Теплофізичні аспекти холодильного зберігання плодоовочевої продукції в умовах жаркого клімату: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Аль-Ахрас Гассан Хал

IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss OIEIAeO

AEUe-AO?AN Aannai Oaeaae Iioaiiaae

OAeE 621.560:621.565.58

OAIEIO?CE*I? ANIAEOE OIEIAeEEUeIIAI CAA??AAIIss IEIAeIIAI*AAI?
I?IAeOEOe?? A OIIAAO AEA?EIAI EE?IAOO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.04.03 — Oieiaeeeueia oa e??iaaiia oaoi?ea,

nenoaie eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aaoi?aoa?ao ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaoai?ee ? eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy
iia?o?y Iaeanueei?

aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? oieiaeo I?i?noa?noaa Ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa a
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio oa eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?
oieiaeeeueii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? “Aa?ioieiae”

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ee?eeia Aieiaeeie? Oa?eoiiiae/,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia
aeaaeai?y oieiaeo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaoai?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?eooea Aaea??e Aaneeueiae/,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oaieiianiiai?io, i?i?aeoi?

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, no. iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ae?aeee Iaoaey Ieeiea?aia,

?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo “A?ioaoi?ea” OAAI

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e

?i. I. A. Eiiiiiniaa.
I?i?noa?noai Ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Iaeana.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 29 » aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 11 aiae.
00 oa. ia can?aeaii?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae41.087.01 i?e Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? oieiaeo

ca aae?anith: 270026, i. Iaeana, aoe. Aeai?yinueea, 1/3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??

oieiaeo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

ae.o.i., i?ioani?
I?eoeueoei ?. E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue. Iaeiie/aiee aeina?ae o noai?aii?, i?iaeooaaii?
oa ?icaeoeo oieiaeeeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa a aaeoc? caa??aaiiy nieiaeoi?
?ineeiii? ne?iaeie a oiiaao iii??iiai ee?iaoo ia iiaeia aaciina?aaeiuei
ia?aiineoe ia noai?aiiy oaoiieia?e aa?aaeeeaiai caa??aaiiy a e?a?iao, ui
?icaeaathoueny. E??i aeiiii?/ieo ianoaaei, ooo iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ua
e niaoeeo?eo ee?iaoe/ieo cii, eiaeia c yeeo iio?aao? iniaeeaiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeooaaiiy ieiaeiiai/anoiaeu.

A oiiaao aea?eiai ee?iaoo iathoue i?noea aaeeeee i?eieea oaiea ? cia/i?
eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e oa a?aeiinii? aieiaino? iia?o?y a eaia?ao
caa??aaiiy, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, i?iaeooth/e, aoaeoth/e oa
aenieoaooth/e ieiaeiiai/anoiaeua, a oaeiae i?ae /an noai?aiiy i?ia?aiieo
?aaeei?a ?iaioe oieiaeeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy i?i?ioio
i?e?iaeieo ao?ao ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie.

Oiio noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e, c oi/ee ci?o aeiiii?? aia?a??,
aiaee oa eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia iiaoaeiao noiaeu, oea iaeia c
aeooaeueieo caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy e?a?i ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo,
aeey a?eueoino? yeeo ia iaea i?noea a aenii?o? caeiathoue iai/? oa
o?oeoe, cae?aiiy a?iaeath yeeo aaaeaoueny oe?eee ??e.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, i?enay/aieo oieiaeeeueiiio caa??aaiith
?ineeiii? ne?iaeie, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui ?nioth/?
oaoiieia?? oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy ieiae?a oa iai/?a caeaa?eueoiai ia
caaacia/othoue iaiao?aeieo oiia o ooaaae? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey o?eaaeiai
caa??aaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oa
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueei? i?ia?aie ia 1992 — 1998 ?iee “Noai?aiiy
aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa oieiaeeeueieo oaoiieia?e ia?iaee ?
caa??aaiiy ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie a i?noeyo ae?iuoaaiiy a?iaeath” (iinoaiiaa
eieaa?? I?in?eueainii?iaeo Oe?a?ie ? E-4/2 io 12.12.91); aeiaiai?o ia
noai?aiiy (ia?aaea/o) iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?ae Aieiaiei
oi?aae?iiyi eii?aeeiaoe??, inai?iiy IOI oa ?ioi?iaoeee
I?in?eueainii?iaeo Oe?a?ie oa IAeEO?OOO “Aa?ioieiae” “?ic?iaeoe oa
ai?iaaaeeoe aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
oieiaeeeueieo i?aei?e?inoa aeey ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe??” ia 1995 —
1998 ??.

Iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe. Iaoa ?iaioe: ia iniia? oaieio?ce/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?io a ooaaae? i?iaeoeoe?? c
eiiaeeoe?eiaaiith aaioeeyoe??th iia?o?yiei iioieii noai?eoe aa?aaeeeao
oaoiiei??th oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy nieiaeoi? ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie c
o?aooaaiiyi ciai?oi?o oaieii?eieea?a c aeiae?eey. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe???
iaoe iinoaaeai? oa ?ica’ycai? oae? caaea/?:

— aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane oaieiianiiai?io oa oi?ioaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ii-ai-eia?nieo iie?a o ooaaae? c iai/aie /e o?oeoaie i?e
aeoeai?e aaioeeyoe??;

— onoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy
ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe??;

— onoaiiaeaiee aca?iica’ycie i?ae ia?aiao?aie iia?o?y aeiae?eey, a
eaia??, ooaaae? oa ?aaeeiii ?iaioe nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy;

— i?iaaaeaiee oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie ? aeine?aeaeaia oaieino?ee?noue
iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e ieiaeiiai/anoiaeu;

— i?iaaaeaia iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a ?iaioe oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee i?e
oieiaeeeueiiio caa??aaii? ieiae?a oa iai/?a a oiiaao aea?eiai ee?iaoo.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny a ?iaio?:

1. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie i?e
aeoeaiiio aaioeethaaii? iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae?
oaieiaieia?nieo i?ioean?a a ianeio i?iaeoeoe??, i?e/iio iioeiaeuei?
cia/aiiy aeey oaeaeeino? ? ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo ia?e aaioeeyoe?eiiai
iia?o?y aecia/athoueny c oiia a?aenooiino? ciie a?aeiio?aaiiy o aa?oi?e
/anoei? ooaaaey, a iioe-iaeueia oi?aae?iiy ?aaeeiaie ?iaioe,
oieiaeeeueiith onoaiiaeith iiaeiia cae?enithaaoenue ia iniia? caeii?a
aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe?? ?aaoethaaiiy i?i-oean?a oaiei- ianiiai?io, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny ye o iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?yo, oae ? a ooaaae?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? a oieiaeeeuei?e nenoai?.

Iaoeiao iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue:

— iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?io a
ooaaae? ?ineeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e oieiaeeeueiiio caa??aaii?;

— iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy;

— iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiia?aaea/? /a?ac
iai?iaeaeoth/?

eiino?oeoe?? eaia?e caa??aaiiy;

— iaoiaeeea ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oaieiia?aaea/? a
iniiaieo aeaiaioao eaia?ii? nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e aeoeai?e
aaioeeyoe?? ooaaaey i?iaeoeoe??;

— iaoiaeeea aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe?? oieiaeeeueii? nenoaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
ia iniia? oaieio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai ia??oioiaaio
iaoiaeeeo aoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy ieiaeiiai/aai?
i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao aea?eiai ee?iaoo.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a oa iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ocaiaeaeai?noth iaea?aeaieo aeaieo c ?ioi?iaoe??th
i?i aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?i i?e?iaei? ao?aoe ?ineeiii?
i?iaeoeoe?? aiane?aeie oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy oa aeo?aoe
aeaeo?iaia?a??, iaaaaeai? a ii?iaoeai?e oa iaoeiai-oao-i?/i?e
e?oa?aoo??.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia naiino?eii
c aeei?enoaiiyi eiinoeueoaoe?e iaoeiaiai ea??aieea. A iioae?eiaaieo
?iaioao o ni?aaaoi?noa? aeena?oaioo iaeaaeaoue ie?ai? oai?aoe/i?
?ic?iaee, iinoaiiaee caaea/, neeaaeaiiy i?ia?ai oa i?iaaaeaiiy
?ic?aooie?a ia AII, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeieia?? aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe?? oieiaeeeueieo nenoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue:
ia 60-e iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i?e oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oai??y
? i?aeoeea aoc?anueei? iaoee” (Iaeana, 1995); ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa iaoeiaeo
ni?a?ia?oiee?a IAeAO a ia??iae 1996-1998 ?.; ia 1-?e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao” (Iaeana,
1996); 1997 International Compressor Technique Conference (China, 1997);
1998 International Refrigeration Conference (Purdue USA, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? 4 noaoo?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??: ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoeo. Iniiaiee oaeno neeaaea?oueny c 149 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, 38 ?enoie?a, 20 oaaeeoeue. A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 158 iaca.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii?e /anoei? ?iaioe ?icaeyiooi:

— ee?iaoe/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae Ei?aeai??;

— iniaeeaino? caa??aaiiy ie?aieo ieiae?a, ui ae?iuothoueny a
Ei?aeai??;

— ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae uiaei oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy
ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe??.

Ia iniia? aeeiiaiiai aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?ia?o c?iaeaii aeniiaee oa noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1 i?enay/aiee oai?aoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a
oaiei- oa ianiiai?io i?e caa??aaii? ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
aecia/aiith iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy. Iaeii??aei?noue ?
noaa?euei?noue oaieiaieia?nieo oiia o ooaaae? ?ineeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? –
iaiao?aeia oiiaa ?? o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy. Iaieio/a ia??aiii??i?noue ?
ianoaa?euei?noue oaieiaieia?nieo iie?a ca ?aooiie ciai?oi?o
oaieii?eieea?a /a?ac iai?iaeaeaiiy eaia?e caa??aaiiy ia iiaeooue aooe
e?euee?nii ioe?iai? aac oai?aoe/iiai iieno oaieiaieia?nieo iie?a o ian?
i?iaeoeoe?? i?e aeoeai?e ?? aaioeeyoe?? oieiaeiei iia?o?yi. Iaoaiaoe/iee
iien i?ioean?a oaiei- oa ianiiai?io a ianeio i?iaeoeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi
ciie a?aeiio?aaiiy cia?aaea?oueny ianooiiith nenoaiith aeeoa?aioe?eieo
??aiyiue:

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy??????????wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy?????????????? l0 wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @????&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy@????? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-?????@@????@-???u
y?????? e c? raV wmetafile8? ??N????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyy@??¬?? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-????? @???? 1???u?th??????A?aie/i?
oiiae ia aoiae? oa aeoiae? c? ooaaaey iathoue aeaeyae:

ia aoiae? — i?e x = 0: ta = ti , wmetafile8?
??E??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy ??›?? ???&?
?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-??????c???????u?th?????? ia
aeoiae? — i?e x = h: wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a????&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyyA??›?? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-??????e???????u?th??????ooo ah –
eiao?oe??io, iiaeaethth/ee oaieia?aeaea/o i?e ci?ooaaii? oaieiai iioieo
iia?o?y, ui aeoiaeeoue c? ooaaaey c oieiaeiei iia?o?yi eaia?e
caa??aaiiy.

Eiao?oe??ioe oaieii?ia?aeiino? l0 oa oaieia?aeaea/? a aeey ianeio
ne?iaeie aecia/athoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei oi?ioe Caia?a-Aaoa?a ?
Aiaeeinueeiai, ui aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai? aeey u?eueii oiaeiaaiiai
noa?e/iiai oa?o c ?ooeeaei aacii.

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy?????????????? A oiiaao caa??aaiiy
?ineeiii? ne?iaeie a?cueiaii e?i?ei? ai?ieneiaoe??:

p» = mp + np ts , exp( bsts ) = 1 +
bs ts . ( 5 )

I?ney ianeeaaeieo ia?aoai?aiue (1 ) – ( 5 ) aeey ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y ii aenio? ooaaaey iaea?aeeii ianooiia aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy (o
aac?ici??i?e oi?i?):

wmetafile8? ??a???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??`????u?th???????c neiaoey?iei cao?aiiyi ( g << 1 ). Iiaoaeiaaii aneiioioe/iee ?ica’ycie aeaiiai ??aiyiiy. ? ?iciiae?e oaieiaieia?nieo iie?a ii aenio? ianeio cia?aceii oaeeie caeaaeiinoyie: ?en. 1. Ci?ia a?aeiinii? aieiaino? ?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue oaiia?aoo?e i?iaeoeoe?? ts iia?o?y ii aenio? ianeio i?e j0 : ii aenio? ianeio i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo 1 - 0,8; 2 - 0,9; 3 - 0,95; 4 - 0,97; 5 - 1,0. a?aeiinii? aieiaino?: ___ ?ic?aooiie, i?iaaaeaiee ca ( 1 ) – ( 2 ); ----- ?ic?aooiie, i?iaaaeaiee i?e l0 = 0. ta (x) = t* + wmetafile8? ??e??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy? ??ae?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u?th?????? p (x) = p* + wmetafile8? ??z??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @`*???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy *??y?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????|'????)???u y?????? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo a?aeiinii? aieiaino? oa oaiia?aoo?e ne?iaeie ii aenio? ooaaaey ( h = 5i ) iaaaaeai? ia ?en.1 (V = 0,034 i/n) ? ia ?en.2 ( j0 = 0,97). Io?eiaiee ?iciiae?e (7) – (8) aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie caa??aaiiy, i?e yeeo i?e?iaei? ao?aoe i?iaeoeoe?? iathoue i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy aeey caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e, a?aeiinii? aieiaino? oa ?ooeeaino? iia?o?y ia aoiae? a ooaaaeue. E?euee?noue aieiae, ui aeia?iao?oueny, ca?aeii c ??aiyiiyi (2) aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith: G = wmetafile8? ??i??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????AyyycyyyA??b?? ???&? ?MathType??????uAy??????a a?aeiinia onooea aea?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi G aei ia?aeiii? e?eueeino? i?iaeoeoe?? n = wmetafile8? ??O??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??/?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????@????????u?th??????Aaaaea?oueny, ui iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy caaacia/othoueny ianooiieie cia/aiiyie ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaieiaieia?niee noai eiiaeeoe?eiaaiiai iia?o?y: · oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y ia aoiae? a ooaaaeue t0 = t* ; · ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?e ii aenio? ooaaaey Dt a = t (h) – t0 = 0,5 0N ; ( 11 ) · a?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y ia aeoiae? c? ooaaaey j (h) = 96%. Inoaiiy oiiaa caaacia/o? a?aenooi?noue eiiaeainaoe?? aieiae a cii? a?aeiio?aaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? caaea/a aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy caiaeeoueny aei ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue OII (1)-(2), aeey yeeo iio??aii c?aii?oaaoe ciio a?aeiio?aaiiy (oiaoi iieeanoe l0=0) i?e a?aeiieo oiiaao ia aeoiae? c? ooaaaey (o = h): ta(h) = t0 + 0.5, j(h) = 0.96 ( p(h) = 606,2 Ia ). ( 12 ) Iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe a?aeiinio aieia?noue oa oaeaee?noue iia?o?y ia aoiae? a ooaaaeue. Aeaia caaea/a – oea cai?ioia e?aeiaa caaea/a. C ?ica’yceo ??aiyiue (1)-(2) i?e l0=0 (?en. 2), a?aoiaoth/e oiiae (12), ciaoiaeeii ta (wmetafile8? ??¦???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??u?? ???&? ?MathType?? ? ???u?????????"????-?????G?@????G?0???u th?????? p (wmetafile8? ??¦???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??u?? ???&? ?MathType?? ? ???u?????????"????-?????G?@????G?0???u th??????/e, aeeeth/eaoe ?0 c ( 13 ) , ia?ii ??aiyiiy a?aeiinii oaeaeeino? iia?o?y V wmetafile8? ??<??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aA ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy? ????? ???&? ?MathType??A? ???u?????????"????-?????ue???1/4 ???d???$????:????x???u y??????ooo aaee/eie ?1, ?2, l1, l2, b, h – a?aeii? ooieoe?? V. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a iieacaii ia ?en.3 oa ?en.4. Aeoeaia aaioeethaaiiy ianeio i?iaeoeoe?? caaacia/o? iaeni?eyoeea?o? oiiae aeey o?eaaeiai ?? caa??aaiiy. Oei /anii a?eueo?noue ae?th/eo oaia? oieiaeeeueieo eaia? ieiaeiiai/anoiaeu onoaoeiaai? i?aea?nieie /e iinoaiaioieie iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/aie. *a?ac aaeeeee aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ooaaaeueieo aea-iaio?a (iaeaoe yuee?a, eiioaeia?e) iia?o?i?iciiae?e a ooaaae? i?ioiaeeoue a in- ?en. 3. A?ao?e ci?ie iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue ?en.4. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? iioeiaeueieo oaeaeeino? V oa i?e?iaeieo ao?ao a?ae cia/aiue a?aeiinii? aieiaino? iia?o?y aenioe ooaaaey i?iaeoeoe?? (yaeoea). ia aoiae? a ooaaaeue. iiaiiio ca ?aooiie i?ina?o?a i?ae aeaiaioaie, a i?e ia?aoe?iiaeueiiio ooaaaethaaii? aeey iaaii? /anoeie ooaaaey aeiooaia aaioeethaaiiy acaaae? a?aenooi?. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo oaiei- oa aieiaia?aeaaaeaiiy a?ae aeaiaio?a ne?iaeie aeoiaeeoue a iniiaiiio i?e?iaeiith eiiaaeoe??th. Oea ae ia? i?noea oaeiae ? oiae?, eiee aeei?enoiaothoueny aaioeeyoi?e nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy. Oaeaee?noue i?e?iaeii? eiiaaeoe?? aeey u?eueii oiaeiaaiiai oa?o, ye a?aeiii, aecia/a?oueny ca caeiiii Aea?n? wmetafile8? ??>??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyyA??—?? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-??????@?????ae????®????*???u
?th??????aea k = k (V) – eiao?oe??io i?iieeeeaino?, a u?euei?noue
iia?o?y aei??aith?

wmetafile8? ??&???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????oa wmetafile8?
??Y??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`??/?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-??????S?????????e????# ???u
y?????? A ?acoeueoao? ( 15 ), c aeei?enoaiiyi oi?ioee A?aoia aeey
eiao?oe??ioa i?iieeeeaino?, i?eaiaeeoueny aei eaaae?aoiiai ??aiyiiy
a?aeiinii oaeaeeino? eiiaaeoe??, ca?aeee

V = wmetafile8?
??·??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?A ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy? ??!?? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-?????O»???·S ???u??
???????»????-?????S???y????-?????yc???g?????g
?????g?G ???A@????Ag ???u y??????O ae?ac? ( 18 )
eiao?oe??io a0 caeaaeeoue a?ae na?aaei?o cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y
wmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy???!?? ???&? ?MathType??`?
???u?????????»????-?????g?@????g?3/4????uath??????Ia ?en. 5
cia?aaeaia caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? iia?o?y V a ooaaae? a?ae aenioe
ooaaaey i?e ??ci?e a?aeiini?e aieiaino? i?ioi/iiai iia?o?y. Ia ?en.6
cia?aaeaia caeaaei?noue na?aaeiuei? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y a?ae aenioe
ooaaaey. Ia eiaeiiio c ?enoie?a e?ea? 1, 2, 3 oa 4 a?aeiia?aeathoue
cia/aiiyi: 1- j = 80%; 2 — j = 90%; 3 — j=95 %; 4 — j =100 %.

?en.5. Caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? iia?o?y V ?en. 6.
Caeaaei?noue na?aaeiuei? oai-

a ooaaae? a?ae eiai aenioe. ia?aoo?e
iia?o?y a?ae aenioe ooaaaey.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe ci?io oaiia?aoo?e ne?iaeie
ii aenio? ooaaaey a oeo eiai iaeanoyo, aea a?aenooi? i?eioniaa
aaioeethaaiiy.

O ?icae?e? 2 i?iaaaeaiee oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie ? oaieino?ee?noue
iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e iiaeoey ieiaeiiai/anoiaeua. Aeey i?aeo?eiee
iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy ?ineeiii? i?iaeoeoe?? iaiao?aeii, uia
an? oaieii?eieeae a?aeaiaeeeenue oieiaeeeueiei eaia?iei iaeaaeiaiiyi. A
oiaueia oaiei?cieyoe?eiiai oa?o iai?iaeaeaiue iiaeiia ioe?ithaaoeny
aeiiii?/iith aeioe?euei?noth aeei?enoaiiy oa?o oa?ii?cieyoe?? c
a?aeiia?aeiei oa?i?/iei iii?ii.

Aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiee ii?? oaieiia?aaea/? iai?iaeaeoth/i?
eiino?oeoe?? aecia/a?oueny cacae/ae, aeoiaey/e c oiiae caaacia/aiiy
iaeiaioeo i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao IA, $ / i3, ye? aecia/athoueny ca
oi?ioeith:

IA = NAe + wmetafile8?
??A??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/2yyy ??y?? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-??????@????? ???u
y??????C oiiae i?i?ioio IA = I ( dec ) ( wmetafile8?
??>??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy@??oe?? ???&?
?MathType????
???u?????????»????-??????@????????u?th??????
wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????AyyyyyyA??m?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????`C???`D???oE???*ue
???u??
???????»????-????ssue???^C???-?????^K???[?©???
[?©???[?d??? I?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii
aeioe?eueii? oiaueie oaiei?cieyoe?? aeey iai?iaeaeaiue oieiaeeeueiiai
iiaeoey (?en.7) a oiiaao aea?eiai ee?iaoo Ei?aeai??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iai?iaeaeoth/? eiino?oeoe?? oieiaeeeueiiai iiaeoey
iathoue aeia?? oaieicaoeni? aeanoeaino?. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny
oaieino?ee?noue ?icaeyiooeo iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e. ?ic?aooiie
i?iaiaeeoueny ia iniia? ?iaeaia?ii? iaoiaeeee Oeeiaa?a, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny a aoae?aaeuei?e oaieio?ceoe?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iai?iaeaeaiiy oieiaeeeueiiai iiaeoey (?en.7) iathoue cia/i? iieacieee
caanaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo eieeaaiue, oiaoi iai?iaeaeaiiy iiaeoey
oaieino?ee? ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue (iai?eeeaae, ii
a?aeiioaiith aei aeiaiaeo eieeaaiue oaiia?aoo?e).

?en.7. Eiino?oeoe?y no?i oa iie?eooy
oieiaeeeueiiai iiaeoey.

a) no?ia: 1 – oooeaoo?ea; 2 – iaiaeue
cae?ciaaoiiia; 3 – ?cieyoe?y;

4 – eeno noaeaaee
ioeeieiaaiee.

a) iie?eooy: 1 – 3 oa?e a?ae?i?ciey; 2 –
aaoiiia noyaeea; 3 – ieeoa

cae?ciaaoiiia; 4 – ?cieyoe?y; 5 —
eeno noaeaaee ioeeieiaaiee.

O ?icae?e? 3 i?iaaaeaiee oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie nenoaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy eaia?e caa??aaiiy (?en. 8). I?ae ioieiaeaeoth/ith
eaia?iith nenoaiith ?icoi??ii eiiieaen cania?a oa iaeaaeiaiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue o i?ei?uaii? eaia?e noaa?euei? iioeiaeuei? oaieiaieia?ni?
?aaeeie caa??aaiiy. Iai?iaeaeoth/? eiino?oeoe?? eaia? caa??aaiiy
oieiaeeeueiee?a ia caaacia/othoue iio??aio oaieino?ee?noue uiaei
iecueei/anoioieo oaiia?aoo?ieo oaeeue. A oiiaao aea?eieiai ee?iaoo
i?e cia/ieo oaieii?eieeaao /a?ac iai?iaeaeaiiy, ye? ci?iththoueny c
/anii, o nenoa-

?en. 8. Noaia eaia?e c oaieicaoeniith iia?o?yiith
ni?i/eith.

1 – o?oaii?iaiaee oieiaeiaaaioa; 2 – aaioeeyoi?; 3 –
iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/;

4 — oaieicaoenia iia?o?yia ni?i/ea; 5 – ooaaaeue
i?iaeoeoe??; 6 – nenoaia

iia?o?ii?iaiae?a o i?aeeic? eaia?e; 7 –
ie?aeia? caieiaeoaa/?.

oaio iia?o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy aeeth/athoueny:

— iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/ c o?aooaaiiyi ooai?aiiy ?iath;

— iai?iaeaeoth/? eiino?oeoe?? c ?ic?aooieii aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueii?
oiaueie oaiei?cieyoe?? oa c o?aooaaiiyi niiniao ?iciiae?eo iia?o?y i?e
aeoeaiiio aaioeethaaii?;

— nenoaio aaoiiaoeciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

?ic?aooiie eiaeiiai aeaiaioa nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaeiai aooe
ocaiaeaeaiee c ?ioeie aeaiaioaie nenoaie. Aieiaia caaea/a oaieiaiai
?ic?aooieo nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy: anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith
ciai?oiueiai iia?o?y ? oaiia?aoo?ith oieiaeiaaaioo ia aoiae? a
iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/.

Oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy caiaeeoueny aei ?yaeo caaea/:

— oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie oaieicaoenii? ni?i/ee;

— oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie iai?iaeaeaiue oa aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii
aeioe?eueii? oiaueie oaiei?cieyoe??;

— oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie eaia?e caa??aaiiy;

— oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/a.

Oaieia? ?ic?aooiee iia?o?yii? oaieicaoenii? ni?i/ee,
iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e oa eaia?e caa??aaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny
o?aaeeoe?eieie iaoiaeaie.

I?iaaaeaiee ?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueii? oiaueie
oaiei?cieyoe?? c a?aooaaiiyi oaieicaoenii? ni?i/ee. Oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie
eaia?e caa??aaiiy aeicaieea aecia/eoe caaaeueio e?euee?noue ciai?oi?o ?
aioo??oi?o oaieii?eieea?a c iaoith i?aeai?o eaia?iiai oieiaeeeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy oa eiii?ani?a.

I?e ?ic?aooieo iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/a c o?aooaaiiyi ooai?aiiy ?iath
nii/aoeo ca iaoiaeii *oee?ia aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/? k
/a?ac ?aa?enoo iiaa?oith. A oaiia?aoo?a aeia?iaoaaiiy oieiaeiaaaioa
?ic?aoiao?oueny ca iaoiaeii Aa?eaeiaa, ca?aeii c yeei iio??aia
oaiia?aoo?a aeey iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/?a c aaciina?aaei?i aeia?iaoaaiiyi
oieiaeiaaaioa aei??aith?

wmetafile8?
??‘??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy? ????? ???&?
?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-??????i????a???u?th??????aaea lg C =
wmetafile8? ??§???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ``
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ???? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-??????@????? ???u y?????? Iio?i
c aeei?enoaiiyi ?oa?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano ciaoiaeeoueny oaiia?aoo?a
aeia?thaaiiy oieiaeiaaaioo a iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/?.

A ?acoeueoao? ?ica’yceo aeaieo caaea/ aecia/aia oi?aaeyth/a
ooieoe?y:

t a = f ( tH ) ,
( 22 )

ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeeeai i?aai?coaaoe aaoiiaoeciaaia oi?aae?iiy
oieiaeii?iaeoeoeai?noth iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?iii?
c /anii oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai iia?o?y i?e ?? iecueei/anoioi?e ci?i?
(iai?eeeaae, naciii? aai iaio ei?ioei/ani? eieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e).

?icae?e 4 i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a
?iaioe oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo oa?iiaeiiii?/iiai
aiae?co. Aoei ?icaeyiooi ?iaioo iaeiinooi?i/aoi? oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee
aaciina?aaeiueiai aeia?thaaiiy c i?ioi/iith nenoaiith aiaeiiinoa/aiiy,
oa?iiaeiiii?/io iiaeaeue yei? cia?aaeaii ia ?en. 9. Iioei?caoe?y
?aaeei?a ?iaioe oe??? onoaiiaee i?iaiaeeoueny o?aaeeoe?eiei iaoiaeii,
?ic?iaeaiei a aaeoc? oieiaeeeueii? oaoi?ee A. A. Iiinianueeei.

?en. 9. Oa?iiaeiiii?/ia iiaeaeue
iaeiinooi?i/aoi?

oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee

?icaeyiooi iioei?caoe?th i?ioean?a ioieiaeaeaiiy, yea caiaeeoueny aei
aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao (aac o?aooaaiiy
caieiaeoth/iai iaeaaeiaiiy):

IA = [ Oeae * (a11 + a13 + a22) + Oew * v12 + z11 + z12 + z13 +
z21 + z22 ] * t ( 23 )

/e IA = IA ( QK , DTw , Q0 , DTa ) .
( 24 )

ooo QK , Q0 — oaiia?aoo?i? iaii?e a eiiaeainaoi?? oa ioieiaeaeoaa/?; DTw
– ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? o eiiaeainaoi??; DTa — ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo? iia?o?y
a iia?o?iioieiaeaeoaa/?. Caaea/a iioei?caoe?? i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao I3 ( 24
) ?ica`yco?oueny iaoiaeii iaaecia/aieo iiiaeiee?a Eaa?aiaea. ?ic?aooiee
iieacaee, ui aeey iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee
iaii?e QK oa Q0 ? ia?aiaaee oaiia?aoo? DTw oa DTa nooo?ai caeaaeaoue
a?ae acyoiai /enea aiaeei ?iaioe oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee. Oe?
caeaaeiino? iaaaaeai? ia ?en.10.

?en.10. Caeaaei?noue iioeiaeueieo oaiia- ?en.11.
Caeaaei?noue a?aeiinii? aei-

?aoo?ieo iaii??a a?ae /enea aiaeei i?aoe?: iii??
i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao a?ae o?eaa-

1 — QK ; 2 — Q0 ; 3 — DTw ; 4 — DTa . eino?
?iaioe oieonoaiiaee .

Ia ?en.11 cia?aaeaii aeiiii?th i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao, aei yei? aoiaeyoue
ci?iia aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue ia ?aiiio oa aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe.
Oiaoi ciaioaiiy /enea aiaeei ?iaioe i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
iioeiaeueieo cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?ieo iaii??a, ui ia?aaeuo? (ia 35 – 50%)
cacae/ae ?aeiiaiaeiaai? cia/aiiy. Ca?aeee aeieeaa?, ui iioei?caoe?y
?aaeeio ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe
ci?iio /anoeio aeo?ao i?eaeecii ia 10-12 %, ui i?e o?eaae?e
aenieoaoaoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy aea? cia/io aeiiii?th. O ?iaio? oaeiae aoa
i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c caeaaeiino? i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao IA a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i ia aiaeo oa aeaeo?iaia?a?th. I?iaaaeaiee
eiii’thoa?iee aenia?eiaio ?c ci?iith oe?ie ia aiaeo (i?e iino?ei?e oe?i?
ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th). Caeaaei?noue IA (oa ?ioeo ia?aiao??a) a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i aeyaeeany aeineoue neeueiith.

O aeiaeaoeo aei aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaaaaeai? i?ia?aie
?ic?aooieo.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

1. Ieiaeiiai/aaa i?iaeoeoe?y aaeueie /ooeeaa aei ci?i oaiia?aoo?e oa
a?aeiinii? aieiaino? iia?o?y a eaia?? caa??aaiiy. Aeey oni?oiiai
o?eaaeiai caa??aaiiy iaaiiai aeaeo ne?iaeie iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe a
ooaaae? i?iaeoeoe?? iaeii??aei? oa noaa?euei? oaieiaieia?ni? oiiae. A
uia ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue oiai /e ?ioiai niiniao iia?o?yiiai
eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy, iaiao?aeia eieaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i oaieiaieia?niee noai
nenoaie “iia?o?y – ne?iaeia” a onueiio ooaaae? i?iaeoeoe??. Oaea
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaa o?eueee ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?io (OII), ui i?ioiaeyoue o ian? ne?iaeie.
Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ? oaeiae iniiaith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? c i?i?ioiii ?? i?e?iaeieo ao?ao.

2. Na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a ?iciiae?eo iia?o?y i?e caa??aaii?
ieiae?a oa iai/?a o oa?? /e o aeaeyae? ianeio iaei?eeiyoi?oa aeoeaia
aaioeethaaiiy, ine?eueee i?e ?ioeo niiniaao ?iciiae?eo iia?o?y i?ioean
??aiii??ii? ?icaea/? iia?o?y aeaiaioai i?iaeoeoe?? ia ea?iaaiee, oiio ui
a?i caeaaeeoue a?ae u?eueiino? caoa?aiiy c iaieio/eie aeiaaeeiaeie
a?aenoaiyie i?ae aeaiaioaie ooaaaey.

3. I?ioeane OII a ianeio i?iaeoeoe?? c aeoeaiith aaioeeyoe??th
iienothoueny ??a-iyi-iyie (1)–(2 ), a ?iciiae?e oaieiaieia?nieo iie?a o
ooaaae? — oi?ioeaie (7) – (8). I?e?iaei? ao?aoe oa a?aeiinio onooeo
ne?iaeie iio??aii ?ic?aooaaoe c ??aiyiue (9) – (10).

4. Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a caa??aaiiy iaiao?aeii
?ica’ycaoe cai?ioio e?aeiao caaea/o oaieiianiiai?io i?e oiiaao ia
aeoiae? c? ooaaaey (12), ye? caaacia/othoue i?i?ioi a?aeiinii? onooee.
sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino?
eiiaeeoe?eiaaiiai iia?o?y oa eiai a?aeiinia aieia?noue ia aoiae? a
ooaaaeue iiaeii? aecia/aoenue a?aeiia?aeii aei oi?ioe (13) – (14).

5. O a?aeiioaii? aei ianeio ne?iaeie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei?a — aioo??oiy caaea/a caa??aaiiy. Ia iaio aaaeeeaa ciai?oiy
caaea/a, yea caiaeeoueny aei caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueieo iioeiaeueieo oiia
caa??aaiiy nenoaie iia?o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy a i?enooiino? aeeiai?/ii
ci?iieo oaieiaeo i?eieea?a /a?ac iai?iaeaeaiiy eaia? caa??aaiiy. A
caaea/a ?ic?aooieo nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy ieiaeiiai/anoiaeu — oea caaea/a
aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe??. O ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? (ia ia?oiio aoai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy) aiia iiaea aooe caaaeaia aei aeaio iacaeaaeieo caaea/:

— aecia/aiiy oiaueie oaiei?cieyoe?? iai?iaeaeaiue i?e caaeai?e aa?oino?
ae?iaieoeoaa oieiaeo;

— iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe oieiaeeeueii? nenoaie c caaeaiith
oiaueiith oaiei?cieyoe??.

6. I?ae /an ?ica’ycoaaiiy ia?oi? caaea/? i?iaiaeeoueny oaieiaee
?ic?aooiie oa oaieino?ee?noue aaaaoioa?iaeo iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e
? aecia/a?oueny aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueia oiaueia oaiei?cieyoe??. Oiaueio
oaiei?cieyoe?eiiai oa?o iio??aii aecia/aoe ca oi?ioeith (20).

7. Ae?oaa caaea/a aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe?? oieiaeeeueii? nenoaie
caiaeeoueny aei oaieiaiai ?ic?aooieo aioo??oiueieaia?ii?
ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? nenoaie, yea i?aeo?eio? iioeiaeuei? oaieiaieia?ni?
ia?aiao?e a ianeio i?iaeoeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi niiniao iia?o?i?iciiae?eo.
Aecia/a?oueny aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueia oiaueia oaiei?cieyoe??
iai?iaeaeaiue oa i?iaiaeeoueny oaieiaee ?ic?aooiie eaia?e caa??aaiiy c
iaoith i?aeai?o oieiaeeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? caaaeueiiai
oaieiaiai ?ic?aooieo ioieiaeaeoaaeueii? eaia?ii? nenoaie aecia/a?oueny
caeaaei?noue (22) oaiia?aoo?e eei?iiy oieiaeiaaaioo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
ciai?oiueiai iia?o?y, ca yei? a ooaaae? i?iaeoeoe?? i?aeo?eiothoueny
iioeiaeuei? oiiae.

8. Ia iniia? caaeaiiai cia/aiiy oiaueie i?ioa?eo oaiei?cieyoe?? oa
oieiaeeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy i?iaiaeeoueny iioei?caoe?y ?aaeeio ?iaioe
oieiaeeeueii? onoaiiaee oa aecia/a?oueny i?i?iaeueia aa?o?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa oieiaeo. Ianooiia i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? iioei?caoe??
iia’ycaia c ?oa?aoe?eiei i?ioeanii. Oiaoi, iiaa?ioaoenue aei ia?oi?
caaea/? iioei?caoe??, ?ic?aoiao?ii oiaueio oaiei?cieyoe?? c iiaei
cia/aiiyi aa?oino? ae?iaieoeoaa oieiaeo.

9. Ine?eueee caaea/a iioei?caoe?? oieiaeeeueii? nenoaie aeeiai?/ia, oi
i?i?iaeueia nia?aa?o?noue oieiaeo iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa o?eueee i?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio i?aeoiae? aei eiaeiiai oieiaeeeueiiai ia’?eoa, i?e
oeueiio, a ia?oo /a?ao, iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoenue ee?iaoe/i? oa aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee ?icoaooaaiiy oieiaeeeueieea, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
caa??aaiiy ?ineeiii? i?iaeoeoe??.

10. Iioeiaeueia oi?aae?iiy oieiaeeeueiith onoaiiaeith iiaeiia
cae?enithaaoenue ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith aeeiai?/ii?
iioei?caoe?? caeii?a ?aaoethaaiiy (22). Aeiaoo? caeiie iioeiaeueiiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?aaa ?icaeyaeaoe ye iniiao aeey noai?aiiy nenoaie
aaoiiaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy oieiaeeeueiith onoaiiaeith.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee o i?aoeyo:

1. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai, Ee?eeeia A.O. Enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeannia oaiei- e
ianniiaiaia a aaioeee?oaiie ianuie ieiaeia e iaiuae // Iaoa?eaeu 60-e
o/aaii-iaoiaee/aneie e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee, IAAO, Iaeanna.
-1995.- N.15

2. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai, Ee?eeeia A.O., Aa?eaiaea A.A., E?aniiiiaaoe I.A.
Iaoa-iaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia oaieiianniiaiaia i?e
oieiaeeeueiii o?aiaiee ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey //1-ay Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay eiioa?aioeey «Iaoaiaoeea oa ineoieia?y o
iaaeaaia?/i?e nenoai?» «Oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao», na. noaoae, Iaeanna. –
1996.- N.69 .

3. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai Iaoaiaoe/aneea iienaiea i?ioeannia oaieiianniiaiaia
i?e o?aiaiee ieiaeiiaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee // Iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.
I?eaei?i-?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. ?28(39), na?iaiue 1997 ?. , N.30-37.

4. Ghassan Al-Akhras, V. Chepurnenko, A. Lipa. The intensive heat- and
mass exchange Insta-lation for the evaporative cooling of water and
contact processing of air // Proceedings of the 97′ International
Compressor technique Conference.- China.–1997.- ?. 287-289 .

5. M.H.Al-Alami, A.H.Zeaiter, H.M.Moinnudin, G.K.Al-Akhras. Reducing
working expenses of heat exchangers of refrigeration installation
obtained by method of heat-saving analysis // Proc. 1998 Int. Refrig.
Conf. Perdue Univ. – Perdue (USA). – 1998, 07.14-17. – p. 239 – 244.

6. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai, Ee?eeeia A.O., Aa?eaiaea A.A., E?aniiiiaaoe I.A.
Oaiei-onoie/eainoue ia?aaeaeathueo eiino?oeoeee oieiaeeeueiiai iiaeoey
aeey o?a-iaiey ieiaeiiaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee // Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ?
oaoiieia?y. – 1999. — ?2 ( aui.59 ). — N. 69-72 .

7. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai. Anoanoaaiiay eiiaaeoeey aicaeooa a ooaaaea
ieiaei-iaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee // Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y.– 1999.
— ?4 (aui.61). — N.12-16 .

8. Aeue-Ao?an Aannai. Oaieiaie ?an/ao ia?aaeaeathueo eiino?oeoeee
oiei-aeeeueiiai iiaeoey aeey o?aiaiey ieiaeiiaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee //
Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y.– 1999. — ?5 (aui.62). — N.20-24.

OIIAI? IICIA*AIIss

x – a?nue eii?aeeiao, ni?yiiaaia ca oiaeii ?ooo iia?o?y, i; h – aenioa
ooaaaey, i; ts(x) , ta(o) – oaiia?aoo?a ne?iaeie oa iia?o?y, 0N; ?(o) –
ia?oe?aeueiee oene ia?e, Ia; ?«- oene iane/aii? ia?e, Ia; ?An? –
aa?iiao?e/iee oene, Ia; j — a?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y, %; V –
oaeaee?noue iia?o?y, i/n; q0 – ieoiia oaieioa aeeoaiiy i?e 0 0N,Ao/ea;
bs – oaiia?aoo?iee eiao?oe??io oaeaeeino? aeeoaiiy, 1/0N; l0 – aoaeoeaia
oaieii?ia?aei?noue ianeio ne?iaeie,Ao/(i a?aae); ri, ra – u?euei?noue
ianeio ne?iaeie oa iia?o?y, ea/i 3; a — eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/?,
Ao/(i2a?aae); b? – eiaooe??io iania?aeaea/?, n/i; r –oaieioa
ia?iooai?aiiy, Aeae/ea; e — ii?eno?noue ianeio ne?iaeie; e f —
ianiiai?iia oa?aeoa?enoeea — aeiey iiaa?oi? aeaiaioa ne?iaeie, ui aa?a
o/anoue a ianiiai?i?; FH – iiaa?oiy ieiae?a (iai/?a) ia iaeeieoeth
ia’?io, i2/i3; li – oa?aeoa?enoe/i? /enea,1/i; G– e?euee?noue aieiae, ui
aeia?th?oueny, ea; n – a?aeiinia onooea i?iaeoeoe??; IA – i?eaaaeai?
aeo?aoe; NAe – nia?aa?o?noue aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?ia?o aeey
ieeoeiaiai ecieyoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, $/i2 ; NO – aa?o?noue ae?iaieoeoaa
oieiaeo, $/eeae.

Aeue-Ao?an Aannai Oaeaae Iioaiiaae “Oaieio?ce/i? aniaeoe
oieiaeeeueiiai caa??aaiiy ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao aea?eiai
ee?iaoo”.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.04.03 – Oieiaeeeueia oa e??iaaiia
oaoi?ea, nenoaie eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy.- Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
oieiaeo, Iaeana, 1999.

Oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeothoueny i?ioeane oaiei- oa ianiiai?io a
ianeio i?iaeoeoe?? aiane?aeie ?? aeoeaiiai aaioeethaaiiy oieiaeiei
iia?o?yi. I?iaaaeaii iaoeiaa ia??oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a
caa??aaiiy ?ineeiii? ne?iaeie. Oai?aoe/ii aea/aia oaieiia?aaea/a ?
oaieino?ee?noue iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e eaia?e caa??aaiiy.
I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oaieiia?aaea/? a iniiaieo aeaiaioao
eaia?ii? nenoaie ioieiaeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeeiai?/ii?
iioei?caoe?? oieiaeeeueii? nenoaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ianei ieiaeiiai/aai? i?iaeoeoe??; i?ioeane
oaiei – oa ianiiai?io; i?e?iaei? ao?aoe; iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie caa??aaiiy;
iai?iaeaeoth/? eiino?oeoe??; nenoaia ioieiaeaeaiiy; aeeiai?/ia
iioei?caoe?y.

Aeue-Ao?an Aannai Oaeaae Iioaiiaae “Oaieioece/aneea aniaeou
oiei-aeeeueiiai o?aiaiey ieiaeiiaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee a oneiaeyo aea?eiai
eeeiaoa”.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.04.03 – Oieiaeeeueiay e
e?eiaaiiay oaoieea, nenoaiu eiiaee-oeeiie?iaaiey.- Iaeanneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oieiaea, Iaeanna, 1999.

A aaiaeiie /anoe ?aaiou ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe o?aiaiey
ieiaeia, au?aueaaaiuo a Ei?aeaiee e i?iaaaeai e?aoeee iaci? eeoa?aoo?iuo
enoi/-ieeia ii oieiaeeeueiiio o?aiaieth ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey.
Ii?aaeaeaiu iniia-iua caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey.

A aeaaa 1 i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia
oaiei- e ianniiaiaia, i?ienoiaeyueo i?e o?aiaiee ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey a
ooaaaea i?e aai aeoeaiii aaioeee?iaaiee oieiaeiui aicaeooii.
Eiyooeoeeaiou oaiei-i?iaiaeiinoe e oaieiioaea/e aeey ianuie i?iaeoeoeee
ii?aaeaeythony niioaao-noaaiii oi?ioeaie Caia?a-Aaoy?a e Aiaeeineiai.
Enoiaeiay e?aaaay caaea/a i?eaiaeeony e iaueiiaaiiiio
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiio o?aaiaieth /aoa??oiai ii?yaeea n neiaoey?iui
aiciouaieai. Iino?iaii aneiioioe/aneia ?aoaiea e iieo/aii ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oaieiaeaaeiinoiuo iieae ii aunioa ooaaaey.

Ia iniiaa enoiaeiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee ii?aaeaeaiu
iioeiaeueiua ?a-aeeiu o?aiaiey ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey, iaania/eaathuea
ieieiaeueiua anoano-aaiiua iioa?e. I?e yoii ii oneiaeyi ia auoiaea ec
ooaaaey i?iaeoeoeee ?aoa-aony ia?aoiay e?aaaay caaea/a e ii?aaeaeythony
oaieiaeaaeiinoiua oa?aeoa?en-oeee i?eaoiaeyuaai aicaeooa.

Oai?aoe/anee enneaaeoaony oaieiianniiaiai a ooaaaea i?e
anoanoaiiie eiiaaeoeee aicaeooa.

A aeaaa 2 i?iaaaeai oaieiaie ?an/?o e enneaaeoaony
oaieionoie/eainoue ia?aaeaeathueo eiino?oeoeee iiaeoey
ieiaeiiaiuao?aieeeua. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia o?aiaiey
?an/eoaia yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciay oie-ueia neiy oaieiecieyoeee.

A aeaaa 3 i?iaiaeeony oaieiaie ?an/?o ioeaaeaeathuae nenoaiu
eaia?u o?a-iaiey, ninoiyuee ec ?yaea acaeiinaycaiiuo caaea/ oaieiaiai
?an/?oa oaiei-caueoiie aicaeooiie ?oaaoee, ia?aaeaeaiee, eaia?u o?aiaiey
e aicaeooiioea-aeeoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaeaia oi?aaeythuay ooieoeey,
onoaiaaeeaathuay naycue iaaeaeo oaiia?aoo?ie eeiaiey oeaaeiaaaioa a
aicaeooiioeaaeeoaea e oaiia-?aoo?ie ia?oaeiiai aicaeooa.

A aeaaa 4 ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea aeeiaie/aneie iioeiecaoeee
oieiaeeeueiie nenoaiu. Ia ia?aii yoaia ii caaeaiiie noieiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa oieiaea ii?a-aeaeyaony yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciay
oieueia oaieiecieyoeee ia?aaeaeaiee, caoai, ia iniiaaiee oaieiaiai
?an/?oa eaia?u o?aiaiey iiaeae?aaony oiei-aeeeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea e
i?iaiaeeony ?an/?o iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia ?aaiou oieonoaiiaee. A
?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaeyaony ieieiaeueiay noieiinoue i?iecaiaeno-aa
oieiaea. Aeaeaa yoa eoa?aoeeiiiay i?ioeaaeo?a iiaoi?yaony, o.a.
i?iaiaeeony ?an/?o oieueiu oaieiecieyoeee n iiaui cia/aieai noieiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa oieiaea e aeaeaa ?an/eouaathony iioeiaeueiua ?aaeeiu
?aaiou oieonoaiiaee.

A auaiaeao ioia/aii, /oi iieo/aiu iiaua iao/ii iainiiaaiiua
?acoeue-oaou, iicaieythuea nieceoue anoanoaaiiua iioa?e ?anoeoaeueiiai
nu?uey i?e aai o?aiaiee a oneiaeyo aea?eiai eeeiaoa i?e ieieiaeueiuo
i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?a-oao ia i?iecaiaenoai oieiaea.

A i?eeiaeaiee niaea?aeaony i?ia?aiiu ?an/?oa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ianuiue ieiaeiiaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee; i?ioeannu
oaiei – e ianniiaiaia; anoanoaaiiua iioa?e; iioeiaeueiua ?aaeeiu
o?aiaiey; ia?aaeaea-thuea eiino?oeoeee; nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey;
aeeiaie/aneay iioeiecaoeey.

Gassan Khaled Mohammed Al-Akhras “Thermophysical Aspects of
Fruit-and-Vegetable Products Cold-Storage Under Hot-Climate
Conditions”.- Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of a Candidate of Sciences
(engineering) on Speciality 05.04.03 – Refrigeration and Cryogenic
Engineering, Air-Conditioning Systems. Odessa State Academy of
Refrigeration, Odessa, 1999 .

Heat-and-mass exchange processes in a stack of products actively
ventilated by a cold air are theoretically investigated. A scientific
substantiation of the optimum regimes for a vegetable product cold
storage has been given. Heat transfer and heat stability of the
protective construction of a storage chamber have been theoretically
studied. Investigation in the heat-transfer processes in the main
elements of a cooling chamber system have been carried out and the
technique for a dynamic optimization of a cooling system has been
developed.

Key words: a stack of fruit-and-vegetable products;
heat-and-mass exchange processes; natural losses; optimum regimes of
storage; protective constructions; a cooling system; a dynamic
optimization.

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