Участь земств Лівобережної України в історико-краєзнавчому русі (1870-ті — 1918 рр.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / А.А. Гапієнко, НАН України. Ін

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

OAeE 94/99/477/

Aai??iei Aiae??e Aiaoie?eiae/

O/anoue cainoa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?
(1870-o?E? 1918E??.)

07.00.01.E? ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo

aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo ?noi??e Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
caa?aeoaa/

a?aeae?eo
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue

?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie

AI?AEE A‘ss*ANEAA
IEAENAIAe?IAE*

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e

aeaaiuei? oa iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai

iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

EAO?AIEI AIAe??E
IEEIEAEIAE*

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi???

neia‘yinueeeo ia?iae?a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ieoaeea
Ae?aaiiaiiaa

NO?AEUeNUeEEE AAIIAAe?E
A‘ss*ANEAAIAE*

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» ethoiai 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.235.01 a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie
(aae?ana: 252001,

Ee?a — 1, aaoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «25» n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
Iaoyo A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. C ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a cia/ii? aino?ioe oa
aeooaeueiino? iaaoei ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Oea aeeeeeaei i?aeaeuaio oaaao ?noi?ee?a ? iie?oee?a
aei cainueeeo onoaiia. ? ia aeiaaeeiai. Aaeaea cainueea ?aoi?ia aoea
ia?oith ni?iaith ao?eaiiy a aeeooy ?aeae naiia?yaeoaaiiy a ?in?enuee?e
?iia???, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeee e oe?a?inuee? caie?. I?ney neanoaaiiy
e??iaoeoaa o 1861E?. c on?o i?iaaaeaieo i?ioyaii 60?70-oE??. ?aoi?i o
?in?? cainueea ?aoi?ia, iaaooue, iaea iaea?eueoa noni?eueia cia/aiiy.
Aaea i?ae /an ?icaeyaeo i?iaeo?a ca?eueiaiiy naeyi aoee aeneiaeai?
iiaaaeaiiy uiaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. A?aeoae, 1
(13) n?/iy 1864E?. OIieiaeaiiy i?i aoaa?inuee? oa cainuee? onoaiiaeO
aoei i?aeienaii Ieaenaiae?iiE?? ? aaaaeaii a ae?th o 33 aoaa?i?yo ?in??.
A ?ioeo aoaa?i?yo (o oiio /ene? e o aoaa?i?yo I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie)
cainoaa c’yaeeeny eeoa ia ii/aoeo OOEno.).

Aei iaia’yce?a iiainoai?aieo onoaiia aoiaeeei no?aooaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aoae?aaeue a?ae iiaeaae, oo?eiaiiy i?nueeeo
e?ea?aiue, ?aiiio iino?a oa oeyo?a, i?iaeiaieue/a aeiiiiiaa ianaeaiith.
I?eeiaoii, ui ca?aeii c caeiiii ae?yeuei?noue cainoa o aaeoc? ia?iaeii?
ina?oe oa iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae a?aeiineeanue aei iaiaia’yceiai?. Ioaea,
oea?nueeeo o?yae ?c naiiai ii/aoeo iaiaaaany iaiaaeeoe eiiiaoaioe?th
cainueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy eeoa oeie ooieoe?yie, ye? i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai aoei aeeiioaaoe c oeaio?o. E??i oiai, naiiaea?aeaanoai
caeiiiaeaa/i caaacia/eei ao?o/aiiy a ae?yeuei?noue cainoa i?noeaai?
ath?ie?ao??.

Noaiiaeaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia aoei neeaaeiei ? aeineoue-oaee o?eaaeei.
Oei ia iaioa, aaea iai?ee?ioe? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo OOEo. aiie ia?aoai?eeeny
ia neeo, c yeith oea?ao aeiooaiee aoa ?aooaaoeny. Naia iaoiae? aac
cainueei? o/ano? aaea ia ae??ooaaeiny aeiaeia c ieoaiue ye o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oae ? eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? i?ia?ioe??.

Oaeei /eiii, aac aea/aiiy ?noi??? cainoaa iaiiaeeeai neeanoe iiaio oyao
i?i ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e, ia?iaeii? ina?oe, iaaeeoeeie, noaoenoeee,
aa?iiii??, eiiia?aoe?? e o.E?i. ia Oe?a?i? o aei?aaiethoe?eiee ia??iae.
?acii c oei, o iao /an inieneaiiy iaeiie/aiiai cainoaaie aeina?aeo iiaea
aeiiiiiaoe i?e ae??oaii? /eneaiieo nueiaiaeaiieo i?iaeai.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe ioiieththoue i?aeoe/ii aanue ia??iae
ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, oiaoi c
1870-oE??., eiee aiie ii/aee a?aoe o/anoue a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?,
? aei e?ioey 1918E? ii/aoeo 1919E??., eiee i?eieieee naith
ae?yeuei?noue.

Aaia?ao?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ieE? no?aeii? /anoeie Oe?a?ie yea ca?aeii c Aiae?on?anueeei
ia?aie?Oyi 1667E?. ia?aaoaaea a neeaae? oea?nueei? ?in?? (oae caaia
Aaoueiaiueia). O 1802E?. ia oe?e oa?eoi??? noi?ioaaee Iieoaanueeo ?
*a?i?a?anueeo aoaa?i??. Ioaea, aaia?ao?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? iaiaaeai?
aeaiia cacia/aieie aoaa?i?yie, ye? noaiiaeee iaeei c ?noi?e/ieo
oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ieE? oae caaio E?aiaa?aaeio Oe?a?io.

Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aoaa?inuee? oa iia?oia? cainoaa
*a?i?a?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei? aoaa?i?e, a oaeiae ?o eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?
caeeaaee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a ae?yeuei?noue
cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, oi?ie ? iaoai?cie ??
?aae?caoe?? ie?aieie cainoaaie oa caioeyie, a oaeiae aianie inoaii?o o
?icaeoie ni?aae ioi?iie iai’yoie ? ienoaoeoaa, iocaeia aoae?aieoeoai oa
aea/aiiy ?noi??? i?noeaaiai e?ath.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Iayaio e?oa?aoo?o c oaiaoeee
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeia oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie. Aei ia?oi?
iaeaaeeoue e?oa?aoo?a aei?aaiethoe?eieo aaoi??a, yea aeaeaaaeany a?ae
/ano canioaaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia ? aei ?oiuei? e?ea?aeaoe??. Aaeaea
cainoaa ?c naiiai ii/aoeo naiai ?nioaaiiy i?eaa?oaee aei naaa oaaao
ioae?oeeno?a, a/aieo-?noi?ee?a ? i?aaiee?aE. Eoeuei?iaoe??th o aea/aii?
cainoaa noaee 1910E? 1914E??., eiee nayoeoaaee i?aa?eiaee tha?eae
cainueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Na?aae /eneaiieo ioae?eaoe?e oa aeaeaiue,
ye? /anoi-aonoi iineee iiaa?oiaee ? aiieiaaoe/iee oa?aeoa?,
ae??ciythoueny o?e iaea?oioiai?o?E? i?aoe? A.A.EAanaeianueeiai OEnoi?ey
cainoaa ca 40 eaoO (NIa, 1909E? 1911.E? O.E1-4) oa ?.I.EA?eieiinueeiai
OCaineia aeaeaeaieaO (NIa., 1914), a oaeiae OTHaeeaeiue caineee nai?iee.
(1864E? 1914)O i?ae ?aaeaeoe??thEA.A.EAanaeianueeiai oa C.A.EO?aieaey
(NIa., 1914). Aei a?aecia/aiiy naiai aeaniiai tha?eath aeieo/eeeny e
cainuee? onoaiiae. A?aeoae, i?ioyaii 1914E? 1915E??. ieie aoee
i?aeaioiaeai? ?noi?e/i? iiene nai?? ae?yeueiino?, ye? ia nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aieie.

?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y, i?aoe? yei? noaiiaeyoue ae?oao a?oio
e?oa?aoo?e, acaaae? aeiaaee /an ?aii?oaaea oea ieoaiiy. Iaaiith i??ith
oaoaeueiei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aeyaeeiny eai?inueea
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui cainuee? onoaiiae aoee, ia/aaoi, Oi’yoei eieanii
aei aico ?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiyOE. Oae /e ?iaeoa, aea
aeine?aeieee ioneee, /anoi-aonoi anoia?a/ oaeoai, ocaiaeaeoaaoe nai?
aeniiaee c eai?inueeeie oi?ioethaaiiyie, ye? iaoiae? ai??i?? aaaaeaeeny
aen?iiaoe/ieie.

Oei ia iaioa, a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? cacia/aia oaia ciaeoea
aeineoue-oaee a?oioiaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy. sse i?aaeei, cia/ia oaaaa
aeine?aeiee?a aoea i?eeooa aei aena?oeaiiy ia?aaeoiia ? ?ic?iaee i?iaeoo
cainueei? ?aoi?ieE, a oaeiae i?aeaioiaoe? e i?iaaaeaiith cainueei?
eiio??aoi?ieE. Iaea?eueo iiaii aoea aea/aia ae?yeuei?noue cainueei?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?ioae?aaioe??, ?? o/anoue o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on?
aei?aaiethoe?eii? ?in??E. I?aeoe/ii ?aeeiith i?aoeath ocaaaeueithth/iai
oa?aeoa?o aoea e caeeoa?oueny iiiia?ao?y A.A.EAa?aneiaiea OCaineia
naiioi?aaeaiea a ?inneeO (I., 1990). C e?ioey 50-oE??. ii/aeany e
iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea ?noi??? cainoa ie?aieo aoaa?i?e (Iineianueei?,
Naia?nueei?, Ieaeiueiai?iaenueei?, Ayonueei?, Ii?aeianueei?, Ia?inueei?
oa Niieainueei?)E.

sse aa/eii, an? oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/ai? ?noi??? cainoa
?in?enueeeo aoaa?i?e (?in?enueeeo o no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa).
Ui ae noino?oueny oe?a?inueeeo cainoa, oi ia nueiaiaei? ia?ii eeoa aea?
oae? i?aoe?. Oea eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe?? e ie?ai? noaoo?
?.A.ENanaea oa I.N.EIane?ii?, i?enay/ai? a?aeiia?aeii cainueeei
onoaiiaai I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie e Oaa??enueeiio cainoaoE. sse i?aaeei,
oe?a?inuee? ?noi?eee cina?aaeeee naith oaaao ia aea/aii? o/ano? caioe?a
o caaaeueii?in?enueeiio noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on?E oa ?o aianeo a
?icaeoie ia?iaeii? ina?oeE.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao?? ieoaiiy caeiathoue i?aoe?, i?enay/ai?
?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo cainueei? noaoenoeee. Oey oaia ye o
aei?aaiethoe?ei?e, oae ? ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?ic?iaeaia,
caea?oueny, /e ia iae?aoaeuei?oaE.

Caaaeaieie i?aoeyie ia ae/a?io?oueny ia?ae?e aeine?aeaeaiue, iia’ycaieo
c ??cieie aniaeoaie oaie aeena?oaoe??. Aea, iii?e cia/io e?euee?noue
e?oa?aoo?e, i?enay/aii? ?noi??? cainueeeo onoaiia, iica oaaaith
aeine?aeiee?a caeeoeeiny oaea aaaeeeaa ieoaiiy, ye ae?yeuei?noue cainoa
o aaeoc? ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa, ioi?iie iaiOyoie noa?iaeie oa
ienoaoeoaa. I?ae oei, cainoaa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, nie?ath/enue ia
aaaaoo aeine?aeieoeueeo o?aaeeoe?th, ni?eyee i?aai?caoe?eiiio
ioi?ieaiith ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iai ?ooo, nooae?thaaee ?noi??th,
aoiia?ao?th oa aeiiii?eo e?ath. Aei oeueiai cainuee? onoaiiae niiioeaei
naia aeeooy. Aaeaea aac aeieeaaeieo aeaieo i?i aaiethoe?th
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, o?aaeeoe?? i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy oa
?noi?e/ia ieioea e?ath i?aaiai i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy aoei aaaeei
aeeiioaaoe iieeaaeai? ia ieo iaiaOycee.

Iaei??th c ia?oeo ni?ia aena?oeeoe aeaiee aniaeo ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo
onoaiia aoea i?aoey a?aeiiiai oe?a?inueeiai ?noi?eea ? e?a?ciaaoey
I.EOaaei?aiea OIa?ene c ?noi??? aea/aiiy *a?i?a?aueieO, ai?uaia o
ia?oiio oii? OCaienie *a?i?a?anueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaaO (*a?i?a?a,
1931). Iaeei c ?icae?e?a oe??? a?oioiaii? ?ica?aeee i?enay/aiee
ae?yeueiino? *a?i?a?anueeiai aoaa?inueeiai cainoaa ii anaa?/iiio
aea/aiith e?ath. Aea cacia/aia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei oaeaeoa iinoaiiaeith
i?iaeaie, ai?ae ?? aeaoaeueiei aena?oeaiiyi, iieeeeaia Oiaaaaeaoe eeoa
aeaeaoi? iiiaioe cainueei? ?iaioeOE.

C oiai /ano ia cOyaeeiny aeiaeiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c
cacia/aii? oaie. Uii?aaaea, o 1989E?. aoea c?iaeaia ua iaeia ni?iaa
i?eaa?iooe oaaao ?noi?ee?a aei oe??? i?iaeaieE. sse i?aaeei,
aeine?aeieee aai o caaaeueieo o?acao eiinoaooaaee o/anoue cainueeeo
onoaiia o ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?, aai cia/ii iaiaaeoaaee inoaiith.E

Oei ia iaioa, ca a?aenooiino? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i o/anoue
cainueeeo onoaiia o ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? ?nio? cia/ia e?oa?aoo?a,
i?enay/aia ?? ie?aiei aniaeoai. Iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaiei ia nueiaiaei? ?
ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy cainueeeo ioca?a, o oiio /ene? e
Iocath oe?a?inueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae ?i.EA.A.EOa?iianueeiai
*a?i?a?anueeiai aoaa?inueeiai cainoaa oa I?e?iaeie/i-?noi?e/iiai iocath
Iieoaanueeiai aoaa?inueeiai cainoaa. Ua iai?ee?ioe? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo
OOEno. ia oiaeueoao OAEeaie noa?eiuO, O*a?ieaianeie caineie iaaeaeeO,
O*a?ieaianeiai neiaaO, OIieoaaneiai aanoieeaO, OEeaaneie noa?eiuO,
OEnoi?e/aneiai aanoieeaO, OE?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaiai a?nieeaO, OAoaa?ineeo
aaaeiiinoaeO oa ?ioeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue aoee ii?eethaeiai? /eneaii?
noaoo? oa ?noi?e/i? ?ica?aeee, i?enay/ai? cainueeei iocayi *a?i?a?aueie
oa Iieoaaueie. Ia iaieioee nai?th oaaaith oiae?oi? aeine?aeieee e
a?aeiieo eieaeoe?iia??a, ooiaeaoi??a iocaeii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?E?
E.I.ENea?aeeinueeo oa A.A.EOa?iianueeiaiE.

Oe?eaaa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?noi??th noai?aiiy eieaeoe?e oa iiooeiao ?iaioo
cainueeeo ioca?a *a?i?a?aueie oa Iieoaaueie aoea ii?eethaeiaia ia
noi??ieao e?a?ciaa/eo aeaeaiue 20-30-oE??. iaoiai noie?ooyE. Cia/ii
aeoea?coaaeeny ioca?ciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia Iieoaauei? oa *a?i?a?auei?
o iao /an, iai?ee?ioe? 80-oE? ia ii/aoeo 90-oE??. Ia a inoaiith /a?ao
oea coiiaeaii nayoeoaaiiyi tha?eath eieeoi?o cainueeeo ioca?aE.

Iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeaiith caeeoa?oueny cainueea ia??iaeeea, yea
i?noeoue /eiaei noaoae, aeieoiaio?a c i?noeaai? ?noi???, iia?aeiieaiue
i?i ae?yeuei?noue e?a?ciaa/eo oiaa?enoa oa ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a. sse
i?aaeei, aea/ath/e i?ia?ioe?eio i?ano, aeine?aeieee a?aeaeaaaee ia?aaaao
OAoaa?ineei aaaeiiinoyiO, a ia cainuee?e ia??iaeeoe?. E??i OIieacaoaey
noaoae ii enoi?ee, a?oaieiaee e yoiia?aoee, ?aciauaiiuo a OCaineii
nai?ieea *a?ieaianeie aoaa?ieeO ca 1869-1905Eaa.O, neeaaeaiiai ia
i?ioaiiy *a?i?a?anueei? a?o?aii? eii?n?? ?.EEiiiaaeii, iiaeia iacaaoe
eeoa iaeio noaooth, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aio cainueeiio /aniienoE.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?aia iaie i?iaeaia iaeaea ia a?aeaeoa a ?noi??ia?ao??.
Iao? iiia?aaeieee eeoa iai?oeee ?? iniiai? eiioo?e, o caaaeueieo ?enao
aena?oeee ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ii
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio aea/aiith e?ath. O oie aea /an, iica oaaaith
aeine?aeiee?a caeeoeeany cia/ia /anoeia a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a i?noeaai? i?ane, aaaaoi aaaeeeaeo nthaeao?a ? ia?niiaae?a.
A?aeoae, iiee ui a?aenooi? oe?e?nia oyaeaiiy i?i oeae i?ioean oa eiai
aeeiai?eo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaenoaaeaia aei caoenoo aeena?oaoe?y ia? ia iao?
iaaiith i??ith caiiaieoe oeth i?iaaeeio a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??. Ia
i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a ?
ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny aeine?aeeoe o/anoue cainoa
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aecia/ai? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy:

? c’ynoaaoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ? niaoeeo?eo o/ano? cainueeeo
onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?;

? i?iaiae?coaaoe noaaeaiiy ??cieo cainueeeo oa?oioaaiue aei
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? ae?yeueiino?;

? aena?oeeoe i?ioean noai?aiiy cainueeeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a;

? i?inoaaeeoe aca?iiae?th cainueeeo onoaiia c ??cieie
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eie ina?aaeeaie E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie;

? iieacaoe o/anoue cainueeeo onoaiia *a?i?a?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei?
aoaa?i?e o iai’yoeiioi?iiiiio ?on?;

? noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aei?iaie ie?aieo caioe?a, cainueeeo noaoenoe/ieo
caeeaae?a ? cainueei? i?ane o??? aeiae ? aecia/eoe ?oi?e aianie o
aea/aiiy ?noi??? E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue caaaeueiiiaoeia?
i?eioeeie ia’?eoea?cio oa ?noi?ecio.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee c
a?o?aieo oiiae?a, caeiiiaeaa/? oa ?io? o?yaeia? aeieoiaioe, iaoa??ee
ae?eiaiaenoaa aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo cainueeeo oi?aa, noaoenoe/i?,
aeiiii?/i? oa ?io? aeaeaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia, iaoa??aee
ioae?oeenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ai?uai? a cainueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy aeieoiaio?a, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo oia?oa
cai?iaaaeaeo?oueny a iaoeiaee ia?a, aoee ianoaaeai? c?a?aiiy a?o?a?a
Ee?aa, *a?i?aiaa ? Iieoaae. Aaoi?ii aoee ii?aoeueiaai? oiiaee ye
Oeaio?aeueii aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o i.EEe?a? (O.E1191, 1439),
oae ? oiiaee aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a *a?i?a?anueei? (O.E140, 145, 1433) oa
Iieoaanueei? (O.E222, 875) iaeanoae, a oaeiae oiiaee ?inoeoooo ?oeiieno
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i.EA.?.EAa?iaaenueeiai (O.E1, 3, 10,
12, 66).

Caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ai?uai? a OIieiii nia?aiee caeiiia ?inneeneie
eiia?eeO oa ONaiaea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?eeO, a oaeiae io?oe?ei?
aeieoiaioe aeicaieythoue ?ice?eoe iie?oeeo oea?nueeiai o?yaeo ye ii
a?aeiioaiith aei cainueeeo onoaiia ? ?oiuei? o/ano? a
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?, oae ? ii a?aeiioaiith aei naiiai
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iai ?ooo.

Iaea?eueoo ?ioi?iaoe?eio iane/ai?noue iathoue aeieoiaioe cainueeiai
ae?eiaiaenoaa, ye? yaeythoue niaith eeane/iee c?acie ianiai?
aeieoiaioaoe?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?OE? ii/aoeo OOEno. Aea/aiiy iaoa??ae?a
cainueeiai ae?eiaiaenoaa iieaaoo?oueny oei, ui cainoaa nenoaiaoe/ii
aeaeaaaee aeo?iaee nai?o can?aeaiue, aeiiia?ae? aoaa?inueei? oi?aae oa
noaiia?ao?/i? ca?oe. Iaeiae, aeo?iaee iia?oiaeo oa aoaa?inueeeo
cainueeeo c?a?aiue iaeaea ia a?aeia?aaeathoue aeeneon?e, ye? oi/eeeny
i?ae /an oeeo c?a?aiue. Iniaeeaith oi?iith aeo?iae?a ? noaiia?ao?/i?
ca?oe, a oi/i?oaE? noaiia?aie can?aeaiue aoaa?inueeeo cainueeeo
c?a?aiue, ye? ii/aee aeaeaaaoenue iai?ee?ioe? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo OOEno.
Naia inoaii? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee noaeeoe i?i iai?yiee e
oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia, aea e a?aeoai?ththoue naio
aoiinoa?o cainueeeo can?aeaiue, aena?oeththoue ai?ioueao ??cieo
cainueeeo oa?oioaaiue.

E??i oiai, o aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee iniiaii? oa
iioi/ii? cainueei? noaoenoeee. Oea, aieiaiei /eiii, aeieoiaioe,
iiaOycai? c ?ic?iaeith i?ia?ai niaoe?aeueieo ianoaaeaiue oa nai?
i?ia?aie, a oaeiae ioae?eaoe?? ??ciiai ?iaeo caaaeaieo noaoenoe/ieo
i?aoeue (OIaoa?eaeu aeey ioeaiee caiaeueiuo oaiaeeeO, OIaoa?eaeu aeey
ioeaiee iaaeaeaeeiuo eiouanoaO, ONoaoenoe/aneea aaeaaiaeieeeO e o.E?i.).
Iaoa??aee cainueei? noaoenoeee, e??i oiai, ui yaeythoue niaith aaaeeeaa
aeaea?aei aeey aea/aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo OOEno., i?noyoue /eiaei
aeaieo c ?noi???, aoiia?ao??, aaia?ao?? e oiiii?i?ee e?ath.

Aiae?c iaoa??e?a ae?oeiaaieo i?aai?a cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie (OCaineee nai?iee *a?ieaianeie aoaa?ieeO, O*a?ieaianeay caineay
iaaeaeyO, O*a?ieaianeay caineay aacaoaO, OCaineee iaci?O, OIieoaaneay
caineay aacaoaO), Aoaa?inueeeo a?aeiiinoae, aeaeaiue i?noeaaeo iaoeiaeo
oiaa?enoa (ye i?aaeei, a?o?aieo eii?n?e) oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ?noi?e/ieo
/aniien?a (OEeaaneay noa?eiaO, OEnoi?e/aneee aanoieeO oa ?i.) aeathoue
ciiao ?icoe?eoe aeaea?aeueio aaco i?iaeaie. O ii?aeiaii? c a?o?aieie oa
iioae?eiaaieie aeieoiaioaie iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane aeicaieythoue
a?eueo iiaii aena?oeeoe o/anoue cainoa a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?.

Oe?eaa? a?aeiiino? i?noeoue ? iaioa?ia e?oa?aoo?a, yea o aeena?oaoe??
i?aaenoaaeaia, aieiaiei /eiii, oaeei ??ciiaeaeii iaioa?iiai aeai?o, ye
niiaaaeeE.

Aaeeeo ?ioi?iaoeaio oe?ii?noue oaeiae iathoue ai?noiey?i? aeaea?aea.
Aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? oae caai? ai?noiey?i?
eiiieaene (ana eenooaaiiy aae?anaioa, yea a?aeeeaeiny o eiai oiiae?, oa
eiai aeani? eenoe o oiiaeao ?ioeo in?a), ye? caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao
?inoeoooo ?oeiieno Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie
?i.EA.?.EAa?iaaenueeiai (O.E1, 3, 10, 12, 66).

A oe?eiio aanue eiiieaen aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e aeicaiey? ae??oeoe
aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy, ui iinoaaeai? o aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae naiith oaiith
OO/anoue cainoa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?O, yea
aein? ia aoea ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue
cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, yeee aeicaiey? ooi/ieoe aai ia?aaeyiooe
iioe?ai? oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iai ?ooo ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?OE? ii/aoeo OOEno. ia i?eeeaaeao aeaio aoaa?i?eE?
*a?i?a?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— o/anoue cainueeeo onoaiia a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? aoea iaoiiaeaia
ye ia‘?eoeaieie (iaiao?aei?noth io?eiaiiy anaa?/ieo aeaieo, o oiio /ene?
e ?noi?eei-i?e?iaeie/iai oa?aeoa?o uiaei a?aeianaieo aei ?o eiiiaoaioe??
oa?eoi??e), oae ? noa‘?eoeaieie /eiieeaie (ona?aeiieaiiy a?eueo?noth
caioe?a aaaeeeaino? aea/aiiy ?noi?e/ii? ieioaoeie e?ath ? iaiao?aeiino?
caa?aaeaiiy iai‘yoie noa?iaeie ? ienoaoeoaa);

— cainuee? onoaiiae ia o?eueee nie?aeeny ia aeine?aeieoeueeo o?aaeeoe?th
? aei?iaie nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, aea e o?nii ni?a?ia?oie/aee c i?noeaaeie
iaoeiaeie ina?aaeeaie, ui ni?eyeei i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? e?a?ciaa/eo
nooae?e ia *a?i?a?auei? ? Iieoaauei?;

— aieiaieie iai?yieaie o/ano? cainoa a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? aoee
i?aai?caoe?y iocaeieo caeeaae?a, iai‘yoeiioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue, nooae??
c ?noi???, aoiia?ao?? oa noaoenoeee, o?iainiaa aeiiiiiaa i?noeaaei
iaoeiaei ina?aaeeai ? ie?aiei aeine?aeieeai oiui;

— i?aoe? caioe?a-e?a?ciaaoe?a I.Eaca?aanueeiai, I.?oniaa,
?.Eo/eoeueeiai, I.*a?a?inueeiai, I.?eeeoeueeiai, A.A??i/aiea oa
aaaaoueio ?ioeo caaaaoeee ia o?eueee ?aa?iiaeueio, aea e oe?a?inueeo
?noi??ia?ao?th a oe?eiio;

— iacaaaeath/e ia i?eieiaiiy ?nioaaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia o 1918 — 1919
??., iaa?iiaaeaeaiee ieie aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeo?eiaa aei?iaoaaiiy /anii ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee o
iao? aei?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iieyaa? o oiio, ui
iaaaaeai? o i?e oaeoe, aeniiaee ? niinoa?aaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? ieoaiue ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa,
noai?aii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c ?noi?e/iiai
e?a?ciaanoaa, ?noi??? iocaeii? oa a?o?aii? ni?aae. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi???
Oe?a?ie o na?aaei?e oa aeu?e oeie?. Ocaaaeueiaiee o ?iaio? aeina?ae
ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ai?iaeiaae ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?OE? ii/aoeo OO no. caneoaiao? ia e?eoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a i?aoe?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie. Oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui i?noyoueny o
aeena?oaoe??, ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a noaooyo ? oacao aeiiia?aeae
caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 2Eae?oe. a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?? iiaiee ianya (aeeth/ii ?c nieneii aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e) noaiiaeoue
202 noi??iee. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
oa nieneo aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 324 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a?aecia/aii eiai aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io
cia/ei?noue, aeeeaaeaii iaoo ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aecia/aii ??
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaea?aeueio aaco oa nooi?iue
aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? OO/anoue cainueeeo onoaiia o ?icaeoeo iocaeii?
ni?aae ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?O ?icaeyiooi ?noi??th noai?aiiy cainueeeo
ioca?noiaeu. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?OEno. iocaeia ni?aaa caciaea ?noioieo
ci?i. Ca a?aenooiino? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee e ia?ic?iaeaiino? iocaeiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?in?? i?ia?ioe?ei? ioca?, ye i?aaeei,
aeieeaee aai aiane?aeie ae?yeueiino? onoaiia, ui aea/aee e?ae
(noaoenoe/ieo eii?oao?a, cainueeeo caeeaae?a, aoaa?inueeeo a?o?aieo
eii?n?e), aai ia iniia? i?eaaoieo eieaeoe?e.

Eeoa cainoaa, nie?ath/enue ia aeina?ae nai?o iiia?aaeiee?a, a inoaii?e
/aa?o? O?OEno. ciiaee ?aae?coaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? ?aeath noai?aiiy
a?iiaaenueeeo ioca?a o i?ia?ioe??. Oea noaei iiaeeeaei c e?eueeio
i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa, cainuee? onoaiiae iaee eiooe aeey o?iainoaaiiy
iocaeiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ii-ae?oaa, ia a?aei?io a?ae nai?o
iiia?aaeiee?a, caioe? ei?enooaaeeny OI?iaeoii ii?iaeueiiai noaoooo
aoaa?inueeeo cainueeeo i?e?iaeie/i-?noi?e/ieo ioca?aO, ?ic?iaeaiiai
ai?iaeiaae 1882-86E??. i?ioani?ii A.A.EAeieo/a?aei. sse iane?aeie,
cainuee? ioca? ae??ciyeenue a?eueoith nenoaiaoe/i?noth e
oii?yaeeiaai?noth. Naia i?e?iaeie/i-?noi?e/i? ioca? iaaoee iaea?eueoi?
iiioey?iino? na?aae caioe?a, ine?eueee ni?eyee iaoeiaiio aea/aiith e?ath
? aeiiiiaaaee a ?ica’ycaii? i?noeaaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeai.

Iieoaanueea aoaa?inueea cainoai ia?oei c-iii?ae cainueeeo onoaiia
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie o 1891E?. i?enooieei aei ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo
A.A.EAeieo/a?aa. Iieoaanueeee cainueeee iocae, noai?aiee ye
i?e?iaeie/i-?noi?e/iee, coneeeyie eiai ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? aoaa?inueeiai
cainoaa aeoaea oaeaeei ia?aoiai?eany ia ni?aaaei?e e?a?ciaa/ee iocae.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Iieoaanueeiai, *a?i?a?anueeee cainueeee iocae aoa
caniiaaiee ia iniia? i?eaaoii? eieaeoe?? A.A.EOa?iianueeiai ?, ye
iane?aeie, iaa aeaeyae nooi ?noi?e/iiai iocath. ?noi??y noai?aiiy Iocath
oe?a?inueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae ?i.EA.A.EOa?iianueeiai ? eeane/iei
i?eeeaaeii ia o?eueee ai?ioueae ??cieo cainueeeo oa?oioaaiue, yeith
ai?aaii ei?enooaaeany i?noeaaa aaei?i?no?aoe?y, aea e a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi
aeeneon?e i?i oa, ui ? aaaeeea?oeiE? caaeiaieaiiy iaoa??aeueieo /e
aeooiaieo iio?aa ethaeeie. *anoeia /a?i?a?anueeeo caioe?a, iineeath/enue
ia Oianai?/ani?noueO caaeiaieaiiy aeooiaieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy, aenooiaea
i?ioe aeo?ao cainueeeo eioo?a ia noai?aiiy e oo?eiaiiy ioca?a.
Aiaeia?/i? a?aoiaioe aenoaaee e aeaye? iieoaanuee? caioe?.
*a?i?a?anueeee aeiaaeie iaaoa a?eueoiai ?icaieino aiane?aeie ao?o/aiiy a
oeth ni?aao i?noeaaiai aoaa?iaoi?a, yeee aaa/aa o ni?ia? cainoaa
noai?eoe Iocae oe?a?inueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae Oiaaacia/i? ?aea?
iaei?onueeiai naia?aoecioO.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo OOEno. iocaei? caeeaaee ii/aee c’yaeyoenue
ia o?eueee o aoaa?inueeeo i?noeyo, aea e o iia?oiaeo i?noa/eao. Oea
noaei iiaeeeaei ia?o ca ana caaaeyee o/ano? o oe?e ni?aa? cainueeeo
onoaiia. Ai?iaeiaae 1895-1908E??. I?eeooeueeei, Eiiioiinueeei,
Aeoo?anueeei oa Inoa?nueeei iia?oiaeie cainoaaie aoee noai?ai? ioca?.
Eieaeoe?? iia?oiaeo ioca?a cia/ii iinooiaeeny aoaa?inueeei nai?i
aaaaonoaii. Aei oiai ae, ia an?i iia?oiaei cainoaai /a?ac a?ae eioo?a
aaeaeiny oo?eiaoe aeani? ioca?. Aeaeeaaee eeoa o? iia?oia? cainuee?
ioca?, a iniiao yeeo aoee iieeaaeai? i?eaaoi? eieaeoe?? e o noai?aii?
yeeo a?aee o/anoue i?noeaa? aeine?aeieee noa?iaeie.

Aaea iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie cainuee? aeani?
ona?aeiiethaaee iaiao?aei?noue ? ieaioaaee iiaeaeueoa ?icoe?aiiy
iocaeii? ia?aae? oeyoii aoae?aieoeoaa ia?iaeieo aeii?aE?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oeaio??a o i?ia?ioe??, iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith yeeo
iaee noaoe ? ioca?. Naia cainoaa iiaiaeeeeny acyoe ia naaa eaaiao /anoeo
aeo?ao ? iaiaaaeeny caeo/eoe aei ni?ai?aoe? i?noeaa? a?iiaaee oa
eiiia?aoeae. Eeoa ii/aoie a?eie o 1914E?. caaaaeea iiaiith i??ith
?aae?coaaoe oe? ieaie. Aeiey aeyaeeany a?eueo i?eoeeueiith aei cainueeeo
ioca?a, /ei aei ?o caniiaiee?a. I?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? cainueeeo onoaiia
aeiaeai c ?o ioca?a ia i?eieiea naiai ?nioaaiiy. Iii?e an? a?eie,
?aaiethoe?? oa ?io? eaoaee?cie aiie caa?aaee aei iaoeo aei?a aacoe?ii?
iai’yoee iaoi? ?noi??? e ii i?aao aaaaeathoueny cieioei oiiaeii
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? OIaiOyoeiioi?iiiay ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo onoaiia
*a?i?a?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei? aoaa?i?eO ?icaeyiooi noai ni?aae ioi?iie
iaiOyoie noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa o aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?in?? oa oi?ie
o/ano? cainueeeo onoaiia o iaiOyoeiioi?iiieo caoiaeao.

Ai?iaeiaae OO??? no. a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, aei neeaaeo yei? aoiaeeee e
oe?a?inuee? caie?, ?iaeeeny ia?o? e?iee c aieo aea?aeaae o ni?aa?
caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoie noa?iaeie. Iai’yoeiioi?iii? caoiaee aea?aeaae, ye?
aoee iaiine?aeiaieie ? iineee aacnenoaiiee oa?aeoa?, c?aooith i?eaa?ioee
oaaao ina?/aii? a?iiaaeneino?. O ae?oa?e /aa?o? O?OEno. o noni?euenoa?
c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei i?iaeaie ioi?iie iai’yoie noa?iaeie ? ienoaoeoaa.
Ii/eiath/e c 1826E?. o ?in?? aeaea?oueny oe?ea iecea ?iia?aoi?nueeeo
oeac?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ica’ycaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy. O?yae iaiaaa?oueny
caeo/eoe aei iai’yoeiioi?iiii? ni?aae nii/aoeo aoaa?iaoi??a, a o?ioe
caiaeii ? aoaa?inuee? noaoenoe/i? eii?oaoe. Aea oe? caoiaee ia ci?ieee
neooaoe?th ia e?aua. Aaeaea, ii-ia?oa, ioi?iiith iai’yoie, ye
cacia/aeiny o niaoe?aeueii aeaeaieo oeacao, ye aoaa?iaoi?e, oae ?
aoaa?inuee? noaoenoe/i? eii?oaoe iaee caeiaoeny ii iiaeeeaino?.
Ii-ae?oaa, aea?aeaaa i?aeoe/ii ia o?iainoaaea iai’yoeiioi?iiieo
caoiae?a. ?, ia?aoo?, ii-o?ao?, caa?aaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii?
niaaeueie caaaaeaea a?aenooi?noue caeiio i?i ioi?iio iai’yoie noa?iaeie
? ienoaoeoaa. Ca a?aenooiino? inoaiiueiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeai caa?aaeaiiy
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaei a?ae aeia?i?
aie? i?eaaoieo in?a, iaoeiaeo oiaa?enoa, a oaeiae i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiyE? i?nueeeo aeoi ? cainoa. Aeoiea i?i iaiao?aei?noue
caeo/aiiy aei oe??? ni?aae cainueeeo onoaiia o iaoeiaeo eieao aeieeea
aeineoue oaee i?ciiE? o?eueee ia ii/aoeo OOEno.

Aea cainoaa c aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o
iai’yoeiioi?iieo caoiaeao. Aiie o?iainoaaee ae?yeuei?noue a?o?aieo
eii?n?e, ni?yiiaaio ia aeyaeaiiy, aea/aiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoie
noa?iaeie. ?acii c oei, /eiaei caioe?a aoiaeeei aei neeaaeo a?o?aieo
eii?n?e, ui, aacia?a/ii, iiaeeaethaaei ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?ae oeeie
aeaiia onoaiiaaie. Caioe? ia o?eueee a?aee o/anoue a oii?yaeeoaaii?
i?ia?ai ioi?iie iai’yoie noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa, ye /eaie a?o?aieo
eii?n?e, aea e ?ic?iaeyee aeani? i?ia?aie, aeiiny/e ?o ia iaaiai?aiiy ?
caoaa?aeaeaiiy cainueeeo c?a?aiue. Uii?aaaea, aeayea /anoeia aeanieo
aenooiaea i?ioe aeo?ao cainueeeo eioo?a ia iai’yoeiioi?iio
ae?yeuei?noue, ye oaeo, ui ia iaeaaeeoue aei eiiiaoaioe?? cainueeeo
onoaiia. Aea a?eueo?noue caioe?a ana ae oaee ?icoi?ea cia/aiiy aea/aiiy
? caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoie noa?iaeie.

Iaoiae? naia cainoaa aoee oeie onoaiiaaie, a yeeo ia o?eueee
ona?aeiiethaaee iaiao?aei?noue ioi?iie iai’yoie, aea e iaee ?aaeuei?
eiooe aeey oeueiai. Aei iai’yoeioi?iiii? ni?aae aoee caeo/ai? ye
aoaa?inuee?, oae ? iia?oia? cainoaa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Caaaeyee
o?iainia?e i?aeo?eioe? c aieo Iieoaanueeiai aoaa?inueeiai, Inoa?nueeiai
oa Eiiioiinueeiai iia?oiaeo cainoa ?anoaa?oaaeeny Oniainueea oea?eaa a
Ia?ayneaa?, TH???aa aiaeieoey o Noa?iai?iaeoe? oa iaeaoe
E.E?icoiianueeiai a Aaoo?ei?. E??i oiai, cainuee? onoaiiae *a?i?a?aueie
oa Iieoaaueie acyee i?ae naith ii?eo e ioi?iio iiaeee aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?eE? O.EOaa/aiea, ?.EEioey?aanueeiai, ?.EA?aa?iee,
I.EEoe?oa oiui.

Aiaeii/an, cainoaa a?aee o/anoue a ioi?ii? ia o?eueee ia?ooiieo, aea e
?ooiieo iai’yoie noa?iaeie. Iaaaeyeo ?ieue o oe?e ni?aa? a?ae?a?aee
cainuee? ioca?, i?ia?aie yeeo caioi/oaaee iocaeieo ni?a?ia?oiee?a
cae?aoe e caa??aaoe a?ae cieuaiiy iai’yoee i?noeaai? noa?iaeie. Iaeiei c
iai?yie?a iai’yoeiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo ioca?a aoee
a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ni?a?ia?oieee Iieoaanueeiai
i?e?iaeie/i-?noi?/iiai iocath a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii?
ioi?iiieo a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie. O naith /a?ao, *a?i?a?anueea
aoaa?inueea cainoai o?iainoaaei a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
Ae.ENaiieaaniaa oa O.EAiaea. A o 1912E?. Iieoaanueea aoaa?inueea
cainueea c?a?aiiy aeciaei ca iaiao?aeia i?enooieoe aei nenoaiaoe/iiai
cae?aiiy iai’yoie noa?iaeie aeey naiai iocath oeyoii i?aai?caoe??
ui??/ieo aeneo?n?e ii aoaa?i??.

Ai?iaeiaae 1915E? ia ii/aoeo 1917 ??. iai’yoeiioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue
cainueeeo onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie oaeoe/ii i?eieieeany. Eeoa i?ney
Ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917E?. ciiao c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei i?iaeai
caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie. O Ee?a? noai?th?oueny
Oeaio?aeueiee eii?oao ioi?iie iai’yoie noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa a
Oe?a?i?. Iai’yoeioi?iii? eii?oaoe, ca aeoeaii? i?aeo?eiee e o/ano?
caioe?a, aeieeathoue o *a?i?aia? oa Iieoaa?. Caoiaee ye i?noeaaeo
eii?oao?a ioi?iie iai’yoie noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa, oae ? aoaa?inueeeo
eii?na??a c ieoaiue ioi?iie iai’yoie ciaoiaeeee ii?aeueio e iaoa??aeueio
i?aeo?eieo c aieo cainueeeo onoaiia. sse iane?aeie, o neeaaeieo oiiaao
?aaiethoe?? oa a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ni?eueieie coneeeyie on?o
caoe?eaaeaieo noi??i aaeaeiny a?yooaaoe cia/io /anoeio iai’yoie
noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? O?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy cainueeeo
onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ieO ?icaeyiooi aianie cainueeeo noaoenoe/ieo
caeeaae?a, cainueei? i?ane oa ie?aieo caioe?a o ?icaeoie
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue c?iaeee
cainuee? noaoenoe/i? caeeaaee (ath?i aai a?aeae?eaiiy). Noai?ai?
iai?ee?ioe? 70-oE? ia ii/aoeo 80-oE??. ieioeiai noie?ooy c iaoith
io?eiaiiy oi/ieo aeaieo i?i aa?o?noue ? i?eaooeia?noue caie? oa ?ioeo
ia?ooiieo ia?oiinoae, aiie aeoaea oaeaeei aeeoee ca iaae?
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo io?oe?eieo i?ia?ai.

Iaeiei c iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo noaoenoee?a noaei ii??aiyiiy
c?a?aieo ieie aeaieo c aeaieie noaoenoe/ieo iien?a ae?oai? iieiaeie
O*???E? ii/aoeo O?OEno. Iniaeeaa oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia aea/aiith
?oiyioeaanueeiai iieno E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie 1765-69E??. Cainueeeo
noaoenoee?a oe?eaaeei ieoaiiy aaiethoe?? aeeoo?aiai ??aiy naeyi ?
eicae?a ai?iaeiaae noa ?ie?a.

?ic?iaeith oeueiai ieoaiiy aeoeaii caeiaeeny I.E?onia, I.E*a?ai?nueeee,
?.EO?e?iiiia, A.ENaiyiianueeee, I.EOeeeaae/, A.EEo/eoeueeee oa
I.E?eeeoeueeee. ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo noaoenoee?a
ia iaiaaeoaaeany eeoa aea/aiiyi ?oiyioeaanueeiai iieno. I?aeoe/ii o
eiaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aiie oae /e ?iaeoa oi?eaeeny ieoaiue i?noeaai?
?noi???, aoiia?ao??, aaia?ao??, oiiii?i?ee. Aei oeueiai ?o niiioeaee
nai? noaoenoe/i? i?ia?aie.

Cia/ii aeoea?coaaeany ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/a ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo
onoaiia E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo OOEno. o ca’yceo ?c
nayoeoaaiiyi tha?eath aecia/ieo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e. Iaea?eueoa oaaaa
caioe?a aoea i?eeooa aei a?aecia/aiiy 50-??//y i?iaaaeaiiy naeyinueei?
?aoi?ie 1861E?. oa cainueei? ?aoi?ie 1864E?. I?aeoe/ii iica oaaaith
caioe?a iieieeeny 200-??/iee tha?eae Aeiio ?iiaiiaeo, 350-??//y
i?e?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie aei ?in?? o 1654E?. oa 100-??//y A?o/eciyii? a?eie
1812E?. Aoei aea? iniiai? oi?ie iciaiaioaaiiy cacia/aieo iiae?eE?
noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo a?aeae?e?a i?e cainueeeo iocayo, a oaeiae
i?aeaioiaea e aeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ?noi?e/ieo ia?en?a ? noaoae.

?acii c oei, cainuee? onoaiiae E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie noeioethaaee
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeyoii aaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo
a?ioiaeo i?ai?e ca iaee?auo ?noi?e/io i?aoeth c ?noi??? ?aa?iio. O oaeee
niin?a cainoaa ia o?eueee ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue, aea e
aeoeaii aieeaaee ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?.

Cia/io ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae?a?aea
cainueea i?ana, i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie /aniienaie *a?i?a?anueeiai oa
Iieoaanueeiai aoaa?inueeeo cainoa, ye OCaineee nai?iee *a?ieaianeie
aoaa?ieeO, O*a?eaianeay caineay iaaeaeyO (c 1917E?.E? O*a?ieaianeay
caineay aacaoaO), OCaineee iaci?O e OIieoaaneay caineay aacaoaO. Ia
?oi?o noi??ieao ii?eethaeithaaeanue ia o?eueee ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iaoeiaa
aeeooy e?ath, aea e noaoo? c ?noi???, a?oaieia??, aoiia?ao??, a oaeiae
oe?eaa? ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a naia:

? ia?o? 10-15 ?ie?a ?nioaaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia aoee /anii ?oiueiai
noaiiaeaiiy. Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? 70E? o 80-o ??. O?OEno. cainoaa
ii/eiathoue a?aoe o/anoue a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?. Inoaiiy
i?iyaeyeany o noai?aii? ioca?a, iai’yoeiioi?iiieo caoiaeao,
iaoa??aeuei?e i?aeo?eioe? ye ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a, oae ? aoaa?inueeeo
a?o?aieo eii?n?e, nooae?thaaii? i?noeaai? ?noi???;

? ia a?aei?io a?ae on?o i?ia?ioe?eieo caeeaae?a oa onoaiia, ye?
caeiaeeny i?noeaaeie aea/aiiyie (aoaa?inuee? noaoenoe/i? eii?oaoe,
aoaa?inuee? a?o?ai? eii?n?? oa ?i.), naia cainoaa iaee iaiao?aei? eiooe
aeey oeueiai;

? cainueea ?iaioa, ia cani?/aia ath?ie?aoe/iei oi?iae?ciii ? caoeuaia
a?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai anaaeaaeaey, i?eaaaethaaea aaaaoueio
?ioae?aaio?a. Aei neeaaeo cainueeeo onoaiia *a?i?a?aueie oa Iieoaaueie
aoiaeeee oae? ciai? aeine?aeieee ye I.EEaca?aanueeee, ?.EEo/eoeueeee,
A.EA??i/aiei, I.EAei?ioaiei, ?.ECa?aoeueeee, I.E*a?a?inueeee, I.E?onia,
E.EIaaeaeea, I.EEaoeaae/, A.EOeaeiyeia, I.E?eeeoeueeee, I.EOeeeaae/,
O.EOiaiaoeue, I.EIiaeeyinueeee, A.EAi?eaiei, I.ENoi?iaeaiei, A.EIaoiaiei
oa ?i. O ?oiueiio aei?iaeo /eiaea e?euee?noue eiea, a?ioo?, noaoae,
ia?en?a ? ?ica?aeie c ?noi???, a?oaia?ao??, a?oaieia?? oa aoiia?ao??
Oe?a?ie. Caaaeyee I.EEaoeaae/o oa A.EIaoiaieo (aeaeaaoeyi ? ?aaeaeoi?ai
OEeaaneie noa?eiuO) caioe? iaee iiaeeea?noue ii?eethaeithaaoe ia
noi??ieao oeueiai iiaaaeiiai ?noi?e/iiai /aniieno nai? ?iaioe. O naith
/a?ao, ?aaeaeoe?y inoaiiueiai aeoaea oaaaeii noaaeeea ca
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eie nooae?yie cainueeeo onoaiia;

? ia an? cainuee? aeani? ?icoi?ee iaiao?aei?noue ? cia/aiiy
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? ae?yeueiino?. *an a?ae /ano ia cainueeeo c?a?aiiyo
niaeaooaaee aino?? aeeneon?? i?ae i?ea?/ieeaie oa i?ioeaieeaie o/ano?
cainueeeo onoaiia o oe?e ni?aa?. Inoaii?, ye i?aaeei, iineeath/enue ia
cainueea caeiiiaeaanoai, cayaeyee, ui /an aeey caaeiaieaiiy Oaeueo
aeooiaieo ianieiaeO aeey a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy ua ia ianoaa ? i?iiiioaaee
ni?yioaaoe cainuee? eiooe ia caaeiaieaiiy eeoa iaoa??aeueieo iio?aa
ethaeae. Aei /ano? caioe?a a?eueoa ?o /anoeia ona?aeiiethaaea cia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy e caa?aaeaiiy ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie ia?iaeo ye
aeey no/aniee?a, oae ? aeey i?eeaeaoi?o iieie?iue;

? cia/iee aianie cainuee? onoaiiae E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie c?iaeee o
?icaeoie iocaeii? ni?aae. Ai?iaeiaae 90-oE??. O?OE? ii/aoeo OOEno.
cainoaa noai?eee o?noue ioca?a ia E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i?. Oaeoe/ii oea
aoee ia?o? a?iiaaenuee? ioca? a ?aa?ii?. Aiie ni?eyee iiioey?ecaoe??
?noi?e/ieo ciaiue, aa?iii?eii ii?aeioaaee ina?oi? oa iaoeiai-aeine?aei?
ooieoe??;

? ca a?aenooiino? caeiio i?i ioi?iio iai’yoie noa?iaeie oa ienoaoeoaa o
aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?in?? iai’yoeiioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue o i?ia?ioe??
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaea a?ae cainueeeo onoaiia, ye? ia o?eueee
o?iainoaaee ae?yeuei?noue aoaa?inueeeo a?o?aieo eii?n?e, aea e nai?
a?aee aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o iai’yoeiioi?iiieo caoiaeao. Cia/io ?ieue
o ni?aa? caa?aaeaiiy ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo a?ae?a?aee cainuee? ioca?;

? aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
E?aiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? a?ae?a?aee cainuee? noaoenoe/i? a?aeae?ee (ath?i).
Aiie caaeiaai aei noai?aiiy aoaa?inueeeo a?o?aieo eii?n?e noaee
?ioaeaeooaeueieie ina?aaeeaie ii aea/aiith e?ath, ia’?aeiaaoe oaeeo
aaoi?eoaoieo aeine?aeiee?a ye I.I.E*a?a?inueeee, A.?.EAa?ca?,
I.I.EEiinoaioeiiae/, I.I.EOeeeaae/, I.I.E?onia, ?.A.EEo/eoeueeee,
E.A.EIaaeaeea, I.A.E?eeeoeueeee oa ?i. Aiie aeoeaii caeiaeeny ?ic?iaeith
?oiyioeaanueeiai iieno E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie 1765E? 1769E??. E??i oiai,
iaeaea a eiaeiiio nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? cainuee? noaoenoeee oae /e
?iaeoa oi?eaeeny ieoaiue i?noeaai? ?noi???, aoiia?ao??, aaia?ao??,
oiiia?ao?? e?ath;

? cainuee? onoaiiae iaiaaaeeny aeoea?coaaoe ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia *a?i?a?auei? oa Iieoaauei?, aeae?eyth/e niaoe?aeuei?
a?ioia? i?ai?? ca iaee?auo ?iaioo c i?noeaai? ?noi???. E??i oiai,
cainoaa a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue a i?aeaioiaoe? e i?aai?caoe??
a?oaieia?/ieo c’?cae?a. Ao?i, cainoaa ia iaiaaeoaaeeny eeoa
niiini?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth, aea e nai? caeiaeeny ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eie
nooae?yie, ye? aoee noeioeueiaai? nayoeoaaiiyi oe?ei? iecee tha?ea?a
aecia/ieo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e ia ii/aoeo OOEno.;

? cia/io ?ieue o ?icaeoeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue
a?ae?a?aea cainueea i?ana. Ia noi??ieao OCaineiai nai?ieea *a?ieaianeie
aoaa?ieeO, O*a?ieaianeie caineie iaaeaeeO (c 1917E?.E? O*a?ieaianeie
caineie aacaouO), OCaineiai iaci?aO oa OIieoaaneie caineie aacaouO
caa?aaeiny aaaaoi a?aeiiinoae c ?noi??? e?ath, /anoi-aonoi i?aea a?eueoa
ia cao?eniaaieo. O oeeo aeaeaiiyo iioae?eiaaii /eiaei noaoae,
aeieoiaio?a c i?noeaai? ?noi???, iia?aeiieaiue i?i ae?yeuei?noue
e?a?ciaa/eo oiaa?enoa ? ie?aieo aeine?aeiee?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. EiaaeaieiEI.A., Aai??ieiEA.A. O/anoue ?.E.EO?aaa o e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?
a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?OE? ia ii/aoeo OOEno.E// Oinoa Anaoe?a?inueea
iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y c ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa.E? Eooeuee, 1993.E?
N.E219-220. (0,1Eae?oeEa?e.)

2. Aai??ieiEA. ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/? iaoa??aee a OCaineii nai?ieea
*a?ieaianeie aoaa?ieeOE// N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien.E? 1995.E? ?E3. ?
N.E97-102. (0,5Eae?oe. a?e.)

3. Aai??ieiEA. C ?noi??? ia’?aeiaiiy /a?i?a?anueeeo ioca?aE// Ethaeeia,
noni?euenoai, eoeueoo?a: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue.E? *a?i?a?a, 1996.E? N.
79-84. (0,2Eae?oe.Ea?e.)

4. Aai??ieiEA. A., EiaaeaieiEI.A. Caaooee iocaeiee caeeaae noa?iai
*a?i?aiaaE// Nea?aieoey oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e: Iaoa??aeo iaoeiai?
tha?eaeii? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 100-??//th *a?i?a?anueeiai
?noi?e/iiai iocath ?i.EA.A.EOa?iianueeiai.E? *a?i?a?a, 1996.E? N.E83-88.
(0,2Eae?oe.Ea?e.)

5. Aai??ieiEA. C ?noi??? ?icaeoeo /a?i?a?anueei? cainueei?
noaoenoeeeE// N?aa?yinueeee e?oiien.E? 1997.E? ?E1-2.E? N.E49-66.
(0,9Eae?oe. a?e.)

6. Aai??ieiEA. Iai‘yoeiioi?iiia ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo onoaiia
*a?i?a?anueei? ? Iieoaanueei? aoaa?i?e // Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y a iaii?ai?
noie?oue. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.-*a?i?a?a: N?aa?yinueea aeoiea,
1999.- N.268-281 (0,8Eae?oe. a?e.)

Aai??ieiEA.A. O/anoue cainoa E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? (1870-o? ? 1918E??.).E? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01.E? ?noi??y Oe?a?ie.E? ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, i?enay/aii? o/ano? cainoa
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on? o 1870-oE? 1918E??. A
aeine?aeaeaii? eiiieaenii i?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa
niaoeeo?ea o/ano? cainueeeo onoaiia a ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/iio ?on?.
Iieacai? i?ioean noai?aiiy cainueeeo ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a, a
oaeiae o/anoue cainoa o ni?aa? ioi?iie iaiOyoie noa?iaeie ? ienoaoeoaa.
Aaoi?ii aoa aeine?aeaeaiee aianie ie?aieo caioe?a, cainueeeo
noaoenoe/ieo caeeaae?a ? cainueei? i?ane o aea/aiiy ?noi???
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeaa oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia aca?iia?aeiineiai
cainoa c ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/eie caeeaaeaie e?ath. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeue c ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? niaoe?aeueieo
eo?n?a, i?enay/aieo cainueeei onoaiiaai Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/ee ?oo, cainuee? onoaiiae, cainuee?
aeani?, ioi?iia iaiOyoie, cainueea noaoenoeea, cainueea i?ana.

AaieaieiEA.A. O/anoea cainoa Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu a
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneii aeaeaeaiee (1870-uaE? 1918Eaa.).E? ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01.E? Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu.E? Einoeooo enoi?ee
Oe?aeiu IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia o/anoeth cainoa Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu
*a?ieaianeay e Iieoaaneay aoaa?iee) a enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneii
aeaeaeaiee. A enneaaeiaaiee eiiieaenii i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniiaiua
caeiiiia?iinoe e niaoeeoeea o/anoey caineeo o/?aaeaeaiee a
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneii aeaeaeaiee, ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia O?O aaea e
caeai/eaay 1918 aiaeii. Iieacaiu aeaaiua iai?aaeaiey
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe cainoa, eioi?ay au?aaeaeanue a
i?aaiecaoeee iocaaa, io?aia iaiyoieeia noa?eiu e eneonnoaa, eco/aiee
enoi?ee e yoiia?aoee, oeiainiaie iiiiue ianoiui iao/iui iauanoaai.
Oeacaii ia oi, /oi a oa/aiea 90-o aiaeia O?O — a ia/aea OO aaea cainoaa
nicaeaee ia Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia oanoue iocaaa, eioi?ua oaeoe/anee auee
ia?auie iauanoaaiiuie iocayie a ?aaeiia. Iie niinianoaiaaee
iiioey?ecaoeee enoi?e/aneeo ciaiee n?aaee ianaeaiey, aa?iiie/ii
niaaeeiyee ia?aciaaoaeueiua e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ooieoeee,
nua?aee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a aeaea nio?aiaiey enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai
ianeaaeey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. A oneiaeyo ionoonoaey a
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee caeiia ia io?aia iaiyoieeia noa?eiu e
eneonnoaa i?aaiecaoeey ?aaio a yoie noa?a a i?iaeioeee a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie caaenaea io cainoa. Iineaaeiea ia oieueei oeiaine?iaaee
aoaa?ineea a?oeaiua eiiennee, ii e naie iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaiaaee a
iaiyoieeiio?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aianoa n oai, aaoi?ii aue iieacai
aeeaae a ?acaeoea enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ia *a?ieaiaueia
e Iieoaaueia eae caineeo noaoenoe/aneeo ioaeaeia (ath?i), eioi?ua
caaeieai aei nicaeaiey a?oeaiuo eiiennee noaee eioaeeaeooaeueiuie
oeaio?aie ii eco/aieth e?ay, oae e ioaeaeueiuo caioeaa. Caineea
noaoenoeee aeoeaii caieiaeenue iao/iie ?ac?aaioeie ?oiyioeaaneie iiene
Iaei?innee 1765 — 1769 aiaeia, oae eee eia/a eanaeenue i?aeoe/anee a
eaaeaeii naiai enneaaeiaaiee aii?inia ianoiie enoi?ee, yoiia?aoee,
oiiia?aoeee e oiiiieieee. O?oaeu oaeeo aeaniuo eae A.Eaca?aaneee,
A.A?ei/aiei, E.Iaaeaeea, A.?onia, E.Eo/eoeeee, I.*a?aeineee, I.?eeeoeeee
e iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaiaaoeee ia oieueei ?aaeiiaeueioth, ii e oe?aeineoth
enoi?eia?aoeth a oeaeii. E?iia oiai, a ?aaioa inaauaia ?ieue caineie
i?annu («Caineiai nai?ieea *a?ieaianeie aoaa?iee», «*a?ieaianeie caineie
iaaeaee», «Caineiai iaci?a» e «Iieoaaneie caineie aacaou») a
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneii eco/aiee e?ay. Ia no?aieoeao caineeo
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee auei iioaeeeiaaii cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai
enoi?e/aneeo noaoae e aeieoiaioia, niiauaiee i aeayoaeueiinoe
e?aaaaae/aneeo iauanoa. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey iaienaiey iaiauathueo ?aaio ii enoi?e/aneiio
e?aaaaaeaieth, i?e iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeueiuo eo?nia , iinayuaiiui
caineei o/?aaeaeaieyi Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneia aeaeaeaiea, caineea
o/?aaeaeaiey, caineea aeaniua, io?aia iaiyoieeia, caineay noaoenoeea,
caineay i?anna.

GapienkoEA.A. The participation of the Left bank Ukrainian zemstvos in
the historical local lore movement (1870-1918).E? Manuscript.

A thesis submitted for the candidate of history degree with the
specialization 07.00.01.E? The History of Ukraine NANU, Kyiv, 1998.

The manuscript of dissertation dedicated to the participation of the
Leftbank Ukrainian zemstvos in the historical local lore movement in
1870-1918 is maintained. The investigation gives complex analysis of the
specific character and general conformities of zemstvos participation in
the historical local lore movement to the natural laws. Also the
creation of zemstvoOs museums of historical local lore and the
participation of zemstvos in protection of relicts of the past and
cultural monuments are shown. The author had analysed the contribution
of some zemstvoOs members, statistics bodies and zemstvoOs press to the
study of the history of the Leftbank Ukraine. The particular attention
was given to zemstvoOs interaction with historical local lore
institutions of the land. The results of this investigation can be used
for the writing of the generalized works in the history of study of
local lore, for the training of special courses, dedicated to Ukrainian
zemstvos.

The key words: historical local lore movemwnt, zemstvos, zemstvoOs
members, monuments protection, zemstvoOs statistics, zemstvoOs press.

_____________________

PAGE

PAGE 3

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