?.Eai?iei
eeoa ye iinooiea «iaoe?iiaeai».

Ocaaaeueithth/? aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo caiaeyoueny aei oiai, ui iiceoe??
a?eueoiaee?a i?e ?ica’ycaii? aoceiaeo ieoaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie,
cie?aia i?eioeeio i?aaa iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy ? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae?
aea?aeaae, aoee iine?aeiaii oeaio?ae?noe/ieie, ii/eiath/e a?ae noai?aiiy
ia?o?? aei ?aeae i?i noai?aiiy nithcii? aea?aeaae ye oaaea?aoe??.
A?eueoiaeoeueea iiaeaeue oaaea?aoe?? ye oi?ie i?aai?caoe?eiiai ono?ith
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae eeoa ianeoaaea ?? ni?aaaeith oi?oa?io
i?e?iaeo.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Noinoiee ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie c ?NO?? ia oeyoo aei
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy Nithco ?N?» i?inoaaeothoueny oaiaeaioe?? oa
oi?ie oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo ca’yce?a oi?iaeiaae 1918 — 1923 ?ie?a oa
aecia/a?oueny oaeoe/iee aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon ON?? o oeae
ia??iae.

Ia??iaeecaoe?y oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a cae?eniaia ia i?aenoaa?
i?eioeeio i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiiy ?oi?o ca’yce?a. ?acii c oei aaoi?
?ice?eaa? i?ioe??//y i?ae i?aaiaei ioi?ieaiiyi aea?aeaaieo ca’yce?a
?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie ? ?in??, ?o oeoia/aiiyi ia io?oe?eiiio ??ai? c aieo
aeueo ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? oa oaeoe/iei noaoonii ON??, ui
aeieeaaa c i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? a?eueoiaeeaie iiaeae?
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae.

?acoeueoaoaie oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?oiai aoaio (1918 — a?oaeaiue 1920 ?ieo)
noaee aeniiaee, ui Oe?a?ia ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio ??ai? iaea
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee noaoon iacaeaaeii? ? noaa?aiii? ?anioae?ee ? aaea
noinoiee c ?NO?? o i?aeia?iaei?e ieiuei?. A caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao, ye?
?aaoethaaee aca?ieie aeaio aea?aeaa, aoea a?aenooiy aoaeue-yea nenoaia.
Aeoe, ui aeaeaaaeeny iaiia o?yaeaie, aoee iaeiinoi?iii?ie ? ia ca?aaeeny
a /an?. Oea noino?oueny e ??oaiiy i?i noai?aiiy ai?iii-iie?oe/iiai
nithco ?anioae?e, yea, e??i oiai, ia anoaiiaethaaei /?oeeo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ia’?aeiaiiy.

Ae?oaee aoai, c iaeyaeo ia i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy, ?icii/aany c i?aeienaiiai
ia o?yaeiaiio ??ai? 28 a?oaeiy 1920 ?ieo Nithciiai
?ia?oie/i-Naeyinueeiai Aeiaiai?o i?ae ON?? oa ?NO??. A?i noaa ia?oei a
?noi??? aca?iia?aeiinei aeainoi?iii?i caeiiiaeaa/ei aeoii ? caii/aoeoaaa
ia??iae oae caaieo aeiaia??ieo noinoie?a ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e.
Aeiaia?? i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaa oaeo a?aeie?aieaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae ?in??,
eiinoaooaaa aca?iio iacaeaaei?noue iaio noi??i oa anoaiiaeaiiy a?aeiinei
i?ae ieie ia ??ai? i?aeaea?aeaaieo ca’yce?a.

Aeie?aieaiiy o?aoueiai aoaio — eiinoeoooe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy N?N? —
aaoi? aaaaea? aeioe?eueiei ia o?e i?aenoaa?, ui Nithciee aeiaia?? 1922
?ieo ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaiaei aeoii, yeee ae
cana?ae/oaaa noai?aiiy iiai? aea?aeaae. Eiinoeoooe?y N?N? 1924 ?ieo oaae
ia aoea oaeei aeoii, aea aiia aeyaeeany oaeoe/ii ia?oei i?aaiaei
aeieoiaioii, yeee anoaiiaethaaa i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie nithcii?
aea?aeaae. Noinoiee i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th a ia??iae eiinoeoooe?eiiai
ioi?ieaiiy N?N? ia?aeoee ?c ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo o ieiueio
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo. sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiie
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny c?inoaiiyi aaeeeiaea?aeaaii-oia?i?noe/ieo oaiaeaioe?e
c aieo ?in?enueeeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?, ye? io?oe?eii i?iaieineee
naaa caaaeueiinithcieie.

O ?icae?e? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia io?oe?eiiio ??ai?, ii/eiath/e c 1918
?ieo, ca’ycee i?ae ?NO??, ON?? oa ?ioeie ?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie
aecia/aeeny ye ?icaeoie ?aaeyinueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? oaaea?aoe??,
caii/aoeoaaaoe oaeei /eiii a?aeiia?aei? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?inoiaothoue ye
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ca’ycee oaaea?aoeaiiai /e iaa?oue eiioaaea?aoeaiiai
oeio a ia??iae, ui ia?aaeoaaa noai?aiith N?N?, oae ? ioe?ieo noaoono
ON?? ye noaa?aiii? ? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae. Aiae?c oe?ieiai niaeo?a
iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo noinoie?a i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th aea?
i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aea?aeaaiee noaoon ON?? o e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo caeaaeaa a?ae oeaio?ae?noe/ii? iie?oeee iineianueeiai i?iaiaeo
?EI(a) ye ao?eaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iie?oeeo iineianueeiai ea??aieoeoaa noiniaii Oe?a?ie,
aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiae?a, ui, i?aaio/e aei caa?aaeaiiy oe?e?niino?
oa?eoi??? eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa iiaa?iaiiy Oe?a?ie a noai
aea?aeaaii? caeaaeiino? a?ae ?in??, iineianueeee o?yae canoiniaoaaa
oaeoeeo, oi?ie yei? coiiaethaaeeny eiie?aoieie ianoaaeiaie a Oe?a?i?.
Oaeoeea aaciina?aaeiuei? ?iei?ii?aoe?? Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo ?in??, ui
ia?aaeaa/aea neeiao aeniain?th i?ioe Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aee?aeoi???
ai?iaeiaae 1918 — 1920 ?ie?a, c o?aooaaiiyi aioo??oi?o /eiiee?a
(iianoainueeee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa, iacaaeiaieaiiai iie?oeeith
i?iae?iceeaaeee, ?aeaei? ia?aeiiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
oa?oiiaaiue) ii?aeioaaeany c oaeoeeith i?eoiaaii? ?iei?ii?aoe??. Aiia,
ye aaaaea? aeena?oaio, ia?aaeaa/aea, c iaeiiai aieo, i?aee?aneaia
aeaeea?oaaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, a c ?ioiai — i?eeiyooy ??oaiue oa
naieoe?e, ui ia?aoai?thaaee Oe?a?io ia aaoiiii?th. Eiie?aoieie e
iaea?eueo iieaciaeie ?? i?iyaaie aoee:

— iaaeaiiy Oe?a?i? iiaeeeaino? i?eeiyooy aeanii? Eiinoeoooe??, a ye?e
o?enoaaeeny ?? iacaeaaei?noue ? noaa?aii?noue, ? aiaeii/an ??oaiiy
?EI(a) i?i ai?iii-iie?oe/iee nithc ?anioae?e, yeee noaa ia?oei e?ieii
aei noai?aiiy oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae;

— iaaieioaiiy ia iaooeeueiiio cae?eniaii? i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
ia naiiaecia/aiiy a a?oaei? 1919 ?ieo ? naieoe?iioaaiiy an?o ??oaiue
aeueo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ON?? ? EI(a)O iaaani? 1920 ?ieo i?i
ia’?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie oa ?in??;

— oeeaaeaiiy noia?a/eeaiai ca nai?th i?e?iaeith Nithciiai
?ia?oie/i-Naeyinueeiai

aeiaiai?o, yeee, ye oaea a?aecia/aeiny, aeaeea?oaaa iacaeaaei?noue ?
noaa?aii?noue Oe?a?ie ? ?acii c oei caeeaaeaa i?aaia? ii?ie, ui
iicaaaeyee aea?aeaai? i?aaie Oe?a?ie aieeao ia ia’?aeiai? aaeoc?
o?yaeoaaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaie i?i oaeoe/iee
noaoon ON?? o ia??iae ?nioaaiiy ai?iii-iie?oe/iiai nithco ? aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiinei ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e. Eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui cae?enithaaia
iineianueeei o?yaeii oaeoeea ?iei?ii?aoe?? aaea aei iinooiiai?
oi?o?eaoe??, oeaio?ae?caoe??, caoaeaiiy noa?e ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? ? ia?aoai?aiiy aeaeea?iaaiiai iacaeaaeiiai e
noaa?aiiiai aea?aeaaiiai noaoono ON?? ia o?eoe?th. Oaeoe/ii Oe?a?ia
iaaoea aeaeyaeo aaoiiii?? o neeaae? ?NO?? ? naia oeueiio i?ioeano
i?aaioa iaaeaoe i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiiy E.A.Noae?i ainaie 1922 ?ieo a
i?iaeo? «aaoiiii?caoe??».

Aiae?c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue, ui ?aeeiith neeith ia’?aeiaiiy
?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e o Nithc aoea a?eueoiaeoeueea ia?o?y, yea
i?iaeiaaeoaaea cae?enithaaoe oeaio?ae?noe/io iie?oeeo, ?icii/aoo a
iiia?aaei? ?iee. sse iane?aeie, noai?aiiy N?N? a?aeaoeiny c ii?ooaiiyi
ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa: i?eioeei?a aeia?ia?eueiino? ?? noa’?eo?a ?
aeioe?eueiino? ia’?aeiaiiy c iaeyaeo ia caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a. °aeeiith i?aeaaeeiith ia’?aeiaiiy ca oiia noai?aiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae noaee ?aeaieia?/i? iioeae. I?eioeei
aeia?ia?eueiino? aoa i?aei?iaiee aieath ?EI(a). «?i?oe?aoeaa» Oe?a?ie a
noai?aii? Nithco ?N? c’yaeeany ye ?acoeueoao aeac?aie oa aee?aeoeaieo
?icii?yaeaeaiue ia?o?eiiai oeaio?o.

?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aeeth/aiiy Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo
nithcii? aea?aeaae ? aeniiaie i?i a?aenooi?noue i?aaiaiai ioi?ieaiiy
N?N?. Nithciee aeiaia?? 1922 ?ieo oae ? ia aoa ?aoeo?eiaaiee, a a
iiaeaeueoiio aoa i?aei?iaiee Eiinoeoooe??th N?N? 1924 ?ieo, yea oi/a e
i?noeea ?icae?e i?ae iacaith «Aeiaia?? i?i noai?aiiy N?N?», aea c oi/ee
ci?o naiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ye Iniiaiiai Caeiio ia iiaea
aaaaeaoeny aeiaiai?ii i?i ia’?aeiaiiy. E??i oiai, aiia ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeany a?ae Nithciiai aeiaiai?o 1922 ?ieo noiniaii ?iciiae?eo
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae oeaio?ii oa i?aaiaie nithcieo ?anioae?e o iai?yieo
iaiaaeaiiy noaa?aiieo i?aa inoaii?o. ?aoeo?eaoe?y nithciiai aeiaiai?o
1922 ?ieo aeuei i?aaiii aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ON?? — Anaoe?a?inueeei
c’?caeii ?aae o n?/i? 1924 ?ieo ia iiaea aaaaeaoeny ae?eniith ia o?e
i?aenoaa?, ui iei ?aoeo?eiaaii aeaa aca?iii noia?a/eea? aeieoiaioe:
Nithciee aeiaia?? 1922 ?ieo oa Eiinoeoooe?y N?N? 1924 ?ieo.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo
noinoie?a c?iaeaii ocaaaeueithth/? aeniiaee i?i oaeoe/ia aoyaiaiiy
Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo nithcii? aea?aeaae ua a ia??iae aeiaia??ieo
noinoie?a ?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa, i?aaiaa ioi?ieaiiy yei? a?aeaoeiny a
1922 — 1924 ?ieao c ii?ooaiiyi ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia iiiceoe?y
oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeiio eo?no a?eueoiaee?a» i?inoaaeaii ni?iae
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy oe?a?inueeeie ae?y/aie i?iaeai
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a oa nithciiai aoae?aieoeoaa.
A?aeiia?aeii aei oiia, ca yeeo ?nioaaea iiiceoe?y, neeaaeo iiiceoe?eieo
nee, ni?yiiaaiino? ?oi?o ?aeae oa ??aiy, ia yeiio aiie a?aenoithaaeeny,
a iiiceoe?? aeie?aieaii aeaa ia??iaee.

I?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia?oiai ia??iaeo (1918 — 1920 ??.) a?aecia/a?oueny,
ui iiiceoe?y ?nioaaea ca oiia, eiee Oe?a?ia oi?iaeueii aaaaeaeany
iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith, aea ?? oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny ?in??. Iiiceoe?y ye iane?aeie ?aaeoe?? ia
oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeee eo?n a?eueoiaee?a ioiiethaaea ??ci? ia?o?? oa
oa?oiiaaiiy iaoe?iiae-eiioi?noe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, a oiio /ene? e
iao??ioe/ii iano?i?ieo oe?a?inueeeo a?eueoiaee?a.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui i?e an?e
??ciiiai?oiino? ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/ieo canaae oa ?ica’ycaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eieo ieoaiue o noinoieao i?ae Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th ni?eueiith
aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a on?o oa/?e iaoe?iiae-eiioi?cio aoea ?aeay ??aiino?
iaio ?anioae?e. Iaeaooiy aeiey Oe?a?ie, ?? iacaeaaei?noue ?
noaa?aii?noue iia’ycoaaeeny ieie c iaiao?aei?noth ia’?aeiaiiy an?o
oe?a?inueeeo eiioi?noe/ieo nee ? noai?aiiy aeaniiai iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o,
iacaeaaeiiai a?ae ?EI(a). Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ?aae?caoe?y oeeo iieiaeaiue
iaaeaaaea iiaeeea?noue ca?eueiaiiy c-i?ae aeeeoaoo iineianueeiai
ia?o?eiiai oeaio?o, aea eiioeaio?oaaeany ni?aaaeiy aeaaea, ?
ia?aoai?aiiy ON?? c o?eoe?? ia ae?enii noaa?aiio aea?aeaao.
I?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie ao?aoe oeueiai oaino. Aiie caiaeyoueny aei oiai,
ui a?aenooi?noue oaeoe/ii? ?aeiino? ia aeaea iaoe?iiae-eiioi?noai ciiae
aeinyaiooe ? ?aeiino? i?aai?caoe?eii?. Iaca?a iiceoe?e c i?aeoeeith
?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy i?aaey/ith ia?o??th coiiaea
iie?oe/iee e?ao ia?o?e iaoe?iiaeueii? i???ioaoe??.

I?e aecia/aii? iniaeeainoae ae?oaiai ia??iaeo (aa?anaiue 1922 —
/a?aaiue 1923 ?ieo) caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia ia?ao?ae iiiceoe??
oeaio?ae?noe/iiio eo?no iineianueeiai oeaio?o a eiai iioyc? aei
oi?oa?ecio ia aea?aeaaiee ??aaiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i
iinooiiaa ci?oeiaiiy iiiceoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eieo ae?y/?a
oa ca?a caoenoo aeaniiai noaiiaeua a oi?aae?inueeiio aia?ao? aiane?aeie
caa?ice iiaiiai iiaeeiaiiy ON?? ?in?enueeith Oaaea?aoe??th c
iaoe?iiaeueieie ?ioa?anaie ?anioae?ee.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co a?o?aieo aeaea?ae c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i
iiceoe?th oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a ainaie 1922 ?ieo. Caoeuath/e noaa?aii?
i?aaa Oe?a?ie, aiie a?aenoithaaee oaaea?aoeai? canaaee a i?aai?caoe??
noinoie?a ?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa. I?ioa i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie
noinoie?a ie?anethaaeeny ieie eeoa eiioo?ii, aac cacia/aiiy iaoai?cio
aa?aio?? caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oa cae?eniaiiy noaa?aiieo i?aa
?anioae?e. I?ae oei ?nioaaa ? ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy noinoie?a ?
i?e?iaee iaeaooiueiai Nithco ye eiioaaea?aoe??. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, a?i
aoa a?eueo aeioe?eueiei ? a?aeiia?aeaa iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai
?anioae?e. Aiaeii/an aiae?c iiae?e o a?oaei? 1922 ?ieo na?ae/eoue i?i
iaiine?aeiai?noue iiceoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eieo ae?y/?a,
iane?aeeii /iai noaei noaaeaiiy i?iaeoo eii?n?? ?EI(a) i?i
i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie, yeee caeeaaeaa i?aeaaeeie oeaio?ae?ciaaii?
oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny aeoea?caoe?y ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eieo ae?y/?a o ia??iae eiinoeoooe?eiiai
ioi?ieaiiy N?N?, caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia a?eueo a?oioiaiee oai?aoe/iee
??aaiue i?e aecia/aii? i?eioeei?a noai?aiiy nithcieo i?aai?a, ?iciiae?eo
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae nithcieie oa ?anioae?eainueeeie i?aaiaie aiane?aeie
?o eiie?aoecaoe??. Aecia/ath/e i?e/eie aeoea?caoe?? iiiceoe??, aaoi? ia
caiaeeoue ?o o?eueee aei iaiao?aeiino? aaeineiiaeaiiy oaenoo nithciiai
aeiaiai?o, ui aeieeaaei c ??oaiiy I c’?caeo ?aae, a aeii?ioth/eie
aaaaea? iineeaiiy aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueeeo oaiaeaioe?e c aieo o?yaeiaeo
no?oeoo? ?NO?? o i?aeoe/ieo noinoieao oa oeaio?ae?noe/ieo iiceoe?e
?EI(a) i?e ae?iaeaii? i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy nithcieo i?aai?a oa ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c i?aaiaie ?anioae?eainueeeie.

?icaeyaeath/e aeueoa?iaoeaiee oe?a?inueeee i?iaeo nithciiai aeiaiai?o ye
?acoeueoao eieaa?aeueii? ?iaioe aeueo aea?aeaaieo ? ia?o?eieo i?aai?a,
aaoi? i?aee?aneth? eiai iniaeea?noue ye o aecia/aii? oi?ie ia’?aeiaiiy a
nithc aea?aeaa, oae ? i?eioeei?a noai?aiiy oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a oa ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c ?anioae?eainueeeie i?aaiaie, ?iciaaeoaaii?
iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae ieie ia canaaeao oeaio?ae?caoe?? oa
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??, i?aeoiae? aei i?eioeeio oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo.
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui oe?a?inueeee i?iaeo a?eueoa a?aeiia?aeaa
oaaea?aoeai?e i?e?iae? ia’?aeiaiiy, a?aoiaoaaa iniaeeaino? oai?aiiy
oaaea?aoe?? ca oiia aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiino?, ni?yiiaoaaany ia
e?ea?aeaoe?th iiiiiie?? oeaio?o i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue, aea ?acii c oei
ia i?a aa?aiooaaoe iaae?eiiai iaoai?cio iiaiiai caoenoo noaa?aiieo i?aa
?anioae?e.

Nooue ocaaaeueithth/iai aeniiaeo caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui a?aenooi?noue
aeaniiai iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o, ia i?aeii?yaeeiaaiiai ?EI(a), ?iaeea
ni?iae oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?eiee ae?y/?a a?aenoiyoe noaa?aii? i?aaa Oe?a?ie
i?e?a/aieie ia ii?aceo.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «Iie?oe/iee noaoon ON?? a nenoai? nithcii?
aea?aeaae»ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a oa i?aeoe/iiai
ao?eaiiy ?o o aeeooy aecia/a?oueny oaeoe/iee noaoon Oe?a?ie a Nithc?
?N?. Cie?aia a?aecia/a?oueny, ui c aoiaeaeaiiyi o Nithc ?N? a?aeaoeany
ci?ia i?aaiaiai noaoono Oe?a?ie. Eia?ea ia’?aeiaiiy o oaaea?aoe?th
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?aeia?iaeii? i?aeoeee coiiaethaaea iaiaaeaiiy
noaa?aiieo ?anioae?e ia ei?enoue onueiai Nithco. Aiane?aeie
aeaeaaoaaiiy /anoeie noaa?aiieo i?aa oeaio?ia? ooai?thaaeeny nithci?
ia?eiiaoe. ?acii c oei oi?iaeueii Oe?a?ia ia ao?a/aea iciaee
aea?aeaaiino?. Ia eiinoeoooe?eiiio ??ai? i?aee?anethaaeeny ??
iacaeaaei?noue ? noaa?aii?noue, i?aai iaoe aeanio eiinoeoooe?th, yea
a?aoiaoaaea a iniaeeaino? ?anioae?ee, aa?oiaainoai i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy i?e ?ica’ycaii? aioo??oi?o i?iaeai, a?eueiee aeo?ae
c? neeaaeo Nithco oiui.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeaoaeueiiai ?icaeyaeo noaoae Eiinoeoooe?? N?N? 1924 ?ieo
oa ?o ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co c Eiinoeoooe??th ON?? aaoi? aeioiaeeoue
aeniiae?a i?i noia?a/eeao i?aaiao i?e?iaeo nithcii? Eiinoeoooe??,
coiiaeaio ii?aeiaiiyi ciai?oiuei? oaaea?aoeaii? i?e?iaee c eo?nii ia
noai?aiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. Aaaaeaiiy ?inoeoooe?? ia’?aeiaieo
ia?eiiao?a, anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo canaae ea??aieoeoaa oeaio?o
i?aeoe/ii a on?o aaeocyo noni?eueiiai aeeooy ia?aoai?thaaee aioo??oith
naiino?ei?noue ia aeaeea?iaai? aanea. A?aenooi?noue /?oeiai
?iciaaeoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue nithcieo oa ?anioae?eainueeeo i?aai?a
noai?thaaea eaaaeueio aaco aeey ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae. ?nioth/a
nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii, iaaeoeaio?ae?caoe?y o noa??
ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?iciiae?eo, i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo iicaaaeyee
ON?? aeiiii?/ii? naiino?eiino?, aeaniino? ia iaoe?iiaeuei? aaaaonoaa oa
iaoe?iiaeueiee i?eaooie. A?aenooi?noue ae?eiaiai i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio
?aae?caoe?? i?iaieioaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo i?aaethaaea i?aai ?anioae?e ia
o/anoue o ?ica’ycaii? ieoaiue, a?aeianaieo aei nithcii? eiiiaoaioe??,
?aae?coaaoe caeiiiaeaa/o ?i?oe?aoeao i?e i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueiinithcieo
aeo?a, oi?ioaaoe aeanio nenoaio i?aaa, aecia/aoe iaaeioi?eaii?noue
ei?aeii?a. Eiiiaoaioe?y aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
oaeoe/ii iaiaaeeeany noa?ith ae?yeueiino? ?anioae?eainueeeo ia?eiiao?a
(aioo??oi?o nia?a, thnoeoe??, ina?oe, caiea?ianoaa, nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy oa ioi?iie caei?ia’y), aea oaiaeaioe?? aei oeaio?ae?caoe??,
caeeaaeai? a nithci?e Eiinoeoooe?? i?ae aeaeyaeii caaaeueiiai
ea??aieoeoaa, ia i?aeoeoe? aeeeeeny a iaiaaeaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie ?
a oeeo aaeocyo.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ieoaiiy i?i aeaeea?iaaio ??ai?noue Oe?a?ie ye noa’?eoa
oaaea?aoe?? c ?ioeie ?anioae?eaie, aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui eiinoeoooe?eiee
ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy aeueo i?aai?a Nithco ia caaacia/oaaa oaei? ??aiino?.
I?eioeei i?iii?oe?eiino? caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy, yeee aoa
canaaeiaei noiniaii oi?ioaaiiy ia?oi? iaeaoe OeAE N?N? — Nithcii? ?aaee
— ? aeai??a ia c’?cae ?aae N?N?, ii?oooaaa ia?eoaoi?noue
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??. Iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueiee
i?eioeei oi?ioaaiiy ?aaee Iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, yea iaea noaoe aa?aioii
caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo i?aa ?anioae?e, a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai
?icaeoeo, o?eueee iineeea ia??aiiaaao na?aae nithcieo ?anioae?e ia
ei?enoue ?NO??.

A ?icae?e? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ai?iaeiaae ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a
a?aeaoaaeiny nenoaiaoe/ia caoaeaiiy ?aooie noaa?aiieo i?aa. Iaiaaeaiiy
i?aa a?aeaoaaeiny: 1) aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy ii?i eiinoeoooe??, ao?o/aiiy
o ?ica’ycaiiy aioo??oi?o ni?aa ?anioae?ee, ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iioi/ieo
ni?aa; 2) a i?ioean? noai?aiiy caaaeueiinithciiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i
ae?yeuei?noue ia?eiiao?a. I?iaaaeaia ia eiai a?oio? ?ai?aai?caoe?y aaea
aei caoaeaiiy noa?e o?yaeoaaiiy aee?aeoeaieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo
ia?eiiao?a.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ocaaaeueithth/ee aeniiaie
i?i noia?a/eeaee noaoon ON?? o nenoai? nithcii? aea?aeaae. Oe?a?ia
oi?iaeueii caa??aaea iciaee aea?aeaaiino?. Aea i?eioeei
«aeaiie?aoe/iiai» oeaio?ae?cio, yeee aoa canaaeiaei noiniaii
ae?yeueiino? ?EI(a) ? iiai?noth ia?aiineany ia aea?aeaaiee ono??e, oa
caeeaaeai? a nithci?e Eiinoeoooe?? canaaee anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo
i?eioeei?a ea?oaaiiy aaee aei iineeaiiy oi?oa?ieo oaiaeaioe?e oa
inoaoi/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy ON?? iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a ia iaoe?iiaeueiee
?aa?ii (c iaaieie aaoiiiiieie iciaeaie) oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? «Aea?aeaaieoeueea ni?yioaaiiy iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe??
20-o ?ie?a oa ?? iane?aeee» c aaaaoia?aiii? i?iaeaie oe?a?i?caoe??
aeie?aieaii o?, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei?e noinoiie aei i?aaeiaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?inoaaeo?oueny aieea oe?a?i?caoe?? ia aea?aeaaia,
iaoe?iiaeueia aeeooy oa aecia/athoueny ?? iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? a
iaaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai ci?noo ?aaeyinuee?e oi?i? aea?aeaaiino?.

Ia i?aenoaa? caeo/aiiy oe?iei? aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace a ?icae?e?
i?inoaaeothoueny aieiai? iai?yiee iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe??. ?acoeueoaoe
aiae?co aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia?aaaaeii aiia
cae?enithaaeany a?aeiia?aeii aei iai?yie?a, ie?aneaieo iineianueeei
ia?o?eiei oeaio?ii ? caiaeeeany caeaa?eueoiai aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iiae ye caniao io?oe?eiiai ni?eeoaaiiy oa ci?oeiaiiy
oe?a?inueeeie eaae?aie i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy ??cieo
eaiie. Aiaeii/an aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui oe?a?i?caoe?ei? i?ioeane iaee
iaia?aaeaa/oaai? iineianueeei oeaio?ii iane?aeee ? ni?eyee
a?ae?iaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, iaaeath/e Oe?a?i?
ciai?oi?o iciae aea?aeaaiino?.

?acii c oei aiae?c a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a na?ae/eoue i?i iaiine?aeiai?noue
oa iieiaei/ano?noue oe?a?i?caoe??, coiiaeai? i?e/eiaie ye ia’?eoeaiiai,
oae ? noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Na?aae i?e/ei, ui oneeaaeithaaee ??
ia?aa?a, aaoi? aeie?aieth? ia?o ca ana noaaeaiiy aei ia? ia?o?eieo
i?aoe?aiee?a ye aei oei/aniai? eaiiai??. Oaeee i?aeo?ae o naith /a?ao
aeieeaaa c oeoia/aiiy caaaeaiue oe?a?i?caoe?? iineianueeei ea??aieoeoaii
ye caniao ci?oeiaiiy nai?o iiceoe?e a ?anioae?oe?.

I?eeiath/e aee?aeoeai? iinoaiiae i?i iineeaiiy oe?a?i?caoe??, aeiaaath/e
a?ae aea?aeaaieo ?aaeyinueeeo i?aai?a ao?ethaaoe a aeeooy e?i?th ia?o??,
OeE EI(a)O ?acii c oei (anoia?a/ aeaniei ??oaiiyi) i?eae?eya
iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae oe?a?i?caoe?? naiai aia?aoo.

I?ney /a?aiaaiai (1926 ?.) ieaioio OeE EI(a)O a?aeaoeeny /anoeia?
c?ooaiiy a ia?aa?ao oe?a?i?caoe??. Cie?aia a?aeaoany ia?aeii o noaaeaii?
aei ia? c aieo i?ioni?eie, ?ia?oie/iai eeano, ui na?ae/eei i?i
ia?aoai?aiiy iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe?? ia i?iaeaio, iia’ycaio c ?icaeoeii
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie, ?? ?iaeono??ae?caoe??. I?ioa noia?a/eea?
??oaiiy ieaioio e oaeoe/ia ia?aiiaa ia iueiio noae?inueei? e?i??
noiniaii i?ia?aneaii ieney/eo aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a, ai?ioueaa c
«iaoe?iiae?noe/ieie ooeeaie», i?ae aaneii yei? a?aeaoaaeany
oe?a?i?caoe?y ai?iaeiaae ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a, coiiaethaaea
iineeaiiy oi?iaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ia?. Ii/eiath/e aaea c 1927 ?ieo
a?o?ai? aeaea?aea o?enothoue ?aoeeaeeae oe?a?inueei? iaienueiaiiino?,
aaeaeoaea noaaeaiiy aei ia?, iniaeeai ia?o?eieo i?aai?a ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a ?aaeyinueeiai aia?aoo oa aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia o i?iieneiaeo ie?oaao.

I?ae oei niinoa??aaany, ye na?ae/aoue aeaea?aea, ? ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei
aecia/aiiy caaaeaiue oe?a?i?caoe?? oa iai?yie?a ?? i?iaaaeaiiy. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ni?eeiyooy ?? iineianueeei oeaio?ii ye oaeoe/iiai e?ieo
aeey iaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiei ?anioae?eai aeaeyaeo
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii??, ie?ai? oe?a?inuee? ae?y/?
iia’ycoaaee oe?a?i?caoe?th c ?icoe?aiiyi naiino?eiino? ON??, ??
noaa?ai?oaoo. Cie?aia oaea iiceoe?y aeneiaethaaeany A.*oaa?ai ia VIII
Anaoe?a?inueeiio c’?cae? ?aae, aea ciaeoea i?aeo?eieo o?eueee na?aae
iaaaaaoueio ae?y/?a. A?o?ai? aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue ? i?i i?aeoe/io ni?iao
aeayeeo aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a, ea??aiee?a ie?aieo ia?eiiao?a ? a?aeiinoa
a?aenoiyoe i?aai ia aaaeaiiy io?oe?eieo ciinei c Iineaith oe?a?inueeith
iiaith, ui aoei i?iyaii iie?oe/iiai, iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy. Iii?oi? c?ooaiiy a oe?a?i?caoe?? aaea a ia?o? ?iee ??
i?iaaaeaiiy (1923 — 1924 ??.), iniaeeai a aaeoc? ina?oe,
eieaiaeaeaaie/i? ni?aae, aeaeaii? aacao, iiiiaiaiiy eaae?aie —
oe?a?ioeyie ca iioiaeaeaiiyi — ieciaeo oa na?aaei?o eaiie
oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo, noai?thaaee ?ethc?th a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? e coiiaethaaee iiaa?iaiiy a Oe?a?io aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa noaaeaiiy iie?oeee iao??ioe/ii
iano?i?iith /anoeiith oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe??. Iaea?eueo iiaii
i?aaiaiiy caaacia/eoe a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue aeooiaiino? noni?euenoaa oa
?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? o oi?i?, yea a a?aeiia?aeaea
iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai ?anioae?ee, ao?eeeiny a iiceoe?yo
iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a 20-o ?ie?a.

?ice?eaath/e i?e/eie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiae-eiioi?cio a 20-o? ?iee,
aaoi? ?icaeyaea? eiai iiyao a cacia/aiee ia??iae ye iane?aeie
eaa?oei?caoe??, aeeeeeaii? oe?a?i?caoe??th oa iaiii, a c ?ioiai aieo,
iaaieioo?, ui iiceoe?y iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a noiniaii iaoe, caaaeaiue oa
oaii?a cae?eniaiiy oe?a?i?caoe?? oi?ioaaeany i?ae aieeaii iaaeie?e?a a
?? i?iaaaeaii?. ?acii c oei aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae aeiaiaeeoue
a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai ioi?ieaiiy /e oaeoe/ii?
?aeiino? iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a ? aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iaoe?iiae-eiioi?ci aoa ?ai?acaioiaaiee ie?aieie iniaenoinoyie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiceoe?e iaoe?iiae-eiioi?no?a 20-o ?ie?a aeiaiaeeoue, ui
aiie iaiaaaeeny ni?yioaaoe iie?oeeo oe?a?i?caoe?? a ??/eua ai?ioueae ca
aea?aeaaio naiiaecia/ai?noue Oe?a?ie a iaaeao N?N?. Aenooiath/e ca
iaaeaiiy ni?aaaeiueiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?i?caoe??, iaaieiooth/e oaaao ia
c?inoaii? i?ia?aeii? ?ie? i?ieaoa??aoo ca oiia ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? oa
iineeaii? ?ie? ia?o?? o cae?eniaii? oe?a?i?caoe??, iinooiiai i?ae?eoee
aei iinoaiiaee iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ia?aoai?aiiyi
eiinoeoooe?eii aeaeea?iaaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo ON?? ia ?aaeuei?noue o aaeoc?
eoeueoo?iiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa ainiiaea?nueei-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. A ?icae?e? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ni?iaa i?ia?aneaii ieney/eo
e?e noni?euenoaa iaaeaoe oe?a?inueeiai ci?noo ?aaeyinuee?e oi?i?
aea?aeaaiino? oa?eoea o i?ioe??//y c oeaio?ae?noe/ieie ono?aie?iiyie
iineianueeiai ea??aieoeoaa e ?icoe?ithaaeany ieie ye
«iaoe?iiae-ooeeueieoeoai».

A ocaaaeueithth/eo aeniiaeao aei ?icae?eo i?aee?aneth?oueny
iaiaeiicia/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a oe?a?i?caoe??. Oe?a?i?caoe?ei? i?ioeane
20-o ?ie?a, iacaaaeath/e ia iaiine?aeiai?noue oa iieiaei/ano?noue,
ni?eyee a?ae?iaeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, iaaeath/e
ON?? ciai?oi?o iciae aea?aeaaiino? e naiiaooiino?, aea ca oiia
cae?eniaiiy oeaio?ae?noe/ii? iie?oeee iineianueeiai ea??aieoeoaa ia
iiaee ci?ieoe aea?aeaaiee noaoon Oe?a?ie a nenoai? N?N? caaaeii.

O aeniiaeao aei aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? ocaaaeueiaiiy e iieiaeaiiy,
ye? ?acii c aeniiaeaie, ui i?noyoueny a ?icae?eao, aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno. Aieiaiee c ieo, c?iaeaiee ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy an?o
aieiaieo i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy, caiaeeoueny aei oiai, ui a e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon Oe?a?ie caeaaeaa a?ae iie?oeee
iineianueeiai i?iaiaeo ?EI(a). Iacaaaeath/e ia ??ci? oi?ie caeaaeiino?
a?ae iineianueeiai oeaio?o a 1918 — 1922 oa a 1923 — 1923 ?ieao
(i?eiaeii? a i?aaiaiio ioi?ieaii?), a aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iiio noaoon?
ON?? niinoa??aathoueny ni?euei? ?ene: a?aenooi?noue ?aaeueii?
iiaeeeaino? cae?enithaaoe eiinoeoooe?eii caaeaeea?iaai? i?aaa, ui a iaio
aeiaaeeao ia?aoai?thaaei ON?? ? ye oi?iaeueii iacaeaaeio e noaa?aiio
aea?aeaao a 1919 — 1922 ?ieao, ? ye noa’?eoa oaaea?aoe?? o neeaae?
Nithco ?N? ia o?eoe?th.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo oe?a?inueeiai ?aaeyinueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a
1918 — 1920 ?ieao ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue, ui aieiaieie i?e/eiaie ao?aoe
Oe?a?iith eiinoeoooe?eii aeaeea?iaaii? iacaeaaeiino? e noaa?aiiino? aoee
?nioaaiiy oi?oa?ii? ca nai?th aoaeiaith ?EI(a) oa a?aenooi?noue aeaniiai
iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o, iacaeaaeiiai a?ae iineianueeiai i?iaiaeo, yeee
oe?a?inueeee a?eueoiaeee iaee oain noai?eoe a 1918 — 1920 ?ieao,
ia’?aeiaaoeny c ?ioeie iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie. Oei naiei ia aeei?enoaiee
aoa ? oain noai?aiiy aeanii? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae a ?aaeyinuee?e oi?i?.

Aeoiaey/e c aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie ca oiia no/aniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy
noi?ioeueiaai? aeaye? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe?.

Aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii a
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Ia?oeaithe E.I. Oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia iiiceoe?y oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeiio
eo?no a?eueoiaee?a (1918 — 1923 ??.). — Ee?a: Noeein, 1997. — 28 n.
(1,5 ae?.a?e.).

2. Ia?oeaithe E.I. Aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? ca caa?aaeaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo ON?? (1918 — 1923 ??.) a
eo?n? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie ina?oe: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee.
— Ee?a: ?CII, 1997. — Aei.10. — N.122 — 132 (0,6 ae?.a?e.).

3. Ai?aaiue TH.A., Ia?oeaithe E.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iie?oeei-i?aaia?
aniaeoe ON?? ? ?NO?? o 1918 – 1920 ??. (?noi?e/iee aniaeoi?iaeaie) //
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?noi??y. – Ee?a: ?AOe “Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao”, 1998. – Aei.39. – N.4. – 8 (0,8 ae?.a?e.) (iniaenoee
aianie aeena?oaioa – ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue, ca??,
ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aeeeaae oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aeniiaee).

4. Ea?aaaiia I.I., Ia?oeaithe E.I. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
nooaeaio?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?iaeaie nithciiai aoae?aieoeoaa a eo?n?
“?noi??y Oe?a?ie” // ?iaeaie ina?oe: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee. –
Ee?a: ?CII, 1998. – Aei.9. – N.82 – 90 (0,5 ae?.a?e) (iniaenoee aianio
aeena?oaioa – ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue, ca??, ocaaaeueiaiiy
oa aeeeaae oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aeniiaee).

5. Ia?oeaithe E.I. Iie?oe/iee noaoon Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? ?aae?caoe??
no?aoaa?/iiai eo?no ?EI(a) (1918 — 20-o? ?iee). — Ee?a: ?AO «I?ica»,
1987. — 32 n. (2,0 ae?.a?e.).

6. Ia?oeaithe E.I. Aeaye? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa eo?n? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie iioe?aiiy aeina?aeo
aeeeaaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy ?noi??? Oe?a?ie a oaoi?/ieo aeueo oa iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao: Oace aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii?
eiioa?aioe??. — Ee?a: ONAeI, 1993. — N.139 — 142. (0,2 ae?.a?e.).

7. Ia?oeaithe E.I. I?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a
Oe?a?i? a 90-o? ?iee // Ethaeeia ? eoeueoo?a iaeaooiueiai: Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio «Ethaeeia, iiaa, eoeueoo?a, i?ciaiiy». 18 —
25 ea?oiy 1995 ?. — E?eaee ??a: A?eueia aeoiea, 1995. — N.624 — 627.
(0,2 ae?.a?e.).

8. Ia?oeaithe E.I. I?iaeaie iie?oe/ii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? Oe?a?ie a 20-o?
?iee // Ia?aaeeaiu aio?iiioeaio?ecia: Oaenou ieaia?iuo aeieeaaeia e
oacenu niiauaiee II Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai neiiiceoia «*aeiaae, eoeueoo?a,
iiciaiea». E?eaie ?ia, 16 — 17 ai?aey 1997 a. — E?eaie ?ia:
Aeaeeioa/ea «Naenaaaie», 1997. — N.232 — 233. (0,1 ae?.a?e.).

9. Ia?oeaithe E.I. Aeoo i?ioenoiyiiy oeaio?ae?caoi?nueeiio eo?no Iineae
1918 — 1920 ??. // Oi?ioaaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue oai?/i? iniaenoino?:
Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. 28 ea?oiy 1998 ?. E?eaee
??a, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Iaoea ? ina?oa (A?ae?ioa/ea «I?eaei?i?ianueeiai
iaoeiaiai a?nieea»), 1988. — N.70 — 77 (0,3 ae?.a?e.).

AIIOAOe??

Ia?oeaithe E.I. Oe?a?inueea ?aaeyinueea aea?aeaai?noue a eiioaeno?
?aae?caoe?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? iiaeae? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aea?aeaae. 1918 —
1929 ??. (?noi?e/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon Oe?a?ie a
1918 — 1929 ?iee caeaaeii a?ae ao?eaiiy a aeeooy oeaio?ae?noe/ii?
iie?oeee iineianueeiai ea??aieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio ?ice?eaathoueny
oaiaeaioe?? oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo noinoie?a, oaeoeea iineianueeiai
ea??aieoeoaa noiniaii ON??, i?ioe??//y i?ae i?aaiaei oa oaeoe/iei
noaoonii Oe?a?ie, ?icaeyaeathoueny ni?iae aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie noinoie?a i?ae ON?? oa ?NO?? oe?a?inueeeie iie?oe/ieie
ae?y/aie, aieea iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe?? ia aea?aeaaia aeeooy ON??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea, i?aai ia naiiaecia/aiiy,
oaaea?aoe?y, eiioaaea?aoe?y, aaoiiii?y, oi?oa?ia aea?aeaaa,
?iei?ii?aoe?y, aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/iee noaoon, oe?a?i?caoe?y.

Ia?oeaithe E.I. Oe?aeineay niaaoneay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue a eiioaenoa
?aaeecaoeee aieueoaaenoneie iiaeaee oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa.
1918 — 1929 aa. (Enoi?e/aneea aniaeou i?iaeaiu). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneee noaoon Oe?aeiu
a 1918 — 1929 aiaeu a caaeneiinoe io aiieiuaiey a aeeciue
oeaio?aeenoneie iieeoeee iineianeiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. I?e yoii
?ane?uaathony oaiaeaioeee oe?aeinei-?inneeneeo ioiioaiee, oaeoeea
iineianeiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ioiineoaeueii ONN?, i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
i?aaiaui e oaeoe/aneei noaoonii Oe?aeiu, ?anniao?eaathony iiiuoee
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ONN? e ?NON?
oe?aeineeie iieeoe/aneeie aeayoaeyie, aeeyiea iieeoeee oe?aeiecaoeee ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeeciue ONN?.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoeea, i?aai ia naiiii?aaeaeaiea,
oaaea?aoeey, eiioaaea?aoeey, aaoiiiiey, oieoa?iia ainoaea?noai,
eiei?ii?aoeey, ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneee noaoon, oe?aeiecaoeey.

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