Тестовий контроль у процесі навчання фізики (на матеріалі теоретичної фізики): Автореф. дис… канд. пед. наук / І.В. Солуха, Нац. пед. ун-т ім. М.П.Д

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? I. I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

Nieooa ??eia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 372.853:53

OANOIAEE EIIO?IEUe

O I?IOeAN? IAA*AIIss O?CEEE

(ia iaoa??ae? oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee)

13.00.02 oai??y i iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy oiceee

AAOI?AOA?AO AeENA?OAOe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
A?euaiei Aaiiaae?e Iaianiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, aeaeai o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?a??a Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/,

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ceee oa
iaoiaeeee ?? aeeeaaeaiiy

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Caeioa Ea?ena Aiae???aia, ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee ? o?ceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Caii??cueeee iaeaniee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a,

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, ineoieia?? oa iaoiaeee iaa/aiiy
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoaiaoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiae 45 oa ia

can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.053.03 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa
(252601, Ee?a, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaea- aia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 27 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ei?oae ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oanoiaee iaoiae eiio?ieth iaaoa
cia/iiai ?icaeoeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaiee iaeaea a on? noa?e ae?yeueiino?
ethaeeie a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo. Oaea eiai iioe?aiiy iiynith?oueny
oei, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo niinia?a eiio?ieth, oanoiaee iaoiae
i?eioeeiiai caeaoai caaacia/eoe noaiaea?oecaoe?th ci?noo eiio?ieth, oiia
eiai i?iaaaeaiiy ? i?ioeaaeo?e ioe?ithaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a. Ioaea, a?i
i?eioeeiiai iiaea caaacia/eoe ia’?eoeai?noue, aae?aei?noue ? oi/i?noue
eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Cae/aeii, oi?eaeuei?noue
oa oe?ii?noue oanoiaiai iaoiaeo eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano aoea ? caeeoa?oueny i?aaeiaoii aeeneon?e iaaeaaia?a ?
iaoiaeeno?a, a caaacia/aiiy ?aaeueii? ia’?eoeaiino?, aae?aeiino? oa
iaae?eiino? oanoo caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio /eiiee?a ? aeiaaa?
aeio?eiaiiy e?eueeio niaoe?aeueieo aeiia, ye? aoaeooue ?icaeyioo? a
?iaio? Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, aaeeea i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oanoiaiai
iaoiaeo ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a ? e?aniiiiaii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
ca?oa?aeiith ? a?o/eciyiith i?aeoeeith eiai canoinoaaiiy. A nenoaiao
ina?oe aaaaoueio e?a?i, iai?eeeaae, iioe?ai? noaiaea?oeciaai?
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oanoe, oanooaaiiy ca yeeie iaaoee oa?aeoa?o
iaia’yceiaeo. sse iaoiae aei??thaaiiy, oanooaaiiy ia? oaeiae aaeeea
oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy, yea aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe aeey iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, a
ye?e aeineiaeaeaiiy /anoi aaaeooueny ia ye?niiio ?iai?.

Na?aae ia?aaaa oanoiaiai iaoiaeo ioe?ithaaiiy iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe eiai
iia?aoeai?noue, a oaeiae iiaeeea?noue iaeii/aniiai ianiaiai eiio?ieth
ciaiue onueiai iio??aiiai eiioeiaaioo o/i?a /e nooaeaio?a I?e oeueiio
oanoiaee iaoiae aeicaiey? ca?eueieoe aeeeaaea/a a?ae o/ano? a
i?ioeaaeo?ao eiio?ieth ? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?aoo?, iaaii? aeineiiaeino? oanoiaee iaoiae iaaoaa? o aeaeyae?
eiii’thoa?iiai oanoiaiai eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.
Eiii’thoa?iee oanoiaee eiio?ieue ? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith iiaeo
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy, ye? iinooiiai ? iaa?aeai?ioii
ao?eththoueny a iaaeaaia?/io i?aeoeeo ? ca?ac ? neiaieii i?ia?ano a i?e.

Aecia/ii aeinyaiaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? oanoieia?? ia Caoiae? iia’ycai? c
i?aoeyie ?. Aaaey, E. ?iaaieaiia, I. Eaca?noaeueaea, O. Ei?aea, Aee.
Iaeea, Aeae. ?anea, ?. Oi?iaeaeea, X. Oaeuena, AE..I. Oaa?a, ?. O?eea,
?. Oaiaeaoa, Aeae. Oaioa oa ?ioeo. I?iaeaie iaaeaaia?/ii? oanoieia??
aeine?aeaeoaaee i aeine?aeaeothoue oe?a?inuee? oa ?inienuee? iaoiaeenoe,
iaaeaaiae ? ineoieiae, na?aae yeeo: A.C. Aaaiania, I.N. Aoaiai/oe, A.I.
Aaniaeueei, I.?. Aoaaeia, E.A. Aoeaa?i, ?.?. Aoeao, E.A. Ei?nae,
?.A. Ei?oae, ?.I. I?aeeanee, I.I. ?icaiaa?a, I.?. Naiieeaiei,
I.A. Na?a??a oa ?io?. Coneeeyie ca?oaiaeieo i aio/eciyieo o/aieo
iiaoaeiaaii iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei oanooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ia/eneaiiy i noaiaea?oecaoe?? ioe?iie
aei?iaiaoaaieo, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/i? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
oanoia ? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue (iaaeieiinoi, aaeiaeiinoi,
aeene?eiiiaoeaiinoi, oi/iino?). Oe? iaoiaee a?oioothoueny ia
noaoenoe/iiio aiaeic? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oanooaaiue ia
?ai?acaioaoeaieo aea??eao c aeineoue aaeeeei /eneii aei?iaiaoaaieo.

Aeniei ioeiithth/e iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeeiiaieo
aeineiaeaeaiue, neiae a oie aea /an cacia/eoe, ui a ieo iaoaiaoe/i?e
ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a oanooaaiiy i?enay/aii cia/ii a?eueoa oaaae, i?ae
ci?noo ? oi?ioethaaiith oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. I?ioa ye?noue oanoo (eiai
aae?aei?noue, iaae?ei?noue, aeene?ei?iaoeai?noue) caeeaaea?oueny ia
aoai? noai?aiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Oano ia iiaea aooe e?auee ca nai?
caaaeaiiy. Ia aoai? ?o noai?aiiy oii?yaeiee oanoo ae??oo? aaaaoi
aeineoue neeaaeieo caaaeaiue:

— aea?? ci?noo aeey iaeaooi?o oanoiaeo caaaeaiue;

— aea?? oi?ie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?noo;

— neeaaeaiiy oanoiaiai caieoaiiy;

— neeaaeaiiy aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? iaa??ieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?
(aeeno?aeoi??a);

— oi?ioaaiiy iaeii??aeiiai nieneo aa??aio?a aeey aeai?o aai
eiino?othaaiiy a?aeiia?ae?;

— neeaaeaiiy aoaeiio a??ii? a?aeiia?ae?;

— ia?aa??ea a?aenooiino? i?aeeacie, aacaeocaeeo aa??aio?a /e ianoie.

Oni?oi?noue aeeiiaiiy eiaeiiai c oeeo caaaeaiue a?ae/ooii
aieeaa? ia aae?aei?noue oanoo, i?ioa aeeiiothoueny aiie oii?yaeieeii
oanoo aeeeth/ii ia iniia? aeaniiai aeina?aeo oa ?ioo?oe??. A no/ani?e
oanoieia?? ia ?nio? niinia?a aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii? aae?aeecaoe??
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. ?niothoue eeoa caaaeuei? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii
a?oaeo iiieeie, yeeo iaiao?aeii oieeaoe ia aoai? noai?aiiy oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue. Noiniaii aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue aeey ia?aa??ee
?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c o?ceee ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui oe?
ieoaiiy ia iiiaio ii/aoeo aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?iei ia
?icaeyaeaeenue.

Aeiaenia?eiaioaeueia aae?aeecaoe?y oanoiaeo caaaeaiue aeicaieeea a
cia/ii nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe ?ano?n?a ia i?iaaaeaiiy aaaaoi?aciaeo ianiaeo
aenia?eiaioia oanooaaiiy, ye? ca?ac ? ?aeeiei oeyoii aae?aeecaoei?
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue i oanoia. Nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao /ano, coneeue i eiooia ia
caeao ?iaioo ni?eyei a aeinooiiino? i iioe?aiith oanoiaiai eiio?ieth
ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

O iaaeaaia?/i?e oanoieia??, ia a?aei?io a?ae, iai?eeeaae, oanooaaiiy a
ineoieia?? ? nioe?ieia??, aeieea? nai???aeia i?iaeaia, yea iieyaa? a
oiio, ui ia aaaeaii iaeei ? oie naiee oano, iaoae ? c o?ioe
ia?aoi?ioeueiaaieie oanoiaeie caaaeaiiyie, iiaoi?ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
oanooaaiiy iaei??? e o??? naii? aea??ee aei?iaiaoaaieo. Oea iia’ycaii ?c
niaoeeo?eith iioeaaoe?? eiio?ieth aeey nooaeaio?a aai o/i?a, yea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy aae?aeiino? i?ioeaaeo?e iiaoi?iiai
oanooaaiiy. I?aeoe/ii oni?o noai?aiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai oanoo a aeaiiio
iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? aeey aeaiiai eiioeiaaioo o/i?a /e nooaeaio?a
aecia/a?oueny ye?noth ia?a?nii neeaaeaieo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Oiio
?ic?iaea niiniao aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue
iaea a iaaecae/aeia cia/aiiy aeey iaaeaaia?/ii? oanoieia??.

Aeeeaaeai? aeua ianoaaeie ? coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oanoiaee eiio?ieue o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o?ceee (ia
i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee)”.

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oanoiaee eiio?ieue o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o?ceee,
i?aaeiaoii – ci?no ? oi?ie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue oa niiniae neeaaeaiiy ?
aeiaenia?eiaioaeueia aae?aeecaoe?y oano?a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee noai?aiiy oano?a aeey
eiio?ieth o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o?ceee.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Ia iniiai aiae?co i aei?iaoaaiue aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioethaaiiy
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?o aaeiaeiinoue i o?oaei?noue.

2. Aea/eoe i?iaeaio ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ? aecia/eoe,
yeeie iathoue aooe e?eoa??? aeey ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee.

3. Aeine?aeeoe ? iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy
niiniao aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue o
aeaeyae? aeai?eoio neeaaeaiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee. Aeey oeueiai noai?eoe eeaneoieaoeith oice/ieo iiiyoue,
iiaoaeoaaoe eeaneoieaoeith onio iiaeeeaeo aeanoeainoae oice/ieo iiiyoue,
?ic?iaeoe eeaneoieaoeith caieoaiue, ye? iiaeia iinoaaeoe aei
aoaeue-yeiai c oeeo i?iya?a.

4. Noai?eoe i?ioeaaeo?e neeaaeaiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue
aeey aeiaaee?a ??ciiai oeio ci?noo caaaeaiue, aeey ??cieo oi?i iiaeaiiy
a?aeiia?ae? (aa?aaeueii?, oi?ioeueii?, /enaeueii?, i?inoi? /e
neeaaeaii?) ? aeeeanoe oe? i?ioeaaeo?e o i?aeoe/ii-canoiniai?e oi?i?
iaoiaeeee (aeai?eoio) noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeanue nenoaia oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiaieie oai?aoe/ieie iaoiaeaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

· ?iaeoeoeaiee iaoiae aiae?co aaeeei? e?eueeino? o?ce/ieo iiiyoue, ?o
aeanoeainoae; ??cieo ca ci?noii ? oi?iith eiio?ieueieo caieoaiue c
o?ceee; a oaeiae iniaeeainoae oi?ioethaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue c iaoith aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae, nooo?aeo
iniaeeainoae;

· iaoiaee eeaneo?eaoe?? oa oei?caoe??, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei oi?iaeueii?
eia?ee ? aeaee ciiao iiaoaeoaaoe eeaneo?eaoe?? o?ce/ieo iiiyoue, i?iya?a
o?ce/ieo iiiyoue ? iiaeeeaeo caieoaiue i?i ieo;

· aeai?eoi?/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaieea cae?enieoe iie?ieiaee aiae?c
neeaaeii? ae?yeueiino? oii?yaeieea oanoo ? i?aaenoaaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aei oaeineiiaeaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue o aeaeyae? aeai?eoio noai?aiiy ?
aae?ae?caoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nie?a?oueny ia i?eioeeie iaaeaaia?/ii? oa ineoieia?/ii?
iaoe, iaoiaee nenoaiiiai aiae?co, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai neioaco,
aaiaoe/iee iaoiae, iaoiae iiaeoieiaiai aenia?eiaioo oiui.

Na?aae aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a:

· noeoii?noue o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey aeeaeaeoeee iaoiae?a — niinoa?aaeaiiy,
iieooaaiiy, aan?aea, aieaooaaiiy, aea/aiiy aeieoiaioaoe??, iaaeaaia?/i?
aenia?eiaioe;

· ye?niee oa e?euee?niee (c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaiaio?a iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee) aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaieo aeaieo;

· iaoiae aenia?oiiai ioe?ithaaiiy, yeee aeicaieea ia?aa??eoe
aae?aei?noue, c?o/i?noue, i?aeoe/io ? oai?aoe/io oe?ii?noue noai?aiiai
aeai?eoio.

Aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa i?ioyaii 1992 — 1998 ?ie?a ia eaoaae??
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee oa ano?iiii??, a oaeiae o
iaoeiai-i?e?iaeie/iio e?oea? ? 145 i?noa Ee?aa o 1993 — 1994 ?ieao oa o
na?aaei?e oeie? ? 242 i?noa Ee?aa. A aenia?eiaio? a?aee o/anoue
nooaeaioe a?aeae?eaiiy o?ceee oa ano?iiii?? ? oeiey?? (onueiai iiiaae
500 in?a). Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue oanoia? caaaeaiiy c eaaioiai? iaoai?ee,
yaea?ii? o?ceee oa o?ceee aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie, ano?iiao???, oe?eueiiai
eo?no o?ceee, oe?eueiiai eo?no ano?iiii??. Ae?aiacii oai cana?ae/o?, ui
io?eiai? aeniiaee iathoue caaaeueiee oa?aeoa? uiaei eiio?ieth
oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie c o?ceee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

a) iaa?oioiaaia i?ea?iaeueia eiioeaioe?y ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue c o?ceee;

a) neeaaeaii nenoaiaoe/iee ? aeaoaeueiee ia?ae?e iniaeeainoae oi?i ?
oi?ioethaaiue oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?o
aae?aei?noue; i?e/iio cia/ia /anoeia aeyaeaieo iniaeeainoae a e?oa?aoo??
ia cono??/a?oueny;

a) noai?aia i?ea?iaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y o?ce/ieo iiiyoue, a oaeiae
eeaneo?eaoe?? aeanoeainoae o?ce/ieo iiiyoue oa eiio?ieueieo caieoaiue c
o?ceee;

a) cai?iiiiiaai? aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeai? i?ioeaaeo?e ? i?aaeea aeey aeai?o
ci?noo ? oi?ie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ??cieo ??ai?a o?oaeiino?, i?aeai?o
aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? aaeaeeo aeeno?aeoi??a, oaeineiiaeaiiy
(aae?aeecaoe??) oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ??cieo oei?a ia aoai? ?o neeaaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiioeaiooaeueiiio
iaa?oiooaaii? ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ? iiaeeeaino?
aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii? aae?aeecaoe?? oano?a c o?ceee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeai?eoio i?e neeaaeaii? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee
aeicaieeoue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ?o ye?noue. Aeai?eoi iaaea? i?aeoe/io
aeiiiiiao ia on?o aoaiao noai?aiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, — a?ae aecia/aiiy
?o ci?noo aei ia?aa??ee iayaiino? i?aeeacie /e ianoie. Ie??i aeaoaeueieo
i?ioeaaeo? a?i i?noeoue a?ey noa i?eeeaae?a oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ? aoai?a
?o neeaaeaiiy. Ciaeiinoai ?c cai?iiiiiaaiei aeai?eoiii i ei?enooaaiiy
iei caaaaoeoue ii/aoe?aoey-oii?yaeieea oanoia oe?iieie ciaiiyie, ye?
cae/aeii iaaoaathoueny /a?ac aeiaaee i aaaeeee aeinaiae. Ie
niiaeiaa?iinue oaeiae, ui niaoe?ae?no c? neeaaeaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue
oaae ciaeaea ooo iia? i oe?eaai aeaoaei, iiaee oeyo ?ica’ycaiiy aeayeeo
i?iaeai noai?aiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Ine?eueee aieueo?noue i?eioeei?a,
caeeaaeaieo o aeai?eoi?, ia? caaaeueiee oa?aeoa?, a?i noaia ia ei?enoue
oii?yaeieeia? iaaeaaia?/ieo oanoia ia eeoa c o?ceee, a e c aoaeue-yei?
oi/ii? aeenoeeie?ie.

A??ia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o iaa?oioiaai?noue
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aaeaeaaoi?noth iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iao? ?
caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy, ai?iaaoe??th iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a iaaeaaia?/iiio aenia?eiaio? oa a iaaiai?aii?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ia eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e o iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean oeiee ? aoco.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae oanoiaeo caaaeaiue; noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?o aeanoeaino?,
ui aieeaathoue ia aae?aei?noue caaaeaiue; noai?ai? eeaneo?eaoe??
o?ce/ieo iiiyoue, ?o aeanoeainoae ? iiaeeeaeo caieoaiue i?i ieo;
cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue oa
noai?aiee aeai?eoi neeaaeaiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee.

Ai?iaaoeiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeineiaeaeaiiy caeienithaaeanue
o oiaei ??cieo aeae?a oanooaaiue nooaeaio?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo IIO ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa o 1994-1998 ?ieao. ?acoeueoaoe
aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue:

· ia I?aeaocianuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioe?? «Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie ioeiithaaiiy ciaiue nooaeaio?a aoco» (Ee?a, 1994);

· ia ?? Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a o?ceee iaaeaaia?/ieo
?inoeoooia oa oi?aa?neoao?a «I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
oa i?ioanieii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaeia o?ceee» (Ee?a, 1996);

· ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a IIO ?iaii
I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (Ee?a, 1992-1997);

· ia nai?ia?ao c i?iaeai iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy o?ceee i iiaeaioiaee
a/eoaeia-oicee?a ia eaoaae?? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy o?ceee a IIO ?iai? I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?ii iaoiaeeea noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue c o?ceee ai?iaaaeaeaia a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe oe?e ? aoc?a Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ciino aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ?ice?eoi a
o?ueio noaooyo a aeo?iae? «O?ceea oa ano?iiii?y a oeiei», noaooi a
cai?ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aeaio oacao, aeaiiiiaaiiio iaoiaee/iiio
iiniaieeo «Aeai?eoi noai?aiiy eiio?ieueieo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c oiceee».

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

· eiioeaioe?y ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee;

· iaoiaeeea noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oano?a c o?ceee;

· iieiaeaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii? aae?aeecaoe??
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.

NO?OEOO?A ? INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a A-C. Ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 197 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? iaeei ?enoiie, 7
oaaeeoeue a iniiaiiio oaeno?, nienie ?c 196 aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae ia 17 noi??ieao. A?n?i aeiaeaoe?a iathoue ianya 125 noi??iie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iaaiaeeoueny aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e c
i?iaeaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ice?eaathoueny ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
canaaee eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye eiiiiiaioo
nenoaie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Iaaiai?ththoueny ooieoe?? eiio?ieth a
nenoai? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? aeiiae aei
iaoiae?a eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

?icaeyaea?oueny oanoiaee iaoiae eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano ye oaeee, ui i?eioeeiiai caeaoai caaacia/eoe
noaiaea?oeciaai?noue, ia?eoeai?noue, aae?aei?noue, iaae?ei?noue ?
oi/i?noue, aenieo aeene?ei?iaoeai?noue eiio?ieth. Iaaiaeyoueny oi?ie
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, canoiniai? o iaaeaaia?/iiio oanooaaii? c o?ceee,
iaaiai?ththoueny ?o a?aeii? ia?aaaae e iaaeie?ee. ?icaeyaeathoueny
iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oano?a ? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue — aae?aei?noue,
iaae?ei?noue, aeene?ei?iaoeai?noue oiui, — niiniae ?o aecia/aiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy iaeaaeiiai ??aiy oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
yeino? oanoo caeaaeaoue a?ae yeinoae oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ?
caeeaaeathoueny ia aoai? noai?aiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Aena?oeththoueny
ieoaiiy noaiaea?oecaoe?? oano?a, a oaeiae ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? oanoiaiai
eiio?ieth a?aeiinii ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a nenoaie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Ie?aia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeai? ia?aa??ee oa?aeoa?enoee oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue ia aoai? ?o noai?aiiy. Ia?aa??ea aae?aeiino? noai?thaaieo
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue iiaeiia aeeth/aoe caaacia/aiiy aae?aeiino? ci?noo (a
oiio /ene? aae?aeiino? o?oaeiino?) caaaeaiue, aea?? i?eaeaoii? oi?ie
aeey caaaeaiiy aeaiiai ciinoo, ia?aa??eo i?inoioe, c?icoi?eino? e
iaeiicia/iino? oi?ioethaaiiy ?ino?oeoe??, caieoaiiy i aa??aio?a
a?aeiia?ae?, ia?aai?eo nieneo aa?iaioia aiaeiiaiaei ia a?aenooi?noue
iaaaeaeeo aa??aio?a. O oe?e /anoei? ia?oiai ?icae?eo iiaea?oueny iaeyae
? aiae?c a?aeiieo eiioeaioe?e ??ai?a o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.
Iaaiai?ththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo c canoinoaaiiy eiioeaioe??
??ai?a o?oaeiino? A.I. Aaniaeueea aeey oanoiaiai eiio?ieth c oai?aoe/ii?
o?ceee. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo oa aan?ae ?c nooaeaioaie na?ae/aoue, ui
o?oaei?noue caaaeaiue ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai ??ai?a i?eioeeiiai ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny. A?eueo?noue caaaeaiue ia a?aeoai?aiiy ??cieo aniaeo?a
aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo iani?aaae? aeiaaathoue iaeaea an?o aeae?a ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? (a?ae ai?ciaaaiiy ? i?eaaaeoaaiiy aei iiooeiaeo ae?e), a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iniaeeainoae ci?noo caieoaiiy ? ciaiue eiaeiiai
aei?iaiaoaaiiai.

Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aecia/athoueny oiiae
aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oi?i oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Iaaiaeyoueny a?aeii? c
e?oa?aoo?e aeac?aee uiaei i?inoioe, c?icoi?eino? ? iaeiicia/iino? o?ac,
ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny o oi?ioethaaiiyo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ? aa??aio?a
a?aeiia?aeae, a oaeiae aeac?aee noiniaii aaeeaaiiy aeayeeo ne?a ?
neiainiieo/aiue (“?iiae?”, “/anoi”, “ana”, “eiaeiee”, “caaaeaee”,
“i?eiee”, “aeiaeai c iaaaaeaieo”), caaaeuei? aeac?aee uiaei
i?aaaeiiiae?aiino? ? aoaeoeaiino? iaa??ieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae? oiui.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iaoiaeo
i?aeaeuaiiy aae?aeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ia aoai? ?o noai?aiiy, ?
?ice?eaa?oueny nooue ? no/aniee noai oe??? i?iaeaie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aiee noai?aiith i?ea?iaeueii?
iaoiaeeee i?aeaeuaiiy aae?aeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee ia aoai?
?o neeaaeaiiy, yea iie?a?oueny ia canoinoaaiiy aeai?eoio noai?aiiy ?
aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee.

I?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy oaeiai aeai?eoio a?oioo?oueny ia
cai?iiiiiaaieo eeaneo?eaoe?yo iiiyoue, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a o?ceoe?,
on?o iiaeeeaeo i?iya?a eiaeiiai c oei?a oeeo iiiyoue, ? an?o iiaeeeaeo
eiie?aoieo caieoaiue i?i aoaeue-yeee i?iya aoaeue-yeiai iiiyooy. O
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo aena?oeth?oueny ? eia?/ii
iaa?oioiao?oueny i?ioean iiaoaeiae oeeo eeaneo?eaoe?e. Ca?aeii c
cai?iiiiiaaiith eeaneo?eaoe??th o?ce/ieo iiiyoue aeae?eythoueny,
iai?eeeaae, oae? eeane iiiyoue:

· ia’?eoe — iiiyooy, ye? icia/athoue aeayeo aeieyieo ?aaeueii? aai
oyaii? iaoa???, yea ia? iaaii aeanoeaino?. Oiaoi an? ia?eoe iaiayceiai
iathoue iaoa?eaeuei? (?aaeuei? /e oyai?) aoieaiiy. Ie??i cae/ieo
iaoa??aeueieo ia?eo?a aei oeueiai oeio a?aeiinyoueny:

— aeeiaii/i? ooai?aiiy, ye? nai?i ?nioaaiiyi i oi?iith aaey/ii aeayeiio
i?ioeano, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a aeayeiio na?aaeiaeui. A ?ie? oaeeo ia?eo?a
/anoi aenooiathoue oa?i?ie, ye? a ?ioiio eiioaeno? icia/athoue yaeua
(“oeoeooaoe?y”, “caoeiaa oaeey” oiui);

— oyaii ia’?eoe, ye? ia ?niothoue o i?e?iae?, aea oyaeythoueny
noai?aieie c oyaii? iaoa???, iiaeiaii? aei ?aaeueii?;

— ia’?eoe-aanoa?aaiaaii iiiyooy, aeoaea ocaaaeueiaii, ia iathoue iaaii?
i?inoi?iai? oi?ie. Iai?eeeaae, «?a/iaeia», «na?aaeiaeua»;

— aano?aaiaai? ia?eoe, ui icia/athoue oyaia ao?eaiiy ?aeae. Iai?eeeaae,
“?ioi?iaoe?y”, “ciaiiy”;

· aeanoeainoi i noaie — iiiyooy, ye? icia/athoue iciaeo /e noeoii?noue
iciae aoaeue-/iai i aano?aaiaaii aiae eiie?aoiiai iiniy oe??? iciaee.
Iai?eeeaae, «aeene», «eiei?», «aa?y/ee», «oaeaeeee» oiui. Ca
icia/aiiyie, aeanoeaino? iiaeooue aecia/aoeny ye «caeaoiinoue”,
«iciaea», «oa?aeoa?enoeea», «noai», «aeanoeainoue», «ye?noue»,
«oa?aeoa?ia ?ena», «iniaeeainoue».

Iacae aeayeeo yaeu o a?aeiiaiaeiiio eiioaeno? oaeiae
aenioiathoue a ?iei aeanoeainoae: «aiicio?iiiy e?enoae?a», «nenoaia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny anoeaiaoeciii», «ieacia ia? aiiiaeueiee iii?» oiui;

· i?ioeane — iiiyooy, ye? icia/athoue ciiio aeayei? iciaee (aai
noeoiiinoi iciae) aeayeiai ia’?eoo aai eeano ia’?eoia, a oaeiae yaeu,
i?ioeania, aaee/ei, oaa?aeaeaiue, iaoeiaeo iiaoaeia oa ?ioeo iiiyoue.
Iai?eeeaae: «aaeiaaaoe/ia ?icoe?aiiy», «aae?aaaoe/ia iaa?iaaiiy aaco».

Iacae yaeu o aiaeiiaiaeiiio eiioaenoi oaeiae icia/athoue i?ioeane: «a
i?ioeani aaoioacoaaiiy», «i?ioean aaoiaeaeo?iiii? aiini?» oiui;

· yaeua i aoaeoe — noiee?, iiaoi?thaaii ca iaaieo oi/ii aecia/aieo oiia
iiae??. Aecia/athoueny ye «yaeua», “aoaeo” aai iaaia ci?ia, iai?eeeaae,
«iaa?iaaiiy …», «no?eaeiiiaeiaia ciiia …». Icia/aiiy iaiayceiai
i?noeoue aeaciaee uiaei oiia, i?e/ei (yeui aiie a?aeiii) i niiniao
?ici?ciaiiy aeaiiai yaeua.

Iacae yaeu iiaeooue o a?aeiiaiaeiiio eiioaenoi icia/aoe
i?ioeane, aeanoeainoi /e ia’?eoe (aeeiaii/ii ooai?aiiy). Oea iiaeia
iiynieoe oei, ui yaeua, ye iiiyooy aieueo neeaaeia, aeeth/a? a naaa i
i?ioeane, i aeanoeainoi, i ia?eoe. ? yeui iniiaia nooue yaeua
caiaeeoueny aei aeayeiai i?ioeano aai aei aeieeiaiiy aeayeiai ooai?aiiy,
oi iacaa yaeua ni?aiaaea? c iacaith oeueiai i?ioeano /e ooai?aiiy;

· aaee/eie — e?euee?nii aeii?thaaii aeanoeainoi ia’?eoia, i?ioean?a,
yaeu oiui, ye? iathoue iaeeieoe? aeii?thaaiiy i niin?a aeii?thaaiiy aai
ia/eneaiiy. Aecia/athoueny ye «aaee/eia», «oice/ia aaee/eia»,
«aiaeiioaiiy», «oa?aeoa?enoeea», «aeanoea?noue», «cia/aiiy», «/enei»,
«e?euee?noue»oiui. Iiaeooue i?eeiaoe ??cii neaey?ii aai aaeoi?ii
cia/aiiy;

oa ?io? eeane iiiyoue.

Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y aeanoeainoae o?ce/ieo iiiyoue iiae?ey? on?
iiaeeea? aeanoeaino? iiiyooy aeaiiai eeano ia oae? a?oie, ye,
iai?eeeaae:

· “aeieeaoe”, — nthaee aoiaeyoue aeanoeaino? “noai?thaaoenue”,
“ia?a?iaeyoeny”, “ia?iaeyoeny”, “inoaaoeny”, “a?aeeeaeaoeny” oiui;

· “?nioaaoe”, “iaoe i?noea”;

· “?icaeaaoeny”, — nthaee aoiaeyoue aeanoeaino? “aaiethoe?iioaaoe”,
“ia?aoai?thaaoenue” oiui;

· “oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny…”: “neeaaeii”, “ci?noii”, “no?oeoo?ith”,
“oi?iith”, “?icoaooaaiiyi o i?inoi??”, “oa?aeoa?ii /e noaiii ?ooo”,
“cia/aiiyie aaee/ei”, “o?ce/iei noaiii”, “i?eioeeiii ae??”, “??aiyiiyi”,
“iaoaiaoe/iith oi?iith, ci?noii”, “iaoaiaoe/ieie aeanoeainoyie”,
“/eneiaei cia/aiiyi ? ii?yaeeii”, “iioeaeith”, “iaeeieoeyie
aei??thaaiiy”, “iaaeaie ci?ie”, “niiniaaie aei??thaaiiy, ia/eneaiiy,
iiaoaeiae”, “aaaeeea?noth”, “iaeanoth canoinoaaiiy”, “?iia??i?noth”,
“oiiaaie”, “i?e/eiith”, “iaoith”, “no?ee?noth” oiui;

· ci?ithaaoe oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

· “neoaeeoe”, nthaee aoiaeyoue aeanoeaino? “aeei?enoiaoaaoenue”,
“i?ecia/aoeny”, “a?aoe ?ieue”, “iaoe cia/aiiy”;

· “aea/aoeny”, nthaee aoiaeyoue aeanoeaino? “aeine?aeaeoaaoenue”,
“iienoaaoenue”, “?ic?aoiaoaaoenue”, “aei??thaaoenue”, “niinoa??aaoeny”,
“a?aee?eaaoeny”, “aaiaeeoenue”, “eeaneo?eoaaoeny”, “iiae?eyoeny ia
oeie”;

· “caeaaeaoe”, — nthaee aoiaeyoue aeanoeaino? “iaoiiaethaaoenue”,
“iia’ycoaaoenue c”, “iioiaeeoe a?ae”, “caai?iiyoenue”,
“oneeaaeithaaoenue”, “iieaaooaaoenue”, “caaacia/oaaoenue” oiui;

oa ?io? a?oie aeanoeainoae.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cai?iiiiiaaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? caieoaiue, on? eiie?aoi?
caieoaiiy i?i aoaeue-ye? aeanoeaino? aoaeue-yeeo iiiyoue iiae?eythoueny
ia oae? oeie:

A — caieoaiiy i?i i?aeiao, iai?eeeaae “ssea iiiyooy aeeiio? aeaio aeith
aai ia? aeaio aeanoea?noue?”

A — caieoaiiy i?i i?enoaeie, iai?eeeaae “sseo naia aeith aeeiio? (ui
?iaeoue? ye naaa iiaiaeeoue? ye i?iyaeyaoueny?) aeaia iiiyooy o aeaiie
neooaoe???”

A — i?i iciaeo i?enoaeea — ianoaaeio ae??, iai?eeeaae “sse, (yeei
/eiii) aeaia iiiyooy aeeiio? aeaio aeith /e i?iyaey?oueny a aeaiie
neooaoe???”

A — i?i aeiiiaiaiiy, iai?eeeaae, “*iai, oiaoi yeiai iiiyooy noino?oueny
yeanue ae?y, ia’?eo ?”, “*iio, yeiio iiiyooth aiaeiiaiaea?, iaeaaeeoue,
aei?iaith? aeaia iiiyooy?” ? o.ae.

Ae — i?i oiiao, ianoaaeio, iai?eeeaae “Ca yeeo oiia aeaia iiiyooy ia?
aeaio aeanoeainoue, i?iyaey?oueny iaaiei /eiii?”, “*e ca aoaeue-yeeo
oiia …?”, “ *e caaaeaee …?” oiui.

A — i?i i?e/eio, iai?eeeaae “*iio, c yei? i?e/eie aeaia iiae?y ia?
i?noea?”, “*ei iiynith?oueny, iaoiiaeth?oueny, ?c /iai aeieeaa? …?”
oiui.

AE — i?i iaoo, iai?eeeaae “3 yeith iaoith (iaaiui, aeey /iai)
caeienith?oueny iaaia aeiy?”

C — i?i /an, ?ie iiaei?, iai?eeeaae “Eiee, a yeiio ?ioei
caeienith?oueny /e cae?enithaaeany aeaia iiaeiy?”

? — i?i iniao, iai?eeeaae “Eei aoei caeieniaii iaaio aeith ca iaaieo
ianoaaei?”, “Ooi caeieniea, caeienith? … ?”

E — i?i nooiiiue caaaeueiinoi, iai?eeeaae “*e eiaeia iiiyooy ia? aeaio
aeanoea?noue?”, “*e aoaeue-yea iiiyooy…?”, “*e ani iiiyooy aeaiiai
?iaeo …?” oiui.

E — caieoaiiy ia icia/aiiy, iai?eeeaae “Ui oaea ?cioiie?”, “Ui yaey?
niaith …?”, “sse aecia/a?oueny … ?” oiui.

E — caieoaiiy ia oi?ioethaaiiy, iai?eeeaae “Noi?ioethaaoe iaaia
oaa?aeaeaiiy.”, “Iaaanoe iaaio oi?ioeo.”, “sse oi?ioeth?oueny aeaia
oaa?aeaeaiiy?” oiui.

Cai?iiiiiaai? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe caaaeueio
eeaneo?eaoe?th eiio?ieueieo caieoaiue c o?ceee. Aiia aecia/a? no?oeoo?o
aeai?eoio noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee,
aeicaieyth/e ei?enooaa/aa? aeai?eoio ciaeoe o? eiie?aoi? aeac?aee,
i?ioeaaeo?e ? i?eeeaaee, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iio??aiiio ci?noo
noai?thaaiiai oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co cia/ii? e?eueeino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee,
aeaniiai aeina?aeo ?o noai?aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy, a oaeiae ca
?acoeueoaoaie niaoe?aeueiiai aenia?eiaioo c?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i aieea
oi?ie oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy ia eiai o?oaei?noue ? aae?aei?noue. Iieacaii,
ui i?eioeeiiai oi?ia oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy ia aieeaa? ia eiai o?oaei?noue,
yea oe?eeii aecia/a?oueny ci?noii caaaeaiiy (ca oiiae eiai aae?aeiino?),
iaeiae oi?ia caaaeaiiy coiiaeth? i???ioaoe?th ? ?iciiae?e oaaae
aei?iaiaoaaiiai ? oiio aieeaa? ia aae?aei?noue caaaeaiiy. Noi?ioeueiaaii
iioeiaeuei? oiiae ? aeiiae uiaei canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue — aea?? a??iiai aa??aioo a?aeiia?ae?, a?aeiiaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae aeaiaioaie aeaio niene?a, eiino?othaaiiy
a?aeiia?ae?, aea?? a??iiai aa??aioo ?c iiaeiaaeaiiai nieneo aa??aio?a
a?aeiia?ae?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oi?ie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, c?o/i? aeey
oanoiaiai eiio?ieth c o?ceee.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a ?o aeeiiaiiy
nooaeaioaie ? oeiey?aie, a oaeiae ca ?acoeueoaoaie niaoe?aeueieo
aenia?eiaio?a aecia/ai? iniiai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue, ui aieeaathoue ia ?o aae?aei?noue. Oaeeie iniaeeainoyie ?:

· ci?noiaee ae?aiacii aa??aio?a,

· a?oie noiaeeo aa??aio?a,

· ni?euei? ?ene o aa??aioao a?aeiia?ae?,

· aeiaaeeia aa??aio?a,

· nooi?iue iiaiioe ? eiie?aoi?noue aa??aio?a;

· canoinoaaiiy o aa??aioao ae?ac?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?iue
?iia??iino? aai caaaeueiino? aeaiiai oaeoo;

· canoinoaaiiy o aa??aioao ne?a ? ae?ac?a, ye? iaoi/ii oa?aeoa?ecothoue
e?euee?ni? a?aeiioaiiy;

· iiaia /e /anoeiaa ia?ae?eooy aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?;

· neioaene/ia ocaiaeaeaiiy aa??aio?a c caieoaiiyi.

Oe? iniaeeaino? aaaeeea? oei, ui aiie caeaoi? ooai?thaaoe
i?aeeacee ? “ianoee” o oanoiaiio caaaeaii?, ye? niiioeathoue
aei?iaiaoaaieo aei ?icaaaeoaaiiy oaeoeee oii?yaeieea oanoo,
ca?eueoothoue ?iia??i?noue aaaaeoaaiiy a?aeiia?ae? ? iaa?oue
aeicaieythoue ?iiae? “ia?aooaaoe” a??io a?aeiia?aeue, ia
caaeeaethth/enue aei ci?noo caaaeaiiy. Ie iaaiaeeii aeieeaaeiee iien
oaeeo neooaoe?e, iiyniaiiy i?e/ei ?o ooai?aiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei ?o
onoiaiiy.

Aeae? i?iiiio?oueny eiioeaioe?y ??ai?a (oi/i?oa, a?oi) o?oaeiino?, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy /ioe?ueio a?oi o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.
E?eoa??yie aeey iaeiicia/iiai a?aeianaiiy caaaeaiue aei iaei??? c
/ioe?ueio cai?iiiiiaaieo a?oi o?oaeiino? neoaeaoue aeieeaaei?
i?ioeaaeo?e aeey neeaaeaiiy aai aeai?o ci?noo caaaeaiiy aeey eiaeii? c
a?oi o?oaeiino?.

Iienothoueny i?aee??ieai? aaaaoueia i?eeeaaeaie i?ioeaaeo?e noai?aiiy ?
aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee. Ie?ai? i?ioeaaeo?e i?ecia/ai?
aeey neeaaeaiiy caaaeaiue c aa?aaeueiith, oi?ioeueiith, /enaeueiith,
i?inoith ? neeaaeaiith a?aeiia?aeaeth. Iaaaaeai? oaeiae i?ioeaaeo?e aeey
aeai?o ? ao?eaiiy i?eaeaoii? oi?ie aeey oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy aeaiiai
ci?noo. Aiie oaeiae i?aee??ieththoueny i?eeeaaeaie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ?
i?eeeaaeaie oi?ioethaaiiy ?ino?oeoe?e aeey aei?iaiaoaaieo.

?acoeueoaoe iienaieo aeua aeine?aeaeaiue ii?aeiai? o aeai?eoi? noai?aiiy
? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee. Aeai?eoi neeaaea?oueny c
iniiaii? /anoeie i e?eueeio oaaeeoeue i i?ioeaaeo?, aei yeeo ? caa?iaiiy
i iineeaiiy ?c iniiaii? /anoeie aeai?eoio. Iniiaia /anoeia iiae?eaia ia
/ioe?e ?icae?ee, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue neeaaeaiith oanoiaeo caaaeaiue
/ioe?ueio ?icaeyaeoaaieo aeua a?oi o?oaeiino?. Eiaeia c oeeo /anoei
i?noeoue:

· i?ioeaaeo?o aeai?o ci?noo aeey caaaeaiue a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy
o?oaeiino?;

· caa?iaiiy aei “oaaeeoe? caieoaiue” c iaoith aecia/eoe, aei yeiai
ci?noiaiai oeio iaeaaeeoue oa eiio?ieueia caieoaiiy, yea iio??aii
iiaeaoe o aeaeyae? oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy;

· caa?iaiiy aei aiaeiiaiaeiiai ?icae?eo “oaaeeoei oanoiaeo caaaeaiue”,
aea iaaiaeyoueny eiie?aoi? aeac?aee aei oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaiai
caieoaiiy i nienie aeiiii?aeieo o?ac aeey iieaaoaiiy neeaaeaiiy
aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? aeeno?aeoi?ia (iaa??ieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?);

· iineeaiiy aei iio??aieo o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo i?ioeaaeo? neeaaeaiiy i
aaeiaeecaoei? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue i aeai?o ?o oi?ie e inoaoi/iiai
oi?ioethaaiiy.

Aeai?eoi i?noeoue oaeiae a?ey 70 eiie?aoieo i?eeeaae?a oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue ??cieo oei?a ci?noo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeany iaie
i?ioyaii 1993 — 1998 ?ie?a ia aac? eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee oa ano?iiii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, a oaeiae o iaoeiai-i?e?iaeie/iio
e?oea? ? 145 i?noa Ee?aa ? o na?aaei?e oeie? ? 242 i?noa Ee?aa. A
aenia?eiaio? a?aee o/anoue nooaeaioe a?aeae?eaiiy o?ceee oa ano?iiii?? ?
oeiey?? (onueiai iiiaae 500 in?a).

Ia?aae iaaeaaia?/iei aenia?eiaioii aoee iinoaaeai? oae? iyoue caaaeaiue:

1.Aei?iaoaaiiy a?aeiii? eiioeaioe?? ??ai?a o?oaeiino? A.I.Aaniaeueea ia
i?eaeaoi?noue aeey eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee. Aeey ?, II, III ??ai?a oe??? eeaneo?eaoe?? aoei
i?ae?a?aii ii 12-15 caaaeaiue, noai?aieo o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
ae?aaiinoe/ieo e?eoa???a, ?ic?iaeaieo A.I. Aaniaeueeii, ? i?ioanoiaaii
156 in?a. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oanooaaiiy aecia/aii o?oaei?noue eiaeiiai
caaaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo oa aan?ae ?c nooaeaioaie na?ae/aoue,
ui o?oaei?noue caaaeaiue ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai ??ai?a i?eioeeiiai ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny.

2. Ia?aa??ea aieeao oi?ie oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy ia eiai o?oaei?noue ?
aae?aei?noue. Nooaeaioai i?iiiioaaeiny aeeiiaoe o?e aeiee oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue iaeiiai e oiai ae ci?noo, c oeie naieie aa??aioaie aeey aeai?o
a?aeiia?ae?, aea noi?ioeueiaai? o o?ueio ??cieo oi?iao (aeai?o a??ii?
a?aeiia?ae?, a?aeiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae aeaiaioaie aeaio niene?a,
eiino?othaaiiy a?aeiia?ae?). I?ae aeeiiaiiyie oeeo aeie?a caaaeaiue
nooaeaioe ia ni?eeoaaeeny ? ia ei?enooaaeeny aeiiii?aeiith
?ioi?iaoe??th. Aeey aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeaiai aieeao ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaiiy
iiia?aaeiueiai aeieo ia iai??eiaoaaiiy caaaeaiue ianooiiiai nooaeaioe
aoee iiae?eai? ia o?e a?oie, yeei aeiee caaaeaiue ??cieo oi?i
iiaeaaaeeny o ??ci?e iine?aeiaiino?. I?ney aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue eiaeiiai
aeieo oaenoe caaaeaiue cae?aeeny ? aeaeaaaeeny ianooii?. Oanooaaiith
aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aaeoaaea aieaoa, o ye?e i?iiiioaaeiny ienueiiai
a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy oiai ae ci?noo, ui ? oanoia? caaaeaiiy, aea
aeeeaaeai? o i?ino?e ? cae/i?e oi?i?. Aeey eiaeiiai c o?ueio aeie?a
caaaeaiue aecia/aeanue na?aaeiy o?oaei?noue, oiaoi na?aaeiy i?ioeaioia
/anoea aei?iaiaoaaieo, ye? a??ii aeeiiaee caaaeaiiy. Ca caaaeueiei
?acoeueoaoii oanooaaiiy aea??eo aei?iaiaoaaieo aoei iiae?eaii ia aea?
??ai? a?oie «neeueieo» ? «neaaeeo» aei?iaiaoaaieo. ? aeey oeeo a?oi
ie?aii aecia/ai? na?aaei? o?oaeiino? caaaeaiue on?o aeie?a. Aeey
eiaeiiai c aeie?a oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ia/enethaaeinue oaeiae na?aaei?
eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy o?oaeiino? caaaeaiue aeey ioe?iee cia/ouino?
?ica?aeiino? io?eiaieo cia/aiue o?oaeiino?. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo
cana?ae/eee, ui aei?iaiaoaai? iaeaea iaeiaeiai ni?aaeeeny c on?ia
aeieaie caaaeaiue, a caaaeaiiy ia a?aeiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ? ia
eiino?othaaiiy a?aeiia?ae? aeyaeeeny iacia/ii neeaaei?oeie a?ae
caaaeaiue oi?ie aeai?o ? aeey «neeueieo» ? aeey «neaaeeo»
aei?iaiaoaaieo, i?e/iio /an, cao?a/aiee aei?iaiaoaaieie ia aeeiiaiiy
caaaeaiue ia a?aeiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? ei?iooee ca /an, cao?a/aiee ia
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiue oi?ie aeai?o. Ioaea, oi?ia caaaeaiiy i?eioeeiiai ia
aieeaa? ia eiai o?oaei?noue. Caaaeaiiy ia anoaiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?,
o ii??aiyii? ?c caaaeaiiyie oi?ie aeai?o, niiioeathoue aei iaeii/aniiai
iaaeoioaaiiy e?eueeio ieoaiue, ii?oooth/e ?aoe?iiaeueia cina?aaeaeaiiy
oaaae. Caaaeaiiy ia eiino?othaaiiy a?aeiia?ae? aeiaaathoue i?aeaeuaii?
oaaae aeey oieeiaiiy aeiaaeeiaeo iiieeie.

3. Ia?aa??ea aieeao iii?/aieo iniaeeainoae oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue ia ?o aae?aei?noue. C oe??th iaoith aei?iaiaoaaiei
i?iiiioaaeeny oanoia? caaaeaiiy, ye? i?noeee o? iniaeeaino?, ye?
iio??aii ia?aa??eoe — a?oie noiaeeo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?, aa??aioe
??ciiai nooiaiy iiaiioe ? eiie?aoiino?, iaai? neiaa ? o?ace oiui. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie oanooaaiue aiae?coaaeeny /anoioe iae?aiiy ??cieo iaa??ieo
aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae? (oiaoi i?ioeaioia /anoea aei?iaiaoaaieo, ye?
ia?aee aeaiee aa??aio a?aeiia?ae?). Aenia?eiaio i?aeoaa?aeea, ui iaai?
iniaeeaino? oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ae?enii i?eaiaeyoue aei
ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeayeeo iaa??ieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae? (oae?
aa??aioe ia iae?aeeny iaeaea i?eei c aei?iaiaoaaieo), niiioeaiiy aei
iiooeo i?aeeacie (iaai? a?oie aa??aio?a iae?aeeny a?eueo?noth
aei?iaiaoaaieo), ooai?aiiy ianoie.

4. Ia?aa??ea i?aaeeueiino?, iiaiioe, ae??aino? ? c?o/iino?
cai?iiiiiaaieo i?ioeaaeo? ? aeai?eoio neeaaeaiiy ? aae?aeecaoe??
oanoiaeo caaaeaiue o oiae? i?aeaioiaee e i?iaaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai
oanooaaiiy c o?ceee. Oeae aoai aenia?eiaioo ioiiea 289 nooaeaio?a ? 147
oeiey??a. On? oanoia? caaaeaiiy neeaaeaeeny ? aae?aeecoaaeeny ca
cai?iiiiiaaiei aeai?eoiii, ca iei oaeiae oi?ioethaaeeny ?ino?oeoe?? aei
?o aeeiiaiiy. I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy oanooaaiue aeey eiaeiiai caaaeaiiy
aiae?coaaeeny /anoioe iae?aiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae? aai
aeaiaio?a aeey eiino?othaaiiy a?aeiia?ae?, oiaoi i?ioeaioi? /anoee
aei?iaiaoaaieo, ye? iae?aee eiaeiee aa??aio. I?ae?aoiaoaaeenue na?aaei?
/anoioe iae?aiiy aeeno?aeoi??a (iaa??ieo aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?),
na?aaei? eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy /anoio iae?aiiy aeeno?aeoi??a ?
eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo /anoio iae?aiiy aeeno?aeoi??a
aeey eiaeiiai caaaeaiiy.

O i?iaiae?ciaaieo 43 oanoiaeo caaaeaiiyo ia aeyaeeinue
aeeno?aeoi??a, ye? a cian?i ia iae?aeeny aei?iaiaoaaieie. E??i oiai, o
41 caaaeaii? ?c 43-o eiao?oe??io aa??aoe?? aa??aoe?eiiai ?yaeo /anoio
iae?aiiy aeeno?aeoi??a iaa cia/aiiy iaioa 40 %. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
na?ae/aoue i?i aeineoue aenieo iaeii??aei?noue niene?a aeeno?aeoi??a,
a?aenooi?noue i?aeeacie ? ianoie.

Ie??i oanooaaiue i?iaiaeeeenue oaeiae aieaooaaiiy oa aan?aee ?c
nooaeaioaie oa aeeeaaea/aie c ieoaiue ci?noo oa oi?ioethaaiue
cai?iiiiiaaieo caaaeaiue. Ca caaaeueiith aeoieith, caaaeaiiy, noai?ai?
ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?eoio, ia a?aei?io a?ae oeo, ui i?iiiioaaeeny ?ai?oa,
iathoue a?eueo iaeii??aei? ? eia?/i? nienee aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae?, a ieo
ii??aiyii a?aenooi? ianoee, i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai aaaaeaoe a?aeiia?aeue,
? aiie iaa?oue aeciai? oe?eaa?oeie, ??ciiiai?oi?oeie ca ci?noii.

5. Ioe?iea cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeai?eoio aenia?oiei iaoiaeii.

A aenia?oio eii?n?th oa?eoee 32 aenia?oe. Aiie ciaeiieeenue ?c
cai?iiiiiaaiei aeai?eoiii noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee ? i?eeiiaie ?iaioe c iei, i?eeeaaeaie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, a
oaeiae iaea?aeaee a?ae aaoi?a ?ioi?iaoe?th, yea ?o oe?eaaeea. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie o?ueio aieao aeey ioe?iee eiiiaoaioiino? aenia?oa
ia/eneai? eiao?oe??ioe naiiioe?iee, a?aoiaioiaaiino? ? aeieoiaioaeueieo
aeaieo eaiaeeaeao?a a aenia?oe ? i?ae?aoiaai? eiiieaeni? ioe?iee
eiiiaoaioiino? aenia?o?a. C?iaeaii ioe?ieo i?i?iaeueii? /enaeueiino?
a?oie aenia?o?a oa ioe?ieo aae?aeiino? ? iaae?eiino? aieaoe aeey
ioe?ithaaiiy aeanoeainoae aeai?eoio. Ia/eneai? na?aaei? ioe?iee ie?aieo
yeinoae aeai?eoio, a oaeiae na?aaeiy aenia?oia ioe?iea caaaeueii?
oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? oe?iiino? aeai?eoio. Ia?aa??aia ocaiaeaeai?noue
aeoiie aenia?o?a. Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a cana?ae/ea aeniea
na?aaei? cia/aiiy ioe?iee aeai?eoio noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue c o?ceee; iayai?noue caaeia?eueiiai nooiaiy ocaiaeaeaiino?
aeoiie aenia?o?a ? caaeia?eueio eiiiaoaioi?noue aenia?o?a.

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe??
noi?ioeueiaai? caaaeuei? aeniiaee.

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oanoiaee eiio?ieue o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o?ceee
i?eioeeiiai caeaoai caaacia/eoe noaiaea?oeciaai?noue, ia’?eoeai?noue
aae?aei?noue, iaae?ei?noue ? oi/i?noue ia?aa??ee ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy.

2. Iieacaii, ui i?eioeeiiai oi?ia oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy ia aieeaa? ia
eiai o?oaei?noue, yea oe?eeii aecia/a?oueny ci?noii caaaeaiiy. Aea oi?ia
caaaeaiiy coiiaeth? i???ioaoe?th ? ?iciiae?e oaaae aei?iaiaoaaiiai ?
oiio aieeaa? ia aae?aei?noue caaaeaiiy. Noi?ioeueiaaii iioeiaeuei? oiiae
? aeiiae uiaei canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i oanoiaeo caaaeaiue.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oi?ie oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, c?o/i? aeey oanoiaiai
eiio?ieth c o?ceee.

3. Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue,
ui aieeaathoue ia ?o aae?aei?noue, a naia: ci?noiaee ae?aiacii
aa??aio?a, a?oie noiaeeo aa??aio?a, nooi?iue iiaiioe ? eiie?aoi?noue
aa??aio?a, iiaia /e /anoeiaa ia?ae?eooy aa??aio?a a?aeiia?ae? oiui. Oe?
oa ?io? iniaeeaino? ooai?ththoue i?aeeacee ? “ianoee” o oanoiaiio
caaaeaii?, ye? niiioeathoue aei?iaiaoaaieo aei ?icaaaeoaaiiy oaeoeee
oii?yaeieea oanoo ? ca?eueoothoue ?iia??i?noue oaaaeoaaiiy a?aeiia?ae?.

4. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue ? iieacaia i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue
noai?aiiy niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy aae?aeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ia aoai?
?o noai?aiiy.

5. ?ic?iaeai? aeieeaaei?, i?aee??ieai? i?eeeaaeaie i?ioeaaeo?e
noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee.

6. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oano?a
c o?ceee ? aeinooiiith ? aoaeoeaiith, noai?th? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey
eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy, aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe iioeaaoe?th
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a (o/i?a) ? ?o a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
naith ?iaioo.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Iaaaaeaiee o aeena?oaoe?? ia?ae?e iniaeeainoae oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo
caaaeaiue, ye? aieeaathoue ia aae?aei?noue caaaeaiue, ii noo?, ?
ia?ae?eii i?aeeacie, iiieeie oii?yaeiee?a oano?a, «o?the?a», ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo nooaeaioe /e oeiey?? iiaeooue a??ii aeeiioaaoe aeaye?
ia aeoaea aaeaei neeaaeai? oanoia? caaaeaiiy aac canoinoaaiiy iio??aieo
i?aaeiaoieo ciaiue. Oe? iniaeeaino? iiaeii? noaoe aeia?a a?aeiieie ?
nooaeaioai ?, aieiaia, oii?yaeieeai oano?a. Oii?yaeieee oieeaoeiooue
a?aeiia?aeieo iiieeie, a aei?iaiaoaai? ia ciiaeooue a?eueoa
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia «ia?ai?noue» oii?yaeiee?a ? a?ae/othoue aea?aii?noue
ni?ia aaaaeaoe a?aeiia?aeue aai ?icaaaeaoe oaeoeeo oii?yaeieea.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi ciiaea i?aeiyoenue ia iiaee ??aaiue
aeineiiaeino? ca oiiae eiai ao?eaiiy o aeaeyae? eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie.
A oaeiio ?ac? eiai iiaeia aoaea aeiiiaieoe aaeeeith e?euee?noth
aeiaeaoeiaeo i?eeeaae?a, aeieeaaeieo ?ic’yniaiue, aeiaeaoeiaeo
i?ioeaaeo?, ia ao?a/ath/e c?o/iino? ei?enooaaiiy (ui iaiiaeeeai o
aa??aio? ia iaia??).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?oi i?iaeiaaeeoe a oaeeo iai?yieao:

a) oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeai
iaae?eiino? ? oi/iino? oanoiai? ia?aa??ee ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aiiy;

a) ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie e?eoa???a aeey aecia/aiiy caaaeueii? ioe?iee
aei?iaiaoaaiiai a?aeiia?aeii aei eiioeaioe?e ii?iaoeaii-i???ioiaaiiai ?
e?eoa??aeueii- i???ioiaaiiai oanooaaiiy;

a) oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee oanoiaiai eiio?ieth a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy
o?ceee.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe

1. Nieooa ?.A. Aeaye? i?ioeaaeo?e neeaaeaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue aeey
eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c o?ceee// O?ceea oa
ano?iiii?y a oeie?. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 14 — 17.

2. Nieooa ?.A. Noai?aiiy aae?aeieo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue aeey ia?eoeaiiai
?ioi?iaoeaiiai eiio?ieth ?acoeueoao?a ?acoeueoao?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano// O?ceea oa ano?iiii?y a oeie?. — 1997. — ? 3. — N. 8 — 11.

3. Nieooa ?.A. Eeaneo?eaoe?y o?ce/ieo iiiyoue ? ia?aa??ea canai?iiy
icia/aiue caniaaie oanoiaiai eiio?ieth// O?ceea oa ano?iiii?y a oeie?. —
1998. — ? 1. — N. 30 — 32.

4. A?euaiei A.I., Nieooa ?.A., Oe/eia ?.?. Ia?eoeaiee eiio?ieue ciaiue
nooaeaio?a c eaaioiai? iaoai?ee ca aeiiiiiaith oano?a// Iaoa??aee ??
Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a o?ceee iaaeaaia?/ieo ?inoeooo?a
oa oi?aa?neoao?a “I?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueii? oa
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a o?ceee”. — E., 1996. — N. 31 — 33.

5. Aeai?eoi noai?aiiy eiio?ieueieo oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee
(iaoiaee/iee iin?aiee) / Nieooa ?.A.; Ee?a. aea?ae. iaae. oi-o. -Ee?a,
1997. — 169 n. — Oe?. — Aeai. A AeIOA Oe?a?ie . .97, OAeE
378.853/07/ :53/07/, ?AeANIO? 14.35.

6. Nieooa ?.A. Eiiithoa?iee eiio?ieue a ?aeoeiaia?e nenoai? ioe?iee
ciaiue c oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee// Oace aeiiia?aeae i?aeaoc?anueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie
ioe?ithaaiiy ciaiue nooaeaio?a aoco”. — Ee?a. — 1994. — N. 44.

7. Aa?ieaeoa ?.I., Nieooa ?.A. ??ci? iaoiaee ?aeoeiaiai? ioe?iee ciaiue
ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo c oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee// Oace aeiiia?aeae
i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie ioe?ithaaiiy ciaiue nooaeaio?a aoco”. — Ee?a. —
1994. — N. 46.

AIIOAOe?ss

Nieooa ?.A. Oanoiaee eiio?ieue o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy o?ceee (ia iaoa??ae?
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 — oai??y i iaoiaeeea
iaa/aiiy oiceee. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — Ee?a, 1999.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ? i?aeoe/ii ia?aa??aii iaoiae aeiaenia?eiaioaeueii?
aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c o?ceee, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia
aeei?enoaii? aeai?eoio noai?aiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue c
o?ceee. Noai?ai? i?ea?iaeuei? eeaneo?eaoe?? o?ce/ieo iiiyoue, ?o
aeanoeainoae ? caieoaiue i?i ieo. Iaea?aeai? aeniiaee i?i aieea oi?ie
oanoiaiai caaaeaiiy ia eiai o?oaei?noue ? aae?aei?noue ? i?i iaee?au?
oiiae canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i oanoiaeo caaaeaiue. Aecia/ai? ?
aeieeaaeii iienai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioethaaiiy oanoiaeo caaaeaiue, ye?
aieeaathoue ia ?o aae?aei?noue. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y /ioe?ueio a?oi
o?oaeiino? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ?acii c e?eoa??yie aeey iaeiicia/iiai
a?aeianaiiy caaaeaiue aei iaei??? c oeeo a?oi. Noai?ai? i?ioeaaeo?e
neeaaeaiiy ? aae?aeecaoe?? oanoiaeo caaaeaiue ??cieo oei?a ci?noo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oanoiaee eiio?ieue, oanoe c o?ceee, aae?aei?noue,
aeiaenia?eiaioaeueia aae?aeecaoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nieooa E.A. Oanoiaue eiio?ieue a i?ioeanna iao/aiey oeceea (ia iaoa?eaea
oai?aoe/aneie oeceee). -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey oeceea. –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. —
Eeaa, 1999.

I?aaeeiaeai iaoiae aeiyenia?eiaioaeueiie aaeeaeecaoeee oanoiauo caaeaiee
ii oeceea, iniiaaiiue ia eniieueciaaiee aeai?eoia nicaeaiey e
aaeeaeecaoeee oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea.

Nicaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua eeanneoeeaoeee iiiyoee, i?eiaiyaiuo a oeceea,
anaaiciiaeiuo i?iyaeaiee oece/aneeo iiiyoee e anaaiciiaeiuo aii?inia i
ethauo i?iyaeaieyo ethauo oece/aneeo iiiyoee. I?aaeeiaeaiiua
eeanneoeeaoeee iicaieytho iieo/eoue iauoth eeanneoeeaoeeth eiio?ieueiuo
aii?inia ii oeceea e ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o aeai?eoia nicaeaiey e
aaeeaeecaoeee oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea.

Iieo/aiu e yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu auaiaeu i aeeyiee oi?iu
oanoiaiai caaeaiey ia aai o?oaeiinoue e aaeeaeiinoue. Iieacaii, /oi
i?eioeeieaeueii oi?ia oanoiaiai caaeaiey ia aeeyao ia aai o?oaeiinoue,
eioi?ay iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaieai caaeaiey (i?e oneiaee
aai aaeeaeiinoe). Iaeiaei oi?ia caaeaiey iaoneaaeeaaao i?eaioaoeeth e
?ani?aaeaeaiea aieiaiey eniuooaiiai e, oaeei ia?acii, aeeyao ia
aaeeaeiinoue caaeaiey. Noi?ioee?iaaiu iioeiaeueiua oneiaey e o?aaiaaiey
e i?eiaiaieth ?aciuo oi?i oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea – auai? aa?iiai
aa?eaioa ioaaoa, ainnoaiiaeaiea niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie aeaoo
nieneia, eiino?oe?iaaiea ioaaoa, auai? aa?iiai aa?eaioa ec oaeeeiaiiiai
nienea aa?eaioia ioaaoa.

Caia/aiu e iiae?iaii iienaiu iniaaiiinoe oi?ioee?iaie oanoiauo caaeaiee,
eioi?ua aeeytho ia eo aaeeaeiinoue, a eiaiii: niuneiaie aeeaiacii
aa?eaioia ioaaoa, a?oiiu iioiaeeo aa?eaioia, iaeeiaeiaua yeaiaiou a
aa?eaioao ioaaoa, aeeeia aa?eaioia, noaiaiue iieiiou e eiie?aoiinoe
aa?eaioia, oiio?aaeaiea a aa?eaioao ioaaoa au?aaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
noaiaiue aa?iyoiinoe eee iauiinoe aeaiiiai oaeoa; oiio?aaeaiea
au?aaeaiee, iaoi/ii oa?aeoa?ecothueo eiee/anoaaiiua ioiioaiey; iieiia
eee /anoe/iia ia?ae?uaaiea aa?eaioia ioaaoa, neioaene/aneay
niaeaniaaiiinoue aa?eaioia ioaaoa n aii?inii.

I?aaeeiaeaia eiioeaioeey /aou?ao a?oii o?oaeiinoe oanoiauo caaeaiee
aianoa n e?eoa?eyie aeey iaeiicia/iiai niioianaiey caaeaiee n iaeiie ec
yoeo a?oii.

Nicaeaiu iiae?iaiua i?ioeaaeo?u aeey auai?a niaea?aeaiey caaeaiee
ioaeiie o?oaeiinoe, a oaeaea i?ioeaaeo?u nicaeaiey e aaeeaeecaoeee
oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea. Ioaeaeueiua i?ioeaaeo?u i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
ninoaaeaiey caaeaiee n aa?aaeueiie, oi?ioeueiie, /eneiaie, i?inoie eee
ninoaaiie oi?iie ioaaoa. I?ioeaaeo?u iiaee?aieaiu iiiai/eneaiiuie
i?eia?aie oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea e yoaiia eo ninoaaeaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaiu oaeaea i?ioeaaeo?u aeey auai?a e aiieiuaiey iiaeoiaeyuae
oi?iu aeey oanoiaiai caaeaiey aeaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Iie oaeaea
iiaee?aieythony i?eia?aie oanoiauo caaeaiee e i?eia?aie oi?ioee?iaie
eino?oeoeee aeey eniuooaiuo.

Ia?a/eneaiiua ?acoeueoaou iieiaeaiu a iniiao aeai?eoia nicaeaiey e
aaeeaeecaoeee oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea. Aeai?eoi ninoieo ec iniiaiie
/anoe e ianeieueeeo niaoeeaeueiuo oaaeeoe e i?ioeaaeo?, e eioi?ui anoue
ia?auaiey ec iniiaiie /anoe aeai?eoia. Iniiaiay /anoue aeai?eoia ninoieo
ec /a?u?ao ?acaeaeia, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho ninoaaeaieth oanoiauo
caaeaiee /aou?ao a?oii o?oaeiinoe. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo ?acaeaeia aeeth/aao:

· i?ioeaaeo?o auai?a (eee ninoaaeaiey) niaea?aeaiey caaeaiey aeey
aeaiiiai o?iaiy o?oaeiinoe;

· ia?auaiea e “oaaeeoea aii?inia” n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeeoue, e eaeiio ec
aeaaiiaaeoeaoe eiae/aneeo oeiia ioiineony aeaiiia eiio?ieueiia caaeaiea;

· ia?auaiea e niioaaonoaothuaio ?acaeaeo “oaaeeoeu oanoiauo caaeaiee”,
aaea aeathony eiie?aoiua oeacaiey aeey i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiiai
eiio?ieueiiai caaeaiey a aeaea oanoiaiai caaeaiey. Caeanue
i?aaeeaaathony oi?ioee?iaee oanoiaiai aii?ina eee oeacaiey e eo
ninoaaeaieth, a oaeaea nienee aniiiaaaoaeueiuo o?ac aeey iaeaa/aiey
i?eaeoiuaaiey aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa iaaa?iuo aa?eaioia ioaaoa;

· nnueee e niioaaonoaothuei i?ioeaaeo?ai ninoaaeaiey e aaeeaeecaoeee
oanoiauo caaeaiee, auai?a e aiieiuaiey iiaeoiaeyuae oi?iu oanoiaiai
caaeaiey.

Aeai?eoi niaea?aeeo nauoa 70 eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ia oanoiauo caaeaiee.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea nicaeaiey
e aaeeaeecaoeee oanoiauo caaeaiee ii oeceea yaeyaony aeinooiiie e
yooaeoeaiie, nicaeaao iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiio?iey ?acoeueoaoia
iao/aiey, iicaieyao iiauneoue iioeaaoeeth o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
nooaeaioia (o/aieeia) e eo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naith ?aaioo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oanoiaue eiio?ieue, oanou ii oeceea, aaeeaeiinoue,
aeiyenia?eiaioaeueiay aaeeaeecaoeey.

ANNOTATION

Solucha I.V.The test control during training to physics (on a material
of theoretical physics). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidates degree in pedagogical sciences by specialty
13.00.02 theory and methods of teaching physics. — I. Dragomanov
National Pedagogical University. — Kyiv, 1999.

The method of up-to-experimental validation of the test tasks on physics
based on use of special algorithm is offered. The classifications of
concepts used in physics are developed; possible displays of physical
concepts and possible questions on displays of different physical
concepts. The conclusions about influence of the form of the test task
on its difficulty and validity, about optimum conditions of application
of the test tasks are received. There are investigated and in detail
features of the formulations of the test tasks are described which
influence on their validity. The concept of groups of difficulty of the
test tasks and criterion for unequivocal correlation of the tasks from
one of these groups is offered. The detailed procedures of drawing up or
choice of the contents of the tasks of the necessary difficulty, and
also procedure of creation or choice of the test tasks with verbal,
formula or numerical, simple or compound form of the answer are
developed. The examples of the test tasks on physics are resulted. The
listed results are fixed in a basis of the mentioned algorithm of
creation and validation of the test tasks on physics.

Key words: the test control, tests on physics, validity,
up-to-experimental validation.

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